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Third Edition 2003 (Revised and updated)

TRAINING HANDBOOK ON
Psychosocial Counselling for
Children in Especially Difficult
Circumstances
A trainers Guide
For every child
Health, Education, Equality, Protection
ADVANCE HUMANITY
Third Edition 2003 (Revised and updated)
TRAINING HANDBOOK ON
Psychosocial Counselling for
Children in Especially Difficult
Circumstances
A trainers Guide
United Nations Childrens Fund 2000
Third edition 2003
(Revised and updated)
Edi tor
Mar k J. D. Jor dans
Publisher
UNI CEF Nepal
P.O. Box 1187
Tel ephone: 977-1-5523200
Kathmandu, Nepal
The material in this Manual has been commissioned by the
Uni ted Nati ons Chi l drens Fund (UNI CEF). The contents do
not necessarily reflect the policies or views of UNI CEF.
Any part of this handbook may be freely reproduced with
pri or wri tten permi ssi on of UNI CEF and appropri ate acknowl edgement.
Acknowledgements
UNI CEF wishes to thank all agencies and individuals that have
contributed to this Manual. Special thanks are due to the primary
writers of this Manual, Asuncion Cueto, Chandrika
Khatiwada, Shakuntala Subba, Ram Chandra Paudel.
Design and layout: Format Graphic
Publication coordination & Copy Editing
Mera Publication Pvt. Ltd.
Team members
Frances Klatzel, Sarina Rai & Suren Kumar Thami
I llustrati on: Ekaram
Further copies of this document may be obtained from UNI CEF Nepal.
This document is available in Nepali.
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Foreword
Preface
MODULE I: INTRODUCTION
Session 1: I ntroduction of Participants
Session 2: Expectations and Objectives of the Training
MODULE II: UNDERSTANDING CHILDREN IN ESPECIALLY
DIFFICULT CIRCUMSTANCES
Session 1: Situation of children in especially difficult circumstances
Session 2: Overview of Target Groups
Session 3: Needs of children in especially difficult circumstances
Session 4: Child development
Session 5: Legal Basis and Child Rights
MODULE III: FRAMEWORK OF COUNSELLING
Session 1: Self-Awareness
Session 2: What is counselling?
Session 3: Why Counselling?
Session 4: The Psychosocial Approach
Session 5: The Counselling Process
Session 6: Roles and qualities of a counsellor
Session 7: Principles of Counselling
Session 8: Culture and Counselling
Session 9: The Counselling approach supportive and problem management
counselling
MODULE IV: COUNSELLING SKILLS
Session 1: Communication Skills I : Active listening
Session 2: Empathy, Attending, & Attitude
Session 3: Assessment
Session 4: Problem management 1: Brainstorming and Setting Goals
Session 5: Problem management 2: Coping strategies
Session 6: Focussing on core problems
Session 7: Skills for Handling Reluctant Behaviour
Session 8: Alternative skills and tools for counselling
Session 9: Specific situations
Session 10: Documentation 3
Session 11: Field Practice 1
Content
MODULE V: ALTERNATIVE MODES OF COUNSELLING
Session 1: I ntroduction to Family Counselling
Session 2: I ntroduction to Community Based Counselling
Session 3: I ntroduction to Group Counselling
Session 4: I ntroduction to Crisis I ntervention & Task Oriented Counselling
MODULE VI: CLOSING
Session 1: Linkages and planning
Session 2: Training Evaluation
MODULE VII: REFERENCE MATERIALS
A Domestic Girl Child Labourer Bina
A Domestic Girl Child Labourer- Sunita
A Domestic Girl-Child Labourer Gita
List of the Participants
Bi bl i ography
Glossary
Foreword
Thc General Manual on Counselling for Children in Especially Difficult Circumstances
anu Handbook on Psychosocial Counselling for Children in Especially Difficult
Circumstances lullils an cmciging nccu loi qualiiy iiaining maiciials loi sychosocial
counsclling ol chiluicn in Ncal. Psychosocial sccuiiiy is, iogcihci wiih aucquaic nuiiiiion
anu hysical hcalih, onc ol ihc main comoncnis ol chilu ucvclomcni anu ioicciion.
Psychosocial inicivcniions aic an auuiiional loim ol assisiancc, bcsiucs cuucaiional oi iaciical
inicivcniions loi ihc ucvclomcni ol ihc chilu. Thiough counsclling, onc cnablcs ihc chilu
io cxicss cmoiions, woiiics, anu ihoughis ihai aim io icsioic lcclings ol uigniiy anu scll-
csiccm. This iyc ol suoii assisis anu guiucs ihc chilu io linu soluiions anu siicngihcns
siiaicgics ihai hcl ihc chilu coc ihiough lisicning, cmaihising, anu unucisianuing.
LNICEI hocs ihai ihis manual anu hanubooI, anu ihc associaicu iiaining couisc, will
bcnclii chiluicn lacing csccially uilliculi ciicumsianccs anu will hcl ihcm changc ihcii
icscni siiuaiion in a osiiivc anu lasiing way. LNICEI luiihci hocs ihai ihc manual anu
hanubooI will bc hcllul io cicaic an unucisianuing ol, anu ucvclo sIills in counsclling
ihai can guiuc a chilu io coc wiih his/hci sychosocial anu cmoiional ioblcms cllcciivcly.
Rcicscniaiivc
Lniicu Naiions Chiluicn`s Iunu
Preface
This Training Handbook on Psychosocial Counselling for Children in Especially Difficult
Circumstances (CEDC) a Trainers Guide has bccn ucvclocu loi masici-iiaincis anu iiaincis.
Ii ucsciibcs in uciail ihc aciiviiics anu incluucs all ihc maiciials ihai aic nccucu, such as .nr:n.cr:c:
loi giving lcciuics), n :Icc: loi ihc iiainccs auuiiional icauing oi icvicw maiciial), anu .cc.crc
nc.:n! loi ihc iiainci auuiiional inloimaiion io incicasc Inowlcugc on a cciiain sub|cci).
This manual gocs hanu in hanu wiih ihc General Manual on Counselling for Children in Especially
Difficult Circumstances (CEDC), which is a manual loi all ihosc who aic involvcu oi inicicsicu in
ioviuing sychosocial counsclling loi chiluicn.
Thcoiciically, ihc manual anu hanubooI mainly locuscs on ihc humanisiic aioach anu moic
sccilically ihc clicni ccniicu aioach io counsclling - ioviuing cmoiional suoii as wcll as a
ioblcm-solving aioach. Though counsclling is oiiginally a Wcsicin concci ii has bccn auaicu
io ihc siiuaiion in Ncal. Howcvci, ii icmains csscniial ihai onc is awaic ol ihc local social anu
culiuial icaliiy anu siicngihs io which counsclling can bc an auuiiion. Bccausc ihc abovc-mcniioncu
manual givcs an ovcivicw ol ihc ihcoiy ol counsclling, ihis hanubooI licqucnily iclcis io ihc manual
loi bacIgiounu inloimaiion, iniiouuciion, oi cxlanaiion ol a sub|cci anu laigcly lollows iis conicnis.
Thc aiicniion loi ihc cmciging nccu loi sychosocial assisiancc is iclaiivcly icccni in Ncal, anu
ihcic is a nccu loi iiaining iiaincis who can subscqucnily iiain ihc laciliiaiois who aic woiIing wiih
ihc chiluicn. Alihough ihc iiainccs will noi icccivc ihis hanubooI, ihcy will icccivc ihc Gcncial
Manual anu ihc hanuouis oi `laci shccis` as ihcy aic callcu in ihis hanubooI) in ihc loim ol a
booIlci. Thcsc maiciials wcic iniiially ucvclocu loi ihc Liban Oui ol School Piogiams LOSP)
assisicu by LNICEI, bui can bc uscu moic gcncially boih for children and adolescents.
Thc iiaining couisc ucsciibcu in ihis hanubooI, can bc usclul loi vaiious iycs ol iiaining ol
sychosocial counsclling. Ii can bc iun comlcicly wiihin a ihicc-wccI iimc liamc, aiis ol ii can bc
cxiiacicu, anu ii can also bc siicichcu ovci a longci iimc c.g. loui monihs) lcaving iimc loi ncccssaiy
inicinshis/iaciicc anu sucivision.
Ii is imoiiani io icalisc ihai iocily iaciising counscllois cannoi bc iiaincu ovcinighi. Iuiihcimoic,
ihcsc maiciials uo noi icicnu io covci all aicas ol counsclling in all iis iolcssional ucihs loi
cxamlc ii uocs noi incluuc `auvanccu` sIills such as challcnging, scll uisclosuic, sycho cuucaiion,
cic). Ii mainly siicsscs iwo comoncnis ol sychosocial counsclling: ioviuing cmoiional suoii
anu assisiing in ioblcm solving.
Thcsc maiciials wcic ucvclocu in ihc hoc ihai ihc chiluicn, who havc liiilc chancc in lilc oi who
aic in siiuaiions ihai aic obsiiuciing ihcii iighis anu ucvclomcni, will bcnclii liom ihc suoii ihai
ihc counsclling inicivcniion can ioviuc. Evcn ihough ii may noi bc a `magic` soluiion io ihcii
siiuaiion, ii can bc a valuablc auuiiion io moic iaciically oiicnicu assisiancc.
Thiough a cisonal cncounici bciwccn counsclloi anu chilu, anu giving aiicniion, suoii,
unucisianuing, anu lisicning, wc hoc io guiuc chiluicn ihiough ihcii cmoiions, ioblcms, anu
ihoughis so ihai ihcy can changc ihcii icscni siiuaiion, gain scll-conliucncc, anu havc a osiiivc
ciscciivc ol ihc luiuic.
MODULE I
General Objective:
Paiiicianis ucvclo a basic unucisianuing ol ihc ovciall conicni ol ihc iiaining.
Specific Objectives:
Ai ihc cnu ol ihc mouulc, ihc aiiicianis will bc ablc io:
- Dcvclo a clcai unucisianuing ol ihc ob|cciivcs ol ihc iiaining.
- Shaic ovciall vicws aboui ihc iiaining anu bc icauy io bcgin.
INTRODUCTION
2 Training Handbook on Psychosocial counselling for CEDC Trainers Guide
Introduction
Training Handbook on Psychosocial counselling for CEDC Trainers Guide 3
Introduction
Objectives
This scssion:
- Wclcomc ihc aiiicianis io ihc iiaining.
- MaIc ihcm lamiliai wiih onc anoihci.
- Pioviuc an ooiiuniiy io cxicss ihcii iucas, vicws, anu cxciicnccs.
- Iaciliiaic cicaiing a woiIing aimoshcic.
Activities
6EA: 1 hi
=JAHE=I: maiIcis, llichaii
Session 1:
Introduction of Participants
ExpIanation of procedure for trainers:
" D|str|bute cards to the part|c|pants, wh|ch conta|n on|y a part/ha|f of a word or sentence on
|t |t wou|d be better |f the fac|||tator f|nds words and sentences re|ated to counse|||ng, such
as psycho- and -sociaI}.
" Ask the part|c|pants and the tra|n|ng team members to f|nd the|r pa|rs by f|nd|ng the
second ha|f/part of the word or a sentence they have.
" Once they f|nd the|r partner, have them |ntroduce themse|ves, they shou|d cover the areas
that are ment|oned on the f||p chart that w||| have the|r name, organ|sat|on, work|ng f|e|d,
exper|ence, |nterests, hobb|es, etc, on |t.}. |et them ta|k for a m|n|mum of 10 m|nutes.
" Then the group s|ts together and everybody |ntroduces h|s/her partner.
Note for faciIitator :
" Th|s |s on|y one way of do|ng |ntroduct|ons. D|fferent types of games and act|v|t|es can be
done for the same purpose.
" lf the part|c|pants are from d|fferent organ|sat|ons then |ntroduct|ons need more t|me.
Methodology
- Excicisc in aiis.
Synthesising
Pioviuc an ooiiuniiy loi qucsiions anu summaiisc ihc scssion wiih ihc
lollowing oinis:
- Wc havc colc liom uivcisc bacIgiounus in ihc iiaining. Wc aic hcic io
lcain liom oihcis anu shaic wiih oihcis.
4 Training Handbook on Psychosocial counselling for CEDC Trainers Guide
Introduction
ExpIanation of procedure for trainers:
" Exp|a|n the object|ves of the tra|n|ng (scc transparcncy 1.2.1).
" Ask the part|c|pants to take 15 m|nutes to prepare the|r expectat|ons based on the
quest|ons ment|oned. Scc transparcncy 1.2.2.
" Part|c|pants d|v|de |nto four groups and short||st a|| the|r expectat|ons. They shou|d merge
expectat|ons that are s|m||ar 15 m|nutes}.
" |et each group present the|r expectat|ons to the other groups. Try to compare and c|ar|fy
expectat|ons that do not f|t the object|ves of the tra|n|ng.
" Form Host Teams |.e. one team |s respons|b|e for organ|s|ng an 'energ|ser` when needed,
one team |s respons|b|e for d|str|but|ng/copy|ng papers, another team |s respons|b|e for
c|ean|ng and manag|ng the tra|n|ng room at the end of the day, etc}, set ground ru|es and
|og|st|c arrangements. Sett|ng the ground ru|es shou|d be a part|c|patory act|v|ty e.g.
bra|nstorm|ng}.
" Exp|a|n that |t |s |mportant that they are open w|th the|r feedback/cr|t|c|sm. Or|t|c|sm
shou|d not be he|d back for after the tra|n|ng when noth|ng can be done about |t. lt |s
|mportant that everybody, as a group, works |n an open atmosphere. Post a b|g
enve|ope on the wa|| where peop|e can put feedback, suggest|ons, fee||ngs, thoughts,
jokes, cr|t|c|sms, etc. Each |nd|v|dua|`s persona| |nput |s respons|b|e for the success of the
tra|n|ng.
Objectives
Ai ihc cnu ol ihc scssion aiiicianis aic cxccicu io:
- Lnucisianu ihcii cisonal cxcciaiions ol ihc iiaining.
- Lnucisianu ihc ioics ol ihc iiaining.
- Exlain ihc ob|cciivcs ol ihc iiaining.
Activities
Time: 1 / houis
Materials: mcia-caius, lli chaii, maiIcis, boaiu
Methodology
- Inuiviuual woiI
- WoiIsho/icscniaiion
Session 2:
Expectations and Objectives of
the Training
Training Handbook on Psychosocial counselling for CEDC Trainers Guide 5
Introduction
Resource materials
Text for lecture:
Tiansaicncy 1.2.1 Ob|cciivcs ol ihc iiaining
Tiansaicncy 1.2.2 Qucsiions loi iucniilying cxcciaiions
Synthesising
Pioviuc an ooiiuniiy loi qucsiions anu summaiisc ihc scssion wiih ihc
lollowing oinis:
- Pcolc naiuially havc uillcicni oinis ol vicw anu cxcciaiions. This will
maIc ihc iiaining boih challcnging anu inicicsiing. Thcsc uillcicnccs
shoulu bc oinis loi lcaining, noi loi conllici.
- Ii is csscniial io woiI in a giou anu as a giou io lullil ihc ob|cciivcs ol ihc
iiaining.
Evaluation
AsI ihc aiiicianis il ihcy aic ablc io uillcicniiaic bciwccn ob|cciivcs anu
cxcciaiions ol ihc iiaining.
6 Training Handbook on Psychosocial counselling for CEDC Trainers Guide
Introduction
Objectives of the training Objectives of the training Objectives of the training Objectives of the training Objectives of the training
At the end of the training, the participants are expected to:
Have a general idea about childrens problems and
psychosocial intervention for children
Acquire basic skills needed for counselling
Conduct problem-solving and supportive counselling
sessions for children
Understand the steps, principles, and process of
psychosocial counselling
Understand the situation of CEDC in the country and to be
able to identify their psychosocial needs
Be able to use alternative tools for counselling
Transparency 1.2.1
Training Handbook on Psychosocial counselling for CEDC Trainers Guide 7
Introduction
Questions for identif Questions for identif Questions for identif Questions for identif Questions for identifying expectations ying expectations ying expectations ying expectations ying expectations
What are my expectations of the training?
What are the facilitating factors for achieving the objectives
of the training?
What are the hindrances in achieving the objectives of the
training?
How can I personally contribute to achieve the objectives
of the training?
Transparency 1.2.2
MODULE II
General Objective:
To gain a uccci unucisianuing ol ihc siiuaiion ol chiluicn in csccially uilliculi
ciicumsianccs, anu ihcii hysical anu sychological nccus in iclaiion io ihcii
noimal ucvclomcni.
Specific Objectives:
Ai ihc cnu ol ihc mouulc, ihc aiiicianis will bc ablc io:
- Discuss ihc siiuaiion ol chiluicn in csccially uilliculi ciicumsianccs in Ncal
- Exlain ihc siagcs ol chilu ucvclomcni anu ihc coiicsonuing ucvclomcnial
iasIs anu iincilcs
- Lnucisianu ihc basic concci anu mcaning ol ihc sychosocial aioach
- Iucniily chaiaciciisiics ol chiluicn in csccially uilliculi ciicumsianccs
Understanding Children In
Especially Difficult Circumstances
Understanding Children I n EspeciallyDifficult Circumstances
10 Training Handbook on Psychosocial counselling for CEDC Trainers Guide
Understanding Children I n EspeciallyDifficult Circumstances
Training Handbook on Psychosocial counselling for CEDC Trainers Guide 11
Objectives
Ai ihc cnu ol ihc scssion, aiiicianis aic cxccicu io:
- Iucniily chiluicn in csccially uilliculi ciicumsianccs in Ncal anu Inow
aboui ihcii siiuaiion
- Rclaic ihc gcncial siiuaiion ol chiluicn in csccially uilliculi
ciicumsianccs io ihc local conicxi
Activities
Time: 1 houi
Materials: mcia-caius, lli chaii, maiIcis, boaiu, loui oiaiocs, loui cns,
loui noics ol NRs 2u, a iac wiih Ncali music
Session 1:
Situation of children in especially
difficult circumstances
ExpIanation of procedure for trainers:
" Ask the fo||ow|ng quest|on:
Who are ch||dren |n espec|a||y d|ff|cu|t c|rcumstances, and what do you know about
them |n your area?"
" The part|c|pants wr|te the|r response on meta-cards |nd|v|dua||y.
" Summar|se the responses and share them w|th the group. Then, |n|t|ate a short
d|scuss|on/exchange based on the answers, focus|ng on the cond|t|ons re|ated to
ch||dren`s we|| be|ng, surv|va|, soc|a| protect|on, part|c|pat|on, and deve|opment.
" lncorporate re|evant |deas and share the def|n|t|on of OEDO. Scc transparcncy 2.1.1.
" Exp|a|n/d|scuss the extent and magn|tude of OEDO |n Nepa|. Scc Transparcncy 2.1.2.
" The part|c|pants d|v|de |nto four sma||er groups. Each group has 10 m|nutes to prepare a
short drama/theatre/|mprov|sat|on about the s|tuat|on of OEDO. Each group gets the
fo||ow|ng |tems that have to be |nc|uded |n the p|ay: a potato, a pen, NRs 20, and mus|c.
Methodology
- Biain-sioiming
- Icciuic
- Discussion
- Thcaiic
Resource materials
Text for lecture:
Tiansaicncics 2.1.1 anu 2.1.2
Understanding Children I n EspeciallyDifficult Circumstances
12 Training Handbook on Psychosocial counselling for CEDC Trainers Guide
Key points
Whcihci ihcic is onc oi 1u,uuu CEDC ii uocs noi maIc ihc nccu loi
assisiancc lcss oi moic imoiiani.
Synthesising
Pioviuc an ooiiuniiy loi qucsiions anu summaiisc ihc scssion wiih ihc
lollowing oinis:
- Thcic aic ihousanus ol chiluicn living in uilliculi ciicumsianccs in Ncal
who nccu immcuiaic ioicciion.
- Chiluicn in ihcsc caicgoiics aic vulnciablc io ciisis.
Evaluation
Thc aiiicianis ihinI ol a qucsiion inuiviuually ihai iclaics io ihc lcaining
ol ihis scssion. Thc giou uiviucs inio iwo oi loui gious. Onc giou asIs ihc
qucsiion io anoihci giou who has io answci, anu vicc vcisa.
Understanding Children I n EspeciallyDifficult Circumstances
Training Handbook on Psychosocial counselling for CEDC Trainers Guide 13
Who are Children in Especially Difficult Who are Children in Especially Difficult Who are Children in Especially Difficult Who are Children in Especially Difficult Who are Children in Especially Difficult
Circumstances (CEDC)? Circumstances (CEDC)? Circumstances (CEDC)? Circumstances (CEDC)? Circumstances (CEDC)?
Children have the right to numerous basic services and to
childhood itself. This counselling programme concerns children
who have lost their right to childhood due to disability, neglect, or
exploitation. It addresses the rights of children whom society would
often prefer to forget.
Unfortunately, there is a high rate of children in especially difficult
circumstances (CEDC) in Nepal. Many children are forced to
work to help support their families, or for the same reason are
sold into sexual slavery either here, or in neighbouring countries.
These children do not have the opportunity to obtain an education
and leave the vicious cycle of poverty.
Similarly, children who live alone on the streets of Nepals growing
urban areas, or that are disabled, never get a chance to prepare
themselves adequately for adulthood. They have to bear the
responsibilities of adults at ages when they should have time
to play.
(Source: Master Plan of operation 1997-2001: UNICEF and HMG Nepal)
Transparency 2.1.1
Understanding Children I n EspeciallyDifficult Circumstances
14 Training Handbook on Psychosocial counselling for CEDC Trainers Guide
Situation of Children in Nepal Situation of Children in Nepal Situation of Children in Nepal Situation of Children in Nepal Situation of Children in Nepal
1) 52 % of the total population are children below 18 years.
2) 75,000 children die per year.
3) 205 children die every day.
4) 55 children out of 100 are suffering from malnutrition.
There are an estimated one million children working (15 years
old and younger) in Nepal.
There are an estimated 30,000 street children in Nepal.
Around 13,000 children work as bonded child workers to pay
off the debt of their parents.
An estimated 5,000 young girls, some younger than ten years
of age are trafficked yearly to India to serve as sex slaves in
brothels.
One informal estimate of child disability in Nepal ranges as
high as 13% of the child population. The majority of
disabilities are hearing and visual impairment.
There are 3 million CEDC.
There are a significant number of sexually exploited children
but reliable data is not available.
(Source: National Planning Commission Nepal/UNICEF, 1996 & 1997)
Transparency 2.1.2
Understanding Children I n EspeciallyDifficult Circumstances
Training Handbook on Psychosocial counselling for CEDC Trainers Guide 15
Objectives
Ai ihc cnu ol ihc scssion, aiiicianis aic cxccicu io iucniily:
- Dillcicni caicgoiics ol CEDC
- Common bchavioui ol cach giou
- Causcs loi ihc siiuaiion ol CEDC
- Siicngihs anu ioblcms ol CEDC
Activities
Time: 2 houis
Materials: mcia-caius, lli chaii, maiIci, boaiu
Session 2:
Overview of Target Groups
ExpIanation of procedure for trainers:
" Rev|ew the ||st of answers from the prev|ous sess|on`s quest|on, Who are OEDO?" and
ask the group to categor|se OEDO. The part|c|pants wr|te the categor|es on meta-cards.
Note for Trainer:
The part|c|pants narrow the|r observat|ons down to about four categor|es, some over|ap
cannot be avo|ded}. Examp|e categor|es are: Street Oh||dren, Oh||d-|abourers, Sexua||y
Abused, Phys|ca||y Abused, etc.
" Post the answers on the board and synthes|se the answers d|scuss|ng the categor|es of
OEDO.
" The part|c|pants d|v|de |nto sma||er groups accord|ng to the categor|es |dent|f|ed before.
Ask the fo||ow|ng quest|ons to each group to |dent|fy the background of each category:
What |s common behav|our of ch||dren |n that part|cu|ar category?
What are the|r strengths?
What are the|r common prob|ems?
What are the poss|b|e causes for the prob|ems?
" Each group presents the|r answers, fo||owed by a d|scuss|on.
" ldent|fy the s|m||ar|t|es between the groups and present transparcncy 2.2.1.
" Present the v|deo, |f poss|b|e and |f ava||ab|e, on the s|tuat|on of OEDO |n Nepa|
NlOEF} to deepen part|c|pants` understand|ng of the s|tuat|on of OEDO |n the country.
Methodology
- Biainsioim
- WoiIsho
- Picscniaiion 8 lcnaiy uiscussion
- Icciuic
- Viuco show
Understanding Children I n EspeciallyDifficult Circumstances
16 Training Handbook on Psychosocial counselling for CEDC Trainers Guide
Resource materials
Text for lecture:
Tiansaicncy 2.2.1 Commonly shaicu cxciicnccs
Tiansaicncy 2.2.2 Siicngihs
Text for trainees:
Iaci shccis 2.2.1 Chaiaciciisiics ol CEDC
Iaci shcci 2.2.2 Psychosocial issucs iclaicu io CEDC
Text for trainer:
Rclcicncc Maiciials 2.2.1 Ellcciivc suoii anu sciviccs ioviucu
Key points
Thc numbci ol CEDC is icmaiIably high in Ncal as is ihc amouni ol hcl
nccucu. CEDC aic ihc mosi vulnciablc giou ol chiluicn in nccu ol sychosocial
inicivcniions.
Synthesising
Pioviuc an ooiiuniiy loi qucsiions anu summaiisc ihc scssion wiih ihc
lollowing oinis:
- This scssion ucali wiih iucniilying common bchavioui, siicngihs, anu
ioblcms in somc ol ihc locus gious ol CEDC. Ii is vciy imoiiani noi io
gcncialisc. Ii can hcl ihc aiiiciani io havc an iuca ol ossiblc
bchavioui aiicins anu ioblcms. Ii can hcl ioviuc somc siiuciuic,
howcvci, onc shoulu bc caiclul noi io siigmaiisc CEDC.
- Thcic is a clcai linI bciwccn ihis scssion anu ihc oncs lollowing. Ii is
csscniial io havc an insighi on ihc bchavioui ol youi clicniclc in oiuci io
bc ol iiuc hcl.
Evaluation
Thc aiiicianis sii in aiis anu comc u wiih iwo oinis ihcy lcaincu liom
ihis scssion.
Understanding Children I n EspeciallyDifficult Circumstances
Training Handbook on Psychosocial counselling for CEDC Trainers Guide 17
Commonly Shared Experiences Commonly Shared Experiences Commonly Shared Experiences Commonly Shared Experiences Commonly Shared Experiences
of Children in Especially Difficult Circumstances of Children in Especially Difficult Circumstances of Children in Especially Difficult Circumstances of Children in Especially Difficult Circumstances of Children in Especially Difficult Circumstances
Neglect and abuse by caregivers (lack of protection)
Loss of home, property, and relationships
Poverty and deprivation from opportunities/facilities in the
economic and cultural environment
Out of school
Limited access to health facilities
Limited access for recreation activities
Limited connection to religious groups
Pressure to work in order to support family or self; exploitation
by adults
Social discrimination; feelings of rejection and insecurity
Exposure to negative, violent, and dangerous situations
Feelings of fear, frustration, worry and distrust in reaction to
their environment and situation
Situations of conflict e.g. with parents or employer
Certain characteristics are necessary for survival such as
anti-social behaviour and or distorted value systems, stealing,
lying, and deception. However, these characteristics bring
children at odds with their society.
Transparency 2.2.1
Understanding Children I n EspeciallyDifficult Circumstances
18 Training Handbook on Psychosocial counselling for CEDC Trainers Guide
Strengths of CEDC Strengths of CEDC Strengths of CEDC Strengths of CEDC Strengths of CEDC
It is very important to also look at the strengths of CEDC for there
are many; these strengths are often what you work with in
counselling. Examples of strengths include:
Self Confidence
Straight forwardness
Sense of Humour
Caring for each other
Quick learners
Survivor mentality
Curiosity
Good decision makers
Observing and copying behaviour
Transparency 2.2.2
Understanding Children I n EspeciallyDifficult Circumstances
Training Handbook on Psychosocial counselling for CEDC Trainers Guide 19
Possible characteristics of street children
1
- Picuominancc ol sauncss anu lonclincss, olicn lcclings ol angci anu ucsaii
- Ncgaiivc oinion ol auulis incluuing ihcii own aicnis
- Hcllcssncss anu icsignaiion
- Iow scll-csiccm, lacI ol scll-woiih
- Imoiiancc ol liicnus iclaiionshi) bui uilliculiy in loiming ihcm
- Imoiiancc ol cuucaiion; ihc ooiiuniiy io lcain anu cain as a mcans io movc
oui ol ihc siiuaiion
- A willingncss io hcl oihcis, aiiiculaily liicnus, ccis
- Bclicl in magical" soluiions io icsolvc ioblcm
- Dcsiic io loigci ihc asi - csccially uilliculi siiuaiions
- Siicci chiluicn olicn uisiiusi anu aic susicious ol oihci colc`s moiivcs
- Iow scll-conliucncc may go hanu-in-hanu wiih lcclings ol ucnial anu lcai, guili,
anu shamc simuliancously
- Siubboinncss, aiicniion sccIing, icsilcssncss, anu moouincss
- Thcy may ucny, masI, oi cvauc ioblcms
Possible characteristics of sexually abused children
- Olicn uisiiusis anu is susicious ol oihci colc`s moiivcs
- Thcy usually lccl a scnsc ol icscnimcni oi hosiiliiy iowaius ihc oosiic scx
- Olicn scx can bc consiucicu uiiiy anu noi a maiici io bc uiscusscu bui shoulu bc
- Thcy mighi noi wani io shaic ihcii ioblcms
- Thcy olicn icgaiu ihcii cxciicncc ol scxual abusc as ainlul anu lilihy - ihcic
can bc lcclings ol angci anu lcai
- Many uoubis aboui ihcmsclvcs anu ihc salciy ol ihcii cnviionmcni anu misiiusi
oihcis incluuing lamily mcmbcis anu iclaiivcs
- Many scxually abuscu chiluicn invaiiably lccl ihai ihcy aic io bc blamcu loi ihc
abusc - assuming icsonsibiliiy
- Abuscu chiluicn havc a siiong scnsc ol isolaiion uuc io noi iclling oihcis ihcii
sccici bccausc ol lcclings ol shamc loi ihcmsclvcs anu lamily
Fact sheet 2.2.1
1
Thcsc aic cxamlcs ol chaiaciciisiics ihai colc woiIing wiih ihcsc gious ol chiluicn havc lounu. Thcsc cannoi bc gcncialiscu anu only
scivc as cxamlcs.
Understanding Children I n EspeciallyDifficult Circumstances
20 Training Handbook on Psychosocial counselling for CEDC Trainers Guide
Reference for trainer 2.2.1
Effective support to children in especially difficult
circumstance (general)
1) Iucniily ihc naiuic ol ihc siicss.
2) Bc awaic ol sccial gious ol chiluicn who aic aiiiculaily ai high iisI.
S) Rccognisc ihai ihc ncgaiivc bchavioui olicn cxhibiicu by ihc chiluicn aic olicn
naiuial icaciions io ihc vciy ical siicsscs ihcy havc io lacc anu may in laci havc
suivival uioscs.
4) Iucniily ihc aicas whcic ihc aicnis/guaiuians anu ihc socio-cconomic
cnviionmcni ol ihcsc chiluicn lail ihcm.
Bc icauy io conlioni anu icscni alicinaiivcs as an csscniial liisi sic io claiily
icquiicu inloimaiion. Encouiagc inuccnucncc anu scll-uciciminaiion by
hcling ihc chilu io cxloic alicinaiivcs anu io maIc wcll-inloimcu choiccs.
Wiih ihcsc valucs in minu, io siiuciuic anu aioach ioblcms counscllois usc
ihicc ma|oi icchniqucs:
1) Begi n wher e the chi l d i s: in oiuci io csiablish a iclaiionshi, counscllois bcgin by
asscssing ihc sccial nccus, lcclings, anu cxcciaiions ol cach chilu. Counscllois
lisicn io chilu`s ucliniiions ol ihcii ioblcms, ihcii ioosals loi icsolving
uilliculiics, anu ihcii iucas aboui ihc assisiancc ihcy nccu. Wiih ihis inloimaiion,
boih aiiics can cxloic ihc way iowaius icsoluiion.
2) Wor k at the chi l ds pace: Ioiming a woiIing iclaiionshi is a giauual ioccss in
which ihc chilu`s changing nccus cmcigc. Chiluicn sci ihcii own acc loi ihc
ioccss. Counscllois lcain io lollow clucs givcn by ihc chilu anu auai wiih cach
inuiviuual acc loi ioblcm icsoluiion.
Counscllois consianily asscss chilu`s icauincss io iaIc aciion, cxcci in unusual
siiuaiions mcuical cmcigcncics, lacI ol loou oi shclici-cic.), lollowing lcaus
givcn by chiluicn aboui ihc acc ol ioccss iowaius soluiions.
3) I ndi vi dual sol uti ons: iailoi ihc lan iowaius a soluiion io ihc iyc ol assisiancc
nccucu by ihc cison. Somc chiluicn nccu concicic hcl, oihcis nccu cmaihy
anu inloimaiion aboui ihcii oiions, anu mosi nccu a combinaiion ol ihcsc
aioachcs. Rclaiionshis bciwccn chiluicn anu woiIcis vaiy, bui all locus on
auuicssing chiluicns` ioblcms in a scnsiiivc anu hcllul mannci.
Understanding Children I n EspeciallyDifficult Circumstances
Training Handbook on Psychosocial counselling for CEDC Trainers Guide 21
Psychosocial issues related to CEDC
Frequent recall of negative/violent experience:
Chiluicn in csccially uilliculi ciicumsianccs, who licqucnily iccall ncgaiivc anu
violcni cxciicnccs, mighi nccu io shaic ihcsc cxciicnccs wiih colc in oiuci io
ucal wiih ihcsc lcclings aioiiaicly anu ihcicby ic-uiscovci sccuiiiy.
Anxiety and fear of the future:
Il ihc chilu is lacing anxiciy anu lcai ol ihc luiuic uuc io his/hci bchavioui in ihc
asi, ihcn onc can hcl ihc chilu io ihinI aboui ihc luiuic consiiuciivcly, oi guiuc
ihc chilu io maIc ihc ncccssaiy sics iowaius changc il ihc siiuaiion can bc
changcu). Thcy mighi nccu hcl, ioicciion, anu accciancc in ihc ioccss.
Frustration/Anger:
Ioi chiluicn whosc lcclings ol liusiiaiion anu/oi angci aic hinuciing laciois in
osiiivc ucvclomcni c.g. lcauing io ciiminaliiy), ihcic mighi bc a nccu io icsolvc
ihcsc lcclings alongsiuc ihc causcs ol ihcsc lcclings). Thc chilu will nccu
aicciaiion anu cncouiagcmcni liom a caicgivci, closc liicnu, oi iclaiivc ai ihis
iimc.
Depression/Loneliness/Distrust:
Thc ucicsscu anu loncly chilu nccus allcciion liom his/hci aicnis anu iclaiivcs.
Thc chilu ossibly nccus io csiablish a waim iclaiionshi wiih ihc lamily anu
communiiy, so ihai s/hc can icuiscovci iiusi in oihcis anu in him/hciscll. Thc
chilu mighi nccu assisiancc io ucal wiih ihc causcs ol his/hci lcclings.
Sense (fear) of being rejected or neglected:
Somc chiluicn havc ihc lccling ol bcing unacccicu oi uisciiminaicu by ihc
ma|oiiiy ol sociciy, csccially siicci chiluicn, cxloiicu, anu abuscu chiluicn.
Thcsc chiluicn nccu conliucncc ihai ihc hcling cison/insiiiuiion unucisianus
ihcii lcclings. This hcls ihcsc chiluicn io ucvclo osiiivc lcclings iowaius him/
hciscll c.g. by iucniilying anu cncouiaging ihcii siicngihs anu caaciiics).
Fact sheet 2.2.2
Understanding Children I n EspeciallyDifficult Circumstances
22 Training Handbook on Psychosocial counselling for CEDC Trainers Guide
Objectives
Ai ihc cnu ol ihc scssion, aiiicianis aic cxccicu io:
- Iucniily ihc sychosocial nccus ol chiluicn in csccially uilliculi
ciicumsianccs
Activities
Time: 1 houi
Materials: mcia-caius, lli chaii, maiIci, boaiu
Session 3:
Needs of children in especially
difficult circumstances
ExpIanation of procedure for trainers:
" Have the part|c|pants th|nk for a coup|e of m|nutes and |mag|ne the needs of the|r own/
c|osest ch||d, and wr|te |deas down |nd|v|dua||y.
" Ask the part|c|pants to open|y share the|r responses. ||st the responses on the board/
f||p chart.
Exp|a|n that these are the needs of any ch||d. Emphas|se that OEDO, because of the|r
spec|f|c s|tuat|on, have =@@EJE= needs. Ask the group to come up w|th add|t|ona|
needs of OEDO.
Methodology
- Imaginaiion cxcicisc
- Biainsioiming
- Icciuic
- Discussion
Resource materials
Text for Trainees:
Iaci Shcci 2.S.1 Nccus ol a Chilu
Key points
Ii is imoiiani io ioicci CEDC liom cxloiiaiion, violcncc, anu abusc anu
loi sociciy io icscci anu caic loi CEDC.
Synthesising
Pioviuc an ooiiuniiy loi qucsiions anu summaiisc ihc scssion wiih ihc
lollowing oinis:
Understanding Children I n EspeciallyDifficult Circumstances
Training Handbook on Psychosocial counselling for CEDC Trainers Guide 23
- This scssion locusscu on ihc `nccus` ol chiluicn in gcncial anu ihc
auuiiional nccus ol CEDC. Bcsiucs ihc nccu loi aioval, allcciion,
siimulaiion cic. ihcii aiiiculai siiuaiion incluucs nccus ihai will hcl
ihcm io ucal wiih ioblcms such as violcncc, lcais, ncglcci cic.
- Thcic is a linI bciwccn bchaviouial ioblcms ol CEDC anu ihc nccus ol
ihcsc chiluicn. Ioi cxamlc, il ihc chilu uocs noi icccivc allcciion, s/hc
mighi show aggicssivc bchavioui. IiIcwisc, il ihc chilu uocs noi icccivc
aioval in anyway, s/hc mighi lccl loncly, insccuic, anu hcllcss.
Evaluation
AsI ihc aiiicianis whai ihcy lcaincu liom ihis scssion anu whcihci ihc
Inowlcugc is usclul whcn woiIing wiih chiluicn.
Understanding Children I n EspeciallyDifficult Circumstances
24 Training Handbook on Psychosocial counselling for CEDC Trainers Guide
Fact sheet 2.3.1
Needs of a Child
Affection
A chilu nccus lovc. Wc shoulu accci ihc chilu anu his/hci lcclings anu ihoughis.
Thc auuli shoulu iiy io lullil ihc chilu`s nccus anu ucmanus.
Acceptance
Chiluicn nccu ihc lamily anu communiiy io accci ihcm ucsiic ihcii wcaIncsscs oi
shoiicomings.
Approval
Thc auuli musi bc ablc io cxicss his/hci aioval ol ihc chilu`s osiiivc bchavioui.
Auulis musi givc aioval whcncvci ihc chilu uocs somcihing ihai is aioiiaic in
a givcn sociciy) anu ihc chilu nccus io Inow ii. Giving aioval is conuiiional. An
auuli uocs noi aiovc ol cvciyihing ihai a chilu wanis oi uocs. Thc chilu musi lccl
ihai ihc auuli suoiis him/hci. Thc aicnis musi aicciaic ihc goou bchavioui
ol ihc chilu.
Discipline
Thc chilu has io lcain whai bchavioui is gcncially accciablc in ihc givcn sociciy.
Thcic is a nccu io sanciion inaioiiaic bchavioui loi ihc chilu io ucvclo
iocily. Auulis shoulu bc iolc moucls loi chiluicn. This is ihc basic icsonsibiliiy
ol aicnis sincc chiluicn lcain liom auulis. Thc chilu nccus a cciiain amouni ol
uiscilinc io gain a lccling ol siiuciuic anu salciy liom whcic io cxloic lilc.
Demands
Chiluicn havc cciiain ucmanus, which aic csscniial loi a hcalihy ubiinging such as
unconuiiional lovc, aiicniion, anu n::o.c.:r rc. c:c.:crc: i.c. soiis, going
ouisiuc io visii ncw laccs, going io a icmlc. This bioaucns ihcii vision. Thcsc
cxciicnccs such as laying anu cuucaiion) ioviuc ihc chilu wiih inicllcciual anu
social siimulaiion, which is ncccssaiy loi hcalihy ucvclomcni.
Material needs
Chiluicn havc maiciial nccus wiihoui which ihcy cannoi suivivc, such as loou,
cloihing, anu shclici.
Basic security
Chiluicn nccu an cnviionmcni ihai ihcy can iiusi. This mcans ihai ihcy shoulu bc
in a salc lacc whcic ihcy lccl ioiccicu anu sccuic. Only ihcn can cmoiional
siabiliiy iaIc lacc.
Understanding Children I n EspeciallyDifficult Circumstances
Training Handbook on Psychosocial counselling for CEDC Trainers Guide 25
Session 4:
Child development
Objectives
Ai ihc cnu ol ihc scssion, aiiicianis aic cxccicu io:
- Lnucisianu ihc basic iincilcs anu siagcs ol chilu ucvclomcni.
- Iucniily ihc uillcicncc bciwccn lunciional anu uyslunciional bchavioui in
a ucvclomcnial conicxi.
Activities
Time: 4 houis
Materials: mcia-caius, lli chaii, maiIci, boaiu
ExpIanation of procedure for trainers:
" lntroduce the top|c by exp|a|n|ng the |mportance of hav|ng know|edge about ch||d-deve|opment: 1} the d|fference
between 'hea|thy` and 'unhea|thy` behav|our, accord|ng to deve|opmenta| norms, |s essent|a| to know when
he|p |s needed and 2} a 'norma|` deve|opmenta| process |s what we str|ve for.
" G|ve a short |ecture about some |mportant pr|nc|p|es of ch||d deve|opment (scc transparcncy 2.4.1).
" Ask the part|c|pants what they know about the stages of deve|opment of a ch||d. Prov|de the part|c|pants w|th
the fo||ow|ng categor|es: |nfancy 0-18 months}, ear|y ch||dhood 18 months-6 years}, m|dd|e ch||dhood 6-11
years}, and ado|escence 11-15 years}.
Part|c|pants, |n sma||er groups, bra|nstorm some concepts of deve|opment and behav|our that be|ongs to
each stage focuss|ng on the |atter two stages}.
" Oo||ect the responses and go over them/d|scuss |f necessary. Make add|t|ons |f necessary} to the part|c|pants`
responses (scc fact shcct 2.4.1).
" To add to the part|c|pants` responses, exp|a|n Er|kson`s theory of b|o-psycho|og|ca| deve|opment (scc
transparcncy 2.4.2).
Er|kson has out||ned a sequence of psychosoc|a| deve|opment |n wh|ch each proceed|ng stage of
deve|opment |s a preparatory phase for the subsequent one.
At each stage of deve|opment, the |nd|v|dua| encounters new s|tuat|ons, wh|ch s/he m|ght or m|ght not
adjust to depend|ng on the successfu| reso|ut|on of the stage.
Th|s theory can be usefu| |n counse|||ng for two reasons: f|rst|y, |t g|ves us know|edge about ch||d
deve|opment. Second|y, the tasks that be|ong to the d|fferent stages g|ve |nd|cat|ons about what to
focus on dur|ng counse|||ng, depend|ng on the ch||d`s stage/age. lt a|so g|ves |nd|cat|ons of what m|ght
be cons|dered as funct|ona| or dysfunct|ona| behav|our of a certa|n age group.
" D|v|de the group |nto sma||er groups and get them to bra|nstorm a ||st of funct|ona| behav|our and dysfunct|ona|
behav|our |n ch||dren, |n terms of deve|opment (for ocfinitions ano cxampIcs scc rcfcrcncc for traincr 2.4.1)
" Rev|ew and d|scuss the |deas that each group prepared. ln the eva|uat|on of the exerc|se, emphas|se that
there are d|fferent |eve|s of 'dysfunct|ona|` behav|our, depend|ng on soc|eta|, deve|opmenta|, or psycho|og|ca|
norms.
" G|ve a |ecture on Attachment, Attr|but|on, Oh||d Fears, and How Oh||dren |earn. For the |atter two concepts,
f|rst ask the group (brainstorm) for the|r |deas.
Understanding Children I n EspeciallyDifficult Circumstances
26 Training Handbook on Psychosocial counselling for CEDC Trainers Guide
Methodology
- Icciuic
- WoiIsho
Resource materials
Text for lecture:
Tiansaicncy 2.4.1 Basic iincilcs
Tiansaicncy 2.4.2 Siagcs ol EiiIson
Text for trainees:
Iaci Shcci 2.4.1 Siagcs ol chilu ucvclomcni
Text for Trainer:
Rclcicncc 2.4.1 Aiiachmcni, Aiiiibuiion, Chilu anu
Auolcsccni Icais anu Chiluicn`s Icaining
Rclcicncc 2.4.2 Gcncial Iucas aboui Chilu Rcaiing
iiansaicncics
Rclcicncc 2.4.S Iunciional/uyslunciional bchavioui
cxamlcs anu ucliniiion
Key points
Auulis anu sociciy aic icsonsiblc loi cnsuiing ihai all chiluicn in any
siiuaiion can cn|oy a hcalihy/noimal ucvclomcni ioccss.
Synthesising
Pioviuc an ooiiuniiy loi qucsiions anu summaiisc ihc scssion wiih ihc
lollowing oinis:
- A chilu ucvclos ihiough scvcial siagcs. Each siagc is chaiaciciiscu by
cciiain challcngcs anu milcsioncs. Iuiihcimoic, ihc chilu nccus a sccuic
cnviionmcni io ucvclo iocily, such as a siablc lamily ihai suoiis,
icsccis, anu lovcs ihc chilu.
Iinally, ihcic is a uivision bciwccn lunciional bchavioui anu uyslunciional
bchavioui, which is imoiiani loi ihc iucniilicaiion ol ioblcms in
bchavioui.
- Scconuly, oini oui ihc iclaiionshi bciwccn ihis scssion anu oihci
scssions - loi cxamlc ihc imoiiancc ol lullilling ihc nccus ol chiluicn
io ucvclo in a hcalihy way. Anoihci linI is bciwccn ioblcmaiic
bchavioui anu ucvclomcni, which can bc muiual inllucnccs anu a uclay
in ucvclomcni can causc ioblcmaiic bchavioui anu vicc vcisa.
Evaluation
AsI cach giou whai ihcy lcaincu liom ihis scssion.
Understanding Children I n EspeciallyDifficult Circumstances
Training Handbook on Psychosocial counselling for CEDC Trainers Guide 27
Basic Principles In Understanding Child Basic Principles In Understanding Child Basic Principles In Understanding Child Basic Principles In Understanding Child Basic Principles In Understanding Child
Development Development Development Development Development
All children are different from one another. They have different
personalities, potential, temperamental dispositions, reactions,
and rates of development.
Children generally follow the same sequence of development.
However, gender, culture, and living conditions will significantly
influence development.
Basic requirements for a child to develop fully as a person
within the family and in the community are a stable living
environment, with predictable and consistent events and
behaviours, guided by adults capable of providing the basic
needs of growing children. Without this environment, full
development is difficult.
Important emotional and psychological needs of children are
affection, acceptance, approval, discipline, security, and
demands. Provide the child with affection and acceptance
unconditionally. Give approval in the context of what is
appropriate in the given society. Giving approval is conditional.
Transparency 2.4.1
Understanding Children I n EspeciallyDifficult Circumstances
28 Training Handbook on Psychosocial counselling for CEDC Trainers Guide
Eriksons theor Eriksons theor Eriksons theor Eriksons theor Eriksons theory of psychological development y of psychological development y of psychological development y of psychological development y of psychological development
Erikson explains that the individual develops qualities that emerge
during critical periods of his/her development. The table below
describes an overview of the stages and tasks. This theory is
one of many; it is not absolute and it may be culturally biased.
However, it is given here as an example of psychological stages
(as opposed to intellectual and motorical stages) of development.
Transparency 2.4.2
Age
0-1
2-3
4-5
Phase
Trust versus Mistrust
Autonomy versus
shame & doubt
Initiative versus Guilt
Task
Establishment of social relationship
Good outcome secure, stable
relationship
Bad outcome insecure
unsatisfactory relationship
Beginning of independence and of
becoming skilled
Good outcome becoming capable
and skilled
Bad outcome dependent and
insecure
Successful pursuit of certain goals for
aims
Good outcome confident about skills
Bad outcome hesitant, uncertain
Understanding Children I n EspeciallyDifficult Circumstances
Training Handbook on Psychosocial counselling for CEDC Trainers Guide 29
Industry versus
Inferiority
Identity versus role
Confusion
Intimacy versus
Isolation
Generatively versus
Stagnation
Ego integrity versus
Despair
6-12
13-18
19-25
26-41
41+
Gaining educational and social skills
Good outcome literate, numerate
and socially integrated
Bad outcome failure to gain
educational skills, socially isolated
Clear sense of own individuality and
of aims in life
Good outcome suitable career
choice, satisfactory heterosexual
relationships
Bad outcome uncertain of career,
poor peer relationships
Establishment of satisfactory long-
term intimate relationships
Good outcome stable relationships
and good career
Bad outcome poor intimate
relationships and career choice
Rear children in stable union
Good outcome successful career,
family stability
Bad outcome poor career
achievement, unstable relationships
Acknowledgement of lifes successes
and failures
Good outcome acceptance of lifes
limitations
Bad outcome unhappiness and
despair
Understanding Children I n EspeciallyDifficult Circumstances
30 Training Handbook on Psychosocial counselling for CEDC Trainers Guide
Stages of child development
2
Infancy (0-18 months)
- Chaiaciciiscu by uccnucncy
- Phasc ol insiincis anu uiicci nccus
- Dcvclomcni ol ihc scnscs; nccu loi a siimulaiing cnviionmcni
- Chilu siaiis io clicii icsonscs liom lamily mcmbcis
- Rcciiocal iclaiionshi wiih cnviionmcni is csiablishcu
- Chilu`s cmoiional anu mcnial ucvclomcni is linIcu io ihc qualiiy ol caic anu
suoii s/hc icccivcs
Psychol ogi cal accompl i shment:
a) Sense of basic trust: Iullilmcni ol ihc chilu`s nccus anu ihc lccling ihai ihc
woilu is a salc lacc io bc in
- Chilu icsonus in a loving, waim, allcciionaic mannci, anu cnicis ihc
subscqucni siagcs ol ucvclomcni wiih a scnsc ol sccuiiiy anu hoc
- Inconsisicni caic biings aboui misiiusi, lcclings ol insccuiiiy, anu
hcllcssncss
b)Sense of attachment:
- Siaiis bonuing wiih his aicnis
- Paicnis icsonu io chilu`s signals ciying) io bc comloiicu, hclu, lcli, anu
siimulaicu. Chilu lccls goou" whcn comloiicu.
- Phasc ol sccuiiiy anu cxloiing
- Chilu can uisiinguish bciwccn aicnis anu siiangcis
Early childhood (18 month to 6 years)
- Raiu hysical anu mcnial maiuiaiion; moioi sIills bccomc bciici co-
oiuinaicu. Discovcis anu lcains io achicvc.
- Ianguagc ucvclos iaiuly; incicasc in ihcii unucisianuing ol ihcii
cnviionmcni, ihcmsclvcs, anu whai oihcis cxcci ol ihcm.
- Lnucisianus anu aniiciaics cciiain iolcs
- Tcaching chiluicn shoulu bc locuscu on concicic iaihci ihan absiiaci ihings
- Chilu ucvclos conscicncc ol whai is iighi oi wiong
- This is ihc siagc ol gaining auionomy. Auionomy is uccnucni uon siablc
auuli-chilu iclaiionshi.
- Piclcicniial iclaiionshi wiih onc aicni olicn moihci) mighi acai
- Scxual iucniiiy will bc loimcu ai ihis hasc aiounu ycais)
- Thcy bccomc moic caablc ol social iniciaciion mcaning ihcy siaii io
unucisianu ihai oihcis havc ihcii own nccus anu ihoughis.
- Rivaliy anu |calously loi aiicniion anu allcciion occuis
Fact sheet 2.4.1
2
Ii is imoiiani io icalisc ihai ihcsc siagcs ol ucvclomcni aic bascu on Wcsicin liiciaiuic anu Inowlcugc, ihcicloic gcncialising ihis inloimaiion io
anoihci culiuics mighi bc inaioiiaic. Siill, ii can scivc as an cxamlc anu somc ucvclomcnial sics will bc mosily iniciculiuial.
Understanding Children I n EspeciallyDifficult Circumstances
Training Handbook on Psychosocial counselling for CEDC Trainers Guide 31
Middle childhood (6-12 years)
- Pccis bccomc cxiia souiccs ol iucniilicaiion anu ihcic is icssuic io achicvc
- Chiluicn bccomc moic sIillul wiih ma|oi auulis. Thcy show a gicaici scnsc ol
inuccnucncc anu moiivaiion io achicvc.
- Ncw social iclaiionshis anu culiuial lcaining maiI ihis ciiou. Thc lamily
coniinucs io scnsc anu ioicci ihc chiluicn.
- Chiluicn who uo noi gci along wiih oihci chiluicn aic oicniially ai iisI liom
sychological ioblcms laici.
Adolescence (13-18 years)
- Giauual inuccnucncc
- Noims anu will lay an imoiiani iolc in ihis hasc
- Nciihci chilu noi auuli
a) Early adolescence (12-14)
- Pciiou ol iaiu hysical giowih anu scxual maiuiaiion
- Ma|oi changcs in bouy acaiancc olicn icsulis in insccuiiiy, cmoiional
iioublc, scll-consciousncss
b)Middle adolescence (15-17 years)
- Gicaici conccin in achicving gicaici sychological inuccnucncc liom
lamilics
- Dcvclo closci iclaiionshi wiih ccis
- Siiugglc loi inuccnucncc icsulis in lcclings ol ambivalcncc on ihc aii ol
boih youih anu aicnis ovci ihc iiansiiion ciiou, which can lcau io
ioblcms
c) Later adolescence (17-19) years)
- Chilu has managcu io builu u a icasonably clcai, consisicni cisonal
iucniiiy anu has commiiicu him/hciscll io somc iclaiivcly wcll-uclincu social
iolcs anu lilc goals guiucu by a wcll lunciioning valuc sysicm
Understanding Children I n EspeciallyDifficult Circumstances
32 Training Handbook on Psychosocial counselling for CEDC Trainers Guide
Attachment
AnIcr :: n nu.nb!c nrn nc:.c .c!n:or bc.ccr n I:!n nrn orc o. o.c nnu!:
.n:::r Ic I:!n. Ii is an imoiiani lacioi in ihc gcncial social-cmoiional ucvclomcni
ol a chilu. A `sccuic` aiiachmcni is csscniial loi a basic iiusi in oncscll anu oihcis, anu
ihcicloic a sccuic basis liom whcic cxloiaiion ol ihc woilu can iaIc lacc.
Iiom vciy young, ihc chilu cxicsscs iwo iycs ol bchavioui: ihc icnucncy io sccI
closcncss by ciying, laughing, scicaming cic) io ihc oncs closc io him/hci anu scconuly,
io uciach liom ihis cison io cxloic ihc woilu aiounu him/hci. Ii is imoiiani loi ihc
chilu io linu a balancc bciwccn ihcsc iwo somciimcs conlliciing) nccus.
Thc chilu can bc `sccuicly` aiiachcu io colc, which inuicaics a balancc bciwccn ihc
oosiic nccus ucsciibcu abovc. Thc chilu can also bc `insccuicly` aiiachcu, which
inuicaics an imbalancc. Ioi somc chiluicn ii mcans ihcy sccI cxccssivc aiicniion liom
ihc cison ihcy aic aiiachcu io, loi oihcis ii mcans ihai ihcy avoiu coniaci wiih ihc
cison ihai ihcy aic aiiachcu io.
Thc samc aiicins cxccssivc aiicniion sccIing vs. avoiuancc) cmcigc whcn a chilu is in
coniaci wiih oihci siiangcis/colc. On ihc oihci hanu, ihc `sccuicly` aiiachcu chilu
will bc hcsiiani ai liisi io mcci ihc siiangci bui laici will maIc coniaci anu s/hc will sccI
aiicniion liom ihai cison bui is also ablc io lay/aci alonc.
Sccuic aiiachmcni io ihc mosi imoiiani auuli in ihc chilu`s lilc is csscniial csccially
bccausc ihc goou iniciaciion noimally icmains anu bccomcs osiiivc social oiicniaiion
wiih boih auulis anu ccis). This icsulis in a osiiivc cxloiaiion ol ihc cnviionmcni,
anu in iuin icsulis in inuccnucncc anu cisonal, cmoiional, anu inicllcciual giowih.
Thc aiiachmcni is mainly sci in ihc liisi lcw ycais ol ihc chilu`s lilc.
In oiuci io siimulaic sccuic aiiachmcni in ihc liisi lcw ycais ihc aicnis oi guaiuians)
shoulu ioviuc cmoiional suoii bcing scnsiiivc io ihc chilu`s nccus anu lcclings,
iniciaciing osiiivcly wiih ihc chilu cic.). This shoulu go hanu in hanu wiih ihc comlcic
accciancc ol ihc chilu.
Iaici ihc chilu shoulu bc siimulaicu io cxciicncc his/hci cisonal siicngihs anu his/
hci auionomy icsccicu. Howcvci, ihis giowing nccu loi auionomy shoulu iaIc lacc
in an cnviionmcni ihai givcs siiuciuic anu clcai limiis wiihin which ihc chilu can
lccl sccuic.
Scr:::.c Fc:or::.crc:: liom ihc chilu-iaisci iowaius ihc chilu mighi bcnclii ihc abovc
ioccss. This mcans noiicing ihc signals ol ihc chilu 1), coiiccily iniciiciing ihcsc
signals 2), waniing io icaci io ihcsc signals S) bcing ablc io icaci 4), anu icaciing
cllcciivcly ). Thc cisonal hisioiy anu valucs, suoii, siicss, sIills, Inowlcugc,
icmciamcni ol ihc chilu cic. can ol couisc inllucncc ihc qualiiy ol ihc auuli.
Iucally, scnsiiivc icsonsivcncss shoulu ioviuc ihc chilu wiih basic iiusi anu osiiivc
iclcicnccs ihai 1) icsuli in social caaciiics wiih ihc `aiiachmcni cison`, as wcll as
Reference for the trainer 2.4.1
Understanding Children I n EspeciallyDifficult Circumstances
Training Handbook on Psychosocial counselling for CEDC Trainers Guide 33
wiih oihci auulis anu ccis, 2) shoulu hcl ihc chilu cxloic his/hci cnviionmcni
osiiivcly, S) shoulu bc a osiiivc inllucncc on gcncial ucvclomcni.
Thc issuc ol `aiiachmcni` is olicn ihc causc ol many sychosocial) ioblcms ihai chiluicn
lacc, csccially chiluicn in csccially uilliculi ciicumsianccs. Alihough ii is uilliculi io
icsolvc insccuic aiiachmcni il ai all ossiblc), ii is imoiiani io havc Inowlcugc aboui
ihis hcnomcnon.
This analysis can bc usclul in icvcniaiivc aioachcs whcn woiIing wiih lamilics. Thc
inicivcniion shoulu ihcn locus on incicasing ihc scnsiiivcncss ol ihc aicnis ihai shoulu
icsuli in sccuic aiiachmcni.
Knowlcugc aboui ihis ihcoiy is also imoiiani loi ihc counsclloi bccausc s/hc can hcl ihc
chilu icgain a scnsc ol sccuiiiy anu iiusi ihai ihc chilu ossibly lacIs/losi wiih ihc caicgivci.
Explanations or Attribution
- Pcolc sccI cxlanaiions loi cvcnis iaIing lacc aiounu ihcm which wc call aiiiibuiion
- somc cxlanaiions aic auiomaiic oihcis aic moic uclibciaic.
- Knowlcugc aboui ihis ihcoiy is imoiiani in unucisianuing ihc chilu`s cxlanaiions
loi cvcnis. Ii may bc usclul in cascs ol changc oi in lcaining ioblcm solving sIills.
- Pcolc havc ihc icnucncy io cxlain succcss io inicinal causcs anu lailuic io
cxicinal causcs.
- Onc can cxlain succcss anu lailuic by abiliiy, clloii, iasI, uilliculiy, anu lucI.
Dcvclomcnis ol aiiiibuiions go liom cxicinal c.g. lucI) io inicinal c.g. abiliiy).
- Icaincu hcllcssncss - ihc bclicl ihai onc`s olicn-ncgaiivc ouicomcs aic inuccnucni
ol onc`s aciions, lcauing io low scll-csiccm anu ucicssion - can bc onc ol ihc
causcs ol sychosocial ioblcms in chiluicn.
How do children learn?
Memory
Icaining can bc uclincu as `loiming mcmoiy`. Icaining is ihc ioccssing ol inloimaiion
ihai lcaus io a bioauci mcmoiy. Incoming inloimaiion is ciihci loigoiicn oi icmcmbcicu.
Whcn inloimaiion is icmcmbcicu, ii is ihc lunciion ol `shoii icim mcmoiy`. Whcn ihis
inloimaiion is iccaiculy uscu, ii lunciions anu is sioicu as `long icim mcmoiy`.
Ioi chiluicn, ihis ioccss ol mcmoiy is vciy iaiu. Rcmcmbciing, ihcicloic, mcans
iciiicving inloimaiion ihai is sioicu in ihc mcmoiy ihough ii is auiomaiic ihai all
inloimaiion can bc iciiicvcu ai all iimcs).
Conditioning
Wc lcain bchavioui ihai wc aic cncouiagcu io lcain anu wc loigci bchavioui loi which
no such cncouiagcmcni is loiihcoming. Rcwaiu icinloiccu) a cciiain aciion anu ihc
inuiviuual is moiivaicu io iccai ihc aciion again in oiuci io icccivc ihc icwaiu again.
Il a cciiain aciion has ncgaiivc conscqucnccs c.g. unishmcni), ihc inuiviuual will sio
cngaging in ihai bchavioui. Ii is csscniial ihai ihc icaciions on ihc bchavioui aic
consisicni ovci iimc.
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34 Training Handbook on Psychosocial counselling for CEDC Trainers Guide
Modelling/Imitation
Icaining iaIcs lacc ihiough obscivaiion. This can bc ihiough lilms, ccis, aicnis,
anu giou ioccsscs cic. Thc inuiviuual obscivcs ihc conscqucnccs ol ihc aciions.
Again, il ihc conscqucnccs aic osiiivc, ihc inuiviuual is unconsciously) moiivaicu io
coy/imiiaic ihc bchavioui anu vicc vcisa). Evcn bchavioui uniclaicu io any
coniingcncics will bc sub|cci io imiiaiion.
Chiluicn will csccially imiiaic ihc bchavioui ol ihcii aicnis main auulis in a chilu`s
lilc). Auolcsccnis will imiiaic mainly liom ihcii ccis.
Child and Adolescent Fears
3
Ii is noimal loi chiluicn io havc lcais. Icais havc a suivival lunciion anu havc ovci
iimc, bccomc :yIo!o::cn. Each hasc ol ihc chilu`s ucvclomcni is chaiaciciiscu
by uillcicni lcais anu as long as ihcsc lcais uo noi uisiuib ihc uaily lunciioning ol ihc
chilu, ihcy aic noi siaiic.
Sn.!c .c!c: - ihc main lcais ihai babics havc aic a icsonsc io vciy suuucn movcmcnis
oi louu noiscs cic.
Ecn. o. rnu.n! Icrocrn - chiluicn ol iwo ycais olu aic olicn scaicu by sioims,
waici, siiangc animals, ihc uaiI cic.
Ai aiounu ihis iimc, chiluicn also cxciicncc ihc cn. o bc:r !c n!orc csccially
whcn ihc iimaiy caic iaIci lcavcs ihc chilu alonc loi ioo long).
Ai aiounu loui ycais olu, chiluicn olicn havc cn.: .c!ncn o .u!rc.nb:!:y, such as lcai
ol ucaih, lcai loi illncss, cic.
Ai ubciiy, chiluicn bcgin io acquiic oihci lcais, loi cxamlc Ic cn. o n:!u.c. This
iclaics io achicvcmcnis, changcs in ihc bouy, cic. Moic comlcx, anu lcss lunciional
loims ol lcai also cxisi, c.g. cxiicmc anu olicn unicalisiic) lcai icaciions `anic
aiiacIs`) io sccilic ob|ccis oi siiuaiions (Iob:n:).
Somc inuiviuuals mighi havc a vaiiciy ol crc.n! cn.:, loi cxamlc lcais iclaicu io ihc
luiuic, io cciiain colc, uisasicis, bcing icascu, school icsis, going io a hosiial cic.
Musclc icnsion, cxiicmc alciincss, icsilcssncss, uilliculiy conccniiaiing can bc signs ol
cxciicncing lcais.
Icais can also iclaic io icvious, unlcasani cvcnis such as bcing abuscu, naiuial
uisasicis, ucaih ol lovcu oncs cic), ihcsc may incluuc lcais loi icoccuiicncc ol ihc
cvcni oi conscqucnccs ol ihc cvcni (o: .nun: .cn:or:).
S
In somc cxamlcs, ihc icim lcai also iclcis io uisiicss oi anxiciy.
Understanding Children I n EspeciallyDifficult Circumstances
Training Handbook on Psychosocial counselling for CEDC Trainers Guide 35
Reference for trainer 2.4.2
General ideas about child-rearing
- Thc auuli shoulu noi usc coioial unishmcni, such as hiiiing, loi ihis can havc
ncgaiivc cllccis on ihc ucvclomcni ol ihc chilu. Onc shoulu auoi oihci ways ol
sciiing limiis oi showing uisaioval.
- Suoii ihc chilu ihiough a osiiivc aioach iowaius his/hci aciiviiics, iucas,
ihoughis cic. This mcans ihai onc shoulu cmhasisc on his/hci caaciiics.
- Iinu a balancc bciwccn lciiing ihc chilu cxciicncc/cxloic, anu sciiing limiis/
claiiiy. A giowing chilu nccus io havc ihc ossibiliiy io cxciicncc his/hci
cnviionmcni anu io challcngc limiis cmoiionally, inicllcciually, anu socially) anu
io gain inuccnucncc/auionomy, icscciivcly. This mcans giving ihc chilu ihc
liccuom io cxloic, which will siimulaic ihc chilu`s comcicncics.
- On ihc oihci hanu, ihc chilu nccus io havc clcai limiis io bc ablc io lccl salc anu
sccuic. To sci limiis mcans ihai ihc cnviionmcni is siiuciuicu anu is ihcicloic a
sccuic basc liom whcic cxloiaiion can iaIc lacc.
- Ii is imoiiani ihai auulis aic consisicni anu icuiciablc in ihcii icaciion iowaius
ihc chilu. Il noi, ihc chilu will noi bc ablc io lcain whai io cxcci anu whcn; ihis
mighi icsuli in insccuiiiy anu misiiusi.
- Evciy chilu shows osiiivc iniiiaiivcs loi iniciaciion. Auulis can obscivc anu
iccognisc ihcsc icaciions. Auulis shoulu acInowlcugc anu icsonu io ihcsc
iniiiaiivcs. Il ihc icsonsc is in a osiiivc mannci, ihc communicaiion aiicin will
bccomc a usclul onc. Boih auuli anu chilu havc caaciiics loi such
communicaiion.
- Auulis shoulu show aioval ol chiluicn`s osiiivc iniiiaiivcs in a vcibal anu non-
vcibal way.
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36 Training Handbook on Psychosocial counselling for CEDC Trainers Guide
Reference for trainer 2.4.3
Functional and dysfunctional behaviour
1) Wcll-lunciioning bchavioui: an auuli oi a chilu, who has accciablc anu
aioiiaic bchavioui accoiuing io ihc noims ol sociciy/ihc communiiy, anu
noims ol ihc chilu`s sychological) ucvclomcni, anu can ciloim ihc iolc
cxccicu ol him.
- Somcbouy who has no ncgaiivc inllucncc on him/hciscll anu is ablc io coc
wiih his own lilc anu ioblcm siiuaiion.
- Thcsc cisons may only nccu a suoiiivc cnviionmcni lamily, ccis
signilicani oihcis) io uisuc ihcii lan io changc ihc icscni siiuaiion io mcci
icalisiic goals.
Note: a disabled person is not necessarily dysfunctional
2) Dyslunciional bchavioui: A cison who uislays inaioiiaic anu unaccciablc
bchavioui uccnuing on socicial oi ucvclomcnial/sychological noims) oi ihai
has a ncgaiivc inllucncc on him/hciscll oi his/hci cnviionmcni.
Example: a child is very angry becauses/hefeels sheis discriminated in school (although being
angry is not niceit is not necessarily dysfunctional); that samechild wants to kill thosethat
discriminatehim/her (killing someoneis not acceptablein terms of norms so that can be
considered dysfunctional).
How to help a person with dysfunctional behaviour:
- Cicaic awaicncss ol uyslunciional bchavioui oi sccilically ol ihc ncgaiivc imaci
ol his/hci bchavioui.
- Inquiic whai hc can uo io solvc oi uo somcihing aboui ihc `uyslunciion`.
Collaboiaic io sci clcai goals loi bchaviouial clcmcnis io bc changcu. Siaii liom
simlc bui aiiainablc soluiions ihai s/hc can uo wiihoui much hcl liom oihcis.
MaIc him/hci lccl s/hc can succccu.
- Inicivcnc oi ioviuc hcl whcn nccucu, iclciial mighi bc nccucu.
- Biainsioim oiions iogcihci anu asscss as s/hc claiilics lcclings, as s/hc lcains
ncw ways ol lunciioning uniil his/hci abiliiy io coc incicascs.
- Pioviuc suoii anu iniciaciion wiih oihcis in ihc social suoii nciwoiI.
Understanding Children I n EspeciallyDifficult Circumstances
Training Handbook on Psychosocial counselling for CEDC Trainers Guide 37
Objectives
Ai ihc cnu ol scssion, ihc aiiicianis aic cxccicu io bc ablc io:
- Discuss iclcvani lcgal iovisions ol CRC anu ihc Ncali lcgislaiion as a
basis loi counsclling chiluicn
- Iucniily ihc iovision ol CRC anu ihc Ncali lcgislaiion loi ioicciing
CEDC
Activities
Time: 2 houis
Materials: mcia-caius, lli chaii, maiIci, boaiu
Session 5:
Legal Basis and Child Rights
ExpIanation of procedure for trainers:
" lntroduce the top|c by shar|ng the major prov|s|ons of the ORO and ch||dren`s Act w|th
the part|c|pants. These just|fy the rat|ona|e for counse|||ng |ntervent|on for OEDO. Show
transparcncics 2.5.1 & 2.5.2 wh||e exp|a|n|ng the top|c.
" G|ve a |ecture about the prov|s|on of ORO (scc fact shcct 2.5.1) and art|c|e 23 of the
Oh||dren`s Act to prov|de the part|c|pants w|th a c|ear understand|ng on the |ega| |ssues
|nvo|ved.
Methodology
- Icciuic
Resource materials
Text for lecture:
Tiansaicncy 2..1 8 2..2 Icgal iovisions ol CRC
Text for Trainees:
Iaci Shcci 2..1 Biicl iniiouuciion on CRC
Refer to theGeneral Manual on Counselling of CEDC,
chapter 1, Legal Basis
Reference Material:
CRC 19S9, LNICEI anu Ncal`s Chiluicn Aci 2u4S
Key points
Thcic is no clcai lcgislaiivc iovision ihai cnsuics counsclling in Ncal.
Howcvci, ihc Siaic shoulu always bc icsonsiblc loi ioicciing chiluicn in
csccially uilliculi ciicumsianccs.
Understanding Children I n EspeciallyDifficult Circumstances
38 Training Handbook on Psychosocial counselling for CEDC Trainers Guide
Evaluation
Thc aiiicianis, in aiis, comc u wiih a lcgal `aiiiclc` ihai ihcy lccl is
missing in ihc icscni lcgal sysicm in Ncal.
Synthesising
Pioviuc an ooiiuniiy loi qucsiions anu summaiisc ihc scssion wiih ihc
lollowing oinis:
- Thcic aic noi cnough lcgal iovisions in ihc lcgislaiion icgaiuing
sychosocial assisiancc loi CEDC. Ncvciihclcss, ihcic aic somc
aioiiaic lcgislaiions, howcvci ihcsc lcgislaiions havc noi bccn
imlcmcnicu iocily.
Understanding Children I n EspeciallyDifficult Circumstances
Training Handbook on Psychosocial counselling for CEDC Trainers Guide 39
Convention on the rights of the child Convention on the rights of the child Convention on the rights of the child Convention on the rights of the child Convention on the rights of the child
Article 39: Responsibilities to care
The state has an obligation to ensure that child victims of armed
conflicts, misfortune, maltreatment, or exploitation receive
appropriate treatment for their recovery and social reintegration.
Article 40.1:
State Parties recognise the right of every child alleged/accused
of, or recognised as having infringed the penal law, to be
treated in a manner consistent with the promotion of the childs
sense of dignity and fundamental freedoms, taking into
account the childs age and promoting reintegration so that s/
he can resume a constructive role in society.
Transparency 2.5.1
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40 Training Handbook on Psychosocial counselling for CEDC Trainers Guide
Nepali Legal provisions: Childrens Act 2048 Nepali Legal provisions: Childrens Act 2048 Nepali Legal provisions: Childrens Act 2048 Nepali Legal provisions: Childrens Act 2048 Nepali Legal provisions: Childrens Act 2048
Article 23 has provisions that address the guardians to safeguard
the interest and property of the child. The Article reads:
The main duty of the guardians shall be to safeguard the interest
of the child.
a. To bring up the child in a way that will enhance the physical
and mental development of the child.
b. To ensure education; this helps the intellectual development
of the child.
c. To prevent the child from acquiring bad habits or bad
influences.
Article 34 has the provision of the establishment and operation of
Childrens Welfare Homes by the government to keep abandoned
children.
Article 35 reads: HMG shall establish Childrens Rehabilitation
Homes. The following children shall be kept in the homes:
a. A child accused of a crime and to be imprisoned pursuant to
the existing law for the investigation or proceedings of the
case.
b. A child addicted to narcotic drugs.
c. A child who is in the company of persons involved in immoral
or inexpedient activities, or takes part in the activities of such
persons or depends upon them for earnings.
Transparency 2.5.2
Understanding Children I n EspeciallyDifficult Circumstances
Training Handbook on Psychosocial counselling for CEDC Trainers Guide 41
Fact sheet 2.5.1
What is the convention on the rights of
the child?
Thc convcniion on ihc iighis ol ihc chilu is a Lniicu Naiions agiccmcni ihai
ouilincs ihc iangc ol iighis ihai chiluicn cvciywhcic aic cniiilcu. Ii scis basic
sianuaius loi a chilu`s wcll bcing ai uillcicni siagcs ol ucvclomcni. Couniiics ihai
agicc/aic lcgally bounu by ihc convcniion`s iovisions bccomc `Siaic Paiiics`.
Thc convcniion is ihc liisi univcisal lcgal couc ol chilu iighis in hisioiy. Raihci
ihan ihcsc issucs bcing scaiicicu among a numbci ol inicinaiional iicaiics, ihc
convcniion biings iogcihci in onc iicaiy all iclcvani chilu iighis issucs.
Thc convcniion coniains 4 aiiiclcs, cach ol which uciails a uillcicni iyc ol iighi.
Thcsc can bc bioIcn uown inlo loui bioau caicgoiics:
Survival rights: This covcis a chilu`s iighi io lilc anu ihc nccus ihai aic mosi basic
io cxisicncc; ihcsc incluuc an aucquaic living sianuaiu, shclici, nuiiiiion, anu
acccss io mcuical sciviccs.
Development rights: Thcsc incluuc iighis ihai chiluicn icquiic in oiuci io icach
ihcii lullcsi oicniial. Examlcs aic ihc iighi io cuucaiion, lay/lcisuic, culiuial
aciiviiics, acccss io inloimaiion anu liccuom ol ihoughi, conscicncc, anu icligion.
Protection rights: Rcquiics ihc salcguaiuing ol chiluicn againsi all loims ol abusc,
ncglcci, anu cxloiiaiion. Thcsc iighis covci issucs such as sccial caic loi iclugcc
chiluicn, abusc in ihc ciiminal |usiicc sysicm, anu chiluicn`s involvcmcni in aimcu
conllici, chilu laboui, uiug abusc, anu scxual cxloiiaiion.
Participation rights: Allow chiluicn io iaIc an aciivc iolc in ihcii communiiics anu
naiion. Thcsc iighis cncomass ihc liccuom io cxicss oinions, io havc a say in
maiicis allcciing ihcii own livcs, io |oin associaiions, anu io asscmblc cacclully. As
ihcii abiliiics ucvclo, chiluicn shoulu havc moic ooiiuniiics io aiiiciaic in
ihc aciiviiics ol ihcii sociciy, in icaiaiion loi icsonsiblc auulihoou.
General objective:
Paiiicianis ucccn ihcii unucisianuing ol ihc:
- Siiuaiion ol chiluicn in csccially uilliculi ciicumsianccs
- Basic hilosohy ol counsclling inicivcniions loi chiluicn in csccially uilliculi
ciicumsianccs
- Psychosocial ihcoiy ol bchavioui in iclaiion io unucisianuing how inuiviuuals
lunciion in sociciy.
Specific objectives:
Ai ihc cnu ol ihc mouulc, aiiicianis will bc ablc io:
- Lnucisianu ihc basic iincilcs ihai aic viial in unucisianuing counsclling as a
sychological inicivcniion loi CEDC
- Discuss sychosocial ihcoiy ol bchavioui anu iis iclcvancc io unucisianuing ihc
siiuaiions ol CEDC.
- Lnucisianu ihc icasons, iincilcs, ioccss, anu aioach io counsclling.
- Lnucisianu ihc counsclloi`s iolc anu iclaic io ii as a luiuic counsclloi.
- Lnucisianu ihc sIills anu aioach liom a culiuial ciscciivc.
Framework Of Counselling
MODULE III
44 Training Handbook on Psychosocial counselling for CEDC Trainers Guide
Framework Of Counselling
Training Handbook on Psychosocial counselling for CEDC Trainers Guide 45
Framework Of Counselling
Objectives:
Ai ihc cnu ol scssion, aiiicianis aic cxccicu io:
- Havc a uccci unucisianuing anu insighi aboui ihcmsclvcs as bcing
scivicc ioviucis loi CEDC
- Bc ablc io shaic ihcii own siicngihs anu wcaIncsscs as a cison anu as a
scivicc ioviuci loi CEDC
- Acquiic a uccci awaicncss aboui oncs own chiluhoou - ihc osiiivc anu
ncgaiivc cxciicnccs, anu how ihcsc cxciicnccs can inllucncc oncs own
icscni valucs anu aiiiiuucs in lilc
- Lnucisianu ihc bchavioui anu icaciions ol a viciim
Activities
Timc: S houis
Matcrials: mcia-caiu, lli chaii, maiIci, boaiu
Session 1:
Self-Awareness
ExpIanation of procedure for trainers:
" Ask the part|c|pants to form pa|rs and after 10 m|nutes of preparat|on, share w|th the|r
partner ref|ect|ons about themse|ves. Each pa|r rece|ves 45 m|nutes for th|s shar|ng
exerc|se (scc transparcncy 3.1.1). Emphas|se that any shared |nformat|on |s conf|dent|a|
and shou|d be treated w|th respect.
" After the exerc|se, ask the part|c|pants to share the|r thoughts |n an open d|scuss|on to
ref|ect on the exerc|se.
Emphas|se the |mportance of se|f-awareness: How can we he|p others |n se|f-
ref|ect|on |f we are not capab|e ourse|ves?"
Serv|ce prov|ders shou|d be aware of the|r own background and the persona|
emot|ons/sent|ments they carry w|th them wh||st |n the process of gu|d|ng a ch||d.
A counse||or`s persona| exper|ences, |deas, hopes, fr|ends, etc. a|| p|ay a ro|e |n the
counse||or`s att|tude and thus |n the counse|||ng process. The counse||or shou|d be
aware of these persona| factors |n order to m|n|m|se the|r |nf|uence on the process.
Debriefing of exercise/synthesis
Th|s exerc|se demonstrates how d|ff|cu|t |t can be to share |nformat|on about
onese|f. lt |s norma| that d|fferent peop|e have d|fferent va|ues and |deas.
Se|f-awareness can be a recurr|ng |ssue for part|c|pants throughout the tra|n|ng
" Ask the group to ||st words (brainstorm) that they assoc|ate w|th the mean|ng of the word
v|ct|m. Wr|te the words on the board. (Scc fact shcct 3.1.1.) Ask the part|c|pants wh|ch
of these exper|ences they have gone through themse|ves.
" 'Thc rivcr of Iifc: ask the part|c|pants to draw on a b|ank sheet of A4 paper} a r|ver, wh|ch
symbo||zes the|r ||fe, and a|ong that r|ver to draw/wr|te the pos|t|ve and negat|ve
exper|ences that have had an |mportant |mpact on the|r ||fe.
46 Training Handbook on Psychosocial counselling for CEDC Trainers Guide
Framework Of Counselling
Methodology:
- Scll icllcciion
- Shaiing
- Biainsioim
- Icciuic
Resource materials
Tcxt Ior lccturc:
Tiansaicncy S.1.1 Qucsiions io siimulaic scll-awaicncss
Tcxt Ior traincc:
Iaci Shcci S.1.1 Viciim Ilow Chaii
Key points
A counsclloi nccus io Inow how ii lccls io looI closcly ai oncscll whcn
guiuing chiluicn io bc awaic, io siicngihcn ihcii caaciiics, oi changc ihcii
wcaIncsscs, bccausc ihai is whai s/hc asIs ol ihc chilu.
Synthesising:
Pioviuc an ooiiuniiy loi qucsiions anu summaiisc ihc scssion wiih ihc
lollowing oinis:
- This scssion aimcu io maIc aiiicianis awaic ol ihcmsclvcs as scivicc
ioviucis loi CEDC; anu ihcii siicngihs, wcaIncsscs, anu valucs. Scll-
awaicncss is a ncccssiiy loi a counsclloi.
- This scssion also icminus us ol ihc lcclings ihai chiluicn mighi
cxciicncc as a viciim - lcclings ol ain, hcllcssncss, angci, haic, oi
lonclincss. Whcn counsclling, ii is vciy imoiiani io cmhasisc anu
icalisc whai ihc chiluicn aic cxciicncing. Mosi ol us cannoi cvcn
imaginc whai many ol ihcsc chiluicn havc io go ihiough. Howcvci,
iiying io unucisianu ihcii siiuaiion is csscniial io bc ablc io bc
suoiiivc.
- Thc chiluicn aic olicn viciims. Bchinu ihc acaiancc/bchavioui, which
olicn bccomcs a |uuging lacioi, aic ihc main lcclings ihai causc ihis
bchavioui. Wc olicn lail io unucisianu ihai ihc chilu bchavcs ihai way
bccausc s/hc lccls unlovcu, loncly, angiy, ashamcu, guiliy, conluscu,
hoclcss, ic|ccicu, cic.
Evaluation
Thc aiiicianis wiiic in biicl iclciably only onc scnicncc) whai ihcy
ihoughi was ihc coic mcssagc ol ihis scssion.
Training Handbook on Psychosocial counselling for CEDC Trainers Guide 47
Framework Of Counselling
Questions to stimulate self-awareness for
counsellors
1. Draw an object (flower, plant, animal, or any object), which
best represents you as a person (your value system, attitudes
and way of life). Share this with your partner during the dyadic
exercise.
2. Share with your partner:
a) Why I want to be a helper and what do I get from helping
others
b) What does my family and others say they like about me?
What they do not like about me?
c) Career and work what is it in my work
- I like best...?
- I am very proud about...?
- I have limitations in...?
- I do not like...?
- I find important?
d) Childhood experiences:
What are the significant events in my childhood, which
created an impact in my present life?
- Positive
- Negative
e) What are my personal goals in life?
f) What are my goals as a worker?
g) Who are the important people in my life and why?
h) What are my strength and weaknesses, professionally
and/or personally?
i) List five of the most important values in your life.
Transparency S.1.1
48 Training Handbook on Psychosocial counselling for CEDC Trainers Guide
Framework Of Counselling
Victim Flow Chart
Person in stage of normal
daily routine
(Feels sense of: Security,
dignity, pride,
power, control)
Crisis Event
Arbitrary
sudden
unexpected
unpredictable
Person becomes victim
Victim experience loss of:
power, pride, control, security,
dignity
Stages of victim reaction
l Shock & disbelief
- Fear and blaming
l Anger and indifference
l Reintegration
Observable crisis behavior
l Tone of voice
l verbal expression
l physical expression
l lessened decision making abilities
l lack of confidence
Counseling
L
e
a
d
s

t
o

r
e
s
t
o
r
a
t
i
o
n

o
f
:
Psychological First Aid/ psycho-social
intervention (crisis intervention)
Fact sheet 3.1.1
Training Handbook on Psychosocial counselling for CEDC Trainers Guide 49
Framework Of Counselling
Objectives
Ai ihc cnu ol ihc scssion, ihc aiiicianis aic cxccicu io:
- Dclinc counsclling inicivcniion anu iis ob|cciivcs
- Dillcicniiaic bciwccn whai is counsclling anu whai is noi counsclling
Activities
Timc: S houis
Matcrials: mcia-caius, lli chaii, maiIci, boaiu
Session 2:
What is counselling?
ExpIanation of procedure for trainers:
" The part|c|pants read the def|n|t|on and object|ves of counse|||ng scc GcncraI ManuaI
chaptcr 3 'Communication skiIIs & 'SkiIIs to hanoIc rcIuctancc ano aooitionaIIy Anncx 2,
'PossibIc traps}. Ask the part|c|pants to then d|v|de |nto groups of four and wr|te the
most |mportant po|nts on meta-cards.
F|na||y, they shou|d wr|te a new def|n|t|on of counse|||ng |n s|mp|e words, cover|ng most
of the extracted po|nts.
" Part|c|pants d|v|de |nto three groups and answer two quest|ons: 1} What |s counse|||ng?
2} What |s the oppos|te of counse|||ng?
Prov|de an opportun|ty where they can present the|r v|ews. D|scuss the d|fferences scc
transparcncy 3.2.2} |n op|n|ons.
" ln Nepa|, counse|||ng |s often equated w|th 'g|v|ng adv|ce`, address th|s |ssue by ask|ng
the part|c|pants what the d|sadvantages are of g|v|ng adv|ce |n the counse|||ng process
(scc, GcncraI ManuaI, chaptcr 3, 'McthoooIogy of counscIIing - Pcasons why a
counscIIor shouIo not givc aovicc).
Note: The tra|ner shou|d refer to a |ater sess|on |n th|s modu|e that w||| dea| w|th the
counse|||ng approach be|ng taught |n more deta||.
Methodology
- Biainsioiming
- WoiIsho anu giou uiscussions
- Icciuic/uiscussion
Resource materials
Tcxt Ior lccturc:
Tiansaicncy S.2.1 Counsclling
Tiansaicncy S.2.2 Whai is ihc oosiic ol counsclling.
50 Training Handbook on Psychosocial counselling for CEDC Trainers Guide
Framework Of Counselling
Tcxt Ior trainccs:
Scc Gcncial Manual, chaici 1 `Chilu wcllaic hilosohy`
8 `Icgal Basis`; chaici S `Mcihouology ol counsclling`; Anncx 2 `Possiblc Tias`
loi moic inloimaiion on Counsclling CEDC.
Key points
Somciimcs colc cannoi linu a way oui ol uilliculiics oi lcclings; ai ihis
aiiiculai iimc, a cison who hcls is mosi wclcomc.
Synthesising
Pioviuc an ooiiuniiy loi qucsiions anu summaiisc ihc scssion wiih ihc
lollowing oinis:
- Counsclling is a sychosocial inicivcniion loi chiluicn who havc bccn
bchaving `uillcicnily`, cxicssing oi inuicaiing lcclings ol ain, sauncss,
sullciing, hcllcssncss, angci, cic. Counsclling guiucs ihcm io a siaic ol
balancc liom which ihcy can hanulc anu imiovc ihc siiuaiion. Thc
uiosc is io hcl ihc cison io changc/imiovc ihc icscni ioblcm oi
siiuaiion.
- This scssion linIs wiih almosi all ihc lollowing scssions loi ii covcis ihc
iaiionalc ol ihis aioach io counsclling anu ihus ol ihis iiaining.
Evaluation
AsI ihc aiiicianis il ihcic was anyihing in ihc scssion, ihcy uiu noi
unucisianu. Comlcic unucisianuing is imoiiani; ihis scssion ioviucs ihc basis
loi ihc icsi ol ihc iiaining.
Training Handbook on Psychosocial counselling for CEDC Trainers Guide 51
Framework Of Counselling
Psychosocial Counselling Psychosocial Counselling Psychosocial Counselling Psychosocial Counselling Psychosocial Counselling
Counselling is a planned intervention between the child/victim
and counsellor/helper to assist the child to alter, improve, or
resolve his/her present behaviour, difficulty, or discomforts. It is
a process of helping the child to discover the coping mechanisms
that he/she found useful in the past, how they can be used or
modified for the present situation, and how to develop new coping
mechanisms.
Counselling is about strengthening the ability of the child to solve
problems and make decisions and is different from giving advice.
You, the counsellor, are generally not an advisor or person of
authority in the counselling relationship. The process involves a
mutual responsibility between you and the child.
Counselling enables the child to discuss feelings and worries
freely without cultural, gender, and social discrimination.
Counselling should reduce these disturbing conditions. By talking
to you, the child can express worries, release tension, and share
feelings of suffering. Talking in detail about problems often has a
clarifying effect for the person and through this; strategies for
change can be explored.
Transparency S.2.1
52 Training Handbook on Psychosocial counselling for CEDC Trainers Guide
Framework Of Counselling
What is the opposite of counselling? What is the opposite of counselling? What is the opposite of counselling? What is the opposite of counselling? What is the opposite of counselling?
Examples
- Ordering, commanding, and pressuring
- Warning and threatening
- Giving advice or providing solutions (when this is not
necessary)
- Moralising and labelling
- Disagreeing, judging, and criticising
- Instruction and evaluation
- Arguing
- Openly showing disbelief
- Lack of interest or not responding
- Educating (when not appropriate)
Transparency S.2.2
Training Handbook on Psychosocial counselling for CEDC Trainers Guide 53
Framework Of Counselling
ExpIanation of procedure for trainers:
" lntroduce the top|c by ask|ng the part|c|pants to ||st on meta-cards, the prob|ems OEDO
are fac|ng today. The part|c|pants d|v|de |nto four groups. Ask th|s spec|f|c quest|on:
What are the prob|ems that OEDO are exper|enc|ng |n Nepa|?
" Paste the meta-cards on the board |n separate co|umns. Synthes|se the response
through a d|scuss|on about the s|tuat|on of OEDO |n Nepa| (scc GcncraI ManuaI chaptcr
1, 'NcpaIs situation).
" Rema|n|ng |n the|r groups, the part|c|pants |dent|fy/d|scuss prob|ems that m|ght requ|re
counse|||ng |ntervent|ons, they must prov|de exp|anat|ons and reasons (summarisc thc
scssion with transparcncy 3.3.1).
" The part|c|pants d|v|de |nto two groups. Ask the quest|on: What |s the d|fference
between soc|a| workers and counse||ors?" Though one person can have both ro|es,
they need to be ab|e to d|fferent|ate these ro|es a|so app||cab|e for teacher/adu|t-
counse||or d|fferences}.
Note for the trainer:
Refer to the GcncraI ManuaI, Chaptcr 2, box 'Thc ChiIos Pcrspcctivc. Try to |nc|ude the
d|fferences between the prob|ems that both serv|ce prov|ders dea| w|th soc|a| workers dea|
w|th mater|a||st|c, pract|ca|, |ega|, educat|ona| or med|ca| |ssues, whereas counse||ors dea|
w|th psycho|og|ca|, soc|a|, and emot|ona| |ssues - even though there |s an over|ap}.
Objectives
Ai ihc cnu ol scssion, ihc aiiicianis aic cxccicu io:
- Havc an iuca aboui ihc ioblcms ol CEDC in Ncal
- Rclaic ihc ioblcms ol CEDC io counsclling
Activities
Timc: 2/ houis
Matcrials: mcia-caius, lli chaii, maiIci, boaiu
Session 3:
Why Counselling?
Methodology
- Giou woiI
- Icciuic
- Biainsioiming
54 Training Handbook on Psychosocial counselling for CEDC Trainers Guide
Framework Of Counselling
Resource materials
Tcxt Ior lccturc:
Tiansaicncy S.S.1 Why counsclling.
Tcxt Ior Trainccs:
Refer to General Manual, chapter 1 Rationale, & chapter
2 Linkages with other service.
Key points
Siaic, local govcinmcni, communiiy, lamily, anu aicnis aic icsonsiblc io
ioicci CEDC liom violcncc, scxual abusc, anu cxloiiaiion.
Synthesising
Pioviuc an ooiiuniiy loi qucsiions anu summaiisc ihc scssion wiih ihc
lollowing oinis:
- This scssion locusscu on ioblcms ihai CEDC aic cxciicncing, anu
ioblcms ihai mighi icquiic counsclling. This mcans ihai ihc iiainccs
nccu io maIc a uisiinciion bciwccn sychological, social, anu cmoiional
ioblcms anu maiciialisiic anu iaciical ioblcms.
- Ioi cxamlc, ovciiy oi lacI ol cuucaiion uocs noi ncccssaiily mcan ihc
chilu nccus counsclling. Howcvci, il ihc chilu has uilliculiics icgaiuing
ihcsc issucs c.g. lccling angiy oi hcllcss cic.) ihcn onc can assisi ihiough
counsclling.
Evaluation
Thc aiiicianis answci, in ihcii own, simlc woius ihc qucsiion oscu in ihc
iiilc ol ihis scssion - Why Counsclling." Thcy shoulu wiiic ihcii answcis on a
iccc ol aci anu ihcn shaic ihcii vicws.
Training Handbook on Psychosocial counselling for CEDC Trainers Guide 55
Framework Of Counselling
Why Counselling? Why Counselling? Why Counselling? Why Counselling? Why Counselling?
- Counselling is often an effective way of dealing with
psychosocial and emotional problems of children in especially
difficult circumstances. Anyone (with training) can do it, as
long as you have the right attitude and skills.
- Behaviour is often an open expression of feelings. In order to
change problematic behaviour, counselling requires dealing
with feelings.
- Psychological health is an important part of child survival,
protection, and general development.
- Children have the right to have a childhood that is as problem-
free as is possible. It should also be the adults responsibility
to care for and guide the child, and help him/her cope with
any difficult situation.
- Legal basis; Convention of the Rights of Children
- Helping children in especially difficult circumstances requires
many different approaches. Food and shelter are essential
but may not be sufficient if the child has to deal with trauma.
Counselling focuses on the childs feelings, thoughts, and
ideas that are essential too.
- Counselling encourages and assists the child to find a solution
for his/her problem/situation.
Transparency S.S.1
56 Training Handbook on Psychosocial counselling for CEDC Trainers Guide
Framework Of Counselling
Objectives
Ai ihc cnu ol ihc scssion, aiiicianis aic cxccicu io:
- Discuss sychosocial ihcoiy ol bchavioui, anu iis iclcvancc io
unucisianuing ihc siiuaiion ol CEDC.
- Lnucisianu social suoii nciwoiIs as an cllcciivc suoiiivc mcchanism
ol sychosocial counsclling.
Activities
Timc: 1/ houi
Matcrials: mcia-caius, lli chaii, maiIci, boaiu
Session 4:
The Psychosocial Approach
ExpIanation of procedure for trainers:
" lntroduce the top|c by ask|ng the part|c|pants what they understand or know about the
concept 'psychosociaI.
" Based on the|r understand|ng, conduct a |ecture and d|scuss|on on the psychosoc|a|
approach scc transparcncy 3.4.1 ano fact shccts 3.4.1 ano 3.4.2} and the
psychosoc|a| theory of behav|our. H|gh||ght the components needed |n conduct|ng
psychosoc|a| assessment. Present the components of psychosoc|a| assessment (scc
transparcncy 3.4.2).
To deepen the|r understand|ng of the top|c, d|v|de the part|c|pants |nto four sma|| groups to
ana|yse the cases of B|na" and Sun|ta" (scc MoouIc V||, Pcfcrcncc MatcriaIs 7.1 & 7.2 for
cascs) accord|ng to psychosoc|a| assessment (scc transparcncy 3.4.2.).
" Part|c|pants present the|r |deas and |nput to ana|yse |n an open d|scuss|on.
Methodology
- Biainsioiming
- Icciuic uiscussion
- WoiIshos
- Casc siiuaiion analysis
Resource materials
Tcxt Ior lccturc: Tiansaicncy S.4.1 Thc Psychosocial Aioach
Tiansaicncy S.4.2 Comoncnis ol sychosocial
asscssmcni
Tiansaicncy S.4.S Thc Conicxi ol Counsclling
Rclcicncc loi iiaincis S.4.1 Auuiiional inloimaiion ;
Psychosocial ioblcms
Tcxt Ior Trainccs:
Scc onu!c VII o. Ic n:c :un:c: o B:rn nrn Sur:n
Training Handbook on Psychosocial counselling for CEDC Trainers Guide 57
Framework Of Counselling
Key points
Thc innci lcclings sycho) anu ouici cnviionmcni social) inllucncc ihc
bchavioui ol ihc chilu. In sychosocial counsclling counscllois shoulu always
locus on lcclings anu coiicsonuing coing bchaviouis - noi ncccssaiily on ihc
cvcni.
Synthesising
Pioviuc an ooiiuniiy loi qucsiions anu summaiisc ihc scssion wiih ihc
lollowing oinis:
- This scssion locusscu on ihc `sychosocial` concci. On ihc onc hanu, ii
conccins ihc inicinal ioccsscs ol an inuiviuual. On ihc oihci hanu, ihc
concci inuicaics ihc inllucncc ol ihc inuiviuual`s suiiounuings anu
cnviionmcni. Counsclling locuscs on boih ihcsc comoncnis.
- Ii is csscniial loi counscllois io unucisianu ihis concci io iucniily ihc
ioblcm siiuaiion iocily. Thc concci allows ihc counsclloi io bc ablc
io guiuc a chilu iowaius a soluiion ihai is suiiablc anu iclcis io boih ihc
inicinal `:yIo-`) anu cxicinal `:o:n!-u!u.n! `) asccis.
Evaluation
AsI ihc aiiicianis il ihcy unucisianu ihc concci F:yIo:o:n!.`
58 Training Handbook on Psychosocial counselling for CEDC Trainers Guide
Framework Of Counselling
Transparency S.4.1
The Psycho-Social Approach The Psycho-Social Approach The Psycho-Social Approach The Psycho-Social Approach The Psycho-Social Approach
The psychosocial approach is an intervention, which looks
at the child and his/her problem in relation to his/her
environment. The (Social) environment includes society,
family, school, and peers.
The Psycho- (logical) part is concerned with mental processes
such as feelings, thoughts, behaviour, and motives.
The childs problem situation is then analysed and understood
from his/her psychological, social, and cultural perspective.
The childs internal capacities and social and cultural
resources influence solutions and change.
The way the child defines the problems determines the intervention to
be used. Sometimes we tend to focus only on the person and the event
or critical situation. We forget to look at the feelings and the behaviour
of the child and the expectations of the environment.
Training Handbook on Psychosocial counselling for CEDC Trainers Guide 59
Framework Of Counselling
Components Of Psychosocial Assessment: Components Of Psychosocial Assessment: Components Of Psychosocial Assessment: Components Of Psychosocial Assessment: Components Of Psychosocial Assessment:
a) Critical Events/Stress/Situation:
These refer to certain events in a childs life that create a
severe impact on his/her present condition. Events can also
be happy situations; the child can use these conditions to
cope with problems.
b) Feelings/behaviour:
Refers to the response of a person after an event such as
happiness, sadness, loneliness, anger, problems with sleep,
etc.
c) Coping Behaviour:
Refers to the manner in which a person deals with feelings or
situations of discomfort.
d) Resources:
Refers to the external support system that a person uses in
times of need/a crisis. Resources include family, friends,
extended family, etc social resources, and can include cultural
or spiritual resources (e.g. going to a temple).
Transparency S.4.2
60 Training Handbook on Psychosocial counselling for CEDC Trainers Guide
Framework Of Counselling
Reference for trainer 3.4.1
Additional information
1
A. Bchavioui is olicn ihc ovcii manilcsiaiion ol lccling. Socially accciablc oi
aioiiaic bchavioui inuicaics ihai ihcic is cquilibiium oi balancc. This is
aucquaic social lunciioning. Howcvci, a aiicin ol bchavioui ihai is
inaioiiaic oi unaccciablc inuicaics ihai ihc cison is noi aucquaicly
lunciioning.
1
Ii shoulu bc noicu ihai uillcicni iolcssionals havc vaiying ihcoiics ihai cxlain bchavioui oi uclinc conccis.
2
Iiom Pouuyal anu Van Ommcicn, 2uuu
B. In auuiiion io ihc cxlanaiion ol ihc sychosocial concci abovc, onc can also
vicw ihc concci in ihis way
2
:
!) Psychological problems arising fromself or society: loi cxamlc, subsiancc
abusc, suiciuc, osi iiaumaiic siicss uisoiuci, cic.
2) Psychological problems causing societal problems: loi cxamlc, acuohilia,
anii-social bchavioui, cic.
3) Societal problems arising frompsychological problems: loi cxamlc, uomcsiic
violcncc by alcoholics, cic.
4) Societal problems causing psychological suffering: loi cxamlc, violcni ciimcs,
chilu abusc, ioiiuic, cic.
Psychosocial Problems
Psychosocial counscllois, sychologisis, mcnial hcalih woiIcis, anu sychiaiiisis
havc io ucal wiih a vasi iangc ol ioblcms. Somc ioblcms havc bccn labcllcu as
sychiaiiic/sychological uisoiucis combincu in uiagnosiic sysicms such as DSM-
VI oi ICD-1u, which aic uscu commonly loi uiagnosiic anu iicaimcni issucs).
Evcni/ siiuaiion
Stimuli
My
Bchavioui
bchavioui)
Anu ihis
maIcs mc
bchavc anu
icaci
bchavioui)
Causcs
Fcclings
Causcs Iccling
in
Aiouscs oihcis
lcclings)
In a
way oihcis
aiovc/
uisaiovc
lcclings)
Icaus io
Who bchavc anu
Rcaci
Towaius
mc
bchavioui)
who in
iuin iicai
mc oi
icsonu io mc
bchavioui)
Rcaciion
Bchaviour
in a way
I liIc
Oi
uo noi
lcclings)
in a way
I liIc
oi
uo noi liIc
lcclings)
Training Handbook on Psychosocial counselling for CEDC Trainers Guide 61
Framework Of Counselling
Mental health disorders
(e.g. Anxiety, Depression,
PTSD, Somatization
disorder, Dissociative
disorder)
Sexual abuse
(e.g. sexual
exploitation)
Loss
(e.g. of property)
Death
(e.g. of a loved one)
Trauma
(e.g. war,
torture, rape)
Domestic violence
(e.g. battered
wife)
Displacement
(e.g. refugee)
Stress
(e.g. work related)
Stigmatisation
(e.g. as a raped
women)
Fear
Sadness
Somatic
complaints
Sexual difficulties
Substance abuse
Loneliness
Guilt
Aggression
Re-experiencing of
traumatic events
Figure 1
3
: Psychosocial problems
Example1: Psychosocial problems for youth trafficked for sexual exploitation
4
:
Issucs: salciy, guili, uisiiusi, shamc, siigmaiisaiion, ioblcms in social
iclaiionshis, angci, lcai, isolaiion, icuuccu scll-woiih.
Example2: Psychosocial problems for children who havebeen affected by armed
conflict
5
: Issucs icgaiuing loss, lcai, conlusion, angci.
S
Auaicu liom Communiiy Mcnial Hcalih in Cambouia. 1997. Tiansculiuial Psychosocial Oiganisaiion TPO).
4
Iiom Sccialiscu iiaining Manual on Psychosocial Counsclling loi TiallicIcu Youih. Hanuling ihc iiauma ol scxual
cxloiiaiion. 2uu2. ]oiuans, M.].D./IIO IPEC TICSA, Kaihmanuu.

Iiom Psychosocial Cousnclling manual loi Chiluicn in Conllici. in icaiaiion). Savc ihc Chiluicn/]oiuans.
62 Training Handbook on Psychosocial counselling for CEDC Trainers Guide
Framework Of Counselling
Howcvci, ihcsc classilicu uisoiucis uo noi covci all asccis ol sychosocial
ioblcms anu wc cannoi assuic ihcii culiuial valiuiiy.
Counscllois olicn ucal wiih `non-classilicu` ioblcms. Having saiu ihai, ii nccus io
bc unucisioou ihai ihc social/cmoiional ioblcms ucsciibcu hcic can bc a causc,
icsuli, oi comoncni ol sychiaiiic/sychological uisoiucis. Thus, an
unucisianuing ol ihc lull scciium is ncccssaiy.
Counscllois ucal wiih many sychosocial ioblcms ihai aic milu loims anu
ihcicloic noi uiagnoscu) ol uisoiucis, such as scvcic sauncss, ihough noi
ucicssion; osi iiauma lcais, bui noi PTSD; oi mcuically uncxlaincu ains,
ihough noi somaiizaiion uisoiuci. Thcsc symioms uo noi mcan ihai ihc lcvcl ol
uisiicss is lcss loi ihc inuiviuual ihan auvanccu loims ol ihc samc symioms.
Thc vaiiciy ol sychosocial ioblcm siiuaiions can incluuc siicss ai woiI, ucaih ol a
lovcu onc, uomcsiic violcncc, hysical oi scxual abusc, loss ol iociiy, social
uisiicss, oi siigmaiisaiion, cxciicncing a iiaumaiic cvcni, oi a combinaiion ol
ihcsc laciois. Such ioblcms olicn manilcsi as ncgaiivc cmoiions oi uisiuibing
bchaviouis, such as lcai, sauncss, giicl, shocI, somaiic comlainis, scxual
uilliculiics, subsiancc abusc, slccing uilliculiics. Thcsc ioblcms can bc ihc causc,
icsuli, oi symioms ol mcnial hcalih uisoiucis, bui can also bc icscni as such loi
a schcmaiic icicscniaiion scc :u.c !). Scvcic mcnial uisoiucis such as
schizohicnia aic noi incluucu hcic.
Many sychosocial ioblcms aic vciy sccilic loi uillcicni colc. Ioi cxamlc,
somcbouy who cxciicnccs social-cmoiional ioblcms uuc io ovciiy mighi havc
vciy uillcicni icaciions oi ioblcms liom somconc who has cxciicnccu ioiiuic.
Similaily, ihc icaciions anu ioblcms ol a scxually cxloiicu chilu will bc uillcicni
liom ihai ol a chilu who has bccn cxoscu io, oi was a viciim ol wai-violcncc.
Training Handbook on Psychosocial counselling for CEDC Trainers Guide 63
Framework Of Counselling
The Context of Counselling The Context of Counselling The Context of Counselling The Context of Counselling The Context of Counselling
External factors influencing the child, its problems, and the
counselling process
Norms and values of the society
Social environment e.g. social agents of care
Physical environment e.g. presence of violence
Cultural context e.g. traditional ways of healing, coping
and support
Economic status e.g. poverty
Political environment
Educational status
Health Status
Transparency S.4.S
64 Training Handbook on Psychosocial counselling for CEDC Trainers Guide
Framework Of Counselling
Objectives
Ai ihc cnu ol scssion, aiiicianis aic cxccicu io:
- Gain a uccci unucisianuing ol ihc counsclling ioccss anu ihc iolcs
involvcu whcn hcling a cison uuiing counsclling.
Activities
Timc: 4 houis
Matcrials: mcia-caius, lli chaii, maiIci, boaiu
Session 5:
The Counselling Process
ExpIanation of procedure for trainers:
" lntroduce the top|c by ask|ng the part|c|pants to d|scuss and wr|te down what they th|nk |s the
correct approach |n the var|ous stages of the counse|||ng process. D|v|de them |nto three
groups for th|s act|v|ty. Post each group`s |deas on the board accord|ng to phases/stages of
the counse|||ng process. Each group must present what they have d|scussed. Put the|r
responses |nto the fo||ow|ng s|x categor|es:
1. ldent|f|cat|on of the prob|em/ch||d
2. Beg|nn|ng/rapport bu||d|ng
3. Def|n|ng the prob|ems}/assessment
4. Formu|at|ng the counse|||ng goa|s/p|an. What |s the focus?
5. lmp|ement|ng the p|ans/prob|em so|v|ng
6. End|ng the counse|||ng re|at|onsh|p/back to da||y ||fe
" se the resu|ts for a d|scuss|on/|ecture on the var|ous stages and contents of a counse|||ng
|ntervent|on w|th|n a psychosoc|a| approach (scc transparcncy 3.5.1 ano ask thc participants
to rcao GcncraI ManuaI, chaptcr 3, scction on 'CounscIIing proccss ano thc fact shcct 3.5.1).
" Exp|a|n two methodo|og|es to h|gh||ght the d|fferent phases (scc fact shcct 3.5.2. '|axmi).
a} Oase study ana|ys|s: Part|c|pants d|v|de |nto four groups and prepare a psychosoc|a|
assessment (scc fact shcct 3.5.1) on the prob|ems of the ch||d |axmi}. They must prepare a
short counse|||ng treatment p|an that |nc|udes a hypotheses, counse|||ng goa|s, and p|an of
act|on based on the|r assessments.
b} Ro|e-p|ay|ng: one of the groups prepares a ro|e-p|ay on the 'bcginning phasc, another on
'gctting at thc probIcm phase of the counse|||ng process, another group focuses on the
'formuIating counscIIing goaIs stage and the f|na| group on the 'impIcmcnting phasc.
The ro|e-p|ays shou|d be conducted as |f counse|||ng has a|ready been go|ng on for about f|ve
sess|ons. After 20 m|nutes of preparat|on, one pa|r from each group presents the|r ro|e-p|ay
|n front of the others. A||ow 15 m|nutes for each p|ay.
The observers shou|d eva|uate 1} the re|evance of the counse||or`s quest|ons or methods
cons|der|ng the d|fferent stages they are supposed to ro|e-p|ay and 2} the use of bas|c
commun|cat|on sk|||s and emot|ona| support.
Training Handbook on Psychosocial counselling for CEDC Trainers Guide 65
Framework Of Counselling
Methodology
- Casc siuuy analysis
- WoiIshos/uiscussion
- Rolc lay
- Icciuic
Resource materials
Tcxt Ior lccturc:
Tiansaicncy S..1 Counsclling ioccss
Tcxt Ior Trainccs:
Iaci Shcci S..1 Thc counsclling ioccss
Iaci Shcci S..2 Casc siuuy ol `Iaxmi`
Ccrc.n! Mnrun!, Inc. , Cour:c!!:r F.oc::`
Key points
Thc counsclling ioccss involvcs a long-icim lan, which lollows a sic-by-
sic aioach.
Synthesising
Pioviuc an ooiiuniiy loi qucsiions anu summaiisc ihc scssion wiih ihc
lollowing oinis:
- Thc counsclling ioccss can bc summaiiscu as DASIE Nclson-
]oncs, 1994); Dcvclop iclaiionshi, Asscss ihc ioblcm, Statc woiIing
goals anu lan inicivcniion, Intcrvcnc io ucvclo ioblcm-solving sIills,
End ihc counsclling ioccss. Alici ihc counsclling scssions aic ovci, ii is
csscniial io lollow u on ihc chilu`s wcll bcing io cnsuic ihai ihc osiiivc
changcs aic susiaincu ovci iimc.
- Rclci io anoihci scssion ihai ucals wiih basic clcmcnis anu iincilcs ol
counsclling. Mcniion ihai ihcsc iincilcs aic iccuiiing ihioughoui ihc
cniiic counsclling ioccss, icgaiulcss ol whcihci ii is ihc liisi oi ihc scvcnih
scssion.
Evaluation
AsI ihc aiiicianis whai ihcy lcaincu liom ihis scssion.
66 Training Handbook on Psychosocial counselling for CEDC Trainers Guide
Framework Of Counselling
The Counselling Process The Counselling Process The Counselling Process The Counselling Process The Counselling Process
Emotional support is essential throughout the entire process of
counselling.
I) Identification of the child and or problem:
The type of intervention should be relevant to the problems
presented and should be based on the criteria for intake such
as, the expressed need for the intervention; emotional
imbalance; psychosocial problems; disabled daily functioning
due to such problems, etc.
II) Beginning the counselling process:
" Set the atmosphere/ build a rapport with the child
" Introduce yourself
" Explain counselling
" Ask for the childs expectations
III) Getting at the problem/Assessment:
" Explore and structure the problem
" Explore the positive qualities such as strengths of the child
" Understand the situation/problem
" Make decisions together to start the process
" Create mutual awareness about the problem
IV) Formulating goals for counselling/helping plans:
" Formulate the childs preferred outcomes
" Specify and explore these goals
Transparency S.5.1
Training Handbook on Psychosocial counselling for CEDC Trainers Guide 67
Framework Of Counselling
" Prioritise which goal to start with
" Specify and explore goals
" Decide the relevance of the goals together
V) Implementation of counselling goals and decisions:
" Stimulate solutions or strategies for change
" Discuss advantages and disadvantages of these
" Formulate and Implement a plan of action
" Work with/on coping strategies, and work with social and
cultural resources
" Look at underlying causes of the problem
VI) Ending the counselling process/evaluation:
" Discuss reasons for termination
" Summarise the entire counselling process
" Provide feedback and focus on positive elements
" Discuss the transition phase
VII) Follow up and if necessary co-ordinate linkages
68 Training Handbook on Psychosocial counselling for CEDC Trainers Guide
Framework Of Counselling
The Counselling Process
I ntake
`IniaIc` usually iclcis io ihc liisi inicivicw anu is ihc ioccss ol ucicimining ihc
chilu`s ioblcms anu how his/hci bchavioui allccis him/hciscll anu oihcis.
Duiing `IniaIc`, onc ucicimincs whai ihc chilu`s icscni ioblcms aic, anu whai
laciois cicaicu an imaci on ihc chilu`s icscni siiuaiion.
Fact sheet 3.5.1
IniaIc also iclcis io ihc ioccss ol ucicimining whai icsouiccs inicinal anu
cxicinal) aic availablc io ihc chilu io achicvc ihc ucsiicu ouicomcs.
Intake enables:
- Thc chilu io cxicss his/hci nccus as s/hc sccs ihcm. Thc chilu can siaic how
s/hc woulu liIc io icccivc assisiancc liom ihc oiganisaiion.
- Thc counsclloi io cxlain ihc sciviccs ihc oiganisaiion has io ollci anu io
uiscuss ihc uiicci anu inuiicci icasons why ihc chilu/oihcis coniacicu ihc
agcncy.
- Thc chilu io shaic inloimaiion wiih ihc counsclloi, io gaihci uaia anu iucniily
ihc bacIgiounu hisioiy) inloimaiion in iclaiion io ihc icscni ioblcm.
- Boih aiiics io agicc on:
1) Whcihci ihc oiganisaiion can bc hcllul io ihc chilu`s nccus oi noi
2) Thc icims ol iclcicncc ol scivicc oi coniaci.
Problem Identification & Assessment
This siagc iclcis io ihc counsclloi`s analysis ol ihc casc anu ihc siiuaiion ol ihc
chilu, wiih aiiiculai locus on ihc chilu`s lcclings anu aiiiiuucs ihai aic signilicani
in his/hci/oihcis` lilc. Ii also incluucs ihc counsclloi`s iolcssional imicssion
icgaiuing ihc siiuaiion.
This siagc shoulu incluuc ihc lollowing:
- Pioblcms anu nccus as sccn by ihc chilu
- Pioblcms anu nccus as sccn by ihc counsclloi
- Chilu`s lccling aboui ihc siiuaiion
- Thc chilu`s clloiis io solvc ihc ioblcm
Critical incidcnts/
situations
1.Bcaicn by sic laihci
2.Paicnis scaiaicu anu
moihci icmaiiicu
Fcclings/
anxictics cmotion
- Angiy owcilcss
- Sau,
uisaoinicu
Coping bchaviour
- Icli homc anu
siaycu in ihc siiccis
- Icli homc
Rcsourccs
- Iiicnus on ihc
siicci
- Nonc
Training Handbook on Psychosocial counselling for CEDC Trainers Guide 69
Framework Of Counselling
Resour ces (i nter nal and exter nal )
In oiuci loi ihc chilu/lamily io achicvc ihc ucsiicu ouicomc anu io changc ihc
icscni siiuaiion, a counsclloi iucniilics ihc chilu/lamily`s availablc inicinal anu
cxicinal icsouiccs.
I nter nal resources: Innci siicngih, caaciiy io wiihsianu, iccovci, anu cvcn giow
liom ncgaiivc cxciicnccs icsilicncy/coing). This coulu bc:
- A scnsc ol valuc acquiicu liom lamily anu oihcis in ihc social suoii
sysicm/osiiivc aiiiiuuc iowaius aicnis/lamily
- Comcicncc io ciloim cciiain iasIs vocaiional sIills)
- Pioblcm-solving anu lcaucishi sIills
- Moial valucs lcaincu liom aicnis
- Euucaiion
- Paicni iolc moucls
Exter nal r esour ces: is ihc ioccss ol iucniilying social suoii nciwoiIs ihai can hcl
ihc chilu immcuiaicly. Suoii can bc cmoiional, maiciial, anu sychological
giving csiccm oi auvicc). How can ihcy cxicinal icsouiccs) hcl, in whai loim, in
whai way. In ihc casc ol CEDC `Icy` mighi bc:
Moihci/laihci Siblings Auni/unclc Riiuals
Tiauiiional hcalcis Iiicnus Social woiIcis
Tcachcis Communiiy Rcligion/Siiiiualiiy
Treatment planning
Ticaimcni lanning is ihc ioccss ol woiIing iogcihci wiih ihc chilu/chilu io sci
ob|cciivcs in ihc hcling ioccss ihiough ihc ucsiicu ouicomcs) anu linuing
siiaicgics anu ways in which ihcsc ob|cciivcs can bc achicvcu.
Whcncvci ossiblc, ihc counsclloi shoulu cxlain io ihc chilu ihc vaiious hcling
siiaicgics bcing uscu anu ihc chilu shoulu agicc on ihcii usagc. This ioccss ol
cmowciing ihc chilu, ucicimincs:
- Whai ihc chilu wanis io uo loi him/hciscll anu woiIing oui ob|cciivcs io solvc ihc
icscni ioblcm
- Thc ucsiicu ouicomcs
- Thc siiaicgics/aciiviiics ihai ihc chilu can uo oi uiilisc io achicvc ihc ob|cciivc oi
goals io changc his icscni siiuaiion
- How ihc agcncy oi ihc counsclloi anu oihcis social suoii sysicm can) hcl
- How long cach ob|cciivc in ihc casc managcmcni ioccss will iaIc - ihc lcngih ol
iimc ncccssaiy wiih ihc chilu
- Whai ihc chilu`s coing siiaicgics aic in ihis anu icvious siiuaiions, anu how onc
can siicngihcn oi mouily ihcm
What thehelping strategy or implementing thetreatment/helping plan involves
- Caiiying oui whai has bccn lanncu oi agiccu uon
- Iinuing oui il ihc siiaicgics anu aciiviiics lanncu aic cllcciivc oi noi
- Claiilying whcihci ihcic is changc in ihc chilu`s coing bchavioui as
ucsiicu by ihc chilu)
70 Training Handbook on Psychosocial counselling for CEDC Trainers Guide
Framework Of Counselling
Goals Ob|cciivc Aciiviiics Timc liamc Pcison/giou icsonsiblc
Ioimai ol Plan ol Aciion
Termination or closure
- Thc counsclling ioccss will cnu il ihc ucsiicu bchaviouial changcs oi ob|cciivcs havc
bccn aiiaincu
- Evaluaic how ihc achicvcu changcs will hcl ihc chilu loi luiuic ioblcms anu
conllicis
- Evaluaic ihc chilu`s inicgiaiion inio ihc lamily oi communiiy
- Picaic a closing summaiy
Follow up
Thiough qucsiionnaiics, honc calls, visiis, oi oihciwisc ihc counsclloi shoulu
ciiouically chccI whcihci ihc siaic ol ihc chilu is cnuuiablc. This is io cvaluaic ihc
counsclling inicivcniion as a wholc anu uciccis ossiblc iclascs in ihc ioblcms ol ihc
chilu.
Training Handbook on Psychosocial counselling for CEDC Trainers Guide 71
Framework Of Counselling
Case study of Laxmi
Iaxmi is a 16-ycai-olu giil who is ncglccicu anu vciy sicI. Hci lamily movcu liom
Dhauing io PoIhaia scvcn ycais ago anu ihcy havc bccn living in a squaiici communiiy
sincc.
Iaxmi has a moihci, laihci, iwo cluci bioihcis, onc youngci bioihci, anu onc youngci
sisici. Hci iwo cluci bioihcis livc scaiaicly. Hci youngci bioihci livcs in ihc siiccis
anu comcs homc occasionally. Hci laihci is a iiauiiional laiih hcalci (DIn:-]In|.:)
anu hc woiIs on uaily wagcs. Iaxmi`s moihci lcavcs homc caily in ihc moining io
looI loi |obs anu iaIcs hci ihicc-ycai-olu malnouiishcu uaughici wiih hci. Shc iciuins
homc laic in ihc cvcning. Somciimcs Iaxmi`s aicnis linu |obs anu somciimcs ihcy
cannoi linu anyihing. Iaxmi`s laihci scnus ihcii incomc on alcohol. Thcic aic
quaiicls bciwccn ihc laihci anu moihci almosi cvciy cvcning.
Iaxmi uscu io siuuy in giauc ihicc in ihc ncaiby school iwo ycais ago. Evciy Saiuiuay
moining oi cvcning uccnuing on ihc availabiliiy ol |obs), shc uscu io go io woiI
wiih hci moihci. Hci school lilc was uilliculi io mainiain. Ai school, icachcis
comlaincu aboui hci school uicss anu homcwoiI. Thcy humiliaicu hci anu mauc
lunny icmaiIs aboui hci agc anu hci slow lcaining. Thcy uscu io bcai hci. As a
icsuli, Iaxmi losi inicicsi in siuuying.
Iaxmi was 14 ycais olu whcn hci mcnsiiuaiion siaiicu anu ihcn ii siocu alici six
monihs, cihas uuc io hcalih ioblcms. Shc bcgan io loosc wcighi. Hci laihci
consulicu a laiih hcalci, who gavc hci mcuicinc liom ihc ncaiby mcuicinc-sho.
Noihing woiIcu. Shc bccamc ihinnci anu ihinnci. Shc uisconiinucu going io school
anu ii was vciy uilliculi loi hci io woiI ai homc.
Six monihs laici, Iaxmi`s moihci aiiangcu loi hci io gci maiiicu io an 1S-ycai-olu
chilu woiIci. Hci moihci callcu ihc boy onc cvcning anu Iaxmi ian away. Shc wcni
io Hcm|a, whcic hci auni caincu a living bicaIing sioncs.
Iaxmi`s aicnis bclicvc ihai shc mighi havc clocu wiih somconc clsc anu havc noi
looIcu loi hci. Shc has noi inloimcu hci aicnis whcic shc is. Shc uocs noi Inow
whai will hacn il shc inloims hci aicnis. Shc is aliaiu ol inloiming ihcm. Sullciing
liom ihc illncss anu iccalling ihc bchavioui ol hci aicnis, Iaxmi uocs noi Inow whai
io uo. Hci auni ihinIs ihai shc is sullciing liom a scvcic iyc ol uiscasc. Hci auni
uocs noi havc cnough moncy loi Iaxmi`s iicaimcni anu shc uocs noi havc any coniacis.
Hcllcss, Iaxmi lccls isolaicu csccially whcn shc iccalls quiiiing school, hci aicnis`
bchavioui iowaius hci, ihc quaiicls, anu ihc wicichcu conuiiion ol hci lamily. Shc
cannoi slcc wcll wonuciing aboui hci own siiuaiion all ihc iimc. Shc scaIs solily
uuiing ihc uay. Shc has noi bccn ablc io linu soluiions loi hci ioblcms. Shc uocs
noi Inow whcic io go anu whai io uo. Shc occasionally cxicsscs hci lcclings io
commii suiciuc.
Fact sheet 3.5.2
72 Training Handbook on Psychosocial counselling for CEDC Trainers Guide
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Objectives
Ai ihc cnu ol ihc scssion, aiiicianis aic cxccicu io:
- Lnucisianu ihc ma|oi iolcs anu qualiiics ol a counsclloi.
Activities
Timc: 2 houis
Matcrials: mcia-caius, lli chaii, maiIci, boaiu
Session 6:
Roles and qualities of a
counsellor
ExpIanation of procedure for trainers:
" Ask the part|c|pants |n pa|rs} to wr|te on meta-cards, at |east three major ro|es/
funct|ons of a counse||or.
" The part|c|pants d|v|de |nto groups of four and wr|te what they fee| are the qua||t|es of a
counse||or. Ask them, What makcs a gooo counscIIor?"
" Sort out the|r answers |nto 'funct|ons/ro|es` and 'qua||t|es` of a counse||or, and exp|a|n
add|t|ona| funct|ons, ro|es, and qua||t|es or |n|t|ate a d|scuss|on about the part|c|pants`
answers (scc transparcncy 3.6.1). The part|c|pants shou|d ref|ect on the |dent|f|ed
qua||t|es and ro|es, and re|ate |t to themse|ves as future counse||ors.
Note: Sens|t|se the part|c|pants on the |mportance of codes of conduct/eth|ca| codes for
counse||ors. Though such codes are not yet forma||y drafted, stress the fact that they shou|d
adhere to the pr|nc|p|es and ro|es of a counse||or and p|ace |mportance on eth|cs. Eth|cs
|nc|ude no d|scr|m|nat|on of any k|nd, no dua| re|at|onsh|ps, etc.
Methodology
- Giou woiI
- Icciuic oi uiscussion
Resource materials
Tcxt Ior lccturc:
Tiansaicncy S.6.1 Iunciions anu Rolcs ol a counsclloi
Tcxt Ior traincr:
SeeGeneral Manual, chapter 3, Functions and qualities of
a counsellor
Key points
Thc iolc ol a counsclloi is io bc an ob|cciivc lisicnci ouisiuc ol ihc chilu`s
siiuaiion. Counscllois assumc ihc iolc ol an auuli anu a iiusiing comanion, anu
lunciion as a miiioi loi chiluicn.
Training Handbook on Psychosocial counselling for CEDC Trainers Guide 73
Framework Of Counselling
Synthesising
Pioviuc an ooiiuniiy loi qucsiions anu summaiisc ihc scssion wiih ihc
lollowing oinis:
- Summaiisc ihc ma|oi lunciions/iolcs anu qualiiics ol a counsclloi. Ii is
ncccssaiy io cmhasisc ihai ihc uiscusscu iolcs anu lunciions aic basic.
Thc counsclloi shoulu bc ablc io ic) uclinc oi mouily his/hci iolc as ihc
nccus ol ihc chilu changcs. Onc ol ihc basic iincilcs in counsclling
CEDC is ihai cvciy chilu is uillcicni anu ihcicloic cvciy ioblcm is
uillcicni.
Evaluation
AsI ihc aiiicianis io wiiic ihcii commcnis oi ihc mosi valuablc oinis
aboui ihc scssion.
74 Training Handbook on Psychosocial counselling for CEDC Trainers Guide
Framework Of Counselling
Functions and Roles of a counsellor Functions and Roles of a counsellor Functions and Roles of a counsellor Functions and Roles of a counsellor Functions and Roles of a counsellor
Counsellors should:
Respect the norms, values, and attitudes of an individual, a
group, or a community whilst counselling.
Continuously build a rapport with the parents, family,
community, and child to protect, care for, and rehabilitate the
child through positive developments.
Establish interest, trust, and confidentiality with the child.
Assist the individual or parents to find support from society,
or their environment.
Provide co-ordination with other agencies/services.
Evaluate the process (e.g. documentation) and arrange follow-
up.
Be a good role model for the child (e.g. by showing empathy,
patience, respect, optimism, etc) during the counselling
sessions.
Transparency S.6.1
Training Handbook on Psychosocial counselling for CEDC Trainers Guide 75
Framework Of Counselling
Objectives
Ai ihc cnu ol ihc scssion, aiiicianis aic cxccicu io:
- Exlain basic chilu wcllaic hilosohics ihai aic viial in unucisianuing
counsclling as a sychosocial inicivcniion loi CEDC
- Siaic ihc basic clcmcnis ol counsclling
- Lnucisianu ihc basic iincilcs ol counsclling
Activities
Timc: 1 houi
Matcrials: mcia-caius, lli chaii, maiIci, boaiu
Session 7:
Principles of Counselling
ExpIanation of procedure for trainers:
" Part|c|pants read GcncraI ManuaI, chaptcr 1, 'ChiIo wcIfarc phiIosophy.
" Ask the part|c|pants to te|| you what the ma|n, genera| components/pr|nc|p|es of
counse|||ng are Scc transparcncy 3.7.1).
" Paste the|r answers on the board. se the answers for a group d|scuss|on, and focus on
the pr|nc|p|es of counse|||ng. Emphas|se the pr|nc|p|es that focus on the ch||d`s fee||ngs and
enhancement of h|s/her capab|||ty for so|v|ng prob|ems and mak|ng dec|s|ons.
Methodology
- Biainsioiming
- Giou shaiing/WoiIsho
- Icciuic anu uiscussion
Resource materials
Tcxt Ior lccturc:
Tiansaicncy S.7.1 Basic Piincilcs ol Counsclling
Tcxt Ior Trainccs:
Gcncial Manual, chaici 1, `Chilu wcllaic hilosohy`, 8
chaici S `Basic iincilcs in counsclling CEDC`
Additional tcxt Ior traincr:
Rclcicncc Maiciial S.7.1 Aioachcs io counsclling
Key points
Counsclling cnablcs a chilu, in a osiiivc anu waim cnviionmcni, io cxicss
cmoiions, woiiics, lcais, ihoughis, cic. Ii aims io icsioic lcclings ol uigniiy anu
76 Training Handbook on Psychosocial counselling for CEDC Trainers Guide
Framework Of Counselling
scll woiih, anu assisis ihc chilu io linu anu imlcmcni soluiions ihiough lisicning,
biainsioiming, ioviuing cmaihy, anu bcing suoiiivc anu unucisianuing.
Synthesising
Pioviuc an ooiiuniiy loi qucsiions anu summaiisc ihc scssion wiih ihc
lollowing oinis:
- In ihis scssion, wc looIcu ai ihc clcmcnis anu iincilcs ol counsclling
ihai aic builuing blocIs io caiiy oui ihc moic basic chilu-wcllaic
hilosohy. Thc counsclloi shoulu always unucisianu ihai cvciy cison
oi chilu has ihc innci caabiliiics io icsolvc ioblcms in his/hci lilc.
- In counsclling CEDC, ii is imoiiani ihai ihc chilu lccls icsccicu uuiing
ihc ioccss. Ii is imoiiani io accci ihc chilu as s/hc is, anu io lisicn io
ihc vicws cxicsscu by ihc chilu. Thc chilu`s lull involvcmcni in ihc
ioccss is vciy imoiiani; ihc iolc ol counsclloi is io laciliiaic oi assisi ihc
chilu io maIc uccisions.
- This scssion linIs wiih many oihci scssions loi ii ucals wiih ihc iooi ol ihc
inicivcniion anu ihc lunuamcnials ol counsclling.
Evaluation
AsI ihc aiiicianis io comc u wiih ihcii ucliniiion ol counsclling in onc oi
iwo scnicnccs. Collcci ihc icsonscs anu wiiic youi ucliniiion on ihc boaiu (:cc
|cy o:r: nbo.c o. nc:r::or).
Training Handbook on Psychosocial counselling for CEDC Trainers Guide 77
Framework Of Counselling
Basic Principles of Counselling
1 Trust: Counsellors cannot help a child if there is no element
of trust. Before moving into counselling, establish trust.
Children feel free to express and share their concerns when
they can trust somebody.
2 Confidentiality: Respect the privacy of the child. Assure
him/her that everything will be kept in strict confidence.
Confidentiality in the entire process of counselling is very
important and enhances the dignity of the child.
3 SelfDetermination: The child can make his/her own
decisions about life, as much as can be realistically possible.
The role of the counsellor is to provide OPTIONS and
OPPORTUNITY, or to help children explore alternatives best
suited to his/her capability and situation (coping strategies).
4 Positive approach: Emphasise what the child does well
focus on approval instead of disapproval. Reward children
when they do things well or when they make an effort.
5 Focus on feelings: It is often essential to discuss the childs
feelings (both open and hidden ones) to help him/her.
6 Giving Empathy: This is the ability to enter the perceptual
world of the other person, to see the world as they see it.
(Burnard P, 1994). It is important to understand the child and
his/her problems from his/her point of view. This provides
emotional support.
Transparency S.7.1
78 Training Handbook on Psychosocial counselling for CEDC Trainers Guide
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7 The counsellor must be genuine: The counsellor should
be completely him/herself, and emotionally balanced.
8 Unconditional positive regard: The counsellor should
completely accept the other person. This means having a
non-judgemental attitude.
9 Warmth and openness
10 Conversation skills: The counsellor should be able to
summarise, reflect, and be an active listener etc.
11 Focus: The counsellor should be focussed about the
objectives and steps of the counselling process; counselling
is not just chatting with children.
12 Childs Perspective: Respect childrens situations and
expressions; take them seriously.
13 Documentation
Training Handbook on Psychosocial counselling for CEDC Trainers Guide 79
Framework Of Counselling
Reference for trainer 3.7.1
Approaches to counselling:
Thcic aic scvcial aioachcs io counsclling. Ii is imoiiani ihai ihc counsclloi has
an ovcivicw ol ihcsc uillcicni aioachcs ucsciibcu biiclly bclow Buinaiu, 1994).
Thc locus ol ihis iiaining is on a combinaiion ol ihc humanisiic anu cogniiivc
aioach.
- Thc humanistic approach. In ihis aioach, cllcciivc counsclling iclics on
iiusiing ihc chilu`s own abiliiy io linu his/hci own way ihiough ihc ioblcm. Thc
counsclloi will hcl ihc chilu concciualisc ihc ioblcm anu will hcl him/hci io
iogicss ihiough ihc uilliculiics in his/hci own way. Counscllois aic noi cxciis
in ihc chilu`s ioblcms bui aic inuiviuuals who accomany oihci colc in ihcii
scaich loi cisonal mcaning.
Humanisiic aioach in iaciicc:
- Avoiu `iniciiciing` ihc chilu`s bchavioui
- Encouiagc ihc chilu io iucniily his/hci own soluiions io ioblcms
- AcInowlcugc ihai cvciy inuiviuual is io somc ucgicc icsonsiblc loi his/hci
own bchavioui
- A counsclloi`s main comoncnis aic cmaihy, waimih, gcnuincncss, anu
osiiivc icgaiu.
- Thc psychodynamic approach: To hcl ihc chilu lccl lcss anxious anu moic
ablc io maIc iaiional uccisions in ihc icscni, ii is ncccssaiy io cxloic ihc chilu`s
asi ihoioughly, which will icvcal vaiious ainlul cvcnis ihai cnablc ihc counsclloi
io unucisianu ihc chilu`s icscni bchavioui. Thc ioccss ol counsclling liom ihc
sychouynamic oini ol vicw can bc comaicu io a |igsaw uzzlc; whcn all ihc
icccs aic ui iogcihci ihc wholc iciuic maIc scnsc.
Thc sychouynamic aioach in iaciicc:
- Highlighi ihc iclaiionshi bciwccn asi anu icscni cvcnis in lilc.
- AcInowlcugc ihai unconscious loiccs aic ai woiI ihai cllcci ihc chilu`s
bchavioui.
- Encouiagc ihc cxicssion ol hiuucn uncxicsscu) cmoiion.
- Thc bchavioural approach: Wc lcain bchavioui ihai wc aic cncouiagcu io
lcain, anu loigci bchavioui whcic no such cncouiagcmcni is givcn. Thc
counsclloi will woiI lcss on ihc iccollcciion ol ainlul, asi cvcnis, anu will insicau
woiI on cxiiaciing ihc chilu`s ucliniiions ol unucsiiablc bchavioui, which mighi
havc bccn uillcicni loi ihc chilu in ihc asi. Thc Icy issucs in ihis aioach aic
lcaining, un-uoing ihc lcaining, anu iclcaining.
Thc bchaviouial aioach in iaciicc:
- Sci iaciical aims anu ob|cciivcs in counsclling
- Discuss bchavioui iaihci ihan icasons loi aiicins ol bchavioui
- Iucniily a iaciical iogiammc ol small changcs ihai ihc chilu mighi bc ablc io
achicvc in oiuci io coc wiih ioblcms ol lilc
80 Training Handbook on Psychosocial counselling for CEDC Trainers Guide
Framework Of Counselling
- Thc transactional analysis approachcs: Wc all iclaic io oihci colc liom
uillcicni `cgo siaics`. Thcsc cgo siaics aic ucsciibcu as:
- TIc n.cr - ucvclocu ihiough ihc caily absoiiion ol aicnial anu
|uugmcnial aiiiiuucs. Wc communicaic suciioiiiy io oihcis oi aiionisc
ihcm.
- TIc I:!n - mainly ucvclocu ihiough oui cxciicncc ol bcing a chilu. Wc
bccomc uccnucni on oihcis.
Whcn wc ociaic liom ihc nnu!, wc mcci oihcis as maiuic, cqual bcings. Thc
aim ol iiansaciional analysis is io cnablc chiluicn io iucniily ihc iclaiionshi/
communicaiion `gamc` ihai ihcy lay ihiough uillcicni cgo siaics, anu io lcain
moic aboui ihc auuli-auuli basis.
Thc iiansaciional analysis aioach in iaciicc
- Noiicc ihc inicicisonal `gamcs` ihai colc lay
- Encouiagc ihc chilu io icmain auuli in his/hci iclaiionshis
- Encouiagc ihc chilu io iiy ncw siiaicgics in his/hci iclaiionshis
- Thc cognitivc approach
This aioach vicws bchavioui anu cmoiions as a icsuli ol ihoughis cogniiions).
Thcicloic, io changc bchavioui liom a cogniiivc oini ol vicw onc nccus io
mouily ucsiiuciivc ihoughis. This aioach is clcai in iis iaciicc anu icscaich
has shown ii io bc cllcciivc in ihc Wcsi).
Cogniiivc aioach in iaciicc:
- Icaining io uisciiminaic anu changc unucsiicu bchavioui
- Icaining io uillcicniiaic alicinaiivc bchavioui liom unucsiicu bchavioui
- Imlcmcniaiion: iaciising `ncw` bchavioui io ucal wiih ihc siiuaiion
Training Handbook on Psychosocial counselling for CEDC Trainers Guide 81
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Objectives
Ai ihc cnu ol ihc scssion, aiiicianis aic cxccicu io:
- Havc somc insighi aboui culiuial uiscicancy anu ihc counsclling
aioach in Ncal.
Activities
Timc: 2 houis
Matcrials: mcia-caius, lli chaii, maiIci, boaiu
Session 8:
Culture and Counselling
ExpIanation of procedure for trainers
" Before the sess|on, separate|y/secret|ve|y br|ef two part|c|pants that there w||| be a
d|scuss|on on the appropr|ateness of western counse|||ng pract|ces re|evant to Nepa|. Ask
these two part|c|pants to pretend to be extreme|y cr|t|ca| about the western approach
throughout the ent|re d|scuss|on |.e. they have to p|ay the 'dev||`s advocate`}.
" Beg|n the sess|on and ask the part|c|pants whether |t |s rea||st|c and construct|ve to
|mp|ement a western approach |n a non-western soc|ety |eav|ng as|de |f such c|ear d|v|s|on
or term|no|ogy |s st||| appropr|ate to start the sess|on}.
[The two part|c|pants br|efed ear||er w||| natura||y" fue| the d|scuss|on|.
" Be aware of the esca|at|on of the d|scuss|on, contro| and med|ate the d|scuss|on, wh|ch
shou|d |ast an hour.
" F|na||y, d|sc|ose the two part|c|pants who were |nstructed to be cr|t|ca|, and exp|a|n that th|s
d|scuss|on was part of the sess|on on CuIturc ano CounscIIing.
" A||ow some t|me for 'vent||at|on`, and cont|nue an open d|scuss|on on top|cs that d|d not
yet surface, but m|ght be re|evant see be|ow}.
lf you do not fee| comfortab|e w|th th|s approach, you can |n|t|ate the d|scuss|on yourse|f from
the start.
Note for the trainer:
" Be|ow, are some |ssues that m|ght be re|evant to the d|scuss|on. lf necessary, br|ng up
these |ssues to rev|ve the d|scuss|on or |nstruct the |dent|f|ed two part|c|pants to br|ng
these up}.
- ln Nepa|, peop|e do not express the|r emot|ons as open|y as |n Western countr|es.
Does th|s conf||ct w|th the counse|||ng process?
- ls counse|||ng a react|on to Western prob|ems or to g|oba| psycho-emot|ona|
prob|ems?
82 Training Handbook on Psychosocial counselling for CEDC Trainers Guide
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- Are ch||dren appropr|ate|y cop|ng w|th |ssues themse|ves, and does counse|||ng br|ng
up unnecessary |ssues? Make |t c|ear that counse|||ng |s on|y necessary when a ch||d
|s |n c|ear psycho-emot|ona| despa|r, or |nd|cates a need for gu|dance.}
- 'The counse||or |s not an adv|ce-g|ver` - ls th|s su|tab|e |n a h|erarch|ca| soc|ety?
Author|ty |ssues}
- Oan counse|||ng go hand-|n-hand w|th re||g|ous/sp|r|tua| be||efs and va|ues, for examp|e
w|th H|ndu|sm and Buddh|sm?
- Oounse|||ng, at t|mes, tends to |nterna||se and |nd|v|dua||se the prob|em/suffer|ng. ls
counse|||ng su|tab|e for a co||ect|ve soc|ety? Shou|d we focus on remov|ng soc|a|
prob|ems |nstead?
- ls there an a|ternat|ve way to dea| w|th psycho/soc|a|/emot|ona| prob|ems for OEDO?
- Are Western and Eastern concepts of human|ty and ||fe too d|fferent to exchange
approaches?
- What about caste and gender |ssues |n counse|||ng?
" Ment|on that the human|st|c counse|||ng approach or|g|nated |n Western soc|et|es. By
|mp|ement|ng th|s approach |n a soc|ety w|th a d|fferent cu|tura| background may resu|t |n
d||emma.
" Ment|on that there |s the poss|b|||ty of f|nd|ng a ba|ance between two cu|tures or
approaches. An approach can be adapted for |ts appropr|ateness |n a certa|n cu|ture e.g.
commun|ty counse|||ng}. We are ||v|ng more and more |n a g|oba| soc|ety that exchanges
|deas e.g. Buddh|st |deas f|nd|ng roots |n Western soc|et|es}.
" On the other hand, ment|on that one shou|d be aware of the r|sks of such |ntervent|ons |n a
country such as Nepa|, and one ought to rea||se that th|s approach |s not free of debate.
One shou|d therefore rema|n cr|t|ca|.
The |mp|ementat|on of a new approach, ||ke |earn|ng |n genera|, |s a two way process, not
s|mp|y export|ng or |mpos|ng systems/know|edge from Western soc|et|es. One can, for
examp|e, app|y the |ntervent|on but make |t appropr|ate to the cu|ture - sh|ft from a focus
on the |nd|v|dua| to a focus on soc|a|/cu|tura| rea||ty, and thus buiIo on thc cuIturcs intcrnaI
capacitics ano vaIucs.
" F|na||y, |n|t|ate a d|scuss|on on the ro|e of cuIturaI bcIicf systcms and the ro|e of traoitionaI
hcaIcrs |n re|at|on to counse|||ng. Do thc participants fccI that traoitionaI iocas of hcIping
ano sccking hcIp arc compatibIc with counscIIing?
Methodology
- Giou uiscussion
Key points
Discussion on ihis issuc is imoiiani anu valuablc. Onc shoulu ncvci aly a
mcihou wiihoui ciiiically cvaluaiing iis culiuial aioiiaicncss. On ihc oihci
hanu, wc shoulu noi loigci ihc icscni siiuaiion ol chiluicn in Ncal. Il ihcic aic
chiluicn in nccu ol guiuancc ihcn :ocI:r In: o bc oc.cn, bui ii also has io
bc licc ol haim.
Synthesising
Pioviuc an ooiiuniiy loi qucsiions anu summaiisc ihc scssion wiih ihc
lollowing oinis:
Training Handbook on Psychosocial counselling for CEDC Trainers Guide 83
Framework Of Counselling
- This scssion locusscu on ihc uilcmma ol imlcmcniing a Wcsicin
aioach, which is whai counsclling is) in a non-wcsicin sociciy. Ii
highlighicu scvcial issucs ihai mighi bc conlliciing liom a culiuial
ciscciivc. Though ihc uiscussion uocs noi inicnu io givc an answci io
ihis uilcmma, ii is an ooiiuniiy io ihinI aboui alying sychosocial
assisiancc in Ncal.
Evaluation
AsI ihc aiiicianis io wiiic uown whai, loi ihcm c.:orn!!y, is ihc biggcsi
culiuial uillcicncc ihai woulu comlicaic imlcmcniing counsclling.
84 Training Handbook on Psychosocial counselling for CEDC Trainers Guide
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Objectives
Ai ihc cnu ol ihc scssion, aiiicianis aic cxccicu io:
- Lnucisianu ihc counsclling aioach iooscu in ihis iiaining couisc anu
acIagc.
Activities
Timc: 2 houis
Matcrials: mcia-caius, lli chaii, maiIci, boaiu
Session 9:
The Counselling approach Supportive
and Problem Management Counselling
ExpIanation of procedure for trainers:
" Hand out fact shcct 3.9.1 and fact shcct 3.9.2and exp|a|n the approach |n more depth
refer to prev|ous sess|ons}.
" Oonduct a |ecture on the emot|ona| support and prob|em-management components of
counse|||ng descr|bed |n th|s manua|. GcncraI ManuaI, chaptcr 3, 'ProbIcm soIving skiIIs,
ano fact shcct 3.9.3.) Part|c|pants w||| pract|ce and d|scuss sk|||s |n the next modu|e.
" ln|t|ate a group d|scuss|on: ask the part|c|pants the advantages and d|sadvantages of
the out||ned approach to he|p peop|e w|th psychosoc|a| prob|ems.
Methodology
- Icciuic
- Giou uiscussion
Resource materials
Tcxt Ior Trainccs
Iaci shcci S.9.1 Thc counsclling aioach in biicl
Iaci Shcci S.9.2 `Clicni Ccniicu Counsclling` as a coic
ihcoiy bchinu ihc aioach ucsciibcu in ihis iiaining
Iaci Shcci S.9.S Ma|oi clcmcnis ol ihc ioblcm-
managcmcni aioach
Gcncial Manual, chaici S `Pioblcm solving sIills`
Key points
In csscncc, counsclling involvcs an aci ol laiih; a bclicl in ihc oihci cison`s
abiliiy io linu soluiions ihiough ihc ioccss ol ihciacuiic convcisaiion anu
ihiough ihc aci ol bcing cngagcu in a closc iclaiionshi wiih oihci human bcings
Buinaiu, 1994).
Training Handbook on Psychosocial counselling for CEDC Trainers Guide 85
Framework Of Counselling
Synthesising
Pioviuc an ooiiuniiy loi qucsiions anu summaiisc ihc scssion wiih ihc
lollowing oinis:
- In ihis scssion, wc looIcu ai ihc coic clcmcnis ol sychosocial inicivcniion
ccniial in ihis iiaining: ihc suoiiivc anu ioblcm-managcmcni aioach.
Thc loimci locuscs on co:orn! :uo. ihiough accciing,
unucisianuing, anu icscciing ihc chilu. Iuiihci, ii cniails ihc vicw ihai a
cison is iniiially goou anu has ihc abiliiy io changc. Thcicloic,
counscllois locus on accciing anu lollowing ihc chilu insicau ol auvising
anu iniciiciing.
Thc non-dircctivc approach: aiiicianis shoulu havc a clcai iuca on
how wc can assisi chiluicn in csccially uilliculi ciicumsianccs io linu a way
ol iclicving somc ol ihcii siicsscs. Thc laiici ol ihc iwo aioachcs locuscs
on how ihc counsclloi can n:::: Ic I:!n o :rn :o!u:or:, ihiough
icchniqucs such as sciiing goals anu biainsioiming conccis loi coing
siiaicgics.
- Rclci io ihc icvious scssion on basic iincilcs ol counsclling. Thcsc basic
iincilcs aic sccilicaiions ol ihc moic gcncial iincilcs ucsciibcu in ihis
scssion. Ioi ioblcm-managcmcni sIills, iclci io ihc ncxi mouulc. )
Evaluation
AsI ihc aiiicianis il ihcy agicc, uisagicc, oi havc any uoubis aboui ihc
aioach ouilincu in ihis scssion, anu why. Emhasisc ihai all answcis noi |usi
agiccmcnis) aic goou anu valuablc.
86 Training Handbook on Psychosocial counselling for CEDC Trainers Guide
Framework Of Counselling
The counselling approach in brief
This iiaining iogiammc is bascu on an aioach ihai involvcs uillcicni ihcoiciical
liamcwoiIs liom which a siiuciuic ol sychosocial counsclling has ucvclocu. This
uocs noi iclci io a ncw aioach io counsclling bui moic io a sclccicu loim ol
counsclling ihai is culiuially iclcvani loi ihc lcvcl ol ihc iiainccs, anu ihc ncccssaiy
loim ol assisiancc. Counsclling, ihcicloic, has iwo main comoncnis:
a) Emotional support is ioviucu mainly ihiough communicaiion, lisicning, anu
counsclling sIills as wcll as ihc counsclloi`s aiiiiuuc. Thc main comoncnis ol
counsclling involvc giving ihc chilu ihc lccling ihai s/hc is unucisioou, lisicncu io,
anu acccicu. This uliimaicly icsulis in cmoiional suoii loi ihc chilu involvcu.
Pioviuing cmoiional suoii, iaciically, involvcs cmaihy, aciivc lisicning,
cncouiagcmcni, anu ihc accciancc ol ihc chilu`s ciscciivc.
Thc goal ol cmoiional suoii is io icuucc ihc uisiicss cxciicnccu by ihc chilu.
As ihc main comoncni ol clicni ccniicu sychoihciay, cmoiional suoii may
bc cllcciivc loi ioblcms such as inicicisonal ioblcms, low scll-csiccm,
ucicssion, hcllcssncss, anu iiauma iccovciy Vcihci| 8 Vcihulsi, 1996).
b) Thc counsclling ioccss locuscs on assisiing clicnis ihiough problcm
managcmcnt. This iclcis io a ioccss ol counsclling ihai claiilics ihc ioblcm,
iucniilics whai ihc clicni wanis as ouicomcs, assisis ihc clicni io linu anu imlcmcni
siiaicgics io achicvc ihosc ucsiicu ouicomcs, anu ihcicby icsolvcs oi icuuccs ihc
iucniilicu ioblcm siiuaiion.
Pioblcm managcmcni is cxlaincu in moic ucih in oihci scssions. This aioach
loi chiluicn has ihicc hascs: ihc uisciiminaiion hasc, uillcicniiaiion hasc, anu
imlcmcniaiion hasc Vcihci| 8 Vcihulsi, 1996). Duiing ihc uisciiminaiion hasc,
ihc chilu lcains io obscivc anu moniioi his/hci bchavioui, cmoiions, ihoughis,
anu siiuaiion liom a uillcicni ciscciivc; ihc chilu iucniilics ihai his/hci bchavioui
is olicn a choicc wiih iis conscqucnccs.
Duiing ihc uillcicniiaiion hasc, ihc chilu lcains io cxloic alicinaiivc bchaviouis.
Iinally, uuiing ihc imlcmcniaiion hasc ihc chilu is cncouiagcu io lan anu maIc
ihc iucniilicu changcs in his/hci bchavioui/siiuaiion in a sic-wisc mannci. This
aioach can bc cllicicni loi anxiciy ioblcms, ain managcmcni, anu ucicssion
Vcihci| 8 Vcihulsi, 1996).
Piaciically, ihis is mauc ossiblc by: 1) cxloiing ihc chilu`s icsouiccs social,
culiuial) anu cxisiing coing siiaicgics, anu assisiing ihc chilu io siicngihcn ihc
aucquaic oncs anu io mouily ihc inaucquaic oncs; 2) sciiing goals, S) using
biainsioiming icchniqucs io iucniily soluiions oi siiaicgics loi changc.
Fact sheet 3.9.1
Training Handbook on Psychosocial counselling for CEDC Trainers Guide 87
Framework Of Counselling
In auuiiion, ihc iogiammc is bascu on ihc lollowing coic iucas:
6
Positivc asscts Ivcy 8 Ivcy, 2uuu): counscllois aic iaughi io also) woiI wiih ihc
osiiivc asscis ol ihc clicni/ihc clicni`s siiuaiion which incluucs cisonal siicngihs,
linuing osiiivc asscis in his/hci ioblcm-siiuaiion, linuing cxcciions io ihc ioblcms,
linuing osiiivc clcmcnis in his/hci lilc anu locusing on osiiivc social anu culiuial
suoii sysicms).
Holistic carc: counsclling is only onc clcmcni in ihc iovision ol caic/assisiancc loi
ihc gcncial ublic anu sccilic iaigci gious such as viciims ol ioiiuic, chiluicn allccicu
by aimcu conllici, cic. Alihough cmhasis is on hcling ihc clicni io allcviaic uisiicss
uiiccily ihiough ihc counsclling scssions, ii acInowlcugcs ihai oihci agcnis ol caic aic
viial loi iccovciy oi hcaling, such as ihc lamily anu oihci communiiy siiuciuics c.g.
ihc school, womcn`s gious). Such iimaiy agcnis ol caic shoulu bc ihc lunuamcni ol
ihc caic yiamiu.
Howcvci, onc nccus io lan simuliancous inicivcniions loi somc ol ihc ioblcms ihai
cannoi bc ucali wiih ai iimaiy lcvcl bui also uo noi uiiccily nccu sccialiscu caic i.c.
sccialiscu caic ihiough ihc uociois, iiauiiional hcalcis, sychiaiiisis, sychologisis
ihai acai ai ihc io ol ihc caic yiamiu). Ii is cxacily bciwccn ihcsc iwo lcvcls ihai
ihc iiaining iogiammc aims io ui caic inicivcniions in lacc.
'Psychosocial
7
' ihc Psychosocial WoiIing Giou, 2uu2): ihis aioach liom ihis
iogiammc`s ciscciivc) locuscs on sychological wcll-bcing anu/oi mcnial hcalih,
i.c. cmoiional, cogniiivc, anu bchaviouial siabiliiy ol ihc inuiviuual. Scconuly, ii
cmhasiscs ihc social cnviionmcni ol ihc clicni loi unucisianuing ihc ioblcm siiuaiion
as wcll as loi ioblcm managcmcni c.g. in icims ol conncciions anu suoii). Thiiuly,
ihc aioach involvcs unucisianuing ihc signilicancc anu aioiiaicncss ol ihc cxisiing
culiuic anu valucs, anu usc ol such culiuial icsouiccs in ioblcm managcmcni. TIc
c. :yIo:o:n!` :: u.Ic. n::u::cn :r n :cn.nc :c:::or :r I:: onu!c.
Institutionalisation: linally, any such woiI nccus a liamcwoiI oi guiuclincs loi qualiiy
ol caic, bcsi iaciicc cxciicnccs, coucs ol conuuci, accicuiiaiion, anu cciiilicaiion.
To concluuc, a combinaiion ol skill-bascd lcarning anu clinically supcrviscd
practicc is ncccssaiy.
6
Thcsc aic in auuiiion io anu ovcila wiih ihc iincilcs ihai aic uiscusscu in a scaiaic scssion in ihis mouulc.
7
Thc icim `sychosocial` is uscu ciihci moic bioauly oi moic naiiowly in oihci cascs. Howcvci, `sychosocial` in ihis
hanubooI has bccn summaiizcu accoiuing io oui iogiammc`s ciscciivcs.
88 Training Handbook on Psychosocial counselling for CEDC Trainers Guide
Framework Of Counselling
Overview: Counselling process in brief
8
1. I dentification/intakeof thechild
2. Beginning of thecounselling process
Raoii builuing
Iniiouuciion
Exlanaiion ol counsclling
AsIing loi cxcciaiions
3. Assessment
Exloic anu unucisianu ihc ioblcms) - siiuaiion
Scaich loi osiiivc asscis
Cicaic muiual awaicncss anu agiccmcni io coniinuc
4. Counselling goals
Ioimulaic ihc chilu`s iclciicu ouicomcs - goals
Iucniily luiuic ooiiuniiics - luiuic oiicnicu iobcs
Exloic, sccily, anu iioiiiisc goals
5. I mplementation of counselling goals
Siimulaic soluiions oi siiaicgics loi changc
Exloic auvaniagcs anu uisauvaniagcs
WoiI wiih/on ihc chilu`s coing siiaicgics
WoiI wiih/on/liom ihc chilu`s cxisiing social-culiuial) icsouiccs
MaIc lan ol aciion
6. Termination
Discuss icasons loi iciminaiion
Summaiisc ihc cniiic counsclling ioccss
Pioviuc lccubacI anu locus on osiiivc clcmcnis
Discuss iiansiiion hasc
7. Follow-up
S
Thc counscling ioccss will bc iaughi in uciail in oihci scssions in ihis mouulc.
Training Handbook on Psychosocial counselling for CEDC Trainers Guide 89
Framework Of Counselling
Overview: Counselling approach in brief
- Giving aiicniion anu
cncouiagcmcni
- Pioviuing accciancc
- Bcing wiih ihc chilu/ncrn:r
- Giving comloii
- Communicaiing unucisianuing/
EnIy
Emoti onal Suppor t Probl emmanagement
9
]Scc sics S, 4, anu in ovcivicw abovc|
- Iucniily anu cxloic
]ioblcms, siiuaiion, causcs,
ciscciivcs, cic.|
Leads to:
- Lnucisianuing ihc ioblcm siiuaiion
anu icllcciing io achicvc awaicncss
- Rcalisiic anu sccilic goals
Prepares for:
- Achicvablc siiaicgics iowaius changc
]lan ol aciion, alicinaiivcs, soluiions,
uis/auvaniagcs cic.|
Results in:
- Bcing moic icaicu in oiuci io
imlcmcni changcs
Skills
Biainsioiming
Sciiing goals
WoiIing wiih coing siiaicgics
Alicinaiivc iools c.g. iclaxaiion
icchniqucs, lay, uiawing, wiiiing,
iolc-lays, asscssmcni iools)
Iocusing
Challcnging
Psycho cuucaiion
IccubacI
Scll-uisclosuic
Qucsiioning
Rcsiaicmcnis
Rciclling
Skills
Rcllcciing lcclings
Paiahiasing
Rcllcciion ol mcaning
Summaiising
Non vcibal communicaiion
9
Pioblcm managcmcni is uclincu as ihc aim io iucniily anu imlcmcni siiaicgics io icsolvc oi icuucc a ioblcm siiuaiion oi
io icuucc ihc imaci ol ihai siiuaiion
90 Training Handbook on Psychosocial counselling for CEDC Trainers Guide
Framework Of Counselling
Fact sheet 3.9.2
Client Centred Counselling as a core
theory behind the approach described in
this training
This iiaining acIagc uscs a mcihouology loi counsclling CEDC ihai involvcs ihc
ioblcm solving aioach wiihin a clicnt-ccntrcd liamcwoiI.
Thc clicnt-ccntrcd liamcwoiI is a non-dircctivc anu non-conIrontational
aioach, which iucally icsulis in cmoiional suoii loi ihc clicni. This aioach
locuscs on ihc iuca ihai ihc clicni is bcsi ablc io ucciuc how io linu ihc soluiions io
his/hci own ioblcms.
This iuca is coniiauicioiy wiih ihc vicw ihai ihc iolcssional/cxcii Inows bcsi whai
io uo. This cxcii aioach mighi bc usclul loi solving iaciical ioblcms bui uocs
noi always aly loi cisonal issucs. Thc clicni anu ihc counsclloi iucniily ihc
ioblcm ihiough awaicncss) iogcihci. Givcn lcniy ol iimc anu sacc, ihcy linu a
soluiion io ihc ioblcm/siiuaiion Buinaiu, 1994).
Thc clicni ccniicu aioach cvolvcs ihiough muiual inui; ihc counsclloi assumcs
an unucisianuing, accciing, anu icscciing aiiiiuuc. Ii is liom ihis aiiiiuuc ihai ihc
clicni will bcgin io ocn u io changc anu cisonal giowih/ucvclomcni can iaIc
lacc. This `hcling` iclaiionshi inicnus io laciliiaic ihc giowih ol ihc cison
iccciving `hcl` io imiovc iowaius sychological wcll-bcing.
Wc cannoi lcain io icscci oi accci a cison. Wc can lcain somc iaciical iis anu
sIills; bui ihcsc mighi noi bc cnough. Thc counsclloi has io agicc wiih ihc aioach
io bc ablc io hcl ihc clicni cllcciivcly.
Thc counsclloi shoulu asI him/hciscll il s/hc ically icsccis anu acccis ihc clicni, il
s/hc is ocn anu has no ic|uuicc, il s/hc ically sccs ihc ioblcms liom ihc clicni`s
ciscciivc, il s/hc ically bclicvcs ihai colc can changc, il s/hc is giving gcnuinc
waimih anu caic, cic. Ii mighi bc valuablc io ihinI ihcsc qucsiions ovci io linu oui
whai youi aiiiiuuc is as a counsclloi.
A ma|oi lacioi in ihc counsclling ioccss is ihc way ihc clicni vicws him/hciscll anu
ihc woilu. Icclings ol uoubi, lcais, hcllcssncss, cic can clouu ihcsc vicws. By
having a waim, accciing aiiiiuuc anu by guiuing ihc clicni ihiough small sics
iowaius scll-cxloiaiion, ihc clicni can slowly mouily his/hci cicciions anu liccly
cxloic lcclings anu ihoughis, ossibly cicaiing siiongci lcclings ol sccuiiiy anu
bclonging.
Iinally, ii is csscniial ihai ihc lcclings anu inicniions unucisianuing, accciing, anu
icscciing) ol ihc counsclloi aic gcnuinc.
Training Handbook on Psychosocial counselling for CEDC Trainers Guide 91
Framework Of Counselling
Fact sheet 3.9.3
Major elements of the Supportive
Counselling Approach
10
(For preparation or a group discussion)
- Pioviuc unconuiiional lovc, caic, waimih, icscci, aiicniion, anu accciancc
- Alici iclciial, ihc chilu him/hciscll will uclinc whai s/hc ciccivcs io bc his/hci
ical ioblcms.
- Thc chilu`s sioiics, cxciicnccs, convcisaiions, oi iniciaciions will guiuc ihc
scssions; ihcsc aic usclul as inuis in ihc clloii loi changc.
- Ticai ihc chilu as an aciivc aiiiciani in ihc counsclling ioccss. S/hc is a
icsouicc cison anu an cxcii in his/hci own lilc iaihci ihan as a icciicni ol a
scivicc/inicivcniion.
- Thc chilu will uiscovci ihai s/hc has ihc owci io icsolvc many ioblcms il ihcic
is an aioiiaic suoii sysicm.
Thc pcrson hclping should not imposc his/hcr valucs or suggcstions
upon thc child.
Major elements of the pr obl em-management approach
(For prcparation or a group discussion)
To maIc counsclling succcsslul anu io iucniily ioblcms clcaily, ii is csscniial io
assisi ihc chilu as s/hc solvcs ioblcms. Pioblcm-managcmcni involvcs:
- Sc:r on!: iogcihci wiih ihc chilu - ihis siicngihcns ihc chilu`s inui anu
moiivaiion io woiI on a ioblcm anu ii claiilics whai ihc ouiui is.
- B.n:r:o.:r wiih ihc chilu - ihis is an iuca-siimulaiion icchniquc.
- Eou::r or o:r :.nc:c: - ihis locuscs on ihc chilu`s inicinal anu cxicinal
caaciiics io ucal wiih siiuaiions ol uisiicss.
1u
Thcsc iucas aic siiongly bascu on ihc `clicni ccniicu` iucology as ucsciibcu abovc, anu ovcila wiih oihci scssions in ihis mouulc.
MODULE IV
General Objective
Paiiicianis gain a uccci unucisianuing ol counsclling, anu imiovc ihcii abiliiy
anu siicngihcn ihcii sIills in conuuciing counsclling.
Specific Objectives:
Ai ihc cnu ol ihc mouulc, aiiicianis will bc ablc io:
- Lsc communicaiion sIills iocily
- Conuuci a counsclling inicivicw
- Know aboui sIills in hanuling `icluciancc` anu usc ihcm
- Lsc auuiiional iools loi ihc counsclling ioccss
- Lsc ihc main counsclling sIills
Counselling Skills
Counselling Skills
94 Training Handbook on Psychosocial counselling for CEDC Trainers Guide
Counselling Skills
Training Handbook on Psychosocial counselling for CEDC Trainers Guide 95
Objectives
Ai ihc cnu ol ihc scssion, aiiicianis aic cxccicu io:
- Bc ablc io usc anu unucisianu ihc imoiiancc ol aciivc lisicning
icchniqucs such as icsuming, asIing ocn qucsiions, icllcciing).
Activities
Time: 6 houis
Materials: mcia-caius, lli chaii, maiIci, boaiu
Session 1:
Communication Skills I
Active listening
ExpIanation of procedure for trainers:
" ln|t|ate the sess|on w|th the fo||ow|ng ||sten|ng exerc|se:
" D|v|de the part|c|pants |nto two groups. G|ve the fo||ow|ng |nstruct|ons to both groups
separate|y w|thout hav|ng the other group hear the |nstruct|ons} |n two phases,
the f|rst phase:
Group A: each member of the group speaks to one member of the other group. They
must speak |n a very c|ear way so that the other member proper|y understands every word.
Group B: ask the group not to ||sten to the other group`s member ta|k|ng, for f|ve m|nutes,
no matter what s/he does or says. They shou|d not respond and can do anyth|ng they fee|
||ke do|ng, EXOEPT ||sten|ng.
Thc sccono phasc.
Group A: ask the group to ||sten to the|r 'partner` very carefu||y.
Group B: same |nstruct|ons as the f|rst phase for group A.
" The groups |n the f|rst phase} act the|r ro|es stand|ng oppos|te the|r partner. After f|ve
m|nutes, the part|c|pants fo||ow the |nstruct|ons for phase two, for another f|ve m|nutes.
" Ask the part|c|pants how they fe|t dur|ng the exerc|se, and what they not|ced/fe|t about the
d|fference between ||sten|ng and not ||sten|ng. Wr|te the responses on paper and br|ef|y
eva|uate.
" After the exerc|se/game, |ntroduce act|ve ||sten|ng by g|v|ng a def|n|t|on, and exp|a|n |ts
|mportance for counse|||ng OEDO (scc transparcncics 4.1.1, 4.1.2, 4.1.3, & 4.1.4).
Def|n|t|on: Act|ve ||sten|ng captures a var|ety of sk|||s wh|ch not on|y |nvo|ves hear|ng but a|so
see|ng, s|tt|ng, touch|ng, etc. lt |nvo|ves hear|ng verba| messages, perce|v|ng non-verba|
commun|cat|on, and respond|ng appropr|ate|y to enab|e the other person/ch||d to fee| our
warmth, acceptance, and understand|ng of h|s/her s|tuat|on and our des|re to he|p. Tra|ner`s
Manua| 1997}, NlOEF, Oh||dhope Ph|||pp|nes}.
" Group ro|e-p|ay: a vo|unteer s|ts |n the m|dd|e of the c|rc|e and ro|e-p|ays a ch||d c.g.
whosc famiIy history is onc of physicaI ano cmotionaI abusc, povcrty, ano unhappincss}. The
other part|c|pants are counse||ors who w||| do an |ntervent|on, one after the other. For the
f|rst exerc|se, the counse||ors can onIy ask open quest|ons, and a|m to understand the
Counselling Skills
96 Training Handbook on Psychosocial counselling for CEDC Trainers Guide
ch||d`s d|stress e.g. about |eav|ng the fam||y}. The ch||d answers the quest|ons |n turn.
" The part|c|pants shou|d try the same exerc|se |n pa|rs.
" Ask the part|c|pants how |n-} effect|ve the open quest|ons were.
" Group ro|e-p|ay: repeat the group ro|e-p|ay above, on|y th|s t|me counse||ors pract|ce
summar|s|ng, they can on|y ask m|n|ma| quest|ons and emphas|s shou|d be on mak|ng
regu|ar summar|es.
" The part|c|pants try the same exerc|se |n pa|rs. One person w||| ta|k to the other person
for 20 m|nutes, about someth|ng mean|ngfu| |n h|s/her ||fe. The second person can onIy
summar|se the top|c. After 20 m|nutes, reverse the ro|es.
" Ask the part|c|pants how |t fe|t to summar|se and to be summar|sed.
" Group ro|e-p|ay: aga|n, repeat the above exerc|se except th|s t|me counse||ors w|||
pract| ce repeat| ng key-words/restatements, paraphras| ng, and ref| ect| ng
fee||ngs. Oounse||ors can on|y ask m|n|ma| quest|ons and emphas|s shou|d be on the
ment|oned sk|||s. The d|fference between summar|s|ng and paraphras|ng, as we|| as the
d|fference between paraphras|ng, restat|ng, and ref|ect|ng fee||ngs shou|d be c|ear to the
part|c|pants}.
" Part|c|pants form groups of threes for the f|fth exerc|se one ch||d, one counse||or, and one
observer}.
Examp|e top|c: the ch||d fee|s that adu|ts d|scr|m|nate h|m. The counse||ors can onIy
ref| ect fee| | ngs, paraphrase, and repeat key-words/restatements}. The
observer |dent|f|es the effect of ref|ect|ons/repeat|ng of key words. Rotate ro|es after
every 20 m|nutes.
" Ask the part|c|pants how |t fe|t to use these sk|||s.
" Group ro|e-p|ay: the above group act|v|ty |s repeated, and th|s t|me part|c|pants are
encouraged to |ntegrate a|| the sk|||s |.e. summar|s|ng, paraphras|ng, ref|ect|ng
fee||ngs, repeat|ng of key-words/restatements and open quest|ons. Th|s act|v|ty
shou|d |ast at |east 30 m|nutes.
" Part|c|pants form groups of threes for the seventh exerc|se.
The ch||d wants to te|| the counse||or someth|ng. The th|rd person observes the ro|e-p|ay
by |dent|fy|ng exact|y wh|ch sk|||s the counse||or uses and the effect these sk|||s have on
the ch||d. The ch||d and counse||or perform a 20-m|nute ro|e-p|ay w|th opt|ona| subjects
rotate ro|es}. The counse||or shou|d try to |ntegrate the sk|||s |earned |n th|s ro|e-
p|ay.
" After the ro|e-p|ay, ask the part|c|pants how they fe|t as a counse||or or ch||d, and what
ma|n po|nts the observer not|ced.
Notc for thc traincr. practicc thc activc Iistcning skiIIs whcncvcr thcrc is sparc timc.
Furthcrmorc, it is csscntiaI that you provioc aocouatc ano oircct fccoback on thc usc of
communication skiIIs ouring thc inoiviouaIpair ano group roIc-pIays. Stop thc roIc-pIays to
makc commcnts or ask thc group for thcir obscrvations ano thcn havc thc pcopIc invoIvco try
thc samc intcrjcction again. |f thcrc arc co-faciIitators (trainco counscIIors), it wiII bc bcncficiaI
to incIuoc thcm in thc group roIc-pIays. This wiII provioc thc participants with gooo cxampIcs.
Methodology
Encigisci
Icciuic
Rolc lays
Counselling Skills
Training Handbook on Psychosocial counselling for CEDC Trainers Guide 97
Resource materials
Tcxt Ior lccturc:
Tiansaicncy 4.1.1 Pioblcm solving ihiough aciivc
lisicning
Tiansaicncy 4.1.2 Aciivc Iisicning - Why 8 How
Tiansaicncy 4.1.S Aciivc Iisicning
Tiansaicncy 4.1.4 Qucsiions Tcxi loi iiaincc:
Gcncial Manual, chaici S, `Gcncial counsclling sIills`
Iaci shcci 4.1.1 Baiiicis anu ioau blocIs in lisicning
Tcxt Ior traincr:
Rclcicncc 4.1.1 Iisicning anu aiicnuing
Rclcicncc 4.1.2 Iisicning icchniqucs
Key points
Hcaiing bccomcs lisicning only whcn wc ay lull aiicniion.
Synthesising
Pioviuc an ooiiuniiy loi qucsiions anu summaiisc ihc scssion wiih ihc
lollowing oinis:
Iisicning is ihc mosi imoiiani sIill in counsclling. Ii is also onc ol ihc mosi
uilliculi sIills. Goou lisicning mcans bcing ablc io locus anu conccniiaic, io
summaiisc anu icllcci, io asI iclcvani qucsiions anu bc silcni, io givc icscci
anu siiuciuic.
Communicaiion sIills linI wiih mosi ol ihc oihci sIills ihai acai in ihis
mouulc. Communicaiion sIills also iclaic io ihc basic hilosohy anu
iincilcs ol counsclling bccausc ihiough communicaiion sIills, wc can
cncouiagc ihc chilu io analysc his/hci own siiuaiion - wc can givc waimih
anu cmaihy, anu wc can accci ihc chilu.
Evaluation
Paiiicianis ihinI ol onc woiu ihai cxicsscs ihcii lcclings aboui ihis scssion.
You can gci an iuca aboui ihc `icmciaiuic` ol ihc giou ihis way.
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98 Training Handbook on Psychosocial counselling for CEDC Trainers Guide
Active Listening Active Listening Active Listening Active Listening Active Listening
Definition
Active listening involves not only the use of ones sense of hearing
but all the senses. To enable the child to feel our warmth,
acceptance, and understanding we must hear verbal messages,
perceive non-verbal communication, and respond appropriately
to both.
Short term goals: develop and maintain communication and
make the individual felt understood.
Long term goals: individual learns to express own opinion, to
develop personal strengths, and problem
solving abilities.
Transparency 4.1.1
Counselling Skills
Training Handbook on Psychosocial counselling for CEDC Trainers Guide 99
Transparency 4.1.2
Active Listening Why? Active Listening Why? Active Listening Why? Active Listening Why? Active Listening Why?
Gives attention to the individual
Respects the individuals problems and feelings and takes
the individual seriously at all times
Develops self-reflection and analysis about the problem and
solutions
Gives structure and is an objective problem solving method
Facilitates and stimulates communication and expression
Active Listening - How? Active Listening - How? Active Listening - How? Active Listening - How? Active Listening - How?
A. Structure the problem
Gather as much information as necessary
Clarify the message and describe the situation without judging
it
Help the individual to find his or her problem
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100 Training Handbook on Psychosocial counselling for CEDC Trainers Guide
B. Communication Skills
B1-Summarise the story of the child objectively after each part
and subject of conversation (only when there is sufficient
new information). Summarise to:
1) Check if you, as a listener have understood the story and the
message of the child.
2) Give the child the feeling that you really are listening to him/
her.
3) Encourage the child to continue talking, either to clarify or to
specify.
4) Give structure and a rest to the conversation (often involving
a great amount of information) both for you as the receiver of
information, and for the child so that s/he does not lose track
of his/her story.
For example:
Counsellor: So if I understand correctly you are saying that
B2-Reflection of feelings The counsellor should reflect on the
emotions the child expresses, directly or indirectly. This is
one of the most powerful skills to show you understand the
childs situation and to focus on underlying things that might
be the cause of the presented problem.
For example:
I have the feeling that you are sad because you had a fight.
You dont want to go to school anymore because you feel
they are all against you.
You are angry with you friends; thats why you dont want to
go to school.
Transparency 4.1.S
Counselling Skills
Training Handbook on Psychosocial counselling for CEDC Trainers Guide 101
B3- Paraphrasing The counsellor echoes or repeats in different
words, the essence of the childs message. Paraphrasing
helps to encourage the child to continue a certain topic and
it reflects the counsellors understanding of the core of the
childs expressions. (Often paraphrases and reflections of
feelings are combined.)
For example:
You say that you have had difficulties sleeping for quite some
time now and that it is therefore difficult for you to concentrate.
If I understand what you are saying, you want to run away
from home but you are not sure of the consequences of such
an action.
B4-Repeating key-words/Restatements The counsellor repeats
the words or part of the sentence that the child has just said,
to encourage the child to continue talking or to give emphasis
to that topic. These are often words or parts of a sentence
that were emotionally charged or important in content. (At
times repeating key-words/restatements can be also
reflections of feelings.)
For example:
Child: I feel so miserable and hopeless these days; I feel
nobody is helping me or that nobody is even caring. So that
leaves me alone to deal with this problem and that makes it
even harder.
Counsellor (example 1): you say nobody is helping you?
Counsellor (example 2): you feel hopeless?
Counsellor (example 3): no-one cares?
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102 Training Handbook on Psychosocial counselling for CEDC Trainers Guide
C. Questioning Skills:
Open questions Enable the individual to give any answers
in his/her own words. This stimulates the individual to structure
his/her thoughts and explore the situation. Use inviting
questions.
For example: Can you tell me more about how you felt?
Closed questions These questions are useful at the
beginning of the conversation, to gather information, however
be careful because these questions limit the child in his/her
response.
For example: Do you like it here? Do you often fight with
him?
Suggestive questions These are not good for this process
because they give a reflection of your ideas and not of those
of the child. The answer lies in the question.
For example: You must be very angry at him, no? Dont you
think that that was a stupid thing to do?
Transparency 4.1.4
Counselling Skills
Training Handbook on Psychosocial counselling for CEDC Trainers Guide 103
Listening
Hcling chiluicn involvcs accciing ihcm, iaIing ihcm sciiously, anu bcing
involvcu by lisicning io ihcm. Lnloiiunaicly, ioo many counscllois ialI moic ihan
lisicn, which is couniciiouuciivc. Il counscllois can aciually lisicn, ihcy can bc ol
gicai hcl io ihc chiluicn.
Iisicning in counsclling icquiics moic ihan |usi unucisianuing whai ihc chilu is
saying. Onc can lisicn io ihc cmoiion ol ihc) chilu, iccognisc anu acInowlcugc
lcclings ihiough icllcciion ol ihoughi anu cmoiion, c.g. I noiicc ihai you bccomc
silcni whcn wc ialI aboui youi lamily") anu ihcicby icsonu wiih cmaihy.
Thiough lisicning onc can show icscci, caic, anu suoii.
On a moic inuiicci lcvcl, ihc counsclloi siimulaics ihc chilu io linu his/hci own
soluiion. Thiough aiicniion anu icllcciion, ihc chilu is guiucu ihiough his/hci
own ciscciivc ol ihc siiuaiion. Thc siiuciuic ihai ihc lisicning icchniqucs ioviuc
such as qucsiions, aiicniion, non) vcibal icllcciions) is boih lcasani anu usclul
in counsclling.
Thcic aic ihicc asccis ol lisicning: ihc linguisiic ascci, aialinguisiic ascci, anu
non- vcibal ascci. Thc linguistic aspcct iclcis io ihc aciual woius, anu hiascs
uscu. Thc paralinguistic aspcct iclcis io asccis ol sccch ihai aic noi woius, such
as inionaiion, volumc, cic. Thc ihiiu non-vcrbal aspcct iclcis io lacial cxicssion,
osiiion ol siiiing, gcsiuic, cyc coniaci, cic.
Paialinguisiic anu non-vcibal communicaiion lcavc much sacc loi iniciiciaiion
liom ihc lisicnci. Thcsc assumcu mcanings" can ollci ihc lisicnci inuicaiions ol
lccling/mcaning bcyonu ihc woius. Howcvci, io icvcni lalsc iniciiciaiion, ihc
counsclloi shoulu claiily ihis iniciiciaiion wiih ihc chilu. Ioi cxamlc: I noiicc
you aic iuining away. Whai aic you lccling ai ihc momcni." Buinaiu, P. 1994).
Ovciall, lisicning is an aii ihai can bc lcaini anu will bc aicciaicu by ihc scaIci.
Fact sheet 4.1.1
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104 Training Handbook on Psychosocial counselling for CEDC Trainers Guide
The nature of listening
Iisicning is an aii, a sIill, anu a uiscilinc. As is ihc casc wiih oihci sIills, ii
icquiics scll-coniiol. Inuiviuuals nccus io unucisianu whai is involvcu in lisicning
anu ucvclo scll-coniiol io bc silcni anu io lisicn, Icc his oi hci own nccus anu
conccins ai bay, giving aiicniion io ihc oihci wiih a siiii ol humiliiy.
Iisicning is ol couisc hcaiing anu unucisianuing whai oihcis say io us.
Howcvci, hcaiing bccomcs lisicning only whcn wc ay aiicniion io whai is saiu, anu
lollow ii vciy closcly.
Barriers and road blocks in listening
1. On-off listening
Mosi colc ihinI aboui loui iimcs as lasi as ihcy can scaI. Somciimcs s/hc
uscs ihis cxiia iimc io ihinI aboui his oi hci own cisonal allaiis, conccins, anu
iioublcs insicau ol lisicning, iclaiing, anu summaiising whai ihc scaIci has io
say. Onc can ovcicomc ihis by aying aiicniion bcyonu ihc woius, waiching non-
vcibal signs such as gcsiuics, hcsiiaiions, cic, io icI u ihc lcvcl ol lccling.
2. Red fl ag l i steni ng - wor ds that cause an emoti onal r eacti on.
In icu llag lisicning cciiain woius causc an cmoiional icaciion in somc colc.
Whcn ihcy hcai ihc woiu, ihcy gci usci anu sio lisicning. Thcsc icims may
vaiy in cvciy giou, sociciy, anu oiganisaiion.
Thc icims caiialisi", communisi", moncy", lcminisi", moucin youih",
iiibalisiic", cic., aic woius somc colc icsonu io almosi auiomaiically. Whcn
ihcsc woius acai, wc `iunc oui` ihc scaIci. Wc losc coniaci wiih hci/him,
anu lail io ucvclo an unucisianuing ol ihai cison.
Thc liisi sic in ovcicoming ihcsc baiiicis is io linu oui which woius siaii an
cmoiional icaciion in us cisonally, anu iiy io lisicn aiicniivcly anu
symaihciically, cvcn whcn ihcsc woius aic mcniioncu.
3. Open ears-close mind listening
This iyc ol lisicning occuis whcn wc ucciuc iaihci quicIly ihai ciihci ihc
sub|cci oi ihc scaIci is boiing, anu ihc woius maIc no scnsc. Olicn, wc |um
io conclusions anu wc icuici whai ihc scaIci will say ncxi, ihus wc concluuc
ihai ihcic is no icason io lisicn anu ihai wc will hcai noihing ncw il wc uo. Ii is
much bciici io lisicn anu linu oui loi suic whcihci ihis is iiuc oi noi.
4. Empty listening
Emiy lisicning occuis whcn wc looI ai a cison inicnscly, anu wc sccm io bc
lisicning bui oui minu is on oihci ihings. Wc uio bacI inio ihc comloii ol oui
ihoughis. Wc gci cxicssionlcss anu olicn a uicamy cxicssion acais on oui
laccs. Wc can icll whcn colc looI ihis way. Similaily, ihcy can scc ihc samc in
us, anu wc aic noi looling anyonc. Posionc uayuicaming loi oihci iimcs.
Reference 4.1.1
Counselling Skills
Training Handbook on Psychosocial counselling for CEDC Trainers Guide 105
5. Too-deep-for-me listening
Whcn wc aic lisicning io iucas ihai aic ioo comlcx anu comlicaicu, wc can
swiich oll, ihcicloic wc nccu io loicc ouisclvcs io lollow ihc uiscussion anu
maIc a ical clloii io unucisianu ii. Wc may linu ihc sub|ccis anu scaIci quiic
inicicsiing il wc lisicn anu unucisianu whai ihc cison is saying. Olicn il wc uo
noi unucisianu, oihcis uo noi ciihci, anu ii can hcl io asI loi claiilicaiion oi
an cxamlc whcn ossiblc.
6. Protected listening
Pioiccicu lisicning occuis whcn colc uo noi liIc io havc ihcii lavouiiic iucas,
ic|uuiccs, anu oinis ol vicw ovciiuincu. Wc icnu noi io liIc ii whcn a scaIci
says somcihing ihai clashcs wiih whai wc ihinI oi bclicvc. Wc may unconsciously
sio lisicning oi cvcn bccomc uclcnsivc anu lan a couniciaiiacI il ihis occuis.
Howcvci, ii is bciici io lisicn anu linu oui whai ihc scaIci ihinIs, vicw ihc oihci
siuc ol ihc qucsiion, anu uo a bciici |ob ol unucisianuing anu icsonuing
consiiuciivcly.
(E.o Hoc nrn T:c!, !:)
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106 Training Handbook on Psychosocial counselling for CEDC Trainers Guide
Reference 4.1.2
Listening Techniques
1
1
Thc iciminology uscu on ihis agc mighi bc uillcicni liom ihc main icxi. Ii is mcani io wiucn ihc ciscciivc ol ihc iiainci. Iuiihci ii shoulu
bc noicu ihai ihcic is a chancc ihai uillcicni iolcssionals usc uillcicni icims loi similai conccis.
Types Purpose Possible Responses
1. Claiilying
2. Rcsiaicmcni
S. Ncuiial
4. Rcllcciivc
. Summaiising
1. To gci auuiiional lacis.
2. To hcl ihc cison cxloic.
1. To chccI oui mcaning anu
iniciiciaiion wiih ihc oihci.
2. To show you aic lisicning
anu ihai you unucisioou
whai ihc oihci has saiu.
1. To convcy ihai you aic
inicicsicu anu lisicning.
2. To cncouiagc ihc cison io
coniinuc ialIing.
1. To show ihai you unucisianu
how ihc oihci lccls aboui
whai s/hc is saying.
1. To biing all ihc uiscussion
inio locus in icims ol a
summaiy.
2. To scivc as a siingboaiu io
uiscuss ncw asccis ol ihc
ioblcm.
1. Can you claiily ihis."
2. Do you mcan ihis."
1. As I unucisianu ii, youi
lan is..."
2. Is ihis whai you havc
ucciucu io uo... anu ihc
icasons aic..."
1. I scc."
2. I unucisianu."
S. Thai is a goou oini."
1. You lccl ihai...."
2. Ii was shocIing as you saw
ii."
S. You lcli you uiun`i gci a laii
hcaiing."
1. Thcsc aic ihc Icy iucas you
havc cxicsscu..."
2. Il I unucisianu how you lccl
aboui ihc siiuaiion...."
(E.o Hoc nrn T:c!, !:)
Counselling Skills
Training Handbook on Psychosocial counselling for CEDC Trainers Guide 107
Objectives
Ai ihc cnu ol ihc scssion, aiiicianis aic cxccicu io:
- Lnucisianu anu aly cmaihy, aiicnuing, anu non-vcibal communicaiion
- Dillcicniiaic symaihy anu cmaihy
Activities
Time: houis
Materials: mcia-caius, lli chaii, maiIci, boaiu
Session 2:
Empathy, Attending, & Attitude
Exp| anat| on of procedure for tra| ners:
" Ask the group to brainstorm what they th|nk creates an open and support|ve
att|tude |n the counse|||ng process and he|p them w|th |deas |f necessary.
" Ask the part|c|pants to read the fact shcct 4.2.1 and the appropr|ate sect|on |n the
GcncraI ManuaI, chaptcr 3 'Communication skiIIs.
" Oonduct a |ecture on empathy, attend|ng/non-verba| commun|cat|on. lnd|cate
that some of these po|nts over|ap w|th the prev|ous sect|on. (Scc transparcncy 4.2.1)
" Ask the group to brainstorm what they th|nk |s non-verba| commun|cat|on th|s can be
d|v|ded |nto constructivc and ocstructivc}. Fo||ow|ng th|s, ask the part|c|pants to conduct
ro|e-p|ays |n pa|rs, s|tt|ng back to back one be|ng the ch||d one be|ng the counse||or}.
Afterwards the group d|scusses how |t fe|t to commun|cate w|thout hav|ng face-to-face
contact.
" Rema|n|ng |n pa|rs, part|c|pants do a ro|e-p|ay to pract|ce how non-verba| commun|cat|on
can be used construct|ve|y 10 m|nutes} and then how non-verba| commun|cat|on can be
used destruct|ve|y for the counse|||ng process 10 m|nutes}. Part|c|pants br|ef|y share
the|r exper|ences fo||ow|ng th|s exerc|se.
" Group ro|e-p|ay: part|c|pants pract|ce g|v|ng empathy and |ncorporate prev|ous|y
|earned commun|cat|ons sk|||s. ExampIc casc. The ch||d fee|s ||ke she |s d|scr|m|nated |n
the c|assroom by her fe||ow students, because of her caste. The ch||d fee|s very a|one
and needs a fr|end, she a|so has academ|c prob|ems, wh|ch make her teacher and parents
angry}.
" ln pa|rs, part|c|pants do a ro|e-p|ay app|y|ng the |earned sk|||s from both th|s sess|on and
prev|ous sess|ons}. The ro|e-p|ay shou|d |ast about 20 m|nutes, w|th 15 m|nutes for
eva|uat|on w|th|n the pa|rs. A|| part|c|pants shou|d get the opportun|ty to be the counse||or.
" One pa|r demonstrates the|r ro|e-p|ay. Observers shou|d use the check||st for
observat|on (scc fact shcct 4.2.2). Ho|d an open d|scuss|on to comment and feedback
on the ro|e-p|ays focus on empathy, ref|ect|ons of fee||ng, non-verba| commun|cat|on/
attend|ng, paraphras|ng, summar|s|ng, repeat|ng of key-words/restatements, and open
quest|ons}.
" ln|t|ate a f|na| group ro|e-p|ay |ntegrat|ng a|| the |earned sk|||s.
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108 Training Handbook on Psychosocial counselling for CEDC Trainers Guide
Methodology
- Icciuic
- Rcauing
- Rolc lay
Resource materials
Tcxt Ior lccturc:
Tiansaicncy 4.2.1 SIills icquiicu loi cllcciivc inicivicwing
Tcxt Ior Trainccs:
Iaci Shcci 4.2.1 Guiuclincs loi inicivicwing
Iaci Shcci 4.2.2 Obscivci`s chccI lisi
Scc Ccrc.n! Mnrun!, Inc. Cour:n:or :|:!!:`
Key points
Thc succcss ol counsclling uccnus on a goou iclaiionshi bciwccn ihc chilu
anu ihc counsclloi.
Synthesising
Pioviuc an ooiiuniiy loi qucsiions anu summaiisc ihc scssion wiih ihc
lollowing oinis:
- Emhasisc ihai ihc sIills anu guiuclincs liom ihis scssion aic ihc main
sIills loi counsclling in gcncial. Thc main aciiviiy ol counsclling is bascu
on communicaiion sIills. Summaiisc youi imicssions ol ihc iolc-lays.
- This scssion iclaics io ihc icvious onc. In oiuci io conuuci a ioci
inicivicw, aiiicianis nccu io bc ablc io aly ihc sIills lcaincu in ihc
icvious scssion as wcll.
Evaluation
AsI ihc aiiicianis io wiiic a convcisaiion oi hiascs a lcw cxchangcs)
ihai clcaily show cmaihy liom ihc counsclloi.
Counselling Skills
Training Handbook on Psychosocial counselling for CEDC Trainers Guide 109
Empathy, Attending, and Attitude Empathy, Attending, and Attitude Empathy, Attending, and Attitude Empathy, Attending, and Attitude Empathy, Attending, and Attitude
(1) Empathy
Empathy is a combination of counselling skills and attitude.
The counsellor, after understanding the childs problem/
situation, reflects that understanding back to the child.
Empathy can be expressed through:
Reflection of feeling: you feelbecause.
Paraphrasing: you are saying that it is your fathers death
that is causing the problem
Non-verbal communication: the counsellors silence when the
child is emotional.
Questions: can you tell me a bit more about what your fathers
death did to you?
(2) Empathy versus Sympathy
The counsellor should be able to put him/herself in the childs
place and should express an understanding of the childs
emotions (through reflection). The counsellor should not be
sympathetic, for this shows that the counsellor chooses sides
and therefore objectivity is lost.
(3) Attending/Non-verbal communication
Attending basically means being there for somebody. This
can be practised through non-verbal communication such as
sitting in a relaxed way, leaning slightly forward, eye contact
Transparency 4.2.1
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110 Training Handbook on Psychosocial counselling for CEDC Trainers Guide
(as culturally appropriate), and the counsellors full
concentration and attention.
Non-verbal communication is often more sincere and obvious
than spoken messages. Non-verbal communication should
be identified in the child and used correctly by the helping
person. The counsellor can encourage the child to continue
talking by nodding and humming in acknowledgement; these
are forms of non-verbal communication. Other forms of non-
verbal communication include silences (dont be afraid of
them, they can be useful for rest and structuring thoughts),
eye contact, smiling, facial expressions, etc.
(4) Supportive attitude
Politeness
Openness
Comforting (e.g. touching when appropriate)
Encouraging
Showing interest and concern
Communicating understanding
Avoiding judgements or having evaluative responses
Skills to relate to the child to convey a supportive attitude:
Accept the child as s/he is
Take each child as a separate individual
Protect the confidential nature of the interviews
Allow the interviewee to participate and become self-
determined in his/her plan of action
Respect and listen to the childs perspective
Allow the interviewee to ask questions about you, the
counsellor
Use clear, understandable, and simple (and possibly own)
language to be at one with the level of the childs.
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Training Handbook on Psychosocial counselling for CEDC Trainers Guide 111
Fact sheet 4.2.1
Guidelines for communication
1) Esiablish a iaoii oi consiiuciivc iclaiionshi wiih ihc chilu. S/hc shoulu bc
giccicu wiih icscci, accciancc, anu inicicsi.
2) Allow ihc chilu io cxicss him/hciscll. Picscni youiscll as a hcling cison who is
willing io lisicn io his/hci sioiy anu ioblcms.
S) Scnsiiisc youiscll io ihc chilu`s lcclings aboui sccIing hcl.
4) Allow chiluicn io cxicss ainlul lcclings. Do noi uisiuib ihcm. Allow ihcm io ciy.
In casc a chilu cxciicnccs a ciisis, ii is goou io havc uiinIing waici loi him/hci.
Somc chiluicn can bc vciy cmoiional whcn naiiaiing ihcii ainlul cxciicnccs.
) Sii in lioni ol ihc chilu io allow youiscll io obscivc ihc hysical manilcsiaiion ol
lcclings anu cmoiions oi non-vcibal communicaiion.
6) Do noi iush ihc chilu whcn s/hc is silcni.
7) Avoiu:
- Sounuing liIc a icachci
- Auuicssing ihc chilu in a humiliaiing mannci
- Ovciwhclming ihc chilu wiih ioo many qucsiions
S) Allow ihc chilu io movc aboui uuiing scssions io allow him/hci io bc in coniiol ol
hci/his lcclings. Sioiy iclling may bc hcllul. Diawing coulu hcl io conccniiaic
oi cxicss.
9) Inloim ihc chilu how long ihc inicivicw will bc. Noimally ii shoulu only lasi loi
4u-6u minuics anu noi moic.
1u) Avoiu iccaiing ihc samc qucsiions. Thc chilu mighi ihinI ihai you aic noi
lisicning oi ihai you aic uninicicsicu in hci/him. Vciily inloimaiion by ic-
hiasing ihc samc qucsiion.
11) Always asI ihc chilu whai s/hc wanis io uo wiih hci/his icscni ioblcm now, whai
icsouiccs s/hc has, anu whom s/hc ihinIs can hcl hci/him now.
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112 Training Handbook on Psychosocial counselling for CEDC Trainers Guide
Fact sheet 4.2.2
Observers checklist
Basic Communication skills
Plcasc ui a chccI/iicI on ihc blanI sacc ioviucu il you obscivcu ihc lollowing
bchaviouial inuicaiois in ihc counsclloi/woiIci. Givc youi commcnis in ihc
Commcnis/RcmaiIs" scciion. Thcsc inuicaiois icllcci imoiiani clcmcnis ol aciivc
lisicning.
____ 1. Communicaicu clcaily
____ 2. Hau cyc coniaci
____ S. Mauc chilu lccl ai casc
____ 4. Dcmonsiiaicu waimih anu ocnncss
____ .Dcmonsiiaicu accciancc anu non-ihicaicning
aioach
____ 6. Lscu iclaxcu/calm ionc ol voicc
____ 7. Was aiicniivc anu icsonsivc
____ S. Showcu scnsiiiviiy io chilu`s non-vcibal cucs
____ 9. Paiahiascu siaicmcnis io cncouiagc oi
cmhasisc
____ 1u. Allowcu chilu io vcniilaic anu cxicss
cvaluaiion, iucas, ihoughis, lcclings, cic.
____ 11. Pioviucu icassuiing siaicmcnis
____ 12. Lscu aioiiaic bouy languagc: nouuing ol
ihc hcau, iouching il aioiiaic
____ 1S. Assisicu ihc chilu in iucniilying anu claiilying
his/hci ioblcm
____ 14. AsIcu ocn qucsiions
____ 1. Summaiiscu ihc siiuaiion ol ihc chilu
licqucnily
____ 16. Was ob|cciivc anu non-|uugmcnial
____ 17. Rcllccicu siaicmcnis io claiily anu valiuaic
chilu`s vcibalisaiions
____ 1S. Lscu simlc woius anu allowcu loi silcncc
whcn aioiiaic
1.
2.
S.
4.
.
6.
7.
S.
9.
1u.
11.
12.
1S.
14.
1.
16.
17.
1S.
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Training Handbook on Psychosocial counselling for CEDC Trainers Guide 113
Objectives
Ai ihc cnu ol ihc scssion, aiiicianis aic cxccicu io:
- Bc ablc io conuuci basic asscssmcnis
- Know somc basic icchniqucs loi asscssmcni
- Havc a basic unucisianuing ol somc ol ihc mosi common sychological
uisoiucis ol chiluicn
Activities
Time: 4 houis
Materials: mcia-caius, llichaii, maiIci, boaiu
Session 3:
Assessment
ExpIanation of procedure for trainers:
" Mc-map act|v|ty: an exerc|se to retr|eve |nformat|on about the ch||d and to ga|n se|f-
awareness e.g. for the counse||or}.
On an A4 sheet of paper, part|c|pants draw a c|rc|e |n the m|dd|e that represents them
se|ves. They shou|d draw ||nes from the c|rc|e towards peop|e and/or th|ngs that are
|mportant |n the|r ||fe to be wr|tten down |n a c|rc|e at the end of the drawn ||ne}, such as
fr|ends, fam||y, va|ues, goa|s, act|v|t|es, etc. The c|oser to the centre, the more |mportant
the e|ement |s for the |nd|v|dua| e.g. one fr|end or fam||y member can be put c|oser to the
centre than another |nd|cat|ng the d|fference of |mportance}.
" Exp|a|n the |mportance of assessment. To |mp|ement an |ntervent|on the he|p|ng person
has to be ab|e to |dent|fy a ch||d |n need. As soon as the he|p|ng person and the ch||d
estab||sh contact, the |nformat|on gather|ng process starts - a|so known as asscssmcnt
or history taking. lt |s essent|a| that th|s assessment |s as comp|ete as poss|b|e because
|t forms the bas|s for d|agnos|s and the treatment p|an/focus.
" Before start|ng counse|||ng one needs to f|rst know whether the ch||d |s |n need of such an
|ntervent|on. lf a ch||d |s emot|ona||y d|stressed, |t might |nd|cate the need for an
|ntervent|on such as counse|||ng. lt |s therefore |mportant for a counse||or to be ab|e to
recogn|se emot|ona| d|stress.
Ask the part|c|pants to bra|nstorm a ||st of 'symptoms/e|ements" of emot|ona| d|stress
among ch||dren (scc rcfcrcncc for traincr4.3.1).
" D|v|de the group |nto sma||er groups and g|ve each group a case study Scc MoouIc V||,
Pcfcrcncc MatcriaI 7.4 for Oase Study of a Domest|c G|r| Oh||d - G|ta"}. Part|c|pants try
to obta|n re|evant |nformat|on about the case. Then ask them what |nformat|on they st|||
need, these need to be c|ass|f|ed by top|c.
" Ho|d a presentat|on and d|scuss|on on the groups` outcomes. Add re|evant po|nts and
focus on more |nformat|on that m|ght be needed.
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114 Training Handbook on Psychosocial counselling for CEDC Trainers Guide
They shou|d emphas|se the need for emot|ona| and causa| |nformat|on such as How d|d
G|ta fee| when her father |eft the house?" How d|d she fee| to work and be a|one |n a
hote|?" What made her dec|de to run away?" How was |t for her to not have food and
she|ter", etc}.
" Oonduct a |ecture about methods of assessment, spec|f|ca||y: |nterv|ew, observat|on, and
a|ternat|ve too|s Scc fact shcct 4.3.1 and transparcncy 4.3.1 ano 4.3.2)}.
" Part|c|pants conduct a group ro|e-p|ay that focuses on quest|ons a counse||or asks to
assess the ch||d th|s can be based on the check||st, fact shcct 4.3.1}. Feedback on the
ro|e-p|ays shou|d focus on the |mportance of retr|ev|ng rcIcvant information.
For further pract|ce, part|c|pants |n pa|rs one as the ch||d, the other as counse||or} conduct the
Scntcncc CompIction Tcst scc rcfcrcncc for traincr 4.3.2}. Exp|a|n how to use th|s test for
assessment and counse|||ng. F|na||y, part|c|pants open|y d|scuss the effect|veness of the
Sentence Oomp|et|on Test.
Methodology
- Icciuic
- Casc Siuuy
- WoiIsho anu Giou Discussion
- Piaciicc ol maiciial
- Biainsioim 8 Giou Excicisc
Resource materials
Tcxt Ior lccturc:
Tiansaicncy 4.S.1 Ovcivicw ol asscssmcni
Tiansaicncy 4.S.2 Posiiivc Qualiiy Scaich
Tcxt Ior trainccs:
Scc Mouulc VII loi casc siuuy ol Giia"
Iaci shcci 4.S.1 Asscssmcni ChccIlisi
Tcxt Ior traincr:
Rclcicncc 4.S.1 Symioms ol cmoiional uisiicss
Rclcicncc 4.S.2 Diawings anu Scnicncc Comlciion Tcsi
Key points
A ioci asscssmcni hcls ihc counsclloi io ucciuc which aih io choosc anu
will givc inuicaiions ol whai s/hc will cncounici along ihc way.
Synthesising
Pioviuc an ooiiuniiy loi qucsiions anu summaiisc ihc scssion wiih ihc
lollowing oinis:
- Thc liisi aciivc sic ol any hcling ioccss is asscssmcni. Mosi ol ihc
inloimaiion can bc gaincu ihiough inicivicwing ihc chilu, ihough oihci
mcihous such as obscivaiion anu alicinaiivc iools can bc vciy usclul as
wcll, csccially loi chiluicn.
- Poini oui ihai giou woiI on uyslunciional bchavioui anu sychosocial
maiiixcs aic goou icaiaiion anu mcihous loi asscssmcni.
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Training Handbook on Psychosocial counselling for CEDC Trainers Guide 115
Evaluation
AsI ihc aiiicianis io iaic ihcii unucisianuing ol ihis scssion ianging liom
u vciy bau, io 1u vciy goou). This is a quicI way ol linuing oui whcihci ihc
aiiicianis liIcu ihc scssion oi noi.
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116 Training Handbook on Psychosocial counselling for CEDC Trainers Guide
Over Over Over Over Overview of assessment view of assessment view of assessment view of assessment view of assessment
Assessment means finding out information that is relevant to the
child or the childs problem/situation, and should lead to the
decision whether or not to start counselling, and how to proceed.
1. Interview (see assessment checklist)
Information about development and life history
Specify the problem behaviour/complaint
Information about strength, coping, resources
How the child presently functions
2. Observation
A counsellor can gather a lot of information by observing the
child during the interview or in another situation. For example, by
looking at:
Physical appearance;
Contact with the counsellor;
Mood of the child;
Non-verbal communication, etc.
3. Alternative tools (for details see session on alternative tools)
These methods generate indications. They determine whether
the childs responses are neutral (adaptive) or alarming (indication
for further assessment).
Play observation
Drawings
Sentence completion test
4. The childs environment
Counsellors can gather a lot of information through the childs
parents, school or teacher, community, or peers. This is possible
through interviews or observation.
Transparency 4.S.1
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Training Handbook on Psychosocial counselling for CEDC Trainers Guide 117
Transparency 4.S.2
Positive Quality Search Positive Quality Search Positive Quality Search Positive Quality Search Positive Quality Search
2 22 22
The counsellor and the child should also look at positive elements
of the current situation and the future, not just the problems.
Identifying positive qualities:
1. What are the personal strengths of the child?
2. What are exceptions to the problem situation, and why? e.g.
Ask the child When do you not feel angry?
3. Are there positive consequences to the problem situation?
E.g. the child states: Ive become stronger since the incident.
4. What are the positive elements in the childs life - past and
present?
5. Identify positive social and cultural support systems.
6. Identify positive coping strategies (See session on coping).
2
Bascu on Ivcy 8 Ivcy, 2uuu
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118 Training Handbook on Psychosocial counselling for CEDC Trainers Guide
Assessment Checklist
Oncc ihc counsclloi anu ihc chilu havc mauc coniaci, ihc counsclloi bcgins ihc ioccss
ol gaihciing inloimaiion. Ii is imoiiani io usc as many icsouiccs as ossiblc uuiing
ihis ioccss i.c. aicnis, icachcis, ccis, oihci siall in ihc ccniic, anu ol couisc ihc
chilu.
Information about development/history:
- Picgnancy/biiih c.g. comlicaiions, hcalih moihci, cic.)
- Iiisi monihs c.g. qualiiy ol aicni-chilu iclaiion, un) hay aboui chilu)
- Slccing anu caiing aiicins
- Ianguagc anu sccch ucvclomcni
- Cogniiivc ucvclomcni lunciioning ai school, gilicu, mcmoiy, how uocs ihc chilu
ihinI. Ianiasy, cic.)
- Dcvclomcni ol social iclaiions wiih aicnis, ccis, anu oihcis, cgo-ccniiism).
- Emoiional/mcnial ucvclomcni aiiachmcni, inuccnucncc, accciing limiis, iiusi,
scll-conliucncc, cxicssion ol cmoiions, lcvcl ol aciiviiy, cic).
- Picvious social/cmoiional/ ucvclomcnial ioblcms c.g. illncsscs, acciucnis,
bioIcn homc, cic).
Specifying the problem/complaint:
- Thc ioblcm/comlaini in ihc chilu`s oini ol vicw
- Thc ioblcm/comlaini in iclcvancc io anoihci`s oini ol vicw
- Naiuic anu scvciiiy ol ihc ioblcm
- Thc chilu`s cxciicnccs/lcclings aboui ihc siiuaiion as wcll as oihcis involvcu
- Conscqucnccs ol ihc ioblcm on ihc chilu anu his/hci cnviionmcni
- Piogicssion ol ihc ioblcm
- Inloimaiion aboui icvious assisiancc
- Thc main lacioi/icason io unucigo counsclling
- Rclcvani cvcnis icccuing ihc ioblcm
- Thc chilu`s cxccicu ouicomc
Present situation/functioning and well being of the child:
- Bchavioui: sicaling, lighiing, misusc ol alcohol/uiugs, scxual aciiviiy, caiing habiis,
slccing habiis, anu osiiivc bchavioui.
- Physical wcll-bcing: siomach achcs, icoccuiiing minoi ains, giowih, hcaii
aliiaiions, uiinaiing.
- Scnscs: hcaiing, sccing, hallucinaiions, anu illusions.
- Moous: sauncss, ciying, hcllcssncss, insccuiiiy, ncuiialiiy/assiviiy, unsaiislaciion,
hay, moou lluciuaiions, cic.
- Aciiviiics: c.g. hobbics, lay, woiI.
- Icai: icnsions, ncivousncss, sccilic lcais, hobic icaciions, cic.
- Woiiics: aboui oncscll, oihcis, cvcnis, luiuic.
- Scll: how uocs ihc chilu ciccivc/ucsciibc him/hciscll. Whai is s/hc iouu ol
mosi. Whai aic his goou chaiaciciisiics, cic.
- Coniaci: liicnus how many. Whai aciiviiics uo ihcy shaic. Whai iyc ol liicnus
aic ihcy. Whcic uo ihcy mcci. Iamily iniciaciion, aigumcnis, aciiviiics, abusc,
lcasuic, salciy, siblings uo ihcy hcl onc anoihci. Do ihcy lighi.).
Fact sheet 4.3.1
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Training Handbook on Psychosocial counselling for CEDC Trainers Guide 119
- Iamily siiuaiion: sychological wcll-bcing ol ihc aicnis, socio-/culiuial/cconomic
siiuaiion ol lamily cic.
The parents/family:
- Socio-culiuial bacIgiounu casic, woiI, social nciwoiI, cic.)
- Paiinci iclaiion conllicis, haimony, suoii, cmoiional siiuaiion ol aicnis, cic.)
- Lbiinging clcai iulcs anu limiis, conscqucnccs, unishmcni, cxcciaiions ol ihc
chilu)
- Communicaiion ioics, aiicins, ocn/closcu communicaiion, ioviuing aiicniion
io ihc chilu, osiiivc/ncgaiivc aiiiiuuc, qualiiy ol iniciaciion, aioval, cyc-coniaci,
cic.)
Tasks and fantasy questions
(Thc lattcr arc mcant to givc you insight into thc child's thoughts and wishcs. This
might givc thc counscllor only indications or clucs about thc child's pcrspcctivc oI his/
hcr world.)
- Moioi ucvclomcni: lci ihc chilu wiiic, uiaw, cui, lay wiih blocIs, ihiow, anu caich
a ball.
- Play: can ihc chilu lay soniancously, alonc, anu cicaiivcly.
- Ianguagc: lci ihc chilu icau oi icll a sioiy.
- Calculaiing: is ihc chilu ablc io couni anu/oi calculaic.
- Wishcs: Il you coulu maIc a wish, whai woulu ii bc."
Il you hau NRs 1uuu whai woulu you uo wiih ii."
- Islanu: Il you woulu go io a ucsciicu islanu who onc cison only) woulu you
iaIc wiih you."
- Animal: Il you wcic an animal, which onc woulu you bc."
- Iuiuic: Whai uo you wani io bc/uo whcn you aic oluci."
Il you coulu looI in ihc luiuic, how will youi luiuic looI."
- King: Il you woulu bc ihc Iing/quccn whai woulu you uo/changc."
Information through observation:
- Gcncial: acaiancc
hysical comlainis/iiicuncss
- Aiicniion: conccniiaiion
imulsivcncss
lcvcl ol aciiviiy/icsilcssncss
icaciions io liusiiaiion
aiicncc
- Coniaci wiih counsclloi: qualiiy sucilicial, uclcnsivc, closcu, iovocaiivc, cic.)
cyc coniaci nonc, avoiuing, inicnsc, cic.)
- Moou uuiing scssion: hay, sau, loncly, shy, cmbaiiasscu, soniancous,
- Cogniiivc lcvcl: languagc usc/llucncy ol sccch
gcncial Inowlcugc, mcmoiy
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120 Training Handbook on Psychosocial counselling for CEDC Trainers Guide
Reference 4.3.1
Symptoms of Emotional Distress
1. Depressed Mood
a. Signilicani changc in osiuic, sccch, lacial cxicssions, uicss, cic.
b. Moou swings, lccling low oi sau
c. Pcssimism anu hoclcssncss
u. Icclings ol woiihlcssncss
c. Thcic is no luiuic loi mc, I am usclcss."
I am no goou anu ncvci will bc", oi
I`u bc bciici oll ucau. I am a big lailuic."
2. Loss of Energy
a. Iaiiguc; hcavincss in aims anu lcgs
b. Tiicuncss
c. Rcluscs io go io school, inabiliiy io conccniiaic, icluscs oi is unablc io woiI
3. Change in appetite
a. Ioss ol aciiic bui somciimcs incicascu loou iniaIc, olicn in ihc cvcning
b. Rclusal ol loou
4. Difficulty in sleeping/insomnia
a. Dilliculiy lalling slcc
b. Bcing awaIcncu in ihc miuulc ol ihc nighi by liighicning uicams anu
uncomloiiablc bouy scnsaiions
c. Eaily moining awaIcning
u. Ln-iclicshing slcc
c. Slccing ihcn waIing anu siaying awaIc all nighi
5. Loss of interest in work and other activities
a. Inuillcicncc io colc, iucas, anu lcasuic
b. Isolaiion, wiihuiawal, avoiuing colc, isolaiion liom oihcis
6. Behavioural changes
a. Pacing u anu uown, wiinging ol hanus, nail biiing, iaing lingcis on ihc iablc,
incicascu smoIing, bcuwciiing, angci ianiiums
7. Decreased ability to think and/or concentrate
a. Inabiliiy io ucciuc, icason, comichcnu, ay aiicniion oi aniiciaic
b. Pic-occuicu by iucas as scll-uoubi, woiiics aboui ihc luiuic, cic.
c. Doing ihings slowly anu wiih uncciiainiy
8. Remorse
a. Iccling guiliy aboui ihings in ihc asi ihai s/hc shoulu havc uonc bui uiu noi uo
b. Icclings ol shamc
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Training Handbook on Psychosocial counselling for CEDC Trainers Guide 121
9. Physical complaints/psychosomatic complaints
3
a. A hcauachc is ihc mosi licqucni comlaini, buining scnsaiions oi iaiu
hcaiibcai, bluiicu vision, iioublc in bicaihing, consiiaiion oi uiaiihoca,
icssuic oi ain in ihc chcsi, musclc achc anu ciams in ihc lcgs anu bacI,
swcaiing, wcaIncss in ihc bouy, ain oi uiinaiion, vomiiing, uiy mouih.
b. Thc cison mighi bclicvc s/hc is sullciing liom a sciious illncss liIc cancci oi
iubciculosis.
10. Anxious/Angry
a. Ncivousncss, iiiiiaiion, angci, lacI ol aiicncc, cic.
b. Thoughis ol iciioi, lcai, anu aniiciaiion ol uangci oi haim.
c. Icai anu woiiics aboui hcalih, linancc, allaiis, anu |ob.
11. Violent tendencies
a. Dangci io scll, oihcis anu iociiy; aiiacIs colc, usually lamily mcmbcis,
sousc anu chilu abusc.
b. Suiciual ihoughis commiiiing suiciuc sccms ihc only cscac liom iniolciablc
siiuaiions), iiics io in|uic scll swallow ills, scll-siaivaiion, cic.)
12. Drop in self-esteem
a. Iccling ol inaucquacy, incomcicncc, lailuic, cic. Bclicvcs ihai his/hci lamily
anu liicnus havc a similai vicw ol him.
b. Ioss ol scll-conliucncc/scnsc ol scll-woiih
S
Also callcu mcuically uncxlaincu somaiic comlainis
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Reference 4.3.2
Sentence Completion Test [Tr ansl ated and adapted]
Thc Scrcrc Co!c:or Tc: can bc uscu by iolcssional anu aia-iolcssional
counscllois woiIing wiih chiluicn. Ii is csccially usclul in ihc asscssmcni hasc ol ihc
counsclling ioccss. Though ihc icsi uocs noi givc conclusivc answcis/inloimaiion, no
icsi uocs) ii can givc ihc counsclloi inuicaiions anu/oi insighis inio ihc chilu`s ioblcm oi
lcclings anu mosi imoiianily, ii is a goou way io gci a chilu io ialI.
Ii is imoiiani io iaIc caic - ihc chilu`s answcis uo noi nccu io bc ihc iiuih; onc
shoulu ihcicloic ncvci basc a uiagnosis oi iicaimcni on ihis icsi alonc. Ii can only
ioviuc inuicaiions io whai nccus luiihci aiicniion anu cxloiing ihcsc issucs alici
comlciion ol ihc icsi).
Thc icsi coniains bcginnings ol somciimcs cmoiionally chaigcu scnicnccs, which ihc
chilu has io comlcic liccly anu quicIly. Thc icsuli can bc ncuiial, oi alaiming.
`Ncuiial` can mcan ihai ihc answcis aic auaiivc anu iyical loi a chilu ol ihc aiiiculai
agc (c.. I !:|c. !ny:r`, oi A nIc.. .o.|:`, oi I n .c.y. urry`, oi My bc: .:crn ::.
r:c`). `Alaiming` can mcan ihai ihc answcis aic noi iyical anu ossibly inuicaic
ioblcms in ihc chilu such as low scll-csiccm, abusc (c.. I !:|c. :cn!:r`, oi A nIc..
I::`, oi I .::I.I .n: ncnn`, oi I n .c.y. !orc!y`).
1. Whai I liIc ihc mosi .
2. Whcn I was small .
S. I liIc io lay .
4. I uon`i liIc colc who .
. Oihci chiluicn .
6. I uon`i uaic io say .
7. Thc niccsi is .
S. I am vciy aliaiu .
9. A moihci.
1u. Boys aic .
11. I woulu iaihci noi .
12. Ai nighi I uicam .
1S. Ai homc .
14. Ii is ioo bau ihai .
1. Iighiing .
16. I cannoi .
17. Giils havc .
1S. I am noi allowcu .
19. Thc chilu ciicu bccausc .
2u. I wish .
21. My bcsi liicnu .
22. WoiIing haiu .
2S. I can`i gci along wiih .
24. I am vciy .
2. A laihci .
26. Somciimcs I woulu liIc .
27. Bioihcis anu sisicis .
2S. I uon`i uaic .
29. My laihci anu moihci .
Su. Animals .
S1. I ihinI ihai my moihci .
S2. I ncvci icll .
SS. Playing .
S4. In ihc luiuic I .
S. I hoc ihai .
Counselling Skills
Training Handbook on Psychosocial counselling for CEDC Trainers Guide 123
Reference Materials 4.3.2
Drawings
moic uciails lollowing `Alicinaiivc iools loi counsclling`)
Thc usc ol uiawings loi asscssmcni is usclul as a way io communicaic wiih ihc chilu.
Iniciiciing uiawings shoulu ihcicloic bc avoiucu. Diawings shoulu only bc an inuicaioi
loi you as a hcling cison in casc ol asscssmcni anu iicaimcni ii is a mcihou ol
cxicssion/communicaiion).
Thc chilu may bc iclling you a sioiy wiih ihc uiawing. Howcvci, insicau ol
iniciiciing ihc uiawing, ii is bcsi io usc ii io asI moic qucsiions io ihc chilu c.. You n.c.
n nIc. In :: I::r n I:!n, .Iy n:n you n.n. In:` oi You n:nr` n.n. you.:c! :r Ic n:!y
n.n.:r, .Iy ro:` oi VIy n:n you u n b: .o:: I.ouI I:: c.:or:`
Evcn bciici; asI ihc chilu io iniciici his/hci uiawing. You shoulu asI ihc chilu io
uiaw sccilic ihings insicau ol a gcncial uiawing. Onc shoulu always Icc ihc agc ol ihc
chilu in minu, which will iclaic io his/hci uiawing sIills.
Ncvci usc a uiawing io ucciuc youi iicaimcni oi uiagnosis. Ii is only a hcling iool.
Family drawing
AsI ihc chilu io uiaw his/hci lamily. In ihis uiawing, onc shoulu ay aiicniion io
how ihc chilu uiaws him/hci scll in ihc lamily: uocs s/hc lacc him/hci-scll closc oi away
liom ihc icsi ol ihc lamily. Whai aciiviiics aic ihc lamily cngagcu in. Docs ihc uiawing
looI hay oi sau. Is cvciy mcmbci ol ihc lamily in ihc uiawing anu il noi, why noi. Is
ihcic anyihing cxiiaoiuinaiy in ihc iciuic. All ihis mighi givc you an iuca ol how ihc
chilu is lccling, whai ihc chilu is ihinIing aboui/in ihc lamily. AsI ihc chilu io cxlain ihc
uiawing.
Self-drawing
AsI ihc chilu io uiaw him/hci-scll. This mighi givc you an iuca aboui ihc imagc ihc
chilu has ol him/hciscll. Pay aiicniion io ihc claiiiy ol ihc lincs ihai loim ihc chilu. Scc
how ihc uiawing is on ihc aci; is ii vciy small oi big consiuciing ihc sizc ol ihc aci.
Docs ihc iciuic maIc a hay oi sau imicssion on you. IooI ai ihc lacial cxicssions
anu il ihcic aic nonc, cxloic ihc icasons. Is ihc liguic comlcic oi incomlcic. AsI ihc
chilu io cxlain ihc uiawing.
Draw a memory
AsI ihc chilu io uiaw a cciiain mcmoiy ihai s/hc has aboui his/hci lilc; lci ihc chilu
choosc. This mighi bc a bii uilliculi loi chiluicn who cannoi uiaw ihai wcll. Ii is vciy
inicicsiing io scc which mcmoiy ihc chilu chooscs io uiaw. Is ii a hay oi sau onc.
Whai hacns in ihc mcmoiy/uiawing. Why uiu ihc chilu uiaw ihai mcmoiy. AsI ihc
chilu io cxlain ihc uiawing.
Many oihci sub|ccis loi uiawing aic ossiblc; any sub|cci ihai you ihinI is sccilic loi
ihc chilu`s siiuaiion mighi bc uscu, ihough always wiih cauiion!
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124 Training Handbook on Psychosocial counselling for CEDC Trainers Guide
Objectives
Ai ihc cnu ol ihc scssion, aiiicianis aic cxccicu io:
- Biainsioim as a mcihou loi counsclling
- Sci goals wiih ihc chiluciicumsianccs
Activities
Time: houis
Materials: mcia-caius, lli chaii, maiIci, boaiu
Session 4:
Problem management 1:
Brainstorming and Setting Goals
ExpIanation of procedure for trainers:
" lntroduce the top|c by referr|ng to the overa|| counse|||ng approach be|ng fo||owed, and
emphas|se that ear||er sess|ons were ma|n|y |nstrumenta| |n teach|ng support|ve
counse|||ng. Th|s sess|on however, w||| be |nstrumenta| |n prov|d|ng prob|em
management sk|||s.
" Oonduct a |ecture on bra|nstorm|ng (scc transparcncy 4.4.1). Make |t c|ear that
bra|nstorm|ng shou|d be |ntroduced to the ch||d as an cxcrcisc not as a conversat|on.
" Ask a part|c|pant to conouct a group brainstorming sess|on on top|cs that one can
bra|nstorm w|th a ch||d. Fo||ow|ng th|s, g|ve feedback and a||ow other part|c|pants to
a|so g|ve feedback on the ro|e of the med|ator dur|ng bra|nstorm|ng.
" Oonduct a group ro|e-p|ay to pract|ce bra|nstorm|ng sk|||s w|th|n a counse|||ng sess|on
e.g. bra|nstorm poss|b|e strateg|es or so|ut|ons to dea| w|th anger |ssues w|th a ch||d.
G|ve feedback to the part|c|pants on the process e.g. exp|a|n the exerc|se: wh||st
bra|nstorm|ng w|th a ch||d one does not g|ve fu|| empathy or exp|ore a top|c fu||y or
otherw|se - one shou|d on|y encourage the st|mu|at|on of |deas.}.
" Oont|nue the same ro|e-p|ay - now w|th the counse||or exp|or|ng |n depth, the |ssues
that came out of the bra|nstorm|ng sess|on. Fo||ow th|s act|v|ty w|th a group d|scuss|on
on the advantages and d|sadvantages of bra|nstorm|ng |n these ways.
" Oonduct a |ecture on 'sett|ng goa|s` (rcfcr to transparcncy 4.4.2 ano GcncraI ManuaI,
chaptcr 3 scctions on 'ProbIcm soIving skiIIs, 'FormuIating goaIs in counscIIing,
'|mpIcmcntation of counscIIing goaIsProbIcm managcmcnt).
Note: Emphas|se that the goa|s shou|d be from the ch||d`s perspect|ve. Ask the
part|c|pants to conduct ro|e-p|ays on how to iocntify goaIs. An observer wr|tes down
methods/quest|ons used by the counse||or.
" D|scuss and share the |dent|f|ed goa|s, and |n|t|ate a group ro|e-p|ay on |dent|fy|ng goa|s.
" Emphas|se that the counse||or cont|nues the counse|||ng process and the prob|em
management process w|th the set goa|s, wh|ch enta||s:
" Mak|ng a p|an of act|on a pract|ce based on 'lmp|ementat|on of counse|||ng goa|s/
Prob|em management` |n Genera| Manua|, chapter 3}.
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Training Handbook on Psychosocial counselling for CEDC Trainers Guide 125
" Mak|ng an |nventory of the ch||d`s resources to he|p reach the goa|s pract|ce through
ro|e-p|ay}
" St|mu|at|ng strateg|es or so|ut|ons for change as pract|ced above}
" Work w|th/on the ch||d`s cop|ng strateg|es and other strengths pract|ced |n other
sess|ons}}
Methodology
- Rolc-lay
- Icciuic
Resource materials
Tcxt Ior lccturc:
Tiansaicncy 4.4.1 Biainsioiming
Tiansaicncy 4.4.2 Sciiing Goals
Tcxt Ior Traincr:
Scc Gcncial Manual, chaici S scciions on `Pioblcm
solving sIills`; `Ioimulaiing goals in counsclling`;
`Imlcmcniaiion ol counsclling goals/Pioblcm
managcmcni`
Key points
Assisiing in ihc chilu`s ioblcm solving ioccss is icwaiuing loi ihc
counsclloi as wcll as loi ihc chilu.
Synthesising
Pioviuc an ooiiuniiy loi qucsiions anu summaiisc ihc scssion wiih ihc
lollowing oinis:
- In ihis scssion, wc looIcu ai iwo ol ihc main comoncnis on how io assisi
io solvc ioblcms. Biainsioiming anu sciiing goals aic icchniqucs ihai
can bc uscu io assisi ihc chilu io linu a soluiion loi a cciiain ioblcm, anu
csccially io involvc ihc chilu aciivcly in ihc ioccss ol linuing a soluiion.
- This scssion was aboui ioblcm solving sIills. Anoihci main comoncni
in ihis iiaining couisc has bccn iucniilicu, i.c. coing siiaicgics aic uscu
in ihc ioccss ol ioblcm solving.
Evaluation
AsI ihc aiiicianis whcihci ihcy lccl ihai sciiing goals anu biainsioiming
aic usclul anu aioiiaic in ihcii culiuic.
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Brainstorming Brainstorming Brainstorming Brainstorming Brainstorming
4 44 44
Brainstorming is about the stimulation of ideas for exploring a
topic and can help the child look at the problem from a different
perspective. Brainstorming encourages the childs input and can
identify the problems of the child, the goals of the counselling
process, the childs coping strategies, and solutions to the
problem, etc.
HOW ?
Introduce the child to the brainstorming exercise, its rules,
and process.
Start the brainstorming exercise with a clear question
Ask the child to say whatever comes to mind related to the
identified topic.
Make sure you the counsellor, keeps up the speed. Discuss
issues after brainstorming and give partial empathy.
Do not make judgements; anything is fine even, or especially
wild ideas.
Encourage the child to come up with different types of
responses.
Help the child to use one idea as a starting point for other
ideas.
Suggest and Fade this is when you propose an idea followed
by a remark that might not be appropriate or might be
uncomfortable for the child; this can be discussed later.
After brainstorming, explore the outcomes.
Transparency 4.4.1
4
Iiom Enr, !-
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Training Handbook on Psychosocial counselling for CEDC Trainers Guide 127
Setting Goals Setting Goals Setting Goals Setting Goals Setting Goals
Setting goals helps children to clarify what they want from the
counselling process. The child can work towards a solution, and
is actively involved and engaged in the problem solving process.
Realistic and concrete goals should encourage the child towards
action.
WHY
5
Goals can:
Focus the childs attention and action
Mobilise the childs energy and effort
Increase persistence
Motivate the child to find strategies to accomplish them
Provide direction in the counselling process
HOW ?
Discuss future opportunities and desires
Identify the childs preferred outcome of the counselling
process (one or more specific goals)
Explore, specify, and prioritise the goals according to
importance and relevance
NOTE: Setting goals should not become stressful and demanding
for the child, and should not become the sole focus of counselling.
Transparency 4.4.2

Iiom Enr, !-
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128 Training Handbook on Psychosocial counselling for CEDC Trainers Guide
Objectives
Ai ihc cnu ol ihc scssion, aiiicianis aic cxccicu io:
- Lnucisianu ihc conccis ol icsilicncy anu coing siiaicgics
- To bc ablc io iucniily anu woiI wiih/on coing siiaicgics
Activities
Time: S houis
Materials: mcia-caius, lli chaii, maiIci, boaiu
Session 5:
Problem management 2: Coping
strategies
ExpIanation of procedure for trainers:
" lntroduce the top|c Oop|ng Strateg|es by g|v|ng a def|n|t|on and one or two examp|es.
Emphas|se that cop|ng strateg|es are actua||y the strengths and pos|t|ve behav|our of
ch||dren of most of them}, at |east from the ch||d`s po|nt of v|ew.
Oop|ng strateg|es shou|d be acknow|edged and recogn|sed. Pos|t|ve/construct|ve
cop|ng strateg|es shou|d be strengthened, negat|ve/destruct|ve ones shou|d be
rep|aced (Scc fact shcct 4.5.2).
" D|v|de the part|c|pants |nto sma||er groups. Each group bra|nstorms and d|scusses
cop|ng strateg|es of OEDO from the ch||d`s perspect|ve} that they have encountered.
" Each group presents the|r outcomes and posts them on the board. lf necessary, add
and/or categor|ses the cop|ng strateg|es |nto three ma|n groups (scc transparcncy
4.5.1).
" Ask the part|c|pants to conduct ro|e-p|ays |n groups of threes on 'how to iocntify coping
stratcgics. The observer has to wr|te down what quest|ons or methods the counse||or
uses for th|s e.g. quest|on how oo you prcscntIy ocaI with this oifficuIt situation?"} Ho|d
open d|scuss|ons on each ro|e-p|ay. (Scc rcfcrcncc matcriaI 4.5.1)
" Refer to the concept rcsiIicncy (scc fact shcct 4.5.1) and exp|a|n |t br|ef|y. Hand out fact
shcct 4.5.3. and br|ef|y exp|a|n d|fferent forms of cop|ng and the |mportance of mak|ng
such d|st|nct|ons.
" Ask the part|c|pants how coping stratcgics can bc strcngthcnco or mooifico. Ho|d an
open d|scuss|on w|th the group and add |nformat|on from fact shcct 4.5.2.
" Oonduct group ro|e-p|ays to pract|ce these methods. Part|c|pants shou|d |nc|ude
construct|ve and destruct|ve cop|ng strateg|es e.g. drugs can be an effect|ve cop|ng
strategy, however |t |s a destruct|ve one}. Keep referr|ng back to the |n|t|a| bra|nstorm|ng
sess|on and |nd|cate or add |nformat|on/d|fferences.
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Training Handbook on Psychosocial counselling for CEDC Trainers Guide 129
Notes for the tra| ner:
1. The psychosoc|a| counse|||ng method descr|bed |n th|s handbook and the Genera|
Manua|} can be descr|bed as a 'prob|em management and support|ve counse|||ng
approach`. The prob|em-management approach fo||ows a set of three sk|||s: goa|
sett|ng, bra|nstorm|ng, and strengthen|ng or mod|fy|ng cop|ng strateg|es see fact sheet
4.5.2}. Therefore, make |t c|ear that work|ng w|th the ch||d to he|p h|m/her cope |s a ma|n
strategy for prob|em management.
2. Oop|ng |s a way to dea| w|th stress. Exp|a|n that re|axat|on exerc|ses taught |n another
sess|on} are stress management techn|ques that can be used |n cop|ng strateg|es.
Methodology
- Icciuic
- WoiIsho anu uiscussion
- Rolc-lay
Resource materials
Tcxt Ior lccturc:
Tiansaicncy 4..1 Ovcivicw ol coing bchaviouis
Tcxt Ior trainccs:
Iaci shcci 4..1 Rcsilicncy
Iaci shcci 4..2 Siicngihcning oi mouilying coing
siiaicgics
Iaci shcci 4..S Moic aboui coing
Tcxi loi iiainci:
Rclcicncc 4..1 Iucniilying coing mcchanisms
Key points
Ii is iimc io ui bacI ihc icccs. Wiih ihc hcl ol oihci colc anu ]youi|
Gou, wc can uo ii. Iiisi, wc havc io accci ihc woilu as ii is, anu liom ihcn movc
on. Il wc uon`i iaIc aciion who will." (An.:c .o :.cc I:!n.cr o :.cc I:!n.cr.
Sou.c: C. C. Bnrnn, !7).
Synthesise
Pioviuc an ooiiuniiy loi qucsiions anu summaiisc ihc scssion wiih ihc
lollowing oinis:
- CEDC olicn ucal wiih ihcii siiuaiion in an imicssivc way. Thcy havc
ovci iimc anu liom biiih buili siiaicgics ihai maIc ihcm moic icsilicni in
siiuaiions whcic ihcsc coing bchaviouis bccomc ihcii suivival
mcchanism. Rcsilicncc iiaiis such as ciscvciancc anu oiimism, oi
sccilic coing siiaicgics such as sccIing suoii liom oihcis aic boih
auaiivc anu aumiiablc.
- MaIc a linI bciwccn coing anu ihc giou cxcicisc aboui ihc
iucniilicaiion ol ihc siicngih ol CEDC.
Evaluation
AsI ihc aiiicianis io wiiic ihc answci io ihc lollowing qucsiions on a sli ol
aci: Whai uiu you liIc aboui ihis scssion anu whai woulu you havc liIcu io bc
uillcicni."
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Over Over Over Over Overview of coping behaviours: view of coping behaviours: view of coping behaviours: view of coping behaviours: view of coping behaviours:
Coping strategies are the internal, behavioural and social abilities
that help a person manage stress. Any coping strategies are
positive behaviour from the childs point of view. Coping strategies
can be learned, mostly in response to new situations. We can
roughly define three groups of coping strategies:
1. How CEDC face a problem situation:
Working hard
Begging
Forming street groups
Accepting their fate
Finding solutions for their problems
Going to people for help
Confronting issues
2. How CEDC Escape/Avoid a problem situation:
Running away form the situation e.g. leaving home
Using harmful substances (drugs, etc.)
Ignoring the problem
Sleeping
3. How CEDC Externalise a problem situation:
Humour
Maintaining an attitude/strong image
Self assurance
Not allowing their feelings to show
Taking frustration out on others (fighting, blaming)
Transparency 4.5.1
Counselling Skills
Training Handbook on Psychosocial counselling for CEDC Trainers Guide 131
Fact sheet 4.5.1
Resiliency
Rcsilicncy is ihc caaciiy io wiihsianu, iccovci, anu movc oui liom ncgaiivc cxciicnccs/
ciisis anu io iciuin io ic-ciisis lcvcls ol lunciioning. Rcsilicncy can bc comaicu io ihc
caaciiy ol a songc io iciaIc iis iniiial shac, howcvci haiu you iiy io squcczc ii.
Anoihci cxamlc ol icsilicncy is ihc iccovciy liom a uiscasc/illncss. Rcsilicncc can
gcncially bc ucsciibcu as ihc icsuli ol a combinaiion ol coing siiaicgics.
Iaciois ihai iomoic oi uccicasc an inuiviuual`s icsilicncy oi vulnciabiliiy aic:
A. Individual factors:
1. Gcnctic, biological traits
- Chaiacici/Tcmciamcni
- Inicllcciual caaciiy
2. Pcrsonality Traits
- Bclicl in oncscll scll-cllicacy)
- A icalisiic vicw ol ihcii cnviionmcni
- Pioblcm-solving sIills
- Scnsc ol uiicciion oi mission
- Caaciiy ol cmaihy
- Scnsc ol humoui
- Caaciiy ol auaiivc uisiancing
B. Environmental factors
- Iamily ioicciivc laciois: caily aicnial caic, cnuuiing waim anu osiiivc
iclaiionshi wiih caiing auulis, osiiivc lamily cnviionmcni, aicnial
cxcciaiions, lamily icsonsibiliiics, osiiivc mouclling, goou aicniing sIills anu
sucivision, goou communicaiion anu iniciaciion aiicins, lamily iiauiiions anu
iiiuals, suoii ol ihc youih`s comcicncics anu lilc goals, anu cxicnucu lamily
suoii.
- School ioicciivc laciois: Ooiiuniiics loi involvcmcni, cxcciaiions loi siuucni
ciloimancc, anu a caiing, suoiiivc school climaic.
- Communiiy ioicciivc laciois: osiiivc communiiy noims.
!
Bnrnn: Fc::!:cry, !7
Tu.rc. c n!: E.o .::| o Fc::!:cry, !
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132 Training Handbook on Psychosocial counselling for CEDC Trainers Guide
Fact sheet 4.5.2
Strengthening or modifying coping strategies
a) IdcntiIy thc child's coping stratcgics : Iucniily ihc lunciion/cllcci ol ihcsc coing
siiaicgics anu whcihci ihcy aic consiiuciivc oi ucsiiuciivc io ihc chilu.
Noic: Cciiain bchavioui can bc boih consiiuciivc anu ucsiiuciivc
loi cxamlc: ciying can bc a vciy consiiuciivc mcihou loi ihc chilu
io iclcasc siicss anu cxicss cmoiions. Howcvci, ciying can also
incicasc lcclings ol lonclincss anu ucicssion anu ihcicloic bc
ucsiiuciivc loi ihc chilu. Thc samc bchavioui can bc nciihci
consiiuciivc noi ucsiiuciivc, i.c. il ciying is a icsonsc io bcing
hysically abuscu anu ihcicloic ihc chilu lccls aliaiu, angiy, anu in
ain. In ihis casc, wc ialI aboui a icaciion noi aboui coing.
b) Chilu`s awaicncss ol ihc coing siiaicgics anu aiicins (orc nr :rn I:: ou I.ouI
n::u:::or, !:::, quc::or:, .c!c:or:, c).
c) Siicngihcn consiiuciivc coing bchavioui, ihiough:
- Rcinloicing/cncouiaging ihc bchavioui
- Showing/moniioiing ihc osiiivc cllccis ol ihc bchavioui
- Biainsioiming wiih ihc chilu whai s/hc can uo io incicasc ihis iyc ol bchavioui
u) Mouily ucsiiuciivc coing bchavioui, by:
- IooIing ai ihc conscqucnccs ol ihc bchavioui, ihc auvaniagcs anu uis-auvaniagcs
- Biainsioiming alicinaiivc bchavioui oi oihci ihings ihc chilu can uo io uccicasc
ucsiiuciivc bchaviouis
6
.
- Rccognising/moniioiing whcn ucsiiuciivc bchavioui occuis
- Rclacing ihc bchavioui wiih an alicinaiivc icaciion ai ihc iucniilicu momcni
- Siicngihcn ncwly acquiicu coing bchavioui
6
Iinuing alicinaiivcs is onc way ol mouilying uyslunciional bchaviois. Oihci ways aic also ossiblc.
Counselling Skills
Training Handbook on Psychosocial counselling for CEDC Trainers Guide 133
Fact sheet 4.5.3
More about coping
7
Coing siiaicgics can also bc uclincu as: :.nc:c: o nc o .cnuc o. nc.cn:c urnc::.cn
::un:or: o. Ic or:cqucrc: o Ic:c ::un:or:. Thc ur:or ol coing lollowing ihis
ucliniiion, is ihcicloic uccnucni on ihc chilu`s ciscciivc. Thc counsclloi, in iuin,
shoulu iiy io claiily whai siicss lacioi ihc iucniilicu coing siiaicgy is aciually icuucing.
Examlc 1: A aiicni ol lciosy icvcals io ihc counsclloi ihai hc uocs noi icll oihcis
aboui his uiscasc i.c. ihc chilu uscs `Iccing sccicis` as a coing siiaicgy). Kccing a
sccici, howcvci, will noi icuucc lciosy. Thc counsclloi`s analysis claiilics ihai ihc
lunciion ol ihc siiaicgy is io icvcni ncgaiivc icaciions liom colc in ihc villagc i.c. ihc
aiicni lcais siigma). Inuccu, Iccing a sccici, liom ihc chilu`s ciscciivc, coulu bc
lunciional io icuucc lcai ol siigma.
Examlc 2: A viciim ol uomcsiic violcncc inuicaics ihai shc ocncu a sho as a siiaicgy io
ucal wiih hci uilliculi siiuaiion ol abusc. Ocning a sho, howcvci, will noi uiiccily)
icuucc ihc uomcsiic violcncc. Alici claiilicaiion, ii is clcai ihai ocning a sho was a
lunciional siiaicgy io icuucc ihc liusiiaiion ihai was a icsuli ol ihc uomcsiic abusc.
Conclusion: Ii is imoiiani io Ic| Ic ur:or oi cllcci) ol an iucniilicu coing siiaicgy
by asIing ihc chilu whcihci ihc coing siiaicgy icuuccs ihc unucsiicu siiuaiion ihai ii is
inicnucu io icuucc.
Thcic aic ihcicloic, uillcicni loims ol `coing`:
'Emotion-Iocuscd' coping
7
TaIcn liom ]o.nnr:, 2uu!
Domest|c v|o|ence Frustrat|on Open|ng a shop
{TIc o:r :.ncy .cnuc: .u:.n:or, Io.c.c. noc: ro n:.c!y c!::rnc noc:: .:o!crc.]
'Problcm-solving' coping
Domest|c v|o|ence Wa|k|ng away
{TIc o:r :.ncy n:: o .cnuc noc:: .:o!crc nrn :I Ic.cby .cnuc Ic .u:.n:or n:
.c!!.]
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Reference Material 4.5.1
Identifying coping mechanisms in children:
- Iucniily ihc uillcicni, ciiiical siiuaiions in ihc chilu`s lilc, ihc cmoiional imaci ol
ihcsc on ihc chilu, anu whai s/hc uiu io coc wiih ihc siiuaiions. Ioi cxamlc: ucaih
oi loss ol a lamily mcmbci, scaiaiion liom lamily oi signilicani cisons in ihc
chilu`s lilc.
- How uocs ihc chilu ucal wiih uillcicni siiuaiions in his/hci lilc ihai icquiics him/
hci io changc his/hci ways ol uoing ihings).
- How uocs ihc chilu ucal wiih ihc uillcicni cxcciaiions his lamily anu liicnus havc ol
him/hci.
- Whai is ihc chilu`s ucliniiion ol ihc ioblcm anu whai has s/hc uonc so lai io icsolvc
ihcsc ioblcms.
- Docs ihc chilu lccl anu ihinI s/hc can solvc his/hci ioblcm, oi uocs ihc chilu lccl
ovciwhclmcu by his/hci ioblcm.
- Whai uocs ihc chilu ihinI s/hc can uo io icsolvc ihc ioblcm.
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Training Handbook on Psychosocial counselling for CEDC Trainers Guide 135
Objectives
Ai ihc cnu ol ihc scssion, aiiicianis aic cxccicu io:
- Bc ablc io unucisianu, iucniily anu locus on coic ioblcms
Activities
Time: 2 houis
Materials: mcia-caius, lli chaii, maiIci, boaiu
Session 6:
Focussing on core problems
ExpIanation of procedure:
" Exp|a|n the |mportance of |dent|fy|ng a core prob|em |n a case. After the |n|t|a| stage of}
co||ect|ng as much |nformat|on about the s|tuat|on as poss|b|e, |t |s essent|a| that the
counse||or goes deeper towards the core of the prob|em. The prob|em behav|our or
fee||ngs can be a 'superf|c|a|` man|festat|on caused by a morc ccntraI probIcm, th|s |s the
focus dur|ng counse|||ng.
" Present the case study of 'Raju` (scc fact shcct 4.6.1). G|ve the part|c|pants about ten
m|nutes to study the case |n deta||. Putt|ng the|r |nd|v|dua| |deas on meta-cards,
part|c|pants shou|d dec|de on a hypothet|ca| core prob|em.
" Part|c|pants d|v|de |nto groups of four. They d|scuss the|r hypothet|ca| core prob|em w|th
one another. Each group rece|ves 20 m|nutes to agree on ONE common focus through
consensus}, wh|ch shou|d be wr|tten on meta-cards.
" D|sp|ay the meta-cards on the board. Each group open|y shares the|r hypothet|ca| core
prob|em that they th|nk cou|d be app||cab|e to th|s case, and the|r reasons.
" F|na||y, summar|se each group`s |nput and state that there |s not one true answer, but that
|t |s |mportant to th|nk of d|fferent poss|b|||t|es and to choose the best opt|on to work w|th
hypothes|s}. Dur|ng the counse|||ng process, counse||ors m|ght have to change the|r
focus as the s|tuat|on becomes c|earer. D|scuss fact shcct 4.6.2.
Note for the tra|ner: The quest|on m|ght ar|se: how can one pract|ca||y 'reach` the core
prob|em. There |s no set answer. However, through the ma|n counse|||ng sk|||s one shou|d be
ab|e to reach the core of the prob|em. Oounse||ors ask quest|ons that a||ow a conversat|on to
go more |n depth rather than hav|ng superf|c|a| conversat|ons w|th the ch||d or cont|nuous|y
chang|ng the top|cs. Th|s |nvo|ves tak|ng the ch||d`s perspect|ve, wh|ch |n turn needs qu|te a
b|t of creat|v|ty |mag|n|ng the s|tuat|on from the ch||d`s v|ewpo|nt and gu|d|ng the |nteract|on
accord|ng|y}.
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Methodology
- Inuiviuual cxcicisc
- WoiIsho
- Discussion
Resource materials
Tcxi loi Tiainccs:
Iaci Shcci 4.6.1 Casc siuuy `Ra|u`
Iaci Shcci 4.6.2 Iocus on Coic Pioblcms
Iaci Shcci 4.6.S Thc Iazaius Tcchniquc
Key points
A ioblcm siiuaiion is olicn a icsuli ol many laciois. Ii is ihc counsclloi`s
iasI io cicaic somc oiuci amongsi all ihc laciois anu io iucniily ihc mosi
inllucniial onc.
Synthesising
Pioviuc an ooiiuniiy loi qucsiions anu summaiisc ihc scssion wiih ihc
lollowing oinis:
- Ii is imoiiani io havc a locus uuiing ihc counsclling ioccss - ihc
locus is olicn ihc ccniial ioblcm ihai causcs ihc sucilicial/obscivablc
ioblcm bchavioui. Having a locus is imoiiani in oiuci io bc ablc io
cicaic a ioci lan ol iicaimcni anu goals. Iocus givcs uiicciion.
- As siaicu abovc, ihcic is a clcai linI bciwccn linuing ihc coic ioblcm/
locus anu cicaiing a lan loi iicaimcni.
Evaluation
AsI ihc aiiicianis whcihci ihcy woulu now alici ihis scssion) choosc a
uillcicni locus/hyoihcsis liom ihc onc ihcy hau choscn cailici iclciiing io ihc
liisi cxcicisc ol ihis scssion).
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Fact sheet 4.6.1
Case study: "Raju"*
Ra|u BishwoIaima is a boy ol 14 ycais olu. Hc was boin in a liiilc villagc ncai
Ncalgun|. Alici his moihci uicu, ihc lamily movcu io Ncalgun| whcic hc has bccn
living now loi mosi ol his lilc.
Alici his laihci icmaiiicu, Ra|u iooI io ihc siiccis loi a whilc. Hc somciimcs
livcu wiih oihci siicci chiluicn bui was olicn alonc. Ra|u suivivcu icIing iags anu
bcgging.
Alici aboui onc anu a hall-ycais ol living on ihc siiccis, Ra|u goi involvcu wiih ihc
olicc. Hc siolc loou liom a sho bccausc hc was hungiy.
Shoiily alici ihai inciucni, hc was `icIcu` u by an oiganisaiion ihai hclcu
siicci chiluicn in Ncalgun|. Hc siaycu wiih ihcm loi a whilc bui was noi lccling any
haici ihan hc uiu in ihc siiccis. Thc oiganisaiion mcanwhilc iiaccu his laihci anu
sicmoihci who assuicu ihc oiganisaiion ihai Ra|u was wclcomc io comc bacI io ihc
lamily, as long as hc woulu noi walI away again. Sincc ichabiliiaiion, Ra|u has noi iun
away, howcvci, his ioblcms havc noi bccn solvcu.
Ra|u`s laihci is a sccmingly goou man bui uocs noi show any aiiiculai inicicsi in
his son. His sicmoihci is moic auihoiiiaiian anu cxccis cvciybouy hci loui
chiluicn anu Ra|u) in ihc housc io lisicn io hci. Ra|u uocs noi gci along wiih his
sicbioihcis anu sicsisici, anu olicn lighis wiih ihcm.
In school, Ra|u has many ioblcms; hc olicn gcis inio lighis, hc has no liicnus,
anu hc is noi ablc io conccniiaic on his siuuics alihough hc says hc wanis io go io
school anu gci a ioci cuucaiion, anu says hc liIcs lcaining anu bcing in ihc
classioom). Hc scis high ucmanus loi himscll. Hc has uilliculiy wiih ihc icachcis anu
oihci auulis - hc uisobcys ihcm anu uocs noi show any icscci.
Somciimcs alici school, hc gocs walIing ihiough ihc ciiy io laccs whcic hc
siaycu whcn hc was living in ihc siiccis. Hc is hay whcn hc mccis ihc oihci chiluicn
ihai aic siill ihcic. Hc smoIcs cigaiciics wiih his olu liicnus anu uiinIs alcohol. In
gcncial, hc looIs assivc anu wiihuiawn bui can bc lcasani uuiing iniciaciion. Hc
liIcs uancing anu music. Occasionally, Ra|u has ouibuisis ol angci anu yclls ai
cvciybouy, anu gcis hysically aggicssivc. Iuiihcimoic, hc looIs iall loi his agc bui hc
is vciy slim, anu uocs noi cai a loi anu olicn has bau uicams oi slccwalIs.
A icachci liom Ra|u`s school - onc ol ihc only colc hc is somcwhai closc io,
noiiccu his uciciioiaiing bchavioui. Thc icachci coniacicu ihc oiganisaiion ihai hau
iaIcn him liom ihc siiccis. Thcy wcic willing io `havc a ialI` wiih him. Ii was uilliculi
io convincc Ra|u anu his lamily io siaii counsclling. Ra|u ai lasi agiccu io comc ai
lcasi loi onc scssion.
*
This casc siuuy is liciional
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Fact sheet 4.6.2
Focus on Core Problems
- Pcolc icnu io |uugc a chilu liom ihc ouisiuc. S/hc is ciccivcu as maniulaiivc,
icsilcss, scll-ccniicu, an aiicniion-sccIci, icbcllious, wiihuiawn, cic. Pcolc olicn
lail io scc whai is hacning insiuc ihc chilu.
Bcyonu ihc hysical chaiaciciisiics anu bchavioui, which olicn bccomcs mcasuics
io ass |uugcmcni, aic ihc many lcclings ihai aic causing ihis bchavioui. Wc lail
io unucisianu ihai ihc chilu bchavcs a cciiain way bccausc s/hc mighi lccl
unlovcu, loncly, insccuic, angiy, ashamcu, guiliy, conluscu, cic. Thcsc can bc
coic ioblcms anu ihus ihc locus ol ihc counsclloi`s aiicniion.
- Having locus cicaics aioiiaic goals anu givcs ihc counsclloi uiicciion uuiing
ihc counsclling ioccss. Thc counsclloi can maIc a hyoihcsis io bcgin wiih,
which ol couisc may changc alici somc iimc oi cvcn alici cvciy scssion.
Iinuing ihc coic ioblcm uocs noi ncccssaiily mcan ihai ihc counsclloi has io
siaii uigging inio ihc asi ol ihc chilu; ii |usi mcans ihai ihc counsclloi vicws ihc
ioblcm siiuaiion wiih a somcwhai analyiic aioach.
- A locus .c.cr: Ic our:c!!o. .o u:r .o o: o o: .:Iou o:r :r ncI;
: .c.cr: Ic our:c!!o. .o ncn!:r .:I .In nr or!y bc Ic ouoc: o o.c cr.n!
.ob!c:.
Eo. c:n!c: A chilu bchavcs aggicssivcly, anu has many lighis wiih ccis, is vciy
uisobcuicni, swcais a loi - louuly, cic. Insicau ol ucaling wiih cach ol ihcsc
inuiviuual ioblcms, ihc counsclloi can iiy io cxloic whai causcs ihis bchavioui.
Thc chilu coulu bc lccling cxiicmcly loncly anu ihcicloic scicams loi aiicniion
by bchaving aggicssivcly. Il inuccu lonclincss is ihc coic ioblcm, ihcn ii mighi
bc counici-iouuciivc io iiy io changc ihc scaiaic aggicssivc bchavioui bccausc
ihc chilu will iclacc/subsiiiuic ii wiih oihci bchavioui io vcniilaic lcclings ol
lonclincss.
- This is noi io say ihai in an cxamlc such as ihc onc ucsciibcu abovc, ihc
counsclloi shoulu noi ucal wiih aggicssivc bchavioui alici all, ii mighi bc ihc
coic ioblcm iiscll). Thc counsclloi shoulu iiy io cxloic whcic ihc iucniilicu
ioblcm bchavioui oiiginaics.
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Training Handbook on Psychosocial counselling for CEDC Trainers Guide 139
Fact sheet 4.6.3
The Lazarus Technique
Onc usclul icchniquc ihai ihc counsclloi can usc io maIc ihc chilu locus on ihc aciual
anu mosi icssing ioblcm, anu ihai incicascs ihc counsclloi`s unucisianuing ol ihc
chilus coic) ioblcms, is ihc Iazaius icchniquc Iazaius, 1976, 19S1; in Egan, 199S).
In ihis icchniquc, ihc counsclloi asIs ihc chilu io usc |usi onc woiu io cxicss his/hci
ioblcm. Ioi insiancc, a chilu mighi say `C!ouny`.
Thcn ihc counsclloi asIs ihc chilu io ui ihai woiu inio a simlc scnicncc, loi
cxamlc; `My :rn :: !ouny nrn I nr` I:r| :.n:I`.
Thc counsclloi ihcn asIs ihc chilu io movc liom ihai simlc scnicncc io a small
aiagiah, anu ihus a moic cxicnucu ucsciiiion ol ihc issuc. Ioi cxamlc, ihc chilu
mighi icvcal ihc lcclings bclow.
VIcr I :ny In y :rn :: !ouny I cnr In I:: :: y .cn:or nc. y or!: .:I y
.:crn. I In.c n!.ny: .u:cn I: nrn I IouI In Ic .ou!n Ic! c I.ouI I:: n::u!
::un:or, or!y o :rn ou In Ic I:r|: Ic :nc n: Ic .c: o Ic .o.!n. No. I cc! o!cc!y
ro urnc.:oon nbou y .ob!c nrn n .c.y oru:cn nbou .Io o .u: nrn .Io ro o
.u:. TI:: :: .c.y n::u! o. c.
This mcihouology can bc uscu ai any siagc ol ihc counsclling ioccss, anu is csccially
usclul uuiing ihc asscssmcni siagc. Ii is also a way in which ihc chilu can cxicss whai
s/hc wanis liom you sciiing goals).
Somciimcs ii mighi also bc usclul io usc ihc Iazaius icchniquc bacIwaius; ihis mcans
ihai whcn chilus aic cxicssing a cciiain comlicaicu ioblcm siiuaiion oi oihciwisc)
ihc counsclloi may asI ihc chilu io summaiisc ihc siiuaiion inio a simlc scnicncc anu
ihcn subscqucnily asI ihc chilu io summaiisc ihai simlc scnicncc inio a singlc woiu.
This can givc ihc counsclloi an iuca aboui ihc coic ol a comlicaicu ioblcm siiuaiion
loi ihc chilu.
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Objectives
Ai ihc cnu ol scssion, aiiicianis aic cxccicu io:
- Iucas aboui how io hanulc icluciani bchavioui
- A basic unucisianuing aboui somc ol ihc icasons ihai causc icluciancc
Activities
Timc: 2 houis
Matcrials: mcia-caius, lli chaii, maiIci, boaiu
Session 7:
Skills for Handling Reluctant
Behaviour
ExpIanation of procedure for trainers:
" Exp|a|n what 're|uctance' |s scc rcfcrcncc matcriaI 4.7.1} and about the poss|b|e reasons
for re|uctant behav|our scc transparcncy 4.7.1).
" Ask the part|c|pants about the|r exper|ences w|th be|ng re|uctant, focuss|ng on the|r own
fee||ngs, fee||ngs of the|r ch||dren, and the poss|b|e reasons for re|uctant behav|our do not
focus on how they overcame |t}. lf peop|e have no c||n|ca| exper|ence, th|s exerc|se can be
a bra|nstorm|ng sess|on on re|uctant behav|our |n ch||dren dur|ng counse|||ng.
" Part|c|pants d|v|de |nto sma|| groups and d|scuss the sk|||s a counse||or needs to overcome
re|uctant behav|our us|ng the|r own |deas and exper|ences.
Part|c|pants wr|te |deas on meta-cards. Post the meta-cards on the board and ask each
group to present the|r |deas.
" G|ve a short |ecture about sk|||s to hand|e re|uctant behav|our scc fact shcct 4.7.1} us|ng
your own meta-cards and post|ng them together w|th the other cards. Make a d|st|nct|on
between d|rect and |nd|rect ways of hand||ng re|uctance and emphas|se the effect
re|uctance has on the counse||or.
F|na||y, part|c|pants conduct severa| ro|e-p|ays that dea| w|th overcom|ng and/or exp|or|ng
re|uctant behav|our.
Methodology
- WoiIsho oi biainsioim
- Rolc-lay
- Icciuic
Resource materials
Tcxt Ior lccturc:
Tiansaicncy 4.7.1 Rcasons loi Rcluciani Bchavioui
Tcxt Ior Trainccs:
Iaci Shcci 4.7.1 SIills loi hanuling icluciani bchavioui
Scc Ccrc.n! Mnrun!, Inc. S|:!!: o Inrn!c .c!unrc`
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Tcxt Ior Traincr:
Rclcicncc Maiciial 4.7.1 Auuiiional inloimaiion aboui
Rcluciani Bchavioui
Key points
Ii is unucisianuablc loi a chilu io bc icluciani; ii may cvcn bc an auaiivc
icsonsc in somc cascs. Ioi ihc chilu, icsisiing is much casici ihan ialIing aboui
somcihing s/hc uocs noi wani io uiscuss.
Synthesising
Pioviuc an ooiiuniiy loi qucsiions anu summaiisc ihc scssion wiih ihc
lollowing oinis:
- This scssion locusscu on icluciani bchavioui. Thcic mighi bc many
icasons loi showing icluciancc - cmoiional oi iaciical icasons,
icasons iclaiing io ihc asi oi icscni. Rcluciani bchavioui manilcsis
in many ways - silcncc, oi ialIing a loi aboui cvciybouy cxcci
oncscll, iclusal, oi ncivousncss. IiIcwisc, ihcic aic many ossiblc
ways ol hanuling icluciani bchavioui, uccnuing on ihc siiuaiion, ihc
counsclloi, anu ihc chilu.
- Thcic is a clcai linI bciwccn sIills hanuling icluciani bchavioui anu
sIills in aciivc lisicning, as wcll as oihci gcncial sIills. Ovcicoming
icluciani bchavioui aiily uccnus on ihc counsclloi`s abiliiy.
Evaluation
Aoini onc aiiiciani io bc ihc laciliiaioi. Scaiaicly, cxlain io him/hci
ihai s/hc is going io laciliiaic ihc cvaluaiion scssion i.c. how ihc aiiicianis lcli
uuiing ihc cxcicisc anu whai ihcy lcaincu.
Insiiuci ihc aiiiciani-laciliiaioi ihai ihis is an cxcicisc loi him/hci io
iaciicc giou laciliiaiing/cvaluaiion. Thc laciliiaioi has io comc u wiih a lisi ol
tcn Icclings ihai ihc giou cxciicnccu uuiing ihc scssion anu a lisi ol tcn things
ihai ihc giou has lcaincu uuiing ihis scssion.
Mcanwhilc ihc icsi ol ihc giou is insiiucicu io bc icluciani uuiing ihc
cvaluaiion scssion, noi ioo obviously ol couisc), bui maIing suic ihai only a lcw
lcclings anu insighis aic shaicu.
Aliciwaius, biiclly cvaluaic ihc cxcicisc wiih ihc giou. AsI ihc `counsclloi`
how s/hc lcli uuiing ihc cxcicisc.
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Reasons behind Reluctant Behaviour Reasons behind Reluctant Behaviour Reasons behind Reluctant Behaviour Reasons behind Reluctant Behaviour Reasons behind Reluctant Behaviour
8 88 88
Reluctance such as, silence, avoiding important topics,
nervousness, rebelliousness, hostility, uncooperativeness,
avoidance (e.g. of one topic), and hesitance is often a response
to the content and style of an interaction between the counsellor
and the child, or a response to a threat. Counsellors must
understand and recognise the possible reasons or ambivalence
behind why some children are reluctant towards counselling.
Reluctant behaviour can occur if:
The individual is pressured by somebody to participate in the
counselling sessions
The individual might not have a need for, or is fearful of
expressing their problems or feelings due to his/her religious
faith
It is too difficult or too confronting for the individual to talk
about or face his/her own situation due to emotional obstruction
S/he believes that other interventions are more appropriate
for him/her
S/he might have low self-esteem and has little belief in the
ability to change
Transparency 4.7.1
S
Though ihcic aic uillcicnccs, icluciancc anu icsisiancc aic combincu in ihis scssion
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Training Handbook on Psychosocial counselling for CEDC Trainers Guide 143
S/he is simply not feeling well to attend a counselling session
The individual lacks trust or belief in you as a person/adult or
might react negatively to you as a person (could be caste
and gender issues)
The individual is afraid of change or disorganisation
The individual suffers from shame or guilt as a result of feeling
stigmatised or talking about taboo issues
The person might have had previously negative experiences
related to seeking help
The child might perceive the intervention to be in disharmony
with cultural or personal norms and values
There might be insufficient awareness about the (severity of)
psychosocial problems (no perceived need for help)
The child might not want to admit weaknesses or problems -
it might be too confronting or might involve fear or losing
prestige
The person might be hesitant to make effort
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Skills and issues for handling reluctant behaviour
Somciimcs chiluicn avoiu ioics ihai ihcy consciously uo noi wani io ialI aboui,
which can maIc counsclling uilliculi anu cvcn liusiiaiing bccausc ii manilcsis in silcncc
oi uisinicicsi in ihc counsclling ioccss.
Rcluciancc olicn mcans ihai ihc chilu linus ii uilliculi io ialI aboui cciiain
cmoiions, oi ihai s/hc is suicssing a cciiain lcailul oi usciiing cxciicncc. To
achicvc luiihci iogicss in ihc counsclling ioccss ii is imoiiani io ovcicomc
icluciancc. Ii is imoiiani io ucal wiih icluciancc as ii mighi obsiiuci iogicss.
Rcasons loi icluciancc aic olicn iclaicu io ihc icscni ioblcms.
Ii is imoiiani noi io cncouiagc icluciani bchavioui anu io avoiu bcing
iovocaiivc anu ioo conlioniaiional. Thc moic ihc chilu icsisis ihc lcss liIcly s/hc is
going io changc his/hci icscni siiuaiion.
Picscnicu bclow aic iucas aboui how io aioach icluciancc, somc ol which may
sccm coniiauicioiy. Evciy chilu is uillcicni anu ihcicloic nccus a uillcicni aioach;
cvciy chilu may havc uillcicni icasons loi icluciani bchavioui, which inllucnccs ihc
counsclloi`s mcihous.
I ndi rect methods of handling reluctant behaviour: thesemethods aimto increasetrust
and as a result, allow thechild to open up. This might besufficient if thereason for reluctance
is for example, that thechild does not havea clear idea about theintervention or fears a breach
of confidentiality.
- Rcscci ihc chilu`s oini ol vicw - s/hc iobably has goou icasons loi bcing
icluciani. Pcihas s/hc is ioicciing him/hciscll againsi lacing a ainlul
cxciicncc oi cihas s/hc uocs noi lccl ihc icquiicu iiusi. S/hc may also bc
aliaiu ol ihc conscqucnccs ol ialIing.
- MaIc ihc chilu lccl salc anu sccuic. Incicasc youi caaciiy io cicaic an
aimoshcic ol iiusi, waimih, anu caic. Do noi ush ihc chilu luiihci ihan ihc
limiis ihai s/hc scis icluciancc olicn inuicaics a clcai limii). Avoiu iovoIing ihc
chilu. Lsc cmaihy anu unucisianuing as lunuamcnial aiiiiuucs.
- MaIc an agiccmcni bciwccn you anu ihc chilu, anu siaic ihai you will noi choosc
sub|ccis ihai aic `noi allowcu io bc uiscusscu`. Il you Icc youi iomisc, ihc chilu
mighi icalisc ihai s/hc can iiusi you anu ihcicloic s/hc may lccl salc io cxicss
hci lcclings aiauoxical aioach). This mcihou shoulu noi bc maniulaiivc; il
ihc chilu uocs noi wani io ialI, icscci his/hci uccision.
Di rect methods of handling reluctant behaviour: as indirect methods areoften insufficient to
overcomereluctance, partly becausethechild is unawareof it, other additional approaches might be
necessary.
Fact sheet 4.7.1
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Training Handbook on Psychosocial counselling for CEDC Trainers Guide 145
- Cicaic awaicncss; uiscuss youi obscivaiions icgaiuing ihc icluciancc, which will
hcl ihc chilu gain insighi inio his/hci siiuaiion. By uiscussing ii ocnly, you aim
io cnhancc ihc chilu`s conliucncc io ovcicomc ihc icluciancc. This can iaIc ihc
loim ol In!!cr:r ihc chilu, oi ii coulu cniail uiscussing ihc ossiblc icasons loi
such bchavioui.
- Euucaic ihc chilu aboui ihc auvaniagcs ol cxicssion anu ihc uisauvaniagcs ol
suicssion.
- MaIc usc ol ihc chilu`s suoii nciwoiI imoiiani colc/oihcis) ihai can assisi.
- Lsc alicinaiivc iools insicau ol ialIing; c.g. uiawing, ainiing, wiiiing.
- Humoui can bc a usclul iool io iclcasc somc ol ihc icnsion ihai suiiounus
icluciancc. Aioach humoui wiih caic; uo noi huii ihc chilu`s lcclings, oi
iiuiculc ihc siiuaiion.
Whcn icluciani bchavioui icmains a baiiici io aciual iogicss, ii mighi bccomc
ncccssaiy io sio counsclling oi aiiangc loi a iclciial. Il cisonal aniiaihy iowaius
you as ihc counsclloi is/icmains ihc icason loi icluciancc, again, ihis mighi inuicaic a
nccu loi iclciial.
General issues to keep in mind when dealing with reluctance:
Do not blamethechild.
Do not feel overly responsiblefor thechilds behaviour or stagnation berealistic.
I t might begood to review thequality of your intervention (without blaming oneself) e.g.
arethemethods used, too directive? I s thechild clear about theintervention?
Do not becomeimpatient.
Do not lower expectations or thegoals of counselling dueto theobserved reluctance.
Consequences for thecounsellor: thereluctant behaviour of thechild might havedistinct
negativeeffects on your feelings and beliefs as a counsellor (indicated below). I t is important to
beawareof such personal reactions.
You might experiencethesessions as stressful and thechild difficult
You might experienceuneasiness and worries about how to further continuewith thechild
You might feel thechild does not trust you, which in turn is difficult for a counsellor
You might question thechilds own ability to deal with such situations
You might feel frustrated towards thechild
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Additional information about reluctant behaviour
Rcluciani bchavioui icllccis ihc chilu`s uilliculiy io ucal uiiccily wiih cciiain
cmoiions, ihoughis, oi ucsiics. Whcn ihc chilu icsisis ii obsiiucis oi ooscs ihc
ioblcm-solving ioccss in locus. Ii is ihcicloic vciy imoiiani io givc aiicniion io ii,
in oiuci io iogicss.
Thcic aic scvcial ways in which icluciancc manilcsis: ihc chilu mighi loi cxamlc
say, I havc no ical ioblcms" oi I uon`i Inow whai io ialI aboui," oi will somciimcs
bc silcni anu ic|cci counsclling aliogcihci.
Thiough hcsiiaiion oi inaiicniion, icluciancc usually uislays an ambivalcni
aiiiiuuc iowaius counsclling.
Rcluciancc is moic oi lcss a subconscious icaciion anu is an obsiaclc in
counsclling. Howcvci, il iocily uciccicu by ihc counsclloi, ii may ollci valuablc
inloimaiion, loi cxamlc ii may uislay ihc chilu`s coing siiaicgics io Icc anxiciy
unuci coniiol. (Nn.nynrn Fno, !2)
Reference 4.7.1
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Training Handbook on Psychosocial counselling for CEDC Trainers Guide 147
Objectives:
Ai ihc cnu ol scssion, aiiicianis aic cxccicu io:
- Bc awaic ol somc alicinaiivc icchniqucs, anu bcgin io usc ihcm in
iniciaciions uuiing counsclling scssions.
Activities
Timc: 6-7 houis
Matcrials: mcia-caius, lli chaii, maiIci, boaiu, big iccc ol aci, aini, A4
aci, cncils, ucis anu oihci ioys
Session 8:
Alternative skills and tools for
counselling
ExpIanation of procedure for trainers:
" Start w|th an energ|ser, strctchinq. Part|c|pants stand |n a c|rc|e. Te|| them to reach
towards the ce|||ng w|th the|r arms, and then re|ax aga|n. Then |nstruct them to:
Rotate the|r heads, gent|y to the |eft, the r|ght, upwards, and downwards.
Rotate the|r torsos to the |eft and the r|ght, repeat|ng th|s sequence a coup|e of t|mes.
" After the exerc|se, exp|a|n that stretch|ng |s a re|axat|on exerc|se, wh|ch can be a too| |n
counse|||ng to rcIcasc tcnsions.
" Oonduct a |ecture about the funct|on of a|ternat|ve too|s and g|ve an overv|ew of some
poss|b|||t|es (scc transparcncy 4.8.1). Ask the part|c|pants to g|ve examp|es of cases/
s|tuat|ons or prob|ems where a|ternat|ve too|s can be usefu|.
" Prov|de the part|c|pants w|th a sheet of A4 paper and a penc|| and ask them to draw e|ther
the|r own fam||y, or a memory of the|r youth. G|ve them 15 m|nutes to draw. Afterwards,
part|c|pants s|t |n pa|rs and do a ro|e p|ay:
Tak|ng turns at be|ng the counse||or, |n|t|at|ng a conversat|on about what the other has
drawn
Wr|t|ng down spec|f|c quest|ons that counse||ors cou|d use |n reference to the
draw|ngs
D|scuss|ng what the counse||or cou|d ask the ch||d to draw next, and wr|t|ng these
|deas down
" F|na||y, |n an open d|scuss|on, part|c|pants d|scuss the draw|ngs, the quest|ons re|ated to
the draw|ngs, and the reasons why they asked the|r partner to draw a spec|f|c th|ng (Scc
fact shcct 4.8.3).
" Exp|a|n the funct|on of p|ay |n counse|||ng espec|a||y young ch||dren see transparency
4.8.2}.
" Two part|c|pants conduct a ro|e-p|ay that focuses on|y on the use of p|ay, |n front of the
rest of the group.
" Part|c|pants then d|v|de |nto sma||er groups to pract|ce the ro|e-p|ays. A||ow 30 m|nutes
for both of these act|v|t|es.
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(Examp|e case, a chiIo of 10 ycars oIo oispIays angcr bccausc a oistant famiIy mcmbcr has
scxuaIIy abusco him. Hc bchavcs aggrcssivcIy ano has probIcms in schooI. Hc oocs not
want to taIk about thc inciocnt.)
" Oonduct an exerc|se on re|axat|on techn|ques for ch||dren, for examp|e occp brcathing or
autosuggcstion (scc fact shcct 4.8.2). A||ow 30 m|nutes for th|s act|v|ty. The part|c|pants
then try out these d|fferent re|axat|on techn|ques amongst themse|ves.
" D|v|de the part|c|pants |nto three sma||er groups to make a group pa|nt|ng w|th rea| pa|nt |f
poss|b|e}, on a b|g sheet of paper. G|ve each group a theme, e.g.: sexua| abuse, ||v|ng on
the street, and fee||ng depressed. Dur|ng the pa|nt|ng sess|on, they shou|d not
commun|cate w|th each other and any rea||st|c or abstract form of express|on |s
encouraged.
G|ve the groups at |east 20 m|nutes fo||owed by an opportun|ty to ref|ect on the pa|nt|ngs.
" ln|t|ate a group d|scuss|on to extract examp|es of ch||dren`s prob|ems or s|tuat|ons where,
a} ro|e-p|ay|ng |n counse|||ng sess|ons m|ght be usefu| th|s d|scuss|on shou|d be fo||owed
by a ro|e-p|ay of one of the examp|es suggested}, b} journa| wr|t|ng or |etter wr|t|ng as a
usefu| too| dur|ng counse|||ng sess|ons.
Methodology
- Icciuic
- Exciciscs
- Rolc-lay
- Encigisci
- Giou aciiviiy
Resource materials
Tcxt Ior lccturc:
Tiansaicncy 4.S.1 Ovcivicw ol icchniqucs
Tiansaicncy 4.S.2 Play
Tcxt Ior Trainccs:
Iaci Shcci 4.S.1 Tools loi counsclling - Why.
Iaci Shcci 4.S.2 Rclaxaiion icchniqucs
Iaci Shcci 4.S.S Diawing
Tcxt Ior Traincr:
Rclcicncc Maiciial 4.S.1 Lsc ol lay
Key points
Counsclling icquiics cicaiiviiy in oiuci io auai io ihc sccilic nccus ol a
siiuaiion, an inuiviuual, a giou, oi a communiiy.
Synthesising
Pioviuc an ooiiuniiy loi qucsiions anu summaiisc ihc scssion wiih ihc
lollowing oinis:
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Training Handbook on Psychosocial counselling for CEDC Trainers Guide 149
- Lsing alicinaiivc iools in counsclling as an auuiiional aiu uuiing ihc
ialIing ioccss maIcs counsclling moic aiiiaciivc, uivcisc, anu
succcsslul. All inuiviuuals aic uillcicni, anu all ioblcms aic uillcicni
ihcicloic wc nccu uillcicni aioachcs. Tools, such as uiawing, uiaiy
wiiiing, ainiing, anu lay aic cxamlcs, csccially loi lcss vcibal
chiluicn oi moic icicsscu ioblcms.
- Somc ol ihcsc uillcicni icchniqucs can bc uscu ciihci as a aii ol ihc
counsclloi`s iicaimcni lan as was ihc locus in ihis scssion) oi as a aii
ol an asscssmcni io gain inloimaiion aboui ihc chilu oi ihc siiuaiion).
Thcicloic, ihcsc icchniqucs linI wiih ihc scssion on asscssmcni.
- MaIc ii clcai ihai ihcsc mcihous aic an inicgial aii ol ihc comlcic
counsclling ioccss, anu ihcicloic inicgiaic wiih ihc basic concci anu
iincilcs ol counsclling.
Evaluation
Paiiicianis iaic ihc scssion liom u io 1u) loi iis ciccivcu valuc.
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Over Over Over Over Overview of techniques view of techniques view of techniques view of techniques view of techniques
Play
Through imaginative play, the child can tell his/her story,
express emotions. Try to direct the situation through play to
release some (sub-) conscious desires and at the same time
have fun (see transparency 4.8.2).
Drawing
Ask the child to draw something relevant for the treatment
process (as specific as possible, e.g. ask the child to draw a
time when s/he was angry or sad). You can discuss the
process together during counselling. You can also ask the
child to draw a feeling, a memory, or a person relevant in the
counselling process. The counsellor should not evaluate the
drawing on its beauty (see fact sheet 4.8.3).
Painting
Give children paints and big sheets of paper and allow them
to express their feelings or thoughts (abstract or realistic).
They can do whatever they want and even use other materials.
Both the creating and the evaluating can be valuable.
Relaxation techniques
When anxiety or tension levels rise, it might be good to focus
on that before anything else. Use relaxation exercises, such
as yoga, breathing techniques, etc. These techniques are a
form of symptom management (such as stress or fear
management) (see fact sheet 4.8.2)
Transparency 4.S.1
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Training Handbook on Psychosocial counselling for CEDC Trainers Guide 151
Drama
(Street) drama is especially useful for group sessions.
Through drama, the group is able to tell a story, interact,
express, and try out activities in an enjoyable setting. The
drama could have a certain theme that is relevant to the
counselling process.
Role-play
Use role-plays to try out newly learned skills or ideas. It
can also function as a practice for a particular task, for
example having to talk to somebody. Furthermore, it can
also be a means of expression of thoughts and emotions.
This is especially useful for dealing with problems in
relationships.
Journal writing/Letter writing
Children can keep a diary between two sessions or a longer
period. In the diary, the child can focus on a particular
feeling (expression) or goal. If the childs situation involves
other people, the child can also write letters to them to
resolve conflicts (the letter can then be sent or not,
according to the wishes of the child).
Me-map
This is useful to obtain information or to facilitate the child
to share his/her social support network and important
elements in his/her life with the counsellor.
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Play Play Play Play Play
The function of play is for the child to (indirectly) express
emotions, to express his/her subconscious
9
as well as to
understand and handle certain events, situations, and/or
problems. Therapeutic play generally has four functions and
allows:
Expression and communication of thoughts, feelings,
impressions
Expression of suppressed or underlying traumatic events or
conflicts
Information processing, putting events in existing mental
frameworks or adapting such frameworks to the new event(s)
Sel f-awareness; expressi on of i deas and opi ni ons,
experimenting with roles, outcomes, feelings
The process of play occurs in a safe setting where the child can
express and experiment without there being consequences.
1. Encourage the child to create a (imaginary) story and to use
available toys to introduce it (try to use this technique rather
than non-imaginative play such as using a ball or board
games).
2. Support the expression of emotions and thoughts through
Transparency 4.S.2
9
Play ihciay is oiiginally a sychoanalyiic inicivcniion, anu is nowauays wiucly acccicu by almosi all chilu sychoihciaisis; howcvci ihc locus is
iaIcn away liom ihc subconscious cxicssion anu locuscs moic on ihc cxicssions ol cmoiions anu ihc ioccssing ol inloimaiion ihc iclling ol a
sioiy).
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Training Handbook on Psychosocial counselling for CEDC Trainers Guide 153
verbalisations/commentary. Verbalise the childs play, actions,
expressions, feelings, or your impressions of these (as
opposed to asking questions because questions distract the
child from playing verbalisations encourage play). This does
not necessarily mean interpreting. Try to state in words what
the child is playing, or thinks s/he is playing. Never take the
attention away from the play however.
3. Recognise themes in the play through observation, and
encourage further play on such themes.
4. When the play relates to the counselling process or the
problem for which the child is seeing you, or your hypotheses
of the childs experiences, explore it further.
If the child only plays addressing topics that are not directly
relevant for the counselling process, the counsellor can
choose whether to intervene or not.
If you do not intervene: this builds trust, the child feels
that s/he is allowed to express anything s/he wants
and will subsequently feel confident at a later stage to
raise more profound issues. The risk is that the play
remains superficial or that it consumes a lot of time.
If you intervene: you can suggest or even ask the child
to play and address a certain topic. The risk is that you
overstep boundaries and go against the childs will.
If you indirectly intervene: through verbalisations, you
can link the current play with topics of interest and thereby
emphasise certain aspects of the play or even ask
minimal questions.
5. If you leave the child to direct the play, you should remain as
an observer. You should only join in when the child invites
you (indirectly) to take a role. If you do join in, leave the
direction of the play up to the child.
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Tools for Counselling Why?
Iiisi, ii is imoiiani io Inow ihai ihcsc iools can bc uscu as an auuiiion io ialIing oi io
cncouiagc ialIing, io maIc ihc counsclling ioccss moic aiiiaciivc loi ihc chilu, oi io
laciliiaic whcn ihc chilu cncounicis uilliculi sub|ccis. Tools loi counsclling can:
- Bc a vciy cllcciivc way ol cxicssing cmoiions, whcihci conscious oi subconscious.
Ioi cxamlc, ii involvcs aioiiaic ways ol cxicssing anu managing angci loi
chiluicn who aic scxually abuscu.
- Iaciliiaic ihc ioccss ol giving ihc chilu insighi in his/hci cmoiions anu ihoughis.
Ii can hcl a chilu io coc wiih a cciiain iiaumaiising cxciicncc boih cogniiivcly
unucisianuing whai hacncu) anu cmoiionally cxloiing uillcicni lcclings
ihiough a `salc` mannci).
- Givc chiluicn, who aic olicn lcss ablc anu willing io cxicss anu icllcci vcibally,
an ooiiuniiy io icll ihcii sioiy inuiiccily. Thcsc icchniqucs lcavc moic liccuom
loi laniasy, a chaiaciciisiic ol chiluicn icsccicu ihiough ihcsc icchniqucs.
- Hcl ihc counsclloi uiscovci/iccognisc ihcmcs in ihc chilu`s aciiviiics, cvcn
ihioughoui ihc iicaimcni ioccss. Ii can givc ihc counsclloi a glimsc inio ihc
woilu ol ihc chilu.
Thc counsclloi shoulu Icc liom iniciiciing ihc inloimaiion anu ihcicloic always
asI ihc chilu io iniciici oi commcni on his/hci own aciiviiy.
Thcsc icchniqucs aic moic aioiiaic loi youngci chiluicn who usually cxicss a
naiuial inicicsi io uiaw oi lay. CI:!n.cr ocr .cc. (.cn:.c) n:.::c: Inr u: n!|:r.
Fact sheet 4.8.1
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Relaxation techniques
!. Dcc B.cnI:r : This cxcicisc, whcn uonc coiiccily, is cllcciivc anu can bc
iaciiccu almosi cvciywhcic.
- TaIc a ucc bicaih you shoulu hcai youiscll inhalc)
- Holu ii loi a lcw scconus
- Exhalc haiu you shoulu hcai youiscll cxhalc)
- Exhalc again, wiih sounu - a `noisy sigh`
Rccai ihc abovc scqucncc six iimcs. Do noi bc aliaiu ol cxccssivc bicaihing
hycivcniilaiion), bccausc ii is unliIcly io occui. Howcvci, il you lccl iingling in youi
lingcis, ii is a sign ihai you aic in a siagc ol hycivcniilaiion, anu ihcicloic, ihis
cxcicisc shoulu bc avoiucu.
2. F.o.c:::.c Mu:u!n. Fc!n:n:or : iclaxing aiiiculai gious ol musclcs. Thc cniiic
ioccuuic gcncially iaIcs aboui 1 minuics. Thc bcginning ol ihis cxcicisc
involvcs gciiing lamiliai wiih ihc iighicning anu iclaxaiion ol youi musclcs. Ii
mighi bc bciici io siaii wiih ihc bicaihing cxcicisc, ucsciibcu abovc.
- Tighicn anu iclax youi |aws, youi lisis, youi cycbiows, cic.
- Closc youi cycs anu ihinI aboui iclaxing youi scal, icmlcs, loichcau,
cycbiows, chccIs, lis, ionguc, ihioai, ihc bacI ol youi nccI, shoulucis.
- Tcll youiscll ihai ihc lccling ol bcing iclaxcu is iiavclling uown youi aims,
asi youi clbows, youi loic aims, inio youi alms, youi ihumbs, anu lingcis.
- Now ii shoulu llow inio youi chcsi anu inio youi abuomcn: lill youi abuomcn
wiih nicc waim lcclings - gci iiu ol any icnsions.
- Now channcl ihc lccling inio youi scai, youi his, inio youi ihighs, asi youi
Inccs, inio youi calvcs, asi youi anIlcs inio youi hccls, inio ihc balls ol youi
lcci, inio youi big ioc, inio youi scconu ioc, ihiiu ioc, louiih ioc, anu linally
liiilc ioc.
Il you wish, you can iccai ihc cxcicisc bacIwaius, siaiiing wiih ihc lcci anu ihcn
moving u io ihc hcau again. You can cnu wiih guiucu imagciy scc bclow).
. Cu:ncn :nc.y : Thc lollowing imagcs can hcl you iclax oi lall slcc. You can usc
ihcsc icchniqucs oi cicaic youi own.
Thc mcauow: Imaginc lying in ihc mosi comloiiablc liclu in ihc woilu. Thc sun is
shining, ii is nicc anu waim, anu ihcic is a bicczc blowing. Thc giass is vciy soli anu
smclls goou. In ihc uisiancc you can hcai somc biius, imaginc ihcii song. Somc
colouicu llowcis also smcll goou closc by. Imaginc ihc colouis ol ihc llowcis.
A buiicilly is coming closc io you anu is lanuing on onc ol youi hanus. You can biush
ii oll il you wani. As you auu io ihc imaginaiion, icll youiscll ihai you aic going inio a
uccci anu moic lcasani siaic ol iclaxaiion.
Fact sheet 4.8.2
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Now imaginc ihai all ol ihc icnsion anu anxiciy icmaining in youi bouy is iiavclling
inio youi abuomcn. Thcic is nonc lcli cxcci in youi bclly. Now as you bcgin io
couni liom onc io ihicc, ii will bcgin io lcavc youi bouy, you will gci inio a uccci anu
moic lcasani siaic ol iclaxaiion.
Abovc, a clouu is caughi by ihc winu, anu as ii iiavcls iowaius ihc hoiizon, you will bc
cvcn moic iclaxcu.
Thc clouu: You aic lying on ihc mosi bcauiilul anu mosi comloiiablc clouu in ihc
woilu. Ii is vciy whiic. As you lic on ihc clouu, you aic gciiing moic anu moic
iclaxcu. Thc sun is shining anu ihc sIy is bluc. Iccl ihc cool bicczc. Ncaiby, biius
aic llying asi; you can hcai ihcii songs. You aic looIing ai ihc biius, ihc sIy, lccling
ihc waim sunshinc anu ihc soli bicczc. You aic going inio a uccci siaic ol iclaxaiion.
Now imaginc ihc icnsion going anu lcaving ihc abuomcn as in ihc cxamlc abovc.)
E.o: Bn:: T.n:r:r or :yIo:o:n! Irc..cr:or: o. :.cc I:!n.cr :c..:c .o.:nc.:, A
T.n:rc.`: Mnrun!, UNICEE nrn CI:!nIoc, FI:!::rc:.
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Training Handbook on Psychosocial counselling for CEDC Trainers Guide 157
Fact sheet 4.8.3
Drawing
10
Diawing, ainiing, anu oihci loims ol cicaiivc cxicssion can bc inicgiaicu inio ihc
hcaling ioccss. Chiluicn anu somciimcs cvcn auulis) linu ii uilliculi oi imossiblc io
ialI aboui ovciwhclming cvcnis ihai ihcy havc cxciicnccu. In uiawing/ainiing, oihci
mcans ol communicaiion subsiiiuic woius. Diawing can ihcicloic bccomc a iimaiy
mcuium ol cxicssion.
Cicaiivc cxicssion/uiawing, wiihin ihc scoc ol ihis iiaining couisc anu lcvcl can:
- Bc an cxicssion ol cmoiions anu iclcasc ol buili-u icnsions.
- Bc a iool io ialI; ihc counsclloi can asI qucsiions iclaicu io a cciiain uiawing.
- Poiiiay a cciiain mcaning io ihc chilu`s ioblcm anu ihcicby bc insiiumcnial loi
ihc ovciall hcaling ioccss.
Diawings anu ainiings can bc uscu in scvcial uillcicni ways. Counscllois can lollow ihc
aciiviiics bclow.
a) Iniiouucing ihc icchniquc as il ialIing io ihc chilu:
Diawings allow us io usc imagcs ncxi io woius. This mighi sccm liIc an unusual
way ol hcling you wiih youi ioblcms, bui somciimcs imagcs can say moic ihcn
woius. I shall givc you assignmcnis anu asI you io uiaw oi aini ihcm, howcvci
you wani. You nccu noi bc an aiiisi io bc ablc io uo ihis, noi uo you havc io maIc
woiIs ol aii - anyihing you uo is linc. You can icll mc whcncvci ihcic is
somcihing you uo noi wani io uo. Alici you havc uiawn somcihing wc can ialI
aboui youi uiawing, oi maybc I will asI you io maIc anoihci iclaicu) uiawing."
b) Iniiouucioiy uiawings, ihcsc aic uiawings uniclaicu io ihc chilu`s siiuaiion bui
scivc io maIc ihc chilu lccl ai casc wiih ihc maiciials anu mcihouology loi
cxamlcs scc ihc iiainci`s scciion bclow).
c) Diawings wiih a uiicci mcaning: asI ihc chilu io maIc a iciuic ol somcihing
sccilic c.g. his/hci lamily, a llowci, a bau mcmoiy). You can noi always) iniiiaic
a uialoguc by asIing ihc chilu io icll you aboui whai shc/hc has uiawn, oi asI
sccilic qucsiions, c.g.
Cnr you c!! c .In you In.c n.n.r Ic.c:`
VIn noc: I:: cnr o you:`
VIn cc!:r noc: Ic n.n.:r :.c you:`
Ho. n:n you cc! n|:r ::`
VIn n. o Ic :u.c .ou!n you !:|c o Inrc:`
Cnr you :.c n :!c o you. .o.|:`
1u
Thc lollowing is only a vciy small iniiouuciion on ihc usc ol aii in counscling. Ii is suiiablc loi ihis lcvcl ol iiaining anu cxisiing inicivcniions anu
imlcmcniaiion ai a basic lcvcl is lcasiblc. In Ncal, ihis concci ol sychosocial caic is moic icccni ihan `ialIing-counsclling`. Ii is bciici io usc
ihcsc icchniqucs in con|unciion wiih anu in ihc ioccss ol icgulai counsclling scssions. Onc nccus aucquaic anu long icim iiaining io usc ihis as an
inicivcniion ci sc.
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u) Alici onc uiawing anu ihc subscqucni convcisaiion, you can choosc io ciihci
coniinuc ialIing oi usc oihci counsclling inicivcniions builuing on whai ihc chilu
cxicsscu in ihc uiawing oi ihc convcisaiion. Ai a laici siagc, you can asI loi
anoihci uiawing.
To coniinuc, you can givc ihc chilu a ncw assignmcni ihai iclaics io ihc chilu`s ioblcm
oi icvious uiawing, oi a sccilicaiion ol ihc icvious uiawing. Eiihci way, ihc aciiviiy
shoulu bc bascu on youi obscivaiions ol ihc icvious uiawings) oi ihc chilu`s
bchavioui uuiing ihc uiawing) anu clinical cxciicncc ol ihc ovciall casc), in oiuci io
iobc luiihci inio issucs/cxicssions ihai will givc you moic inloimaiion aboui ihc
chilu. Pay aiicniion io ihc imicssion ol ihc uiawings - whai lcclings uo ihcy oiiiay.
Whai is cmhasiscu. Aic ihcic any siiiIing uciails.
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Training Handbook on Psychosocial counselling for CEDC Trainers Guide 159
Reference Material 4.8.1
The use of play
Play can bc uscu in scvcial ways in ihc iicaimcni ioccss ol sycho-cmoiional ioblcms.
Abovc all, ii is csscniial In Ic I:!n nr nrn .nr: o !ny, anu scconuly ihai ihc
counsclloi Inows aboui ihc ucvclomcni ol lay bchavioui ol chiluicn.
In ihis conicxi !ny cnr: :n:rn:.c (nrn:y), ihus noi boaiu gamcs oi soiis, cic.
Scvcial scssions mighi bc nccucu io sci ihc iighi aimoshcic, io builu iiusi, anu loi ihc
chilu io unucisianu ihc iuca basically ihai shc/hc can |usi lay). Iuiihcimoic, ii is
csscniial ihai ihc counsclloi chooscs ioys ihai aic aioiiaic io ihc local sciiing
11
anu
mccis cciiain basic iucas ol lay ihciay, loi cxamlc: uolls, icccs ol cloih, lcavcs, muu;
icicscniaiions ol chiluicn, soluicis, auulis anu animals; iocIs, icccs ol woou, aims/
guns; ambulanccs oi cais, houscs, cic.
A chilu gocs ihiough scvcial siagcs ol lay ucvclomcni
!. Scr:onI: !ny ihc lunciion ol ihis lay is ihc scnsoiy siimulaiion ii givcs io ihc
chilu).
2. Cor:.u:.c !ny builuing wiih blocIs, cic).
. Enrn:y !ny using ihc imaginaiion io cicaic onc`s own sioiy in ihc lay).
-. Cnn::c: !ny olicn high moioi sIillcu lay, laying ball)
:. So:n! !ny as ooscu io inuiviuualisiic liisi hascs in ihis hasc iniciaciion bcgins
wiih a laymaic).
Thc goal oI this typc oI trcatmcnt is to allow thc child to indircctly undcrstand what has
happcncd by cxploring thoughts or traumatic cvcnts and by trying out solutions
through thc 'saIc' cxprcssion oI cmotions and wishcs through play.
Piaciical goals:
- Cicaic a sioiy/ihcmc wiih ihc chilu. Thc chilu, who is olicn lcss caablc io icllcci
vcibally, can icll a sioiy.
- Encouiagc ihc chilu io iccognisc/vcibalisc his/hci cmoiions.
- Allow ihc counsclloi io uiscovci/iccognisc ihcmcs in ihc chilu`s lay.
Thc counsclloi can only accomlish ihcsc goals using ihc basic sIills ol vcibalisaiion,
cmaihy, icscci, anu inicicsi in ihc chilu cic.
Vc.bn!!y Cu:ncn F!ny
12
Thc counsclloi is ihc `icoiici`. His/hci iasI is io .c.bn!!y c:.c::
1) Whai ihc chilu is aciually laying
2) Whai s/hc ihinIs ihai ihc chilu is laying
S) Whai s/hc ihinIs mighi bc ihc icason loi ihc lay bchavioui
11
Thc cllcciivcncss ol lay as an inicivcniion in Ncal has noi yci bccn siuuicu. Il aioiiaic ioys aic uscu, ihc inicivcniion sccms io havc oicniial
loi assisiancc, as ii uocs in ihc Wcsi.
12
Bascu on aiiiclc ol A.K. uc Viics, in iuin bascu on woiI ol M. Klcin anu ]. Hcllcnuooin.
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160 Training Handbook on Psychosocial counselling for CEDC Trainers Guide
Vcibalisaiion can:
- Givc mcaning anu cxicssion io ihc chilu`s iucas, ihoughis, cic.
- Ioicc ihc counsclloi io bc lully aiicniivc.
- Cicaic an aimoshcic ihai maIcs ihc lay a sccial occasion in which ihc chilu will
icccivc lull aiicniion which is olicn vciy uillcicni liom his/hci uay io uay lilc). Thc
chilu will lccl `lisicncu io` anu ihcicloic icsccicu.
- Allow ihc chilu io cxicss him/hciscll. Whcn ihc counsclloi iniciicis ihc lay, ihc
chilu is ablc io agicc a), io claboiaic b), oi io coiicci iniciiciaiionsc).
Vcibalisaiion shoulu bc bascu on ihc lollowing qualiiics:
- Thc vcibalisaiion shoulu cicaic a iolciaiing anu ioicciing aimoshcic.
- Thc counsclloi shoulu givc coniinuous cmaihy.
- Thc counsclloi shoulu bc cxicssivc anu cncouiagc ihc chilu io bc cnihusiasiic aboui
ihc ooiiuniiy io lay liccly.
DO NOT.
- AsI .Iy-quc::or:, anu cvcn iiy io avoiu qucsiions aliogcihci. Ii is bciici io say, I
.ou!n !:|c o |ro..` oi I .ornc. :.`. Il ihc chilu uocs noi icaci io ihcsc icmaiIs,
you shoulu quicIly comc u wiih an hyoihciical) answci.
- Rcaci liom youi ciscciivc oi valuc sysicm. Avoiu aioval oi uisaioval. Thc
chilu shoulu bc ablc io lay as liccly anu imulsivcly as ossiblc wiihoui
inicilcicncc.
Thc iolc ol ihc counsclloi
Always icaci cnihusiasiically cvcn whcn ihc chilu has |usi uonc somcihing loi ihc sixiicih
iimc!). Hcl ihc chilu whcn ncccssaiy oi whcn asIcu. All vcibal anu non-vcibal
bchavioui ol ihc chilu shoulu bc icgisicicu anu vcibaliscu. Il ihc chilu qucsiions youi
vcibalisaiion, you can simly answci ihai vcibalising is youi iasI anu laying is his/hci
iasI.
Iinally, claboiaic by giving youi iniciiciaiions, inicgiaic ical lilc laciois oi cciiain
cmoiions wiih ihc laycu) woilu ol ihc chilu.
Dillcicni loims ol iniciiciaiion
1. Obscivc ihc aciual bchavioui anu aciions ol ihc chilu anu vcibalisc ii. (TIc:c :.:
!c.c! :rc..cn:or: n.c Ic o: :o.nr nrn n.o.:nc .Icr u::r !ny.)
2. Aciions anu vcibalisaiions) ioviuc a liisi layci ol mcaning. Aciions comc wiih
lcclings such as angci iowaius somconc, sauncss, cic). Thc ihoughi bchinu ihis is
ihai noihing ihai a chilu says/uocs gocs wiihoui a lccling/cmoiion cvcn ncuiialiiy).
S. Obscivaiions ioviuc luiihci mcaning such as a conllici, ioblcms in school).
4. Alici ihc scssion, iclciiing io youi noics) looI loi iciuining ihcmcs in ihc lay ol
ihc chilu anu chccI ihcsc ihcmcs wiih ihc gcncial ucvclomcni ol chiluicn in cciiain
culiuics.
Thc icaciions ol ihc chilu vcibal anu non-vcibal) will show whcihci ihc iniciiciaiions
aic coiicci oi noi.
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Training Handbook on Psychosocial counselling for CEDC Trainers Guide 161
Note on play!
Thc mosi imoiiani ihing is io cncouiagc ihc chilu io lay anu cxicss ihoughis, iucas,
anu cmoiions. Iucally, ihc ioics ol lay shoulu iclaic io ihc ioblcm/siiuaiion oi ihc
chilu`s inicicsi.
Lsc lay wiihin ihc counsclling ioccss in a way ihai you lccl is mosi usclul. Vc.bn!!y
u:ncn !ny is only onc mcihou. You can siiicily lollow ii oi |usi usc comoncnis ol ii.
You can inicgiaic oihci asccis such as qucsiions, suggcsiing ioics ol lay, cic) il
ncccssaiy.
Thc goal ol c:.c:::or is moic imoiiani ihan ihc cxaci mcihou ihiough which
cxicssion is achicvcu.
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Objectives:
Ai ihc cnu ol ihc scssion, aiiicianis aic cxccicu io bc ablc io conuuci
iolc-lays on ihcsc sccilic ihcmcs:
- Chilu laboui/Domcsiic violcncc
- Suiciual icnucncics
- Scxual abusc
- Tiauma
- Hanuling misbchavioui
- Disablcu chiluicn
Activities
Timc: 1 uay
mcta-cards, Ilip chart, markcrs, board
Session 9:
Specific situations
ExpIanation of procedure for trainers:
" lntroduce the sess|on by exp|a|n|ng that |t |s go|ng to |ast a fu|| day and that |t w||| ma|n|y
cons|st of ro|e-p|ays and the eva|uat|on of these ro|e-p|ays. Everyth|ng that has been
|earned |n the tra|n|ng course so far w||| come together |n th|s sess|on.
" The ro|e-p|ays w||| have s|x d|fferent themes/target groups: sexua||y abused ch||dren,
traumat|sed ch||dren, exp|o|ted ch||dren, su|c|da| ch||dren, ch||dren w|th bad behav|our, and
d|sab|ed ch||dren.
" D|v|de the part|c|pants |nto pa|rs or sma|| groups and ass|gn each pa|r/group one of the
above themes for the|r ro|e-p|ay. lt does not matter |f two pa|rs have the same theme.
W|th|n the|r pa|rs, part|c|pants dec|de who |s go|ng to be the counse||or and who |s go|ng to
be the ch||d.
" Before start|ng the ro|e-p|ays, hand out read|ng mater|a| on the f|ve themes and g|ve a
short |ecture to |ntroduce each spec|a| case. (For rcaoing matcriaI on hanoIing bao
bchaviour, rcfcr to Fact Shccts 4.9.1 & 4.9.2. For rcaoing matcriaI on counscIIing of othcr
probIcms of chiIorcn, pIcasc rcfcr to thc GcncraI ManuaI, Anncx 1).
" G|ve the part|c|pants at |east 30 m|nutes to read a|| the mater|a| and then a||ow for
d|scuss|on w|th|n the|r groups/pa|rs. lns|st that each ro|e-p|ay shou|d |ast at |east 30
m|nutes, not |ess.
Notc. G|ve the pa|rs/groups on|y about ten m|nutes to prepare the|r ro|e-p|ay to prevent
the 'counse||or` and 'ch||d` pract|c|ng before the ro|e-p|ay wh|ch |s not poss|b|e |n rea| ||fe!}.
The 'ch||d` w||| not be g|ven a case study to encourage h|m/her to be more spontaneous
and a||ow the part|c|pant to |mag|ne how a ch||d wou|d behave under the g|ven
c|rcumstances. Part|c|pants must fo||ow the theme/category g|ven to them.
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Training Handbook on Psychosocial counselling for CEDC Trainers Guide 163
The 'counse||or` has to focus on the fo||ow|ng po|nts:
1} Summar|s|ng, paraphras|ng and repeat|ng of key-words/restatements and ref|ect|ons
of fee||ngs
2} Open quest|ons
3} Empathy throughout the process
4} Non-verba| commun|cat|on/attend|ng
5} Structur|ng the prob|em
6} Hav|ng a goa|/focus
" Furthermore, emphas|se that |t shou|d not be a f|rst sess|on. To prevent the ro|e-p|ay from
be|ng about assessment, |t shou|d ref|ect counse|||ng |n m|d sess|on.
" The rest of the group observes each ro|e-p|ay. After each ro|e-p|ay, |n|t|ate an eva|uat|on/
feedback sess|on, of about 15 m|nutes. Feedback can be both pos|t|ve and construct|ve
and shou|d have the fo||ow|ng gu|de||nes:
1} How d|d the ch||d fee|?
2} How d|d the counse||or fee|?
3} Do they th|nk they covered the s|x po|nts of focus?
4} What are the observers` |mpress|ons about the s|x po|nts of focus?
After the ro|e-p|ays, fac|||tate the f|na| eva|uat|on. Th|s shou|d focus on the overa|| |mpress|on
that both you and the part|c|pants had of a|| the ro|e-p|ays, and on the s|m||ar|t|es and
d|fferences between each ro|e-p|ay.
Methodology
- Rolc-lay
- Discussion/cvaluaiion
Resource material
Tcxt Ior trainccs :
Iaci Shcci 4.9.1 Hanuling misbchavioui
Iaci Shcci 4.9.2 Inllucncing bchavioui
Scc Gcncial Manual Anncx 1
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- This scssion allowcu aiiicianis io inicgiaic/usc icviously lcaincu
sIills anu Inowlcugc. Thc locus was on six sccilic gious ol chiluicn -
ihosc wiih suiciual icnucncics, iiaumaiiscu chiluicn, scxually abuscu
chiluicn, cxloiicu chiluicn, uisablcu chiluicn, anu chiluicn who
misbchavc. Summaiisc ihc mosi imoiiani obscivaiions anu lcaining
oinis.
- This scssion linIs wiih all thc prcvious scssions.
Evaluation
AsI ihc aiiicianis ihcsc qucsiions:
How uiu ihcy lccl aboui ihcii iolc-lays.
Whai was ihc main ihing ihai ihcy lcaincu.
Wcrc thcy ablc to intcgratc ncw skills and knowlcdgc during thc rolc-play?
Key points
Piaciicing lcaincu sIills csccially ihiough iolc-lay) is cxiicmcly hcllul
loi woulu-bc counscllois.
Synthesising
Pioviuc an ooiiuniiy loi qucsiions anu summaiisc ihc scssion wiih ihc
lollowing oinis:
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Training Handbook on Psychosocial counselling for CEDC Trainers Guide 165
Handling misbehaviour (in a centre-based problem)
- To hanulc misbchavioui, inicivcniions shoulu bc ucicimincu by unucisianuing:
Thc chilu,
Thc immcuiaic siiuaiion,
Thc aiiiculai living conuiiions ol ihc chilu,
Thc chilu`s caaciiy ai ihc iimc io lcain liom his/hci cxciicncc anu how ihis
iclaics io ihc ovciall iicaimcni ol ihc chilu
- Thc counsclloi musi hcl ihc chilu ucvclo aiicins ol bchavioui ihai cncouiagc
consiiuciivc iclaiionshis anu ihai incicasc his/hci abiliiy io ucal wiih cxcciaiions
anu icquiicmcnis ol uaily lilc.
- Thc counsclloi shoulu iomoic ihc chilu`s ucvclomcni ol coniiol anu scnsc ol
icsonsibiliiy loi his/hci aciions.
- Each iyc ol misbchavioui icquiics a uillcicni aioach anu ooiiuniiy loi ihc
chilu io lcain ihc uillcicni lcvcls ol coniiol, uccnuing on whcihci ii involvcs ihc
lollowing:
Appropriate interventions
1) Vicw ihc misbchavioui ol ihc chilu as an inuicaiion ol ihc nccu loi gicaici suoii
anu guiuancc iaihci ihan as an occasion loi ccnsuiing lacI ol scll-coniiol.
2) Guiuc ihc chilu io livc u io his/hci caaciiics. Allow him/hci ihc ooiiuniiy io
maIc misiaIcs wiihoui icioach, io havc ihc inciucni ovcilooIcu, oi io cxciicncc
ihc conscqucnccs ol his/hci bchavioui as an csscniial lcaining cxciicncc.
S) Channcl misbchavioui ihiough icinloiccmcni ol osiiivc oi ucsiicu bchavioui c.g.
ioviuc social oi maiciialisiic icaciions as a conscqucncc io osiiivc bchavioui oi
givc lighi unishmcni, oi ignoic misbchavioui aliogcihci. Scc also laci shcci 6..2.
Somc siiuaiions icquiic uiosclul non-inicilcicncc, i.c. noihing shoulu bc uonc.
Oihcis call loi aciivc inicivcniions such as uiscussion ol ihc inciucni, changing ihc
siiuaiion, uisaioval.
Fact sheet 4.9.1
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Child's bchaviour
1) SccIing uimosi
aiicniion
2) Tiying io Boss"
oihcis aiounu
anu show
owci ovci
oihcis.
S) Huiiing oihcis
oi iiying io sccI
icvcngc on
oihcis.
4) Iazy, iiying io
convincc oihcis
ihai hc/shc
cannoi uo his/
hci assignmcni
iasIs.
Child's possiblc
bclicI
Hc/shc bclongs
only whcn bcing
noiiccu oi scivcu
Hc/shc bclongs
only whcn in
coniiol oi iclcis
ihai no onc can
"boss" him/hci.
Hc/shc bclongs
only by huiiing
oihcis. Mighi lccl
s/hc cannoi bc
lovcu.
Thc chilu convcys
io oihcis noi io
cxcci anyihing
liom him/hci. Is
unablc oi hcllcss/
cannoi accomlish
his/hci iasI.
Adults Icclings/
rcactions
Iccling: annoycu
Iccling: angiy,
iovoIcu as il his/
hci auihoiiiy is
bcing ihicaicncu.
Rcaciion: icnucncy
io gci icvcngc.
Iccling: uccly huii
oi angiy/liusiiaicu.
Rcaciion: icnucncy
io gci icvcngc.
Iccling: ucsaii;
lccling hoclcss
aboui chilu`s
icaciion - "I givc
u." Rcaciion:
icnucncy io agicc
wiih ihc chilu ihai
noihing can bc
uonc ically.
Child's rcsponsc to
adults attcmpt at
corrcction
Tcmoiaiily sios
misbchavioui. Iaici
icsiaiis ii, uisiuibs in
anoihci way.
Aciivc oi assivc
aggicssivcncss.
Misbchavioui is
inicnsilicu oi chilu
submiis wiih "ucliani
comliancc".
SccIs luiihci icvcngc
by inicnsilying
misbchavioui oi
choosing anoihci way
io huii oihcis.
Passivc icsonsc oi
lails io icsonu io
whaicvci is uonc.
Shows no
cmloymcni oi uocs
noi iiy io accomlish
iasIs. Bccomcs
lcaincu hcllcssncss).
Altcrnativcs Ior
corrcction
misbchaviours
Ignoic bchavioui whcn
ossiblc; givc aiicniion io
osiiivc bchavioui whcn
chilu is noi asIing loi ii.
Hcl chilu; scc him/hci
usc owci consiiuciivcly
by acaling loi hcl anu
on lisiing co-ociaiion.
MaIc ihc chilu a osiiivc
lcauci insicau ol NO
lcauci. Rcal lighiing will
only insiic ihc chilu`s
ucsiic loi owci.
Avoiu lccling huii; avoiu
unishmcni, oi
icialiaiion. Builu a
iiusiing iclaiionshi wiih
ihc chilu. Scc whai s/hc is
lccling anu cncouiagc 8
cnloicc osiiivc iniiiaiivcs.
Sio all ciiiical icaciions.
Encouiagc any aiicmi,
no maiici how small. Do
noi givc u osiiivc
lccubacI anu hcl ihc
chilu gain succcss in his/
hci aciiviiics.
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Training Handbook on Psychosocial counselling for CEDC Trainers Guide 167
Influencing behaviour
Punishment
Lsc unishmcni only in siiuaiions whcn oihci inicivcniions havc iovcn io bc
incllcciivc. Chiluicn can bcnclii by lacing ihc conscqucnccs ol unaccciablc bchavioui
as aii ol ihcii lcaining ioccss.
- Rclaic ihc iiming ol any unishmcni io ihc occuiicncc ol ihc ollcncc. Punishmcni
shoulu noi cxicnu ovci a long ciiou loi ii bcgins io loosc mcaning loi ihc chilu.
- Giou unishmcni loi onc oi moic mcmbcis loi misbchaving can havc ncgaiivc
long-icim cllccis oi cicaics unlaii unishmcni, anu may uisiuib giou cohcsion.
Thc giou coulu bccomc hosiilc io ihc inuiviuual who cicaicu ihc ioblcm. Thc
inuiviuual may lccl alonc anu ic|ccicu by ihc giou.
- Avoiu coioial hysical) unishmcni oi vcibal humiliaiion ai all iimcs.
- A chilu may nccu io bc icmovcu liom ihc giou anu giou aciiviiics loi a whilc.
This is ncccssaiy io ioicci ihc chilu oi io limii uisiuibancc wiihin a giou.
Ways to discourage misbehaviour
- Ignoic ihc misbchavioui.
- Exicss youi lcclings biiclly, allow woius io sinI ii avoiu maIing ihc chilu lccl
guiliy).
- Timc oui: loi shoii amounis ol iimc, uo noi givc ihc chilu any aiicniion as a
icaciion io his/hci misbchavioui.
Ways to encourage good behaviour
- Caich ihc chilu whcn s/hc is bcing goou anu acInowlcugc imiovcmcni wiih iaisc
- Exicss cncouiagcmcni such as ihanIing him/hci, givc liiilc gilis iangiblc), hug,
anu ai him/hci on ihc bacI.
- Lsc uisiiaciion - channcl ihc chilu io oihci aciiviiics.
Ways to increase a childs self-esteem
- Bc caiclul how you iniciaci wiih ihc chilu
- Givc ihc chilu qualiiy iimc
- AcInowlcugc clloii, anu cxicss inicicsi in small ihings ihc chilu uocs
- Encouiagc ihc chilu io iucniily anu cxicss lcclings
- Lsc a osiiivc ionc ol voicc
When disciplining, avoid:
- Inconsisicni, unicuiciablc uiscilinaiy aciions
- Lnlaii cxcciaiions: basc cxcciaiions on whai ihc chilu can icalisiically uo,
consiuciing his/hci siagc ol ucvclomcni. Ii is noi laii io cxcci ihc chilu io
changc his/hci bchavioui ai oncc whcn s/hc has bccn uscu io ii loi a long iimc.
- Comaiisons: Do noi comaic onc chilu io anoihci. This maIcs ihc chilu lccl
insccuic.
- Bcing ioo cimissivc: Giving ihc chilu ioo much inuccnucncc may noi hcl him/
hci Inow whai is aioiiaic.
- Bcing ioo auihoiiiaiian: On ihc oihci hanu, ihc chilu nccus a cciiain lcvcl ol
liccuom io bc whcic s/hc wanis io bc anu uo whai s/hc wanis io uo.
Fact sheet 4.9.2
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When making rules, remember:
- Rulcs aic lcasi succcsslul wiih iccnagcis. Tccnagcis oosc siiuciuic anu iulcs ihai
ihcy ihinI will ihicaicn ihcii scnsc ol inuccnucncc.
- Il cvciyihing is loibiuucn, iulcs will bc bioIcn anu causc icluciancc.
- Kcc iulcs io a minimum. Bc sccilic anu lcavc cnough ioom loi cxicssion.
- Do noi cxcci iccnagcis io lollow iulcs you youiscll uo noi abiuc by c.g.
smoIing).
- Givc sacc so ihai ihc iccnagci lcains io aci icsonsibly, anu noi |usi blinuly lollow
ihc iulcs you mauc.
Coping with disagreements
- Whcn angiy, say/asI why."
- Do noi shoui bacI, ihis may cscalaic ihc conllici.
- Suggcsi a cooling oll ciiou.
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Objectives
Ai ihc cnu ol scssion, aiiicianis aic cxccicu io Inow:
- Why ii is imoiiani io uocumcni ihc counsclling ioccss
- How io uocumcni ii
- How io gaihci anu iccoiu iclcvani inloimaiion ncccssaiy loi ucvcloing a
lan ol iicaimcni
Activities
Timc: 1 houi
Matcrials: mcia-caius, lli chaii, maiIci, boaiu
Session 10:
Documentation
ExpIanation of procedure for trainers:
" Oonduct a |ecture on document|ng/record|ng see be|ow}. Stress the |mportance of
documentat|on to forma||se psychosoc|a| ass|stance and to make |t profess|ona|.
" Documentat|on |s essent|a| for profess|ona||sm |n counse|||ng. Documentat|on w||| he|p the
counse||or to:
1. Rema|n object|ve
2. Have an overv|ew of the |mprovements or d|ff|cu|t|es w|th|n the process
3. Rema|n focussed and prec|se
4. Be ab|e to share |deas and work |n a team |f necessary
5. Refer the case w|th a c|ear h|story of the ch||d a|ready documented
" Exp|a|n how and when to document. ldea||y, there are three sorts of documentat|on
throughout the counse|||ng process.
Dur|ng the |ntake phase: to |dent|fy the ch||d. At th|s stage, one dec|des whether to
|n|t|ate counse|||ng or other/no ass|stance.
Dur|ng the assessment phase: |nformat|on co||ected at th|s phase shou|d be more
spec|f|c |n order to have enough |nformat|on to |n|t|ate the counse|||ng e.g. about the
prob|em and |nf|uenc|ng factors}.
Document|ng after each sess|on once the counse|||ng process has started:
documentat|on can be short, however essent|a| for cont|nu|ty.
" Go over the Forms A, B & O (scc fact shccts 4.10.1, 4.10.2 & 4.10.3, Form B can bc usco
for both intakc or asscssmcnt). Exp|a|n the use of these forms.
" Add|t|ona||y, po|nt out that one needs to regu|ar|y ho|d c||n|ca| meet|ngs w|th co||eagues to
share exper|ences about ch||dren. Th|s |s v|ta| for the qua||ty of the serv|ce be|ng prov|ded.
Th|s type of 'case conference` or superv|s|on meet|ng |s espec|a||y usefu| |n the case of
|nterd|sc|p||nary teams.
" F|na||y, ment|on that tak|ng notes dur|ng the counse|||ng sess|on m|ght be the most
accurate way to document, however |t a|so d|stracts the ch||d and counse||or from the
sess|on |tse|f. lnstead, the counse||or shou|d tra|n h|m/herse|f to on|y wr|te down
keywords, |f anyth|ng at a||.
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Methodology
- Icciuic
Resource materials
Tcxt Ior trainccs:
Iaci Shcci 4.1u.1 Ioim A
Iaci Shcci 4.1u.2 Ioim B
Iaci Shcci 4.1u.S Ioim C
Key Points
Ii is imoiiani io uocumcni scssions in ihc counsclling ioccss.
Synthesising
Pioviuc an ooiiuniiy loi qucsiions anu summaiisc ihc scssion wiih ihc
lollowing oinis:
- This scssion cmhasiscu ihc imoiiancc ol conuuciing counsclling in a
loimal mannci, boih in ihc siiuciuic ol ihc iniciaciions wiih ihc chilu
anu ihiough uocumcniaiion ol uillcicni hascs. Documcniaiion linIs
iogcihci all ihc scaiaic sics anu scssions ol ihc counsclling ioccss.
Evaluation
AsI ihc aiiicianis ihc lollowing qucsiion:
Whai aic ihc uilliculiics in using uocumcniaiion loims in ihc uaily iaciicc
ol counsclling wiihin youi oiganisaiion/iogiammc.
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Form A: Documentation form
13
Iilc No.:
Daic ol Aumission:
Namc:
Counsclloi:
Agc/Scx:
Auuicss :
Euucaiional siaius: a) Illiiciaic b) Iiiciaic c) Piimaiy Icvcl
u). Scconuaiy Icvcl c) Highci Icvcl
Maiiial Siaius: a) Maiiicu b) Lnmaiiicu c) Wiuow
u) Divoiccu c) Scaiaicu
Casc in Biicl/Picscnicu ioblcms):
Iamily BacIgiounu:
Mcuical BacIgiounu:
Chilu`s Excciaiion:
Scivicc ioviucu:
Rclciicu by:
Rclciicu loi:
Fact sheet 4.10.1
1S
This loim anu somc ol ihc lollowing loims) has bccn mauc comaci, anu scivcs as an cxamlc. Ioi aciual usc allow much moic sacc io wiiic.
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Fact sheet 4.10.2
Form B: Social Case Study Report
1. Identifying Data
- Namc:
- Agc/scx:
- Biiih Daic:
- Picscni Auuicss:
- Caicgoiy:
- Daic ol aumission:
- Souicc ol Rclciial:
2. Presenting the Problem
- Why has ihc chilu bccn iclciicu io ihc counsclling ccniic. Givc u io ihicc icasons
bui no moic.)
- Whai is/aic ihc chilu`s ciiiical ioblcm/s anu nccus ai ihc iimc ol iclciial. Ai whai
licqucncy anu inicnsiiy. Whcn uiu ihc inciucni hacn.
- How uocs ihc chilu ciccivc ihc ioblcm anu how uocs s/hc lccl. Whai uocs ihc
chilu scc as a ossiblc soluiion.
- Who clsc was involvcu in ihc ioblcm. How uo Icy lccl aboui ihc siiuaiion.
- Who is ihc iclciiing aiiy. Whai is ihcii iclaiionshi io ihc chilu.
- Whai hcl uocs ihc iclciiing aiiy wani liom ihc counsclling scivicc.
3. History of the problem situation
- How uiu ihc chilu`s ioblcm comc io ihc aiicniion ol ihc iclciiing aiiy. OR) Why
uiu ihcy comc io ihc counsclling ccniic.
- Hcl ihc chilu iccall cxacily whcn ihc ioblcm occuiicu. Who was icscni whcn ii
liisi hacncu. How long has ihc ioblcm bccn hacning. How uiu ii hacn.
Tiy io gci a ucsciiiion ol ihc cvcnis.
- Whai was ihc chilu uoing bcloic ihc ciisis oi ioblcm. How uiu s/hc managc io
coc wiih ihc ioblcms/ciisis in ihc asi.
- Who hclcu ihc chilu in ihc asi io coc wiih ihis ioblcm. Whai Iinu ol hcl was
ioviucu, anu how.
- How uo you as siall) lccl aboui ihc ciisis now.
- Whai ioblcm siiuaiion is ihc chilu iiying io oi wani io icsolvc now. OR) Whai
uocs s/hc wani liom ihc counsclling ccniic.
- Thc counsclling ccniic: Whai havc ihcy uonc aboui ihc ioblcm ihcy aic
cncouniciing now.
- Ioi ihc counsclloi: Whai uo you wani io uo oi achicvc now aboui ihc ciisis/
ioblcm. How uo you wani io uo ii. Who uo you ihinI can hcl you now.
- Whai uo ihc imoiiani colc in ihc chilu`s lilc lccl aboui ihc icscni ciisis. Whai
uo ihcy wani io uo io achicvc changc in ihc icscni ciisis. How uo ihcy wani io go
aboui ii.
4. Background Information of child
- Thc chilu`s agc, lcaiuics, culiuial bacIgiounu, how ihc chilu was iaiscu by ihc
aicnis havc ihcy bccn abuscu, ncglccicu, cic.) Whai iyc ol iolc moucls uiu ihc
chilu havc, i.c. own aicnis.
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- Whai wcic ihc signilicani/ciiiical cvcnis in ihcii livcs ihai ihcy coulu noi loigci which
havc cicaicu an imaci on ihcii icscni lilc. How ihcy lccl aboui ihcsc cvcnis anu
how uiu ihcy coc wiih ihc ciiiical cvcnis ai ihc iimc.
- Whai is ihc icscni iclaiionshi bciwccn laihci anu moihci, iclaiionshi wiih in-laws,
bciwccn aicnis anu chiluicn, bciwccn siblings.
- How aic ihc iolcs uclincu among ihc lamily mcmbcis. Aic ihc aicnis laii in
assigning iolcs. Aic ihc chiluicn accciablc ol ihcii iolcs. Do ihcy havc
icscnimcni/angci.
- Who coniiols ihc uccision-maIing in ihc lamily. Is ihcic coniiovcisy aboui ihis.
How uo ihc lamily icsolvc coniiovcisics.
- Whai is ihc aiicin ol communicaiion in ihc lamily. Aic ihc chiluicn/coulc ablc io
liccly communicaic ihcii lcclings anu ioblcms. Whom uo ihc chiluicn noimally
communicaic wiih il ihcy havc ioblcms. Why.
- Aic ihc aicnis anu chiluicn ablc io cxicss lovc, caic, anu allcciion iowaius onc
anoihci. How is ihis ucmonsiiaicu. Is ihcic lcai among mcmbcis - aiiiculaily
ihc chiluicn. Is ihcic a common lccling in ihcii iclaiionshis.
- Aic ihc aicnis suoiiivc ol ihc chiluicn`s aciiviiics in ihc school, communiiy, anu
in oihci cnucavouis.
- Whai is ihc siiuaiion ol ihc lamily alici ihc ciisis. Who is moic suoiiivc io ihc
chilu anu why.
- How uo ihcy ihinI ihcy will managc lamily lilc anu iclaiionshis alici ihc ciisis,
wiihin ihcmsclvcs anu ihc communiiy.
- Whai aic ihc ihings ihai ihc chiluicn liIc aboui ihc aicnis/lamily.
- Whai uo ihc chiluicn noi liIc aboui ihcii aicnis/lamily. Why.
- How aic ihc lamily mcmbcis coing wiih ihc icscni ioblcm. Whai aic ihcii
lcclings aboui ii. Who aic ihc mosi allccicu anu why.
- Whai clloiis aic bcing mauc by ihc lamily mcmbcis io icsolvc ihc ciisis anu icscni
lamily conllici.
5. Psychosocial History/Description of the Child
- Agc, uisiinguishing hysical lcaiuics.
- Whai can ihc aicnis/subsiiiuic aicnis iccall aboui chilu`s bio-sychological giowih,
hysical, anu maiuiaiional siagcs. Iucniily noicu uilliculiics, ioblcms, obscivaiions
such as bcu-wciiing, banging ol ihc hcau, uisabiliiics, moioi ucvclomcni, slcc
walIing, cxccssivc ciying, cic.
- Has thc child had any scrious illncsscs and how did it hclp/aIIcct prcscnt physical
and cmotional growth?
- Who aic ihc chilu`s liicnus in school/ai ihc ccniic. Whai aic ihc chilu`s inicllcciual
caabiliiics, scholasiic iccoiu, cxiia cuiiiculai aciiviiics, qualiiy ol aiiiciaiion in
school, cic.
- Iilc cxciicnccs: Diu ihc chilu cxciicncc a scvcic ciisis in his/hci lilc ihai cicaicu
an imaci on hci icscni lilc. How uiu s/hc coc wiih ihcsc in icims ol lcclings anu
bchavioui.
- Whai aic his/hci hocs oi ambiiions in lilc, wishcs, anu lans.
- How is s/hc iclaiing wiih ccis in ihc communiiy anu in ihc ccniic.
- How is hci/his bchavioui, icaciion io uiscilinc. How uocs s/hc uislay
misbchavioui. How is s/hc ablc io icsolvc ihcsc.
- Whai aic his/hci liIcs anu uisliIcs. Why.
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- How is s/hc au|usiing io ihc ccniic-bascu iogiammc aciiviiics.
- Il abuscu, whai aic hci lcclings aboui ihc abusci/s. How uiu s/hc coc oi hanulc
ihc lcclings ol bcing abuscu.
- Who aic ihc signilicani colc who hclcu oi aic hcling him/hci uuiing anu alici
ihc abusc.
- How/whai is his/hci iclaiionshi wiih ihc abusci.
- Is ihc chilu co-ociaiivc wiih ihc cisons hcling him/hci icsolvc ihc abusc.
- How many iimcs was s/hc abuscu. Whai wcic ihc ciicumsianccs.
- Whai aic ihc chilu`s lans loi uischaigc. Who will s/hc siay wiih. Why.
- Is s/hc icauy io loigivc ihc abusci. Il ycs, in whai way.
- Whai aic ihc chilu`s siicngihs anu wcaIncsscs. Whai aic his/hci inicinal icsouiccs.
Whai aic/havc bccn his/hci coing siiaicgics.
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Form C: Record-Keeping Sheet
TaIc noics uuiing scssions wiih ihc siiuciuic ol ihis shcci as a guiuclinc il ncccssaiy.
Whcn wiiiing aboui you. lcclings oi ihoughis iclci io I. Thc qucsiions unuci cach
hcauing aic |usi cxamlcs ol ihai scciion.
Chilu`s Namc:
Daic:
Duiaiion:
Ncxi Mcciing:
Contact
- How was ihc gcncial aimoshcic.
- How uiu you lccl.
- How uiu ihc chilu lccl.
Problem/Subject
- Dcsciiiion ol ioblcm-siiuaiion il liisi mcciing)/sub|cci alici liisi mcciing)
- Dcsciibc liom uillcicni conicxis such as osiiivc anu ncgaiivc laciois, oihci
iclcvani colc`s conicxi)
Focus/Goal of the session
- Whai was ihc locus ol ihc scssion.
- Whai was youi goal loi ihc scssion.
- Diu you achicvc ihis. How. Il noi, why noi.
New Information
- Rclcvani ncw inloimaiion alici ihc liisi mcciing)
In between session tasks
- Is ihc chilu suoscu io uo/iiy somcihing loi ihc ncxi scssion c.g. wiiiing a uiaiy
oi lciici, uiawing, iiying oui a aiiiculai iasI oi aciiviiy iclaicu io ihc ioccss).
Opinion
- IinIing ihis scssion wiih icvious oncs anu ihc ovciall ioccss
- Givc youi iolcssional vicws, iniciiciaiions, anu obscivaiion aboui ihc scssion.
Fact sheet 4.10.2
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Objectives
Ai ihc cnu ol ihc scssion, aiiicianis aic cxccicu io:
- Inicgiaic ihc lcaincu Inowlcugc anu sIills in a iaciicc scssion wiih a
chilu.
Activities
Timc: minimum scvcial uays
Session 11:
Field Practice
ExpIanation of procedure for trainers:
Notc 1. Oounse|||ng cannot be |earned w|thout suff|c|ent c||n|ca||y superv|sed pract|ce w|th
'rea|` ch||dren. The tra|n|ng course shou|d |nc|ude an extens|ve per|od for c||n|ca| pract|ce and
subsequent superv|s|on '|nternsh|ps`}. Superv|s|on meet|ngs enab|es one to share the
exper|ences, d|ff|cu|t|es, quest|ons, and concerns of counse||ors, and a||ows for d|scuss|on
w|th peer counse||ors fac|||tated by a sen|or counse||or.
Notc 2: lf an extens|ve per|od for such |nternsh|ps |s not poss|b|e, the f|e|d pract|ce descr|bed
be|ow shou|d be repeated for at |east severa| days w|th severa| ch||ds/ch||dren.
" lntroduce the sess|on by exp|a|n|ng f|e|d pract|ce. Emphas|se that though |t |s a |earn|ng
exper|ence |t |nvo|ves the fee||ngs and s|tuat|on of a ch||d, wh|ch |s at a|| t|mes most
|mportant. The part|c|pants are requ|red to ma|nta|n sens|t|v|ty. |t shouIo bc cIcarIy
statco that it is not a counscIIing scssion, but rathcr an opportunity for thc trainccs to
practicc thcir ncwIy acouirco skiIIs.
" Part|c|pants w||| v|s|t ch||dren |n a |oca| organ|sat|on dea||ng w|th OEDO. They have to
understand that |t m|ght be an awkward s|tuat|on for the ch||d even though the ch||d w|||
be g|ven thorough |nformat|on and an exp|anat|on beforehand}. However, |f the ch||dren
ask about the reasons for the 'sess|on`, part|c|pants shou|d be open and honest and
exp|a|n the purpose of the sess|on to them.
" The ch||d shou|d not be |n an obv|ous state of emot|ona| d|stress vu|nerab|e} to m|n|m|se
the r|sk of re-v|ct|m|sat|on. Furthermore, make sure that the |oca| organ|sat|on prov|des
appropr|ate fo||ow up sess|ons for the ch||d |nvo|ved.
" The part|c|pants ana|yse a case report jo|nt|y prepared by the tra|ners and staff of the
|oca| organ|sat|on} and d|scuss the case. Part|c|pants shou|d be focussed before
conduct|ng the sess|on. Themes/quest|ons and goa|s can be used as gu|de||nes for the
sess|on.
" Tra|nees and observers/tra|ners shou|d focus on:
The atmosphere created by the counse||or and h|s/her att|tude.
The quest|ons the counse||or asks open, c|osed, or suggest|ve} and the effect these
have on the ch||d.
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The use of counse|||ng sk|||s: |n part|cu|ar summar|s|ng, ref|ect|ng, and exp|or|ng the
subject |nstead of jump|ng top|cs}.
The goa| and/or focus of the sess|on.
" The sess|on shou|d take between 45 - 60 m|nutes. At the end of the sess|on, the
part|c|pant shou|d focus on the ch||d`s fee||ngs dur|ng the sess|on. The counse||or can
ask the ch||d |f s/he wou|d ||ke another sess|on and then f|x a t|me w|th the organ|sat|on.
" F|x a schedu|e for a|| the sess|ons. Sess|ons shou|d take p|ace at the |oca| organ|sat|on,
so that |og|st|ca||y th|ngs can run smooth|y.
" Part|c|pants present the|r 'exerc|se` as we|| as the|r thoughts and fee||ngs about |t w|th
focus on the fee||ngs of the ch||d, the counse||or, and the poss|b|e |earn|ng that has taken
p|ace.
" F|na||y, everybody shou|d get the opportun|ty to pract|ce certa|n aspects or deta||s of the
sess|on aga|n, to try d|fferent approaches or quest|ons for parts of the sess|on that they
thought were d|ff|cu|t.
Methodology
- Picaiaiion woiIsho
- Iiclu iaciicc
- Giou shaiing anu uiscussion
Resource Material
Thc local oiganisaiion shoulu ioviuc casc icoiis ol ihc chiluicn who will
aiiiciaic in ihc scssions.
Key points
Onc can icau many booIs anu aiicnu many iiaining woiIshos howcvci
aciual lacc-io-lacc counsclling is somcihing vciy uillcicni cvciy iimc. Onc can
icaic loi ii bui noi lan ii.
Synthesising
Pioviuc an ooiiuniiy loi qucsiions anu summaiisc ihc scssion wiih ihc
lollowing oinis:
- Highlighi ihc ob|cciivcs, main ouicomcs, lcclings, anu ihoughis ol ihc uay.
- All ihc sIills anu Inowlcugc so lai acquiicu in ihc iiaining shoulu bc
uiiliscu as much as ossiblc uuiing ihc scssion.
Evaluation
AsI aiiicianis io wiiic uown ihicc woius ihai icllcci ihc uay`s lcaining loi
ihcm. Aliciwaius il ihcy wish, cach aiiiciani, shaics ihcii ihicc woius wiih ihc
icsi ol ihc giou.
MODULE V
General objective:
Paiiicianis gain a basic unucisianuing ol ihc uillcicni moucs ol counsclling.
Specific objectives:
Ai ihc cnu ol ihc mouulc, aiiicianis will bc ablc io:
- Lnucisianu anu conuuci a basic scssion ol communiiy counsclling, lamily
counsclling, giou counsclling, anu iasI oiicnicu counsclling.
Alternative Modes of Counselling
1
1
Ii is imoiiani io icalisc ihai basic communicaiion anu counsclling sIills icmain ihc samc whcihci conuuciing lamily, communiiy, giou, ciisis
inicivcniion oi iasI oiicnicu counsclling. Scconuly, ii is imoiiani io icalisc ihai ihis iiaining acIagc mainly locuscs on inuiviuual counsclling
anu ihai io bccomc a lamily oi giou counsclloi, onc nccus moic iiaining ihan ihcsc scssions ioviuc.
Alternative Modes of Counselling
180 Training Handbook on Psychosocial counselling for CEDC Trainers Guide
Alternative Modes of Counselling
Training Handbook on Psychosocial counselling for CEDC Trainers Guide 181
Objectives
Ai ihc cnu ol scssion, aiiicianis aic cxccicu io unucisianu:
- How ihc lamily lunciions anu how io classily lamilics accoiuing io ihcii
lcvcl ol lunciioning, in a local conicxi.
- Thc basic iincilcs anu siiaicgics ol lamily counsclling anu bc ablc io
uiscuss ihc Inowlcugc anu sIills ncccssaiy loi lamily counsclling.
Activities
Time: 4 houis
Materials: mcia-caius, lli chaii, maiIci, boaiu
Session 1:
I ntroduction to Family Counselling
ExpIanation of procedure for trainers:
" Ask the part|c|pants about a Nepa||} fam||y and how |t funct|ons. ||st the responses from
the part|c|pants on the board.
" Ask the part|c|pants to read the fact shccts 5.1.1 & 5.1.2 and GcncraI ManuaI, Anncx 1,
'FamiIy counscIIing.
" Part|c|pants d|v|de |nto groups of approx|mate|y f|ve peop|e each, and d|scuss, share, and
ana|yse the|r own fam|||es us|ng the assessment aspects |n the GcncraI ManuaI.
" Oonduct a |ecture on the bas|c pr|nc|p|es of fam||y counse|||ng (scc transparcncy 5.1.1) and
strateg|es |n fam||y counse|||ng (scc transparcncy 5.1.2).
" Part|c|pants open|y bra|nstorm what causes a fam||y to be dysfunct|ona|.
" Ask each group to |nvent a case study of a dysfunct|ona| fam||y s|tuat|on. Each member of
the group w||| be a member of the fam||y for a ro|e-p|ay |ater. One member w||| assume the
ro|e of the counse||or.
" The groups shou|d f|rst bra|nstorm effect|ve ways of conduct|ng fam||y counse|||ng and |ts
steps for the dysfunct|ona| fam||y they have just |nvented (scc aIso GcncraI manuaI -
FamiIy counscIIing).
" G|ve each group 25 - 30 m|nutes of preparat|on t|me before they enact the|r ro|e-p|ays.
The other part|c|pants shou|d be act|ve observers, wr|t|ng down the|r observat|ons and
feedback.
" F|n|sh/eva|uate each ro|e-p|ay by g|v|ng a|| the part|c|pants the opportun|ty to share the|r
fee||ngs, observat|ons, feedback, and suggest|ons.
Methodology
- Rolc-lay
- Icciuic
- WoiIsho
Resource materials
Text for lecture:
Tiansaicncy .1.1 Basic iincilcs ol counsclling
Tiansaicncy .1.2 Siiaicgics in lamily counsclling
Text for Trainees:
Iaci Shcci .1.1 Classilicaiion ol lamily
Iaci Shcci .1.2 Ellcciivc communicaiion
Text for Trainer:
Gcncial manual, Anncx 1 - `Iamily counsclling`
Rclcicncc Maiciial .1.1 Thc lamily
Key points
A lamily is a icsouicc basc loi cvciy ioblcm anu iis soluiion. Thc lamily is
ihc bcsi unii loi ihc ioicciion anu caic ol chiluicn.
Synthesising
Pioviuc an ooiiuniiy loi qucsiions anu summaiisc ihc scssion wiih ihc
lollowing oinis:
- This scssion locuscu on ihc usc ol counsclling loi lamilics. Iamily
inicivcniion counsclling uscs many ol ihc sIills, iincilcs, anu sics in
inuiviuual counsclling. Iamily counsclling can bc a valuablc mcihou loi
changc oi io icsolvc a ioblcm siiuaiion sincc ihc lamily is ihc
coincisionc ol a chilu`s ucvclomcni. A lamily inicivcniion can ihcicloic
bc boih icvcniaiivc anu cuiaiivc.
- Emhasisc ihai lamily counsclling is vciy suiiablc loi cascs in Ncal.
Iamily lilc anu collcciivc iucniiiy lay an imoiiani iolc in Ncali sociciy
- a valuc ihai shoulu bc acInowlcugcu anu uscu.
Evaluation
AsI ihc aiiicianis io shaic ihcii icvious il any) cxciicnccs ol lamily
inicivcniion anu io cxicss whcihci ihcy ihinI lamily counsclling will bc usclul oi
noi in ihcii sccilic cnviionmcni.
Basic Principles in Family Counselling: Basic Principles in Family Counselling: Basic Principles in Family Counselling: Basic Principles in Family Counselling: Basic Principles in Family Counselling:
The relationship between the family and the counsellor is a
partnership.
Base the treatment or helping goals on the familys goals and
wishes for change.
Initially, shift the level of intervention and treatment from past
events to resolving present conflicts.
Interventions must be action oriented, based on the strengths,
and needs of a family.
The focus of intervention can be on the parents and the child,
alternately.
Assist the parents to learn different ways of parenting.
Assist the family to fulfil practical needs as well as emotional
needs.
Concentrate on recurrent patterns of relationship and
interaction.
Help restructure dysfunctional patterns of interaction.
Help the family gain access to community resources.
Transparency 5.1.1
Alternative Modes of Counselling
184 Training Handbook on Psychosocial counselling for CEDC Trainers Guide
STRA STRA STRA STRA STRATEGIESFORF TEGIESFORF TEGIESFORF TEGIESFORF TEGIESFORFAMIL AMIL AMIL AMIL AMILYCOUNSELLING YCOUNSELLING YCOUNSELLING YCOUNSELLING YCOUNSELLING
A. DEVELOPING STRENGTHS
1. Teach the family new positive ways to address recurring
problems through discussion and implementation of
alternative solutions.
2. Teach or assist the family how to access and use internal
and external resources.
3. Address concrete difficulties; help the family to define small,
achievable tasks that will change the way they manage
the situation. This will give them a sense of accomplishment
and motivate them to address other issues.
4. Help the family to learn to use effective interpersonal skills
amongst themselves, i.e. new ways to interact with one
another.
B. ROLE MODELLING
1. During sessions with the parents and children, demonstrate
new behaviour and ways to cope.
2. Demonstrate a different way of negotiating differences
during a family meeting.
C. COMMUNITY ORGANISATIONS
1. Co-ordinated services
2. Networking among resources
3. Support groups
Transparency 5.1.2
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Training Handbook on Psychosocial counselling for CEDC Trainers Guide 185
Fact sheet 5.1.1
Classification of family functioning
l evel s
2
Thc lollowing classilicaiion ioviucs a bioau ovcivicw ol how lamilics lunciion.
1. The OPTIMAL FAMILY (most desirable or satisfactory)
- Rclaiionshi aiicins anu communicaiion inuicaic high lcvcls ol
allcciion.
- Dillcicnccs ol inuiviuual mcmbcis icsccicu; cisonal limiis aic clcai.
- Iniimaic inicicisonal iclaiions; chiluicn aic vicwcu as inuiviuuals in
ihcii own iighi.
- Mcmbcis uo noi comcic; insicau, ihcy icly on ncgoiiaiion io aioach
conllicis.
- Mcmbcis cxicss a wiuc iangc ol lcclings anu a high lcvcl ol
unucisianuing loi onc anoihci.
- Iamily is haimoniscu anu osiiivc.
2. COMPETENT BUT DISTRESSED FAMILIES
- Moihcis olicn havc aiincishi wiih onc chilu.
- Pcisonal limiis aic uisiinci howcvci ihcic is noi ihc samc ucgicc ol
closcncss as in oiimal lamilics.
- Inuiviuuals havc a icnucncy io scac-goai" siiuaiions aciion oi ioccss
ol casiing blamc loi shoiicomings) anu io bc ciiiical.
- Inuiviuuals cxicss icsiiicicu iangc ol lcclings.
- Paicnial conllici is icscni bui subuucu oi suicsscu, alihough ihc
imaci on ihc lamily is obvious.
3. DYSFUNCTIONAL FAMILIES
Thcic aic ihicc caicgoiics in ihis classilicaiion:
a) Thc uominani - submissivc lamilics
b) Thc chionically conllicicu lamilics
c) Thc scvcicly uyslunciional lamilics
3.1 Dominant - Submissive
- Thc uominani - submissivc: onc aicni uominaics anu coniiols
cvciy ascci ol lamily lilc. Thc uominancc is ciihci acccicu oi
ciicumvcnicu ihiough aciing-oui bchavioui.
- Thc mcmbcis uo noi ncgoiiaic. Thc uominani aicni maIcs all ihc
uccisions, anu ays liiilc oi no aiicniion io ihc oinions anu lcclings
ol ihc oihcis.
2
This uocs noi ncccssaiily holu iiuc loi a Ncali lamily, ii is gcncially bascu on Wcsicin liiciaiuic anu ihcicloic only scivcs as an cxamlc ol
how lamilics lunciion.
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186 Training Handbook on Psychosocial counselling for CEDC Trainers Guide
- Mcmbcis aic quicI io aiiiibuic blamc on onc anoihci, iaihci ihan
io accci icsonsibiliiy.
- Thc icvailing moou is hosiiliiy anu sauncss.
- Thcic is noi much unucisianuing bciwccn onc anoihci.
- Eiihci aicni may sccm uyslunciional bui cxciicncc shows ihai ii is
moic liIcly io bc ihc submissivc aicni.
3.2 ConIlictcd Familics
- Thcy aic always lighiing.
- Each aicni sccIs io uominaic ihc oihci; nciihci will shaic owci,
anu nciihci is willing io accci a submissivc iolc. Siiugglcs aic
mainiaincu ihiough any ucvisc oi maniulaiion.
- Thc chiluicn aic uiawn inio ihc conllici, somciimc in siablc
coaliiions wiih onc aicni, bui olicn in iiansicni coaliiions - liisi,
wiih onc aicni, ihcn wiih ihc oihci.
- Thcy cannoi ncgoiiaic bccausc cach ioblcm will icciiiaic inio
anoihci iounu ol conllici - ihc aicnis ncvci woiI ihings oui
iogcihci anu ihc chiluicn uo noi lcain io solvc ioblcms.
- Thcsc lamilics icnu io ucny any uilliculiics.
3.3 Scvcrcly Disturbcd Familics
- Thcsc lamilics nciihci suoii maiuiaiion anu giowih loi ihc
aicnis, noi cncouiagc auionomy in ihc chiluicn.
- Two aiicins ol uyslunciion:
1. Onc aicni who holus a cculiai vicw ol ihc woilu uominaics ihc
lamily. Tyically, ihc uominani aicni has a psychiatric disorder.
2. Chaotic family: Thcic is noi cnough inllucncc liom any onc
mcmbci ol ihc lamily io ioviuc lcaucishi. This lamily shows
vaguc anu inuisiinci bounuaiics bciwccn mcmbcis.
Conscqucnily, ii is olicn uilliculi loi a counsclloi io unucisianu
lamily communicaiions. Thc mcmbcis olicn acai siiangc anu
bizaiic io oihcis anu ihcy uo noi iclaic io ihcii suiiounuings.
Alternative Modes of Counselling
Training Handbook on Psychosocial counselling for CEDC Trainers Guide 187
Helping develop effective communication
in families
Thc counsclloi shoulu hcl ihc lamily ucvclo cllcciivc ways io shaic inloimaiion
anu lcclings wiih cach oihci. Thc counsclloi can hcl ihc mcmbcis io iucniily
ihings ihai ihcy uo ihai inicilcic wiih cllcciivc communicaiion.
Things ihai inicilcic wiih communicaiion:
1. Iniciiuiing - noi allowing a cison io linish whai hc is saying.
2. Conlioniing - aiiacIing ihc cison loi whai hc is saying.
S. Dominaiing - uoing all ihc ialIing.
4. ]uuging - saying, Thai is goou" oi, Thai is bau."
. Auvising - saying, Il I wcic you."
6. Iniciiciing - uiiing woius inio somconc`s mouih.
7. Piobing - bcing nosy unncccssaiily cuiious anu iniiusivc).
S. Puiiing uown - minimising ihc valuc ol whai oihcis aic saying.
Thc counsclloi can hcl ihc lamily iucniily ihcii aiicins ol communicaiion in ihc
scssions by hcling mcmbcis iccognisc whai ihcy aic uoing.
Thiough ihcsc mcihous, ihc counsclloi can siicngihcn osiiivc clcmcnis in ihc
iniciaciion bciwccn ihc lamily mcmbcis, anu ihus siicngihcn cllcciivc
communicaiion.
1. Iucniily anu obscivc ihc chilu`s oi oihci mcmbcis`) iniiiaiivcs loi iniciaciion.
Thcic aic always initiativesloi iniciaciion, - ciihci osiiivc oi ncgaiivc,
ihough ii uccnus on ihc icaciion whcihci ihc iniciaciion will cscalaic in a
conllici oi noi.
2. By icsonuing osiiivcly io ihcsc iniiiaiivcs, e.g. rather than acting upon the
behaviour onecan react upon thereason behind thebehaviour) ihc lamily mcmbcis
can subscqucnily ucvclo osiiivc iniciaciion aiicins.
Fact sheet 5.1.2
Alternative Modes of Counselling
188 Training Handbook on Psychosocial counselling for CEDC Trainers Guide
Fami l y
1) Characteristics:
- Thc lamily is comoscu ol colc uniicu by iics ol maiiiagc, bloou, oi
auoiion.
- Thc mcmbcis ol ihc lamily iyically livc iogcihci unuci onc iool anu
consiiiuic a singlc houscholu oi il ihcy livc aaii, ihcy consiuci ihc
houscholu ihcii homc.
- Thc lamily is comoscu ol colc who iniciaci anu communicaic wiih onc
anoihci in ihcii social iolcs such as husbanu anu wilc, moihci anu laihci,
son anu uaughici, bioihci anu sisici.
- Thc lamily mainiains a common culiuic uciivcu mainly liom ihc gcncial
culiuic, bui cach lamily has somc uisiinciivc lcaiuics.
2) Functions of family:
Iunciions vaiy ovci iimc anu liom onc sociciy io anoihci. Though sccmingly
univcisal, lunciions involvc:
1) Pioviuing caic, nuiiuiing, icaiing, challcnging, anu ioicciing ihc young.
2) Socialising: ihc lamily is ihc main social insiiiuiion icsonsiblc loi ihc caily
ucvclomcni ol ihc cisonaliiy ol ihc inuiviuual. Ii is ihc liisi .ou ihai
will inllucncc ihc chilu`s aiiiiuuc, noims, valucs, anu iaciiccs. This is ihc
inuiviuual`s liisi iniciiciaiion ol ihc hysical anu social woilu anu ihc
csiablishmcni ol ihc liIcs anu uisliIcs.
S) Rciouucing anu icgulaiing scxual bchavioui: iciouuciion is a
icicquisiic loi ihc suivival ol sociciy.
4) Pioviuing allcciion, lovc, anu cmoiional suoii: ihc waimih anu allcciion
ihai chiluicn gci liom ihcii aicnis can haiuly bc obiaincu liom ouisiuc.
) Pioviuing ihc mcans by which an inuiviuual can giow io his/hci lull
oicniial.
Basic philosophy in family welfare and development
1) Evciy mcmbci ol ihc lamily has ihc iighi io bc ioviucu wiih ooiiuniiics io
ucvclo his/hci cisonaliiy.
2) Evciy mcmbci ol ihc lamily has ihc iighi io bc lovcu anu icsccicu. Thc lamily
shoulu cncouiagc ihc ioial ucvclomcni ol a holisiic cisonaliiy ol all ihc lamily
mcmbcis.
S) Iamily lilc icmains ihc singlc, siiongcsi social loicc in human ucvclomcni.
4) Thc lamily is ihc locus - ol icalising human suivival anu ihc iiansmission ol
culiuic anu valucs.
) Thc lamily is ihc sysicm - ii consisis ol mcmbcis anu any changc in onc mcmbci
allccis cvciy oihci mcmbci.
6) Thc lamily is an imoiiani clcmcni ol social cohcsion anu an csscniial lacioi in
ihc gcncial social anu siiiiual/icligious lilc ol iis mcmbcis.
Reference 5.1.1
Alternative Modes of Counselling
Training Handbook on Psychosocial counselling for CEDC Trainers Guide 189
Objectives
Ai ihc cnu ol scssion, aiiicianis aic cxccicu io:
- Lnucisianu ihc basic iincilcs ol communiiy-bascu counsclling.
- Bc ablc io conuuci communiiy-bascu counsclling ai ihc basic lcvcl
csccially loi ichabiliiaiion cascs.
Activities
Time: 2 houis
Materials: mcia-caius, lli chaii, maiIci, boaiu
Session 2:
I ntroduction to community-based
counselling
ExpIanation of procedure for trainers:
" Exp|a|n to the part|c|pants that commun|ty-based counse|||ng can be he|pfu| |n rehab|||tat|ng
the ch||d espec|a||y |n s|tuat|ons where fam||y or commun|ty re|at|onsh|ps are d|rect|y
|nvo|ved.
" Exp|a|n the purpose/g|ve a def|n|t|on of commun|ty-based counse|||ng and ask the
part|c|pants to read the mater|a|s, scc fact shccts 5.2.1 & 5.2.2 ano GcncraI ManuaI, Anncx
1 'Community-basco counscIIing.
" Oonduct a |ecture emphas|s|ng the fo||ow|ng aspects of commun|ty-based counse|||ng (scc
transparcncics 5.2.1 & 5.2.2):
- Bas|c pr|nc|p|es of Oommun|ty-based Oounse|||ng
- When to conduct Oommun|ty-based Oounse|||ng
- Steps |n Oommun|ty-based Oounse|||ng
" D|v|de part|c|pants |nto four groups for a ro|e-p|ay sess|on |ast|ng between 20 - 25
m|nutes. Prov|de a case study (rcfcr to thc casc of Paju, moouIc 6, scssion 3). The
object|ves of the ro|e-p|ay are to strengthen counse|||ng sk|||s and to |earn about the
d|fferences and s|m||ar|t|es between commun|ty-based counse|||ng and other modes of
counse|||ng.
" Eva|uate and d|scuss the ro|e-p|ays.
" Ask the part|c|pants to bra|nstorm the ro|es/funct|ons of the counse||or |n commun|ty-
based counse|||ng and to wr|te down the po|nts on a f||p chart.
Methodology
- Icciuic/Discussion
- Biainsioiming
- Rolc-lay
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190 Training Handbook on Psychosocial counselling for CEDC Trainers Guide
Resource materials
Tcxt Ior lccturc:
Tiansaicncy .2.1 Piincilcs ol Communiiy-bascu
Counsclling
Tiansaicncy .2.2 Whcn io usc Communiiy-bascu
Counsclling
Tcxt Ior Trainccs:
Iaci Shcci .2.1 Communiiy-bascu Inicivcniion Siiaicgics
SeeGeneral Manual, Annex 1 Community-based
counselling
Key points
In sociciics such as in Ncal whcic ihc collcciivc iucniiiy lays an csccially
imoiiani iolc, communiiy counsclling can bc vciy hcllul io icach a gicaici
amouni ol colc, anu ihc mcihou ol inicivcniion auaicu io suii collcciivc nccus.
Synthesising
Pioviuc an ooiiuniiy loi qucsiions anu summaiisc ihc scssion wiih ihc
lollowing oinis:
- Communiiy-bascu counsclling can bc csccially hcllul in ichabiliiaiion
cascs involving ihc lamily anu ihc communiiy. Communiiy-bascu
counsclling cnhanccs ihc involvcmcni ol ihc communiiy io laciliiaic ihc
ioblcm solving ioccss ol ihc mcmbcis.
- Thc aiiicianis shoulu icalisc ihai communication and counselling
skills aic ncccssaiy io conuuci communiiy counsclling, as wcll as sIills io
mcuiaic gious (seenext session).
Evaluation
AsI ihc aiiicianis io icmcmbci anu wiiic uown ai lcasi iwo siiuaiions liom
ihcii cxciicncc oi liom ihcii own communiiy whcic communiiy-bascu
counsclling coulu havc bccn hcllul. Collcci ihcsc cxamlcs io gci an iuca ol ihc
lcvcl ol unucisianuing.
Alternative Modes of Counselling
Training Handbook on Psychosocial counselling for CEDC Trainers Guide 191
Principles of Community-based Counselling Principles of Community-based Counselling Principles of Community-based Counselling Principles of Community-based Counselling Principles of Community-based Counselling
Community counselling should take place in an informal
setting within the community. The counsellor can be any
person in the community that the child appreciates such as a
local leader, teacher, monk, one of the childs peers, a
traditional healer, a mother, etc.
Enable the community to provide counselling in an informal
setting that aims to reduce the individuals psychological
stress and problems within the family and the community.
Training should be provided for those who are willing to offer
counselling services to the community.
Help members of the community to make decisions about
various aspects of problem situations, if necessary. This is
achieved through (active) listening, talking, patience, respect,
enforcing problem-solving skills, and coping mechanisms.
Initiate a mechanism for best utilising the local resources/
people in the process of counselling.
Provide information and examples to make the child feel
comfortable and free from the existing stressful situation.
Transparency 5.2.1
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192 Training Handbook on Psychosocial counselling for CEDC Trainers Guide
When to use Community-based Counselling When to use Community-based Counselling When to use Community-based Counselling When to use Community-based Counselling When to use Community-based Counselling
Community-based counselling can apply when:
A father beats a child, who wants to leave the house and
needs to talk to you or somebody who is helpful. S/he also
needs a place to stay.
A young teenage girl, who is pregnant, comes to you for help
because her boyfriend refuses to accept her.
A mother needs your advice/help to convince her husband
not to allow their twelve year-old daughter to marry.
A young boy who is feeling hopeless about the poverty
situation at home tells you that he wants to go to the city.
A mother informs you that her husband threw his step-
daughter out of the house and told her to go and earn money.
Transparency 5.2.2
Alternative Modes of Counselling
Training Handbook on Psychosocial counselling for CEDC Trainers Guide 193
Community-based I ntervention Strategies
(CBI S) in working with CEDC
CBIS is a ioccss whcicby ihc clloii ol ihc govcinmcni anu ihc uillcicni gious in
ihc communiiy uniic wiih ihc clloii ol ihc colc, anu hcl laciliiaic ihc issucs anu
nccus ol CEDC.
CBIS involvcs ihc maximum uiilisaiion ol cxisiing sysicms, icsouiccs, anu loimal oi
inloimal siiuciuics in ihc communiiy io biing aboui changcs anu imiovcmcnis in
ihc conuiiion ol chiluicn in uiban ccniics.
CBIS cnsuics a co-oiuinaicu anu sysicmaiic aioach io allcviaic ihc lighi ol ooi
chiluicn living in uiban aicas.
Guiding principles in utilising CBIS:
1) Maximum participation: Inuiviuual mcmbcis` caabiliiics aic lully uiiliscu in
an clloii io auuicss ihc ioblcm. Thcy shoulu noi bc iclciicu io as bcncliciaiics
bui as aciivc aiiicianis.
2) Maximum utilisation of resources: This involvcs ihc mobilisaiion ol icsouiccs
insiuc ihc communiiy, c.g. maiciial, manowci, icchnical Inow- how, cic.
3) Issues and needs musi bc iclcvani io ihc colc.
4) Peoples consultation and collaboration: An clcmcni ol aiincishi shoulu
always cxisi in ihc hcling ioccss bciwccn anu among gious/siiuciuics
involvcu.
5) Utilisation of CBIS: Dcvclo ihc caabiliiics ol inuigcnous lcaucis/scciois in
ihc communiiy io ioviuc communiiy-bascu sciviccs loi CEDC by coniinuing ihc
cuucaiivc ioccss.
6) Peoples ability to understand and cope with problems: Rcscci colc`s
abiliiy io hcl ihcmsclvcs.
7) Working together collectively: Dccisions aic mauc wiih all scciois ol ihc
communiiy io icsonu io chilu-oiicnicu issucs.
8) Co-ordination process:
1) Know ihc cxisiing conuiiions ol CEDC.
2) Dciciminc whai Iinu ol imiovcmcnis you wani io scc hacn.
S) Dciciminc how CBIS can bc uiiliscu io achicvc No. 2.
4) Choosc CBIS bascu on asscssmcni, imoiiancc, anu icauincss ol iaigci
gious.
) Iucniily icsouiccs nccucu.
6) Dciciminc ihc uillcicni gious involvcu anu uciciminc iolcs,
icsonsibiliiics, anu aciions in imlcmcniaiion.
Fact sheet 5.2.1
Alternative Modes of Counselling
194 Training Handbook on Psychosocial counselling for CEDC Trainers Guide
Objectives
Ai ihc cnu ol scssion, aiiicianis aic cxccicu io:
- Lnucisianu ihc basic iincilcs loi a giou inicivcniion.
- Bc ablc io conuuci giou counsclling on a basic lcvcl.
Activities
Time: 2 houis
Materials: mcia-caius, lli chaii, maiIci, boaiu
Session 3:
I ntroduction to group Counselling
ExpIanation of procedure for trainers:
" Exp|a|n that group counse|||ng can be a very usefu| a|ternat|ve to |nd|v|dua| counse|||ng, at
|east for some prob|em s|tuat|ons and espec|a||y |n centres.
" As an energ|ser, |n|t|ate the fo||ow|ng game of 'trust`.
Part|c|pants sp||t up |nto groups of approx|mate|y s|x peop|e.
Ask them to stand shou|der to shou|der |n a c|rc|e very c|ose} and put the|r arms out
|n front of them. One part|c|pant has to stand |n the m|dd|e of the c|rc|e, c|os|ng h|s/her
eyes or us|ng a b||ndfo|d} and tr|es to comp|ete|y re|ax.
The part|c|pant |n the m|dd|e shou|d |et h|m/her se|f 'fa||` to one s|de |eav|ng h|s/her feet
|n p|ace. The nearest person |n the c|rc|e catches the person soft|y and gent|y pushes
h|m/her back aga|n.
The part|c|pant |n the m|dd|e repeats the act|on aga|n, w|th h|s/her eyes c|osed, fa|||ng
|n another d|rect|on and |and|ng |n someone e|se`s arms th|s t|me. S/he |s pushed
upr|ght aga|n.
Th|s game shou|d be taken ser|ous|y. lt |s about trust and how a group deve|ops
trust for one another. The person |n the m|dd|e shou|d trust that h|s/her fe||ow
part|c|pants w||| catch h|m/her, trust be|ng the on|y way s/he can re|ax.
" Def|n|t|on of group counse|||ng: s|ng the group as a means for change |s a process |n
wh|ch a counse||or, together w|th the group, tr|es to so|ve a prob|em or change a s|tuat|on.
The process shou|d be forma||sed, and |ast at |east severa| meet|ngs. The counse||or |s
'mere|y` a fac|||tator and med|ator not a |eader or adv|sor.
" Work|ng w|th a group of ch||dren espec|a||y when they are of a s|m||ar age group and
espec|a||y when |t concerns a group of ado|escents} can be a very powerfu| method to
rea||se change. Group counse|||ng can be |mp|emented for any subject/group-prob|em that
m|ght surface, or needs attent|on. The bas|c pr|nc|p|es of |nd|v|dua| counse|||ng, aga|n,
app|y for group counse|||ng.
" Oonduct a |ecture on group counse|||ng (scc transparcncics 5.3.1 ano 5.3.2) and ask the
part|c|pants to read the mater|a|s (fact shcct 5.3.1 and GcncraI ManuaI, Anncx 1 'Group
counscIIing.
Alternative Modes of Counselling
Training Handbook on Psychosocial counselling for CEDC Trainers Guide 195
" Group ro|e-p|ay: ask one part|c|pant to be the counse||or |n the group. Themes for the rest
of the members can be based on shar|ng exper|ences/emot|ons of ma|treatment and
harassment |n the work p|ace or about the fee||ngs, act|v|t|es, and ru|es of ||v|ng |n a centre
(GcncraI ManuaI, Anncx 1, 'Group counscIIing), or fee||ngs of |one||ness and anger about
||v|ng on the street.
" Dur|ng the ro|e-p|ays, ask another 'counse||or` to take over, w|thout chang|ng top|c, and
w|thout restart|ng the |nteract|on. ln th|s way, more peop|e can pract|ce and the
part|c|pants can exper|ence d|fferent sty|es. Furthermore, g|ve add|t|ona| focus for every
new counse||or.
The ro|e-p|ays shou|d |ast 45 m|nutes fo||owed by a d|scuss|on/eva|uat|on, focuss|ng on
how the members fe|t dur|ng the ro|e-p|ays, how the counse||ors fe|t and about
suggest|ons on how or what cou|d have been done d|fferent|y.
" Take notes and fac|||tate the eva|uat|on sess|on, add|ng your observat|ons.
" Bra|nstorm a ||st of top|cs/s|tuat|ons for wh|ch group counse|||ng cou|d be benef|c|a|.
" F|na||y, conduct a group-sess|on about thc group oynamics of cach group of participants
as themse|ves not |n the|r ro|es}.
Ask them: How do they fee| |n th|s group? How do they fee| the group |s funct|on|ng?
Part|c|pants can g|ve persona| feedback to other part|c|pants, etc. |et the part|c|pants
take turns med|at|ng and fac|||tat|ng the sess|on.
The purpose of th|s sess|on |s twofo|d: 1} To pract|ce group med|at|on and 2} to g|ve
|ns|ght about group dynam|cs.
Note for the trainer:
|f thcrc is any timc Icft, conouct somc group gamcs as an iccbrcakcr ano to focus on thc
oiffcrcnt aspccts of group proccsscs ano activitics.
Methodology
- Icciuic
- Rolc-lay
- Encigisci
Resource materials
Text for lecture:
Tiansaicncy .S.1 Puiosc ol giou counsclling
Tiansaicncy .S.2 Rolc ol ihc giou counsclloi
Text for Trainees:
Iaci Shcci .S.1 Examlc/guiuclincs loi a liisi scssion
Scc Gcncial Manual, Anncx 1 `Giou counsclling`
Text for Trainer:
Rclcicncc maiciial .S.1 Piincilcs ol giou counsclling
Key points
Giou counsclling is aboui claiilying conccins, lcclings, ioblcms, valucs,
iucas, anu suggcsiions ihiough uiscussion wiih oihcis who aic in similai
ciicumsianccs.
Alternative Modes of Counselling
196 Training Handbook on Psychosocial counselling for CEDC Trainers Guide
Synthesising
Pioviuc an ooiiuniiy loi qucsiions anu summaiisc ihc scssion wiih ihc
lollowing oinis:
- Giou counsclling is a siiaicgy loi sychosocial inicivcniion ihai uiiliscs
ihc giou as a mcans io achicvc iicaimcni goals loi inuiviuual mcmbcis.
Ii is bascu on ihc samc iincilcs as inuiviuual counsclling bui has ihc
auvaniagc ol colc woiIing iogcihci, lcaining liom onc anoihci,
bclonging io a giou, anu cnhancing ihc cmowcimcni ol ihc giou
mcmbcis.
Evaluation
AsI cach aiiiciani how s/hc lcli aboui ihc scssion.
Alternative Modes of Counselling
Training Handbook on Psychosocial counselling for CEDC Trainers Guide 197
Purpose of Group Counselling Purpose of Group Counselling Purpose of Group Counselling Purpose of Group Counselling Purpose of Group Counselling
Group counselling enables groups to:
Develop a harmonious relationship among the members so
that the members can receive support, positive and
constructive feedback, and protection through collective effort
and goals.
Share information and issues affecting their lives.
Bring about behavioural, structural, and/or emotional change.
Form and conform to common norms and values.
Enhance problem-solving skills and solve problems that exist
in the group.
Share and discuss feelings (worries, fears, etc.) and create a
sense of belonging.
Give space for expression of thoughts, emotions, and ideas/
suggestions.
Learn to understand other people and their viewpoints and
encourage respect for others.
Gain greater social skills to communicate with peers.
Transparency 5.S.1
Alternative Modes of Counselling
198 Training Handbook on Psychosocial counselling for CEDC Trainers Guide
Role of the Group Counsellor Role of the Group Counsellor Role of the Group Counsellor Role of the Group Counsellor Role of the Group Counsellor
A group counsellor:
1. Directs the process and flow of communication.
2. Gives equal opportunity to all participants to speak; does not
permit interruptions whilst a participant speaks; encourages
everyone to speak/verbalise their opinions, and adheres to
time.
3. Ensures that participants are not intimidated or threatened
by others.
4. Makes sure that each party hears the other sides point of
view.
5. Peri odi cal l y summari ses the present stage of the
communication.
6. Avoids suggesting his/her own solutions or advice.
7. Puts the groups agreements into writing, asks all the
participants involved to sign it (if literate), and helps set up a
monitoring and evaluating mechanism.
8. Does not interrupt if participants disagree unless the
participants become disrespectful or unless there is a need
to guide the discussion by summarising (which brings calm
and clarity to the discussion).
9. Clarifies the content of the discussion by making links,
defining, and summarising.
10. Facilitates: s/he helps to reformulate or clarify messages and/
or helps to find solutions if necessary.
Transparency 5.S.2
Alternative Modes of Counselling
Training Handbook on Psychosocial counselling for CEDC Trainers Guide 199
Example/guidelines for a first session of
group counselling
Siaii wiih an iccbicaIci/lun aciiviiy. MaIc suic you havc clcaily iucniilicu why you
as a counsellor want to start this group process, or moregenerally, what thereason for the
group counselling is. MaIc suic cvciyonc is siiiing in a ciiclc.
- Exlain why you aic having ihis giou aciiviiy.
- Cicaic a `wc-lccling` by ialIing aboui ihc ooiiuniiy loi ihc giou io comc u
wiih soluiions/iulcs loi cxisiing ioblcms - noi |usi ihc sub|ccis you iaiscu, bui
also sub|ccis liom ihcii oini ol vicw. Ioi cxamlc: aboui ihc uaily iunning ol
ihc ccniic. Ideally, the participants come up with their own topics.
- Do noi cicaic a clcai uivision bciwccn ihc counsclloi anu ihc chiluicn; cicaic an
aimoshcic whcic you aic woiIing iogcihci on common goals, c.g. io maIc ihc
ccniic as nicc as ossiblc loi cvciybouy involvcu.
- AsI ihc giou clcai qucsiions aboui how ihcy lccl aboui ihc sub|cci anu givc
ihcm ihc ooiiuniiy io cxicss lcclings/cxciicnccs aboui ihc sub|cci.
- AsI ihcm clcai qucsiions aboui il ihcy wani io uo somcihing aboui ihc iaiscu
sub|cci/s.
- If the group still does not show awareness or a will to continueasI ihc giou
why noi.
- Iisicn io ihcii aigumcnis c.g. il ihcy uo noi scc ihc ioblcms). AsI ihcm il ihcy
aic ai lcasi willing io havc anoihci scssion io uiscuss, anu il ihcy aic willing, asI
ihcm io ihinI aboui/obscivc ihc sub|cci c.g. aggicssion) uuiing ihc coming
wccI.
- In ihc ncxi scssion iiy io cicaic awaicncss anu cxlain, using cxamlcs, why you
ihinI ii is in ihc bcsi inicicsi ol all io coniinuc scssions. Il ossiblc, conuuci an
cxcicisc io siimulaic awaicncss.
- If the group shows awareness and a will to continue, ihcn cxlain in moic
uciail whai ihc ioccss will cniail. Thcn ciihci in ihc liisi oi ossibly ncxi scssion
you can siaii locussing on whai ihc iulcs loi ihc ioccss will bc, oihci
iaciicaliiics, anu shaic common goals loi ihc ioccss.
- Sci u a iouiinc loi giou counsclling whcic any sub|cci cmoiional anu
iaciical) can bc iaiscu. Havc ncw chiluicn |oin in. Possiblc sub|ccis: freedom,
money-addiction, respect, daily programme/management of thecentre, feelings, etc.
Fact sheet 5.3.1
Alternative Modes of Counselling
200 Training Handbook on Psychosocial counselling for CEDC Trainers Guide
Reference 5.3.1
Principles of group counselling
Thc iincilcs ol giou counsclling mcniioncu hcic aic auuiiions io ihc basic iincilcs
anu iucas ihai aic ucsciibcu in inuiviuual counsclling in ihis iiaining acIagc.
Hiuucn oi ovcii iulcs anu loiccs - group dynamics, cxisi in any giou. This will bc
onc main locus ol ihc counsclloi. Giou counsclling locuscs on scvcial `cuiaiivc/
osiiivc laciois` Vcihci| 8 Vcihulsi, 1996).
- Hope: ucsaii is a vciy iomincni lccling among chiluicn. Alici a whilc, a chilu
mighi scc ihc ossiblc icsulis liom ihc scssions, which mighi in iuin givc ihai chilu
hoc loi a bciici siiuaiion.
- Universality: ii is a vciy comloiiing iuca loi chiluicn io icalisc ihai ihcy aic noi
alonc wiih ihcii ihoughis, lcclings, oi iucas. This way lcclings ol shamc can
uisacai.
- Altruism: cvcn ihough youih anu olicn auulis) locus on ihcmsclvcs a loi, ihc
cxciicncc ihai ihcy may aciually bc ol hcl io oihcis mighi bc a osiiivc lacioi
anu in iuin bc osiiivc loi ihc scll-woiih ol ihc chilu.
- So:n! :|:!!:: ihiough ihis cxciicncc chiluicn havc ihc chancc io lcain aucquaic
social sIills csscniial loi changc ol siiuaiion).
- Modelling: chiluicn mighi imiiaic cach oihci`s bchavioui bui ihcy may imiiaic ihc
counsclloi cvcn moic. Thc counsclloi bccomcs a iolc moucl ol auuli succcss.
Do noi unuci csiimaic ihc siicngih ol mouclling anu ihcicloic be a good
example.
- Group cohesion: ihc lccling ol bclonging io a giou, ihc `wc-lccling` is csscniial io
succccu. Ioi chiluicn living in ihc ccniic, ihcic mighi alicauy bc a giou lccling.
Howcvci, ii is goou io cicaic a giou lccling in the sessions. Ioi ihc mcmbcis ol
ihc giou ihis `wc-lccling` shoulu bc cqual io bcing acccicu by oihcis.
- Differentiation: ihc oosiic ol univcisaliiy, uillcicniiaiion mcans ihai ii is goou
anu accciablc io bc uillcicni liom oihci chiluicn, liom youi aicnis, liom ihc
counsclloi. Il ihis is ihc icason loi a chilu io uisagicc wiih oihcis, ihcn ii shoulu
bc acccicu anu cncouiagcu.
Auuiiionally, giou counsclling can bc csccially usclul loi cxisiing gious, loi cxamlc
in ccniics. Gious living iogcihci naiuially havc icnsions anu conllicis on an
inicicisonal lcvcl anu on an oiganisaiional lcvcl csccially aboui ihc uaily iunning
ol ihc ccniic). Giou counsclling can assisi mcmbcis io solvc ioblcms. Ii can bc
uscu as a iool io cnhancc lcclings ol icsonsibiliiy anu lcclings ol bclonging anu scll-
csiccm - mcmbcis can lccl incluucu in uccision-maIing ioccsscs aboui ihc ccniic.
Any giou uiscussion oi any uisiuibancc ihai involvcs ihc giou can bc auuicsscu in
giou scssions ihai aic sysicmaiic anu icoccuiiing c.g. oncc a wccI). Howcvci, ii is
imoiiani io Icc in minu ihai ihc locus is noi mcicly on iaciical issucs. Giou
scssions cmhasisc ihc cmoiional wcll bcing ol ihc inuiviuuals. Thc locus shoulu
always bc io cmowci ihc mcmbcis io hanulc ihcii own ioblcms anu uilliculi
siiuaiions.
Alternative Modes of Counselling
Training Handbook on Psychosocial counselling for CEDC Trainers Guide 201
Objectives
Ai ihc cnu ol ihc scssion, aiiicianis aic cxccicu io:
- Lnucisianu ihc basic iincilcs ol Ciisis Inicivcniion anu TasI Oiicnicu
Counsclling.
Activities
Time: 2 houis
Materials: mcia-caius, lli chaii, maiIcis, boaiu
Session 4:
I ntroduction to Crisis I ntervention
& Task Oriented Counselling
ExpIanation of procedure for trainers:
" Ask the part|c|pants to read lntroduct|on to Task Or|ented Oounse|||ng TOO} |n the GcncraI
ManuaI, Anncx 1 'Task oricntco counscIIing.
Oase: A very v|o|ent argument between two ch||dren |s tak|ng p|ace and the counse||or
has to |ntervene and med|ate. One of the ch||dren suspects that the other has sto|en
some money of h|m/her. The counse||or has a|ready |n|t|ated counse|||ng w|th one of the
two ch||dren who has recurr|ng outbursts of aggress|on, that the ch||d 14 years o|d}
h|m/herse|f wants to change.
" D|v|de the group |nto sma||er groups.
Ask each group to bra|nstorm how to |mp|ement TOO for the aggress|ve ch||d that has
a|ready started counse|||ng sess|ons.
The target prob|em |s outbursts of aggress|on not the money |ssue}. The bra|nstorm|ng
shou|d focus on Stcp 3, DcvcIoping SoIutions of GcncraI ManuaI, Anncx 1, 'Task oricntco
counscIIing.
" D|scuss the outcomes and ask two peop|e to ro|e-p|ay one TOO sess|on |ntegrat|ng the
outcomes of the group d|scuss|ons}.
" lntroduce cr|s|s |ntervent|on counse|||ng and ask the part|c|pants to read lntroduct|on to
Or|s|s lntervent|on Oounse|||ng |n the GcncraI ManuaI, Anncx 1, 'Crisis intcrvcntion counscIIing.
Oase: A 15 year-o|d g|r| has just ran away from home, because of an unknown
threaten|ng s|tuat|on. She knows that you are somebody who works w|th ch||dren. She
has no p|ace to stay for the n|ght and st||| fee|s threatened, even though she ran away.
" D|v|de the groups |nto sma||er groups of three one ch||d, one counse||or, one observer}.
Each group does a ro|e-p|ay, for at |east 25 m|nutes, based on the cr|s|s descr|bed above.
Make |t c|ear that the object|ve of th|s |n|t|a| cr|s|s |ntervent|on |s to get the cr|s|s
or | mmed| ate resu| ts of the cr| s| s under contro| and re| | eve the h| gh | eve| of
d|stress. The counse||or shou|d try to so|ve the |mmed|ate cr|s|s, and therefore has to go
through a fu|| counse|||ng process cyc|e! Further prob|em so|v|ng or |ook|ng at the causes of
the cr|s|s comes at a |ater stage.} The observer can use the check||st (scc fact shcct 5.4.1).
Alternative Modes of Counselling
202 Training Handbook on Psychosocial counselling for CEDC Trainers Guide
Note for the trainer:
" The reason why Or|s|s lntervent|on Oounse|||ng and Task Or|ented Oounse|||ng TOO} |s
|ntegrated |nto one sess|on |s that TOO can be a very usefu| method of |ntervent|on for cr|ses,
ma|n|y because |t |s act|on or|ented. However, th|s does not ||m|t the use of TOO on|y to a
cr|s|s.
" Second|y, ment|on that the examp|e '|mmed|ate cr|s|s` |n th|s sess|on was one that cou|d be
re||eved |n a short t|me. However, cr|ses s|tuat|ons often need much more t|me and need to
be hand|ed |n more depth espec|a||y w|th cases such as su|c|da| tendenc|es, support after
rape, etc.
Methodology
- Inuiviuual icauing
- Rolc-lays
- Biainsioiming anu giou shaiing
Resource materials
Text for trainees:
Iaci Shcci .4.1 Obscivci`s ChccIlisi on Hanuling Ciisis
General Manual, Annex 1 sections on Crisis intervention
& Task oriented counselling
Key points
Each ioblcm, siiuaiion, oi inuiviuual nccus a liiiing/aioiiaic
inicivcniion, csccially in ihc casc ol a ciisis. Il noi, inicivcniion will bc moic
uamaging ihan hcllul.
Synthesising
Pioviuc an ooiiuniiy loi qucsiions anu summaiisc ihc scssion wiih ihc
lollowing oinis:
- This scssion locusscu on iwo loims ol counsclling ihai aic vciy usclul in
iimcs ol ciisis anu ihc icsoluiion ol ihc ciisis.
A ciisis can bc hysical conllicis occuiiing in a ccniic, uiicci cllccis ol a
iiaumaiic cvcni, suiciual icnucncics, iaIing in a chilu who has |usi walIcu
away liom homc, cic.
A ciisis nccus a uiicci, iaciical, anu cmaihciic aioach ihai aims io
icsolvc ihc uiicci icaciions ol ihc ciisis.
- Ai a laici siagc, onc mighi nccu io givc aiicniion io ihc causc ol ihc ciisis.
TasI oiicnicu counsclling TOC) can bc a valuablc iool anu is noi
icsiiicicu io ciisis siiuaiions. TOC siimulaics ihc chilu`s inui io changc a
siiuaiion in a iaciical mannci. Ii also siicsscs ihc iolc ol ihc chilu`s uiicci
cnviionmcni in hcling io icsolvc ihc ioblcm.
Evaluation
AsI ihc aiiicianis io cxicss whai ihcy havc lcaincu liom ihis scssion.
Alternative Modes of Counselling
Training Handbook on Psychosocial counselling for CEDC Trainers Guide 203
Fact sheet 5.4.1
Observers checklist
Handling Crisis Situation
Plcasc ui a chccI maiI on ihc blanI sacc ioviucu il ihc lollowing bchaviouial
inuicaiois aic obscivcu in ihc counsclloi. Wiiic youi commcnis in ihc
Commcnis/RcmaiIs" oiiion. Thcsc inuicaiois icllcci imoiiani clcmcnis ol
hanuling ciisis siiuaiions.
____1. Dislaycu a calm anu iclaxcu bchavioui
____2. Communicaicu clcaily
____S. Dcmonsiiaicu inicicsi anu conccin
____4. Pioviucu a scnsc ol icassuiancc anu ocnncss
____. Lscu calming anu cncouiaging siaicmcnis
____6. Dcmonsiiaicu abiliiy io asscss siiuaiion anu aci
uon ihai asscssmcni such as ihc uiicci causc ol
conllici)
____7. Was aiicniivc anu icsonsivc
____S. Aiicnucu io immcuiaic nccus anu issucs
____9. Allowcu chilu io vcniilaic anu cxicss
cvaluaiion, iucas, ihoughis, lcclings cic.
____1u. Was ablc io loimulaic an cxlanaiion oi
summaiy ol ihc ciisis
____11. Dcmonsiiaicu coniiol ol ihc siiuaiion
____12. Showcu non-cmoiional involvcmcni anu yci was
ablc io cmhasisc
____1S. Gavc ooiiuniiy loi cach aiiy io cxicss
____14. Was ob|cciivc anu non-|uugmcnial
____1. Is ablc io lan anu communicaic a ciisis
iicaimcni lan
1.
2.
S.
4.
.
6.
7.
S.
9.
1u.
11.
12.
1S.
14.
1.
MODULE VI
General objective:
To ucvclo a lan io ui inio iaciicc ihc Inowlcugc gaincu in ihc iiaining anu io
ioviuc consoliuaicu sciviccs loi CEDC ihiough ihc csiablishmcni ol
collaboiaiions.
Specific objectives:
Ai ihc cnu ol ihc mouulc, aiiicianis will bc ablc io:
- Picaic a lan ol aciion io imlcmcni goals in counsclling.
- Lnucisianu ihc imoiiancc anu ossibiliiy ol builuing nciwoiIs amongsi
oiganisaiions woiIing loi/wiih CEDC on a local lcvcl so ihai oiganisaiions can
ioviuc inicgiaicu sciviccs io nccuy chiluicn.
- Evaluaic ihc iiaining scssions io cnsuic ihcii cllcciivcncss loi ihc luiuic bascu
on ihc siicngihs anu wcaIncsscs ol ihc scssions anu ihc iiaincis.
Closing
Closing
206 Training Handbook on Psychosocial counselling for CEDC Trainers Guide
Closing
Training Handbook on Psychosocial counselling for CEDC Trainers Guide 207
Objectives
Ai ihc cnu ol ihc scssion, aiiicianis aic cxccicu io:
- Shaic anu uiscuss ihc sciviccs ollcicu by vaiious oiganisaiions ihai ioviuc
sciviccs io CEDC.
- Havc a uccci unucisianuing on ihc imoiiancc ol collaboiaiion in oiuci
io ioviuc vaiious sciviccs loi CEDC.
- Discuss ossiblc nciwoiIing amongsi agcncics io ollci comichcnsivc
sciviccs io chiluicn using a holisiic aioach. This incluucs csiablishing
nciwoiIs among liIc-minucu oiganisaiions anu siicngihcning a nciwoiI.
Activities
Time: 2 houis
Materials: mcia-caius, lli chaii, maiIci, boaiu, ingicuicnis nccucu io
maIc Chana-Chatpate
Session 1:
Linkages and planning
ExpIanation of procedure for trainers:
" lntroduce the sess|on w|th an energ|ser game ca||ed Chana-Chatpatc - an outdoor game of mak|ng 'Ohat`.
" Prepare the |ngred|ents for Chana-Chatpatc and put them |nto separate p|ates.
D|v|de the part|c|pants |nto three or four groups and ask each group to s|t |n a separate corner of the room.
G|ve on|y one or two |tems out of on|on, ch|||y power, puffed r|ce, fresh |emon, rad|sh, cook|ng o||, soaked grams,
turmer|c powder, etc.} to each group.
Ask each person |n the group to eat test} the |ngred|ent/s g|ven to them. The |tem w||| of course be taste|ess or
w||| taste terr|b|e, as they w||| be eat|ng |t on |ts own.
Now ask a|| the groups to un|te and m|x a|| the|r |ngred|ents together to make Chana-Chatpatc. |et a|| the
members of the group taste the resu|t. Th|s t|me |t w||| taste good because a|| the |ngred|ents have been |nc|uded.
Th|s act|v|ty |||ustrates that |f th|ngs are put together proper|y |n the r|ght way, the resu|t can be powerfu|.
" Ask the part|c|pants what they have |earnt from th|s exerc|se, note down the po|nts on the board, and ho|d a
d|scuss|on. Oonc|ude w|th the |mportance of co||aborat|ve work/efforts.
" D|v|de the part|c|pants |nto four groups accord|ng to the|r geograph|ca| area where they ||ve, and ask them to
|dent|fy agenc|es/persons, w|th whom they th|nk they shou|d have a potent|a| ||nk |n the future |n order to prov|de
effect|ve counse|||ng serv|ces for OEDO.
" Ask the groups to ||st the type of serv|ces these organ|sat|ons are prov|d|ng, the|r strengths, or the|r area of
expert|se and then to wr|te down the expert|se of the|r own organ|sat|on. Each group shou|d prepare th|s
overv|ew for at |east four organ|sat|ons they are work|ng w|th or that they know.
" Present the P|an of Act|on (scc transparcncy 6.1.1). Ask part|c|pants to take t|me to prepare a p|an of act|on -
one for themse|ves and one for the|r organ|sat|on/programme. Th|s p|an of act|on shou|d focus on how they w|||
|ntegrate, |mp|ement, and fo||ow up the know|edge and sk|||s they have |earned dur|ng th|s tra|n|ng.
" ln|t|ate a group d|scuss|on where part|c|pants can share 'what thcy arc pIanning to oo aftcr thc training to
improvc or impIcmcnt psychosociaI counscIIing.
Methodology
- Giou uiscussion/woiIsho
- Ocn uiscussion
- Simulaiion cxcicisc
Resource Materials
Text for Lecture:
Tiansaicncy 6.1.1 Counsclling Plan ol Aciion
Key points
Whcn siucis conncci ihcii wcbs iogcihci, ihcy can iic u a lion Eihioian
iovcib).
Synthesising
Pioviuc an ooiiuniiy loi qucsiions anu summaiisc ihc scssion wiih ihc
lollowing oinis:
- Psychosocial counsclling is only onc way ol assisiing CEDC. A chilu who is
in a uilliculi ciicumsiancc is olicn in nccu ol oihci sciviccs as wcll, i.c.
ichabiliiaiion, aia-lcgal sciviccs, mcuical sciviccs, schooling, losici homc
suoii, hcl liom ihc olicc ucaiimcni, cic. Ii is ihc iasI ol ihc
counsclloi io iclci ihc chilu io ihcsc oihci sciviccs, il ncccssaiy.
- IinIagcs can also iaIc lacc wiihoui iclciiing ihc chilu io anoihci scivicc;
ii can bc asIing auvicc oi suoii liom oihci sychosocial counscllois loi
cxamlc.
Evaluation
AsI ihc aiiicianis whai ihcy havc lcaincu liom ihis scssion.
Counsellor Plan of Action Counsellor Plan of Action Counsellor Plan of Action Counsellor Plan of Action Counsellor Plan of Action
Name of participant:
Name of NGO:
Goals
Activities
Time Frame
Responsible Person
Transparency 6.1.1
Closing
210 Training Handbook on Psychosocial counselling for CEDC Trainers Guide
Objectives
Ai ihc cnu ol ihc scssion, aiiicianis aic cxccicu io:
- Shaic ihcii imicssions aboui ihc iiaining.
- Givc lccubacI anu suggcsiions conccining ihc ovciall iiaining
iogiammc.
Activities
Time: 1 houi
Materials: mcia-caius, lli chaii, maiIci, boaiu
Session 2:
Training Evaluation
ExpIanation of procedure:
" D|str|bute tra|n|ng eva|uat|on forms to a|| the part|c|pants scc facts shcct 6.2.1 & 6.2.2},
so that they can eva|uate the tra|n|ng.
" Oonduct the Suitcasc ano Ashtray game scc rcfcrcncc for traincr 6.2.1} w|th the
part|c|pants.
Methodology
- Singing anu simulaiion gamc
- Wiiiing cxcicisc
- Icciuic
Resource materials
Text for Trainees:
Iaci Shcci 6.2.1 Paiiiciani`s icaciions
Iaci Shcci 6.2.2 IccubacI on ihc iiainci
Text for Trainer:
Rclcicncc 6.2.1 Suiicasc anu Ashiiay gamc
Key points
Thc mosi cllcciivc way ol sccuiing succcss is ihiough gaining cxciicncc anu
ihc only way ol gaining cxciicncc is by maIing misiaIcs.
Synthesising
Pioviuc an ooiiuniiy loi qucsiions anu summaiisc ihc scssion wiih ihc
lollowing oinis:
- ThanI ihc aiiicianis loi ihcii inui anu cxicss ihc hoc ihai ihcii ncwly
acquiicu Inowlcugc anu sIills will uliimaicly bcnclii chiluicn.
Closing
Training Handbook on Psychosocial counselling for CEDC Trainers Guide 211
Training Evaluation/Participants
Reactions
INSTRLCTION: Plcasc iaic ihc iiaining by maIing a maiI io inuicaic:
1. Exccllcni
2. Vciy goou
S. Goou
4. Noi so goou
. Pooi
Fact sheet 6.2.1
* Plcasc lccl licc io givc youi commcnis in uciail aboui any ol ihc siaicmcnis
abovc oi givc commcnis anu suggcsiions on ihc ovciall iiaining oi sccilic
scssions/ioics anu wiiic ihcsc on an auuiiional shcci ol aci.
Rcactions
Ovciall cllcciivcncss in mcciing lcaining
ob|cciivcs
How wcll ihc iiaining iogiammc was
icaicu anu imlcmcnicu
Aioiiaicncss ol iiaining mcihouologics
Sullicicncy ol iiaining conicnis
Aioiiaicncss ol hanu-ouis
I now lccl ihai my unucisianuing ol my
own siicngihs anu limiiaiions in woiIing
wiih CECD is .
Balancc bciwccn ihcoiciical anu iaciical
asccis ol ihc iiaining
Ellcciivcncss ol ihc iiaincis
I now lccl I havc acquiicu basic Inowlcugc
on sychosocial counsclling
I now lccl my aciivc lisicning sIills aic.
Tiaining vcnuc
Ioou anu accommouaiion
I now lccl I am cquicu io woiI wiih
chiluicn wiih sycho-cmoiional ioblcms
SN
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
I.
G.
H.
I.
].
K.
I.
M.
1 2 3 4 5
Closing
212 Training Handbook on Psychosocial counselling for CEDC Trainers Guide
Feedback/Comments On The Trainer
Plcasc iaic ihc iiaincis` ciloimancc by cnciicling ihc numbci io inuicaic:
1 - Exccllcni; 2 - Vciy Goou; S - Goou; 4 - Noi so goou; - Pooi
Tiainci`s Namc:
Fact sheet 6.2.2
*Commcnis/RcmaiIs:
1 2 S 4
1 2 S 4
1 2 S 4
1 2 S 4
1 2 S 4
1 2 S 4
1 2 S 4
1 2 S 4
1 2 S 4
1 2 S 4
1 2 S 4
1 2 S 4
1 2 S 4
1 2 S 4
1 2 S 4
1 2 S 4
1 2 S 4
A.
B.
C.
Tcaching Expcrtisc
- Posscsscu Inowlcugc ol ihc sub|cci
- Picscnicu sub|cci maiici logically anu scqucniially
- Emhasiscu Icy oinis
- Lscu simlc anu unucisianuablc vocabulaiy
- Pioviucu siiuaiions suiicu io aiiicianis` nccus,
inicicsis, anu abiliiics
- Emhasiscu aiiicianis` coniiibuiion ol iucas
Communication Skills and Pcrsonality Dynamics
- SoIc clcaily anu iocccucu wiih a mouciaic acc
- Lscu visual aius anu non-vcibal communicaiion
mcihous io cnhancc icscniaiion
- Dcmonsiiaicu cnihusiasm anu inicicsi in ihc sub|cci
maiici
- Siimulaicu inicicsi anu hclu ihc aiicniion ol ihc giou
- Showcu a scnsc ol humoui
- Was aiicni
Facilitation Skills
- Encouiagcu giou aiiiciaiion ihiough aioiiaic
qucsiions
- Pioviucu icsonscs io qucsiions uiiccily anu icciscly
- Kci uiscussion locuscu
- Scnsiiivc io aiiicianis` aiiiiuuc anu nccus
- Diu noi imosc his/hci iucas oi answcis on ihc giou
Closing
Training Handbook on Psychosocial counselling for CEDC Trainers Guide 213
Reference 6.2.1
Suitcase And Ashtray Game
Steps
- Picaic a uiawing ol a laigc suiicasc anu a laigc ashiiay. Placc ii on ihc boaiu.
- AsI cvciyonc io wiiic ihc lollowing ihings on caius:
- Whai wc wani io iaIc wiih us liom ihis iiaining ihis can bc anyihing liom a
aiiiculai scssion, a ncw liicnushi, ihc loou - io somcihing you lcaincu
sccilically).
- Whai wc woulu liIc io loigci/lcavc bchinu ihis can also bc anyihing).
- Thc aiiicianis lacc ihcii caius unuci ihc uiawing ol ihc suiicasc anu ihc
ashiiay - ihc suiicasc loi ihc ihings ihcy wani io iaIc wiih ihcm anu ihc ashiiay
loi ihc ihings ihcy wani io loigci/lcavc bchinu.
Things wc wani io iaIc liom ihis iiaining.
Diaw a suiicasc hcic)
Things wc wani io loigci/lcavc hcic.
Diaw an ashiiay hcic)
MODULE VII
References materials
&
Bibliography
References materials & Bibliography
216 Training Handbook on Psychosocial counselling for CEDC Trainers Guide
References materials & Bibliography
Training Handbook on Psychosocial counselling for CEDC Trainers Guide 217
Reference Material 7.1.1
A Domestic Girl Child Labourer Bina
Bina Niiaula has an cluci sisici, an cluci bioihci, anu ihicc youngci bioihcis. Hci
laihci sclls liicwoou anu hci moihci is a houscwilc. Hci moihci is sullciing liom
asihma. Hci aicnis aic vciy ooi.
Bina lcli homc wiih hci unclc`s uaughici io looI loi a |ob wiih ihc hoc io gci loou
anu cloihcs; hci own aicnis coulu noi managc io ioviuc loou anu cloihcs loi ihc
chiluicn.
Shc is now woiIing as a uomcsiic chilu labouici in PoIhaia Municialiiy. Shc looIs
alici ihc lanuloiu`s caiilc anu uocs scvcial oihci uomcsiic woiIs. To comlcic all
ihc woiI is bcyonu Bina`s caaciiy - shc is a young giil chilu.
Hci lanuloiu anu ihc lanulauy hysically abusc hci cvciyuay loi noi comlciing
iasIs. Somciimcs ihcy iub cow uung on hci bouy anu ui ii in hci mouih whcn ihcy
aic usci. Thcy uo noi cvcn ioviuc hci wiih a ioci lacc io slcc, cxcci loi a
uam llooi. Somciimcs ihcy ihiow hci oui ol ihc housc whcn shc maIcs a small
misiaIc.
Shc iiicu io commii suciuc by |uming liom ihc iool oncc. Shc saiu io a social
woiIci ihai shc woulu uic il shc hau io siay ihcic any longci. Shc icccivcs liliy
iuccs a monih. Bina uocs noi Inow whcic io go anu shc uocs noi wani io go bacI
homc bccausc ol ihc ovciiy anu misciy ihcic.
Shc uocs noi liIc io shaic hci lcclings wiih anybouy. Somchow, shc managcu io
cxicss hci lcclings io a Social WoiIci. Bina has hau sau lcclings sincc hci chiluhoou.
Now shc is 1S ycais olu. Shc icgicis ihai shc losi ihc ooiiuniiy io siuuy anu lay
wiih liicnus. Shc lcli vciy hay whcn ihc social woiIci hclcu hci anu aumiiicu
hci io a non-loimal cuucaiion class. Shc gcis annoycu whcn ihc lanulauy says, You
can go io youi class a bii laic.bui comc bacI caily!"
Bina somciimcs siays u io siuuy alici hci woiI, bui hci cmloycss uo noi allow hci
io Icc ihc lighi on. Shc icmcmbcis hci aicnis anu ihc allcciion ol lamily mcmbcis.
References materials & Bibliography
218 Training Handbook on Psychosocial counselling for CEDC Trainers Guide
Reference Material 7.1.2
A Domestic Girl Child Labour- Sunita
Suniia Guiung is a giil ol 14 ycais olu. Hci laihci cxiicu whcn shc was vciy
young. Suniia`s moihci lcli hci alonc in a ncighboui`s housc. Hci moihci uiu
noi iciuin. Shc has bccn woiIing as a uomcsiic chilu labouici ai ihc ncighboui`s
housc cvci sincc.
Suniia always wonucis why hci moihci lcli hci alonc. Shc ihinIs shc will bc hay
il shc livcs wiih hci moihci again, howcvci shc lccls hci moihci has bccn vciy
ciucl iowaius hci. Shc somciimcs ciics all uay anu iiics io iccall hci moihci`s
lacc. Shc wonucis whai will hacn io hci il ihc owncis asI hci io go away.
Suniia lccls liIc an oihan. Shc is woiiicu ihai shc will noi iccognisc hci moihci
il shc iciuins somcuay.
Thc lanuloiu anu ihc lanulauy aic Iinu-hcaiicu colc. Thc lanulauy iicais
Suniia vciy wcll. Thc lanulauy aumiiicu hci io onc ol ihc ongoing classcs ol ihc
Liban-Oui-ol-School Chiluicn`s Non-Ioimal Euucaiion NIE) Piogiammc. Shc
sccms io bc iniclligcni anu shc can lcain lasi.
Suniia licqucnily iccalls ihc ain ol hci laihci`s ucaih anu how hci moihci lcli
hci alonc.
References materials & Bibliography
Training Handbook on Psychosocial counselling for CEDC Trainers Guide 219
Reference Material 7.1.3
A Domestic Girl-Child Labourer - Gita
Giia saiu ihai ihcic was a quaiicl bciwccn hci laihci anu moihci whcn shc was
aboui -6 ycais olu. Hci laihci lcli alici ihai quaiicl anu uiu noi iciuin so hci
moihci bcgan io woiI in hoicls. Onc uay hci moihci asIcu hci io |oin hci in a hoicl
in Inuia anu lcli hci ihcic, alonc. Hci moihci ncvci iciuincu.
Thc ownci ol ihc hoicl was ciucl anu siaiicu io bcai hci licqucnily. Giia ian away
liom ihc hoicl whcn shc coulu noi iolciaic ihc abusc anymoic.
Giia bcgan wanuciing aiounu ihc siiccis ol Inuia, looIing loi loou anu shclici -
shc was siaiving. Onc uay, shc was ai a iailway siaiion anu shc bcgan io ciy. TanIa,
a Ncali liom Ncalgun| in ihc Inuian aimy, was on his way bacI homc uuiing his
holiuays, anu saw Giia ciying. TanIa bioughi Giia bacI io his homc in Ncalgun|
anu cmloycu hci as a uomcsiic chilu labouici. Shc calls TanIa hci laihci, anu his
wilc hci moihci.
Now, Giia is aioximaicly 14 io 1 ycais olu. Shc uocs noi Inow whcic io go anu is
looIing loi hci aicnis. Shc is siill woiIing as a uomcsiic chilu labouici in TanIa`s
lamily.
TanIa`s son anu uaughici go io school. Giia ucsiics io also go io school. TanIa anu
his wilc scni Giia io aiicnu non-loimal cuucaiion classcs loi a coulc ol uays, bui now
ihcy uo noi allow hci io go anymoic. Boih TanIa anu his wilc havc ihc vicw ihai Giia
is in ihc lamily io woiI anu noi io siuuy. Giia lccls vciy hcllcss anu has no hoc loi
ihc luiuic.
References materials & Bibliography
220 Training Handbook on Psychosocial counselling for CEDC Trainers Guide
Reference Material 7.1.4
List of the Participants
Workshop for pre-testing Counselling Training Materials
(4-15 May 2000), Lumle, Kaski, Nepal
Organization
Ncalgun| Municialiiy Liban
CHIIDREN- Ncal,
PoIhaia Sub-Mciiooliian Ciiy
Ioium loi Human Righis anu Enviionmcni IORHEN)
Chiluicn`s Coniaci Ccniic, Buiwal, Ncal
Ncal RLGMARK Iounuaiion NRI), Kaihmanuu.
Ruial Rcconsiiuciion Ncal RRN), Baiuia
Lnuci Piivilcgcu Chiluicn Associaiion LPCA),
CHIIDREN- Ncal,
CHIIDREN- Ncal,
Chilu Wcllaic Sociciy CWS), PoIhaia
Awaicncss loi Dcvclomcni, Ncal AIORD-Ncal)
Ccniic loi Viciims ol Toiiuic CVICT)
Ccniic loi Viciims ol Toiiuic CVICT)
Ccniic loi Awaicncss Piomoiion CAP), Sunsaii
Womcn Rchabiliiaiion Ccniic WOREC), Kaihmanuu
Namc
Ms. RauhiIa Singh
Mi.Dilly Piasau Shaima
Mi Om Ra| Pouucl
Mi. Khila Naih Niiaula
Mi. Inuia Dahal
Ms. Dia Rcgmi
Mis. Sccma Achaiya
Mi. Ial Man Iimbu
Mi. Shiva Shaima Chaagain
Ms. Yashoua Baial
Mi. ShivaHaii AuhiIaii
Mi. Kamal Ra| anihi
Ms. ]amuna Mahai|an
Ms. Sushila Shaima
Mi. Bii Bahauui Iimbu
Mi. Chci Ra| Shicsiha
Rcsourcc Pcrsons/Facilitators Irom thc NGOs
Mi. Ram Chanuia Pauucl
Mi. ChanuiiIa Khaiiwaua
Ms. ShaIuniala Subba
CHIIDREN- Ncal,
Savc ihc Chiluicn-LK
Lnuci Piivilcgcu Chiluicn Associaiion LPCA)
Mi. MaiI ]oiuans
Mi. Daiia Tiay Roy
Mi. Sunuai Guiung
Mi. Bhanu PaihaI
Mi. Toya Ra| Giii
LNICEI- Couniiy Ollicc. Kaihmanuu
LNICEI- Couniiy Ollicc, Kaihmanuu
LNICEI-Iiclu Ollicc, PoIhaia
LNICEI-Iiclu Ollicc, Biiainagai
LNICEI-Iiclu Ollicc, PoIhaia
Rcsourcc Pcrsons/Facilitators Irom UNICEF
StaII Ior Logistical managcmcnt and Sccrctarial Support
Ms. Shushila DhaIal
Mi. Subas Chanuia Basiola
CHIIDREN-Ncal, PoIhaia
Evcicsi Comuici Ccniic, PoIhaia
References materials & Bibliography
Training Handbook on Psychosocial counselling for CEDC Trainers Guide 221
Bibliography
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through their drawings and metaphors. UNI CEF, Manila.
Banaag, C.G. 1997. Resiliency:Stories found in Phillipinestreets. Phillipines.
Bayne, R., Horton, I ., Merry, T. & Noyes, E. 1994. Thecounsellors Handbook.
A practical A-Z guideto professional and clinical practice. Chapman &
Hall, London.
Burnard, P. 1995. Counselling Skills for Health Professionals. Second Edition.
Chapman & Hall, London.
Child Hope Asia. Reading Materials on Psychosocial I ntervention for Street Children.
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Egan, G. 1994. TheSkilled Helper. A ProblemManagement Approach to Helping
(Fifth Edition). Brooks/Cole, California.
Hope, A. & Timmel. 1995. Training for Transformation. A Handbook for Community
Workers. Mambo Press.
I vey, A.E., I vey, M.B. (1998). I ntentional I nterviewing and counselling. 4th Edition.
Brooks/Cole.
Jong, de, T.V.M., Clarke, L. 1994. Mental Health of Refugees (Prepublication
Version). World Health Organisation (WHO), Geneva.
Jordans, M.J.D. 2000. A Guidefor Psychosocial I nterventions of Children inCWI N
Counselling Centreand CVI CT Manchari Clinic. Child Workers in Nepal
(CWI N)/Centre for Victims of Torture (CVI CT), Kathmandu.
Jordans, M.J.D. 2001. I nternship on psychosocial counselling for children. Centre for
Victims of Torture (CVI CT), Kathmandu.
Kindertelefoon Nederland. 1993. Handboek gespreksmodellen voor telefonische
hulpverlening. Amersfoort.
Kohnstamm, R. 1987. Develomental Psychology; theYoung Child (KleineOntwikkelings
psychologie; Het JongeKind). Bohn Stafleu van Loghum, Amsterdam.
Lee-Mendoza, T. 1999. Social Work with Groups. Megabooks Company,
Phillipines.
Marazigen, R.R. 1997. Social Work: I nterviewing Children in Especially Difficult
Circumstances. Academic Publishing Corporation, Philippines.
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Situation Analysis. Kathmandu
National Planning Commission/UNI CEF. 1997. Situation Analysis of Child Labour
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Plummer, S. 1997. Trauma and Children: Fostering Healing and Supporting Recovery.
A manual for thosewho work with children who haveexperienced trauma.
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Poudyal, B.N., Van Ommeren, M. 2000. CVI CT Psychosocial Counselling I nternship
ProgrammeProceedings. Centre for Victims of Torture (CVI CT),
Kathmandu.
Rajbhandari & Rajbhandari. 1997. Girl Trafficking: Hidden Grief of Himalayas.
WOREC.
Rao, Narayana. 1992. Counselling and Guidance(second edition).
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Turner et.al. 1993. FromRisk to Resilience.
UNI CEF Nepal. 1998. Annual Report 1998. Kathmandu.
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Training Handbook on Psychosocial counselling for CEDC Trainers Guide 223
)>B (Glossary)
+s- --= + ====++ == =-===+ =--= = === +--+ --+--+= +==
+ +-++ - s= + =: =- == = - -= = --+ ==- ==+
=+ c =--=+ == + -=: - -= += =- +-c -+=+ ++==
= -+ -= + +--+= +== + =: -=---+ ++== ===- =+
=== ====+ = --+ == =-=+c + + == == ++-+ ===
= ==++ + -+= +, - +--+ : +++ + + ==== ++-+ -= -+=-
:z ==-- += :+--, = + =+ z = -- += :+-- + ==+ + =-: :z == :+--=: +
=-+ c
)>B (Glossary)
)> English ?O
--+= - acceptance --+ - +- +- += +- -: =--
--= c = --= --+ =-
=+= =- active listening =- =- += =+ + =-=- =a=:
=a =-
+ accusation +
= a accused == ==+ =a, ==+ =a
= =- adapt =-
+t adult ++ --= +=+ + - -+
-=-+ adult +-- =+ ==, == +=+, ===
+-+= adverse == --, -+=+ -+-
+-+- advocate +- ++ ==-= == =- =c, +-a
-+-++ alternative ====, ===
=- anxiety +, =-
= - appearance - = =+
-+ approach += =- ++=, -+, =
=== =- adjustment =- -=+ c ===: ===- ===: -=+
+-= === +=- =+-
-- -c= arbitrary =- = + = :-c == = =-
++= artificial ++-+
= = assessment ---++ =--, ==+ =-=: :-
=+-- === attendance ==-= --=: -=+== =-
(being with the person) =+--
+ - a=- - a attitude +- ++-+ +-, =--a
-- conflict = - , -=--
:- confrontation -=--- - ==-=+ ==- =-
=-=- congruence -=+ + -, -+=-, ===
=+ a- consumerism =+= ---+ ++-= +===: +== -
-+
++= context ====, =, +=
+-- contradict ==- =-=-, :-
==- =- =+ coping skill ==-=== =-=+- =- - =+
+ = a++ counter productive +- += s+ -+-
224 Training Handbook on Psychosocial counselling for CEDC Trainers Guide
)>B (Glossary)
== crazy, mindless energy and --+- =, =- =: === -- =--++ =
enthusiasm
== - creation -= -= - ++ -+
= =- criticism -, -+=+ ==
== depression += - - === +--+ + ==- +
+==+ =-=+ -- - =, === =a=:
- +- +- +== -+ -- =- -=+-
=-=c
-c-= desired :-c =+ =, s+
-- ==+ -+=+ destructive --= - =+ =+=++ -+-
:-+ dilemma = - = - - - -= =- -=++ --
- = discourage +- +- += =- -=- =-
- discrimination -, ++, -
-= disintegrate =+-, =:- -
= documentation =- +=, +:
+ ---+= dysfunctional += -=-, +- -+
-- ego states === --+ --++ Transactional Analysis - =
++ emanate, emerge =+- -, --+-, -+=- -
-- empathy +- =-=, ==-, +-=, +-+== ==
==-= =a =- =a+ --=: = = + =a
=-
--=+ ==-= emotional problem -=, =a, =-== =+- - ==-=
=-==+ ==-=
=a+ empower +- += =- - == == =- a +- =-
==-: + = energiser ==, == +- =-
+--+- establish -+- =- +=
- exploration =--
--= external =
--= =- external resources === +- =- ===+ =-
==+- facilitator +=, -+= - -==+ == == =-+ ==
-+ += -=- === +-==- =a
- + = favorable, compatible -+, ===, == --, +-+=+ -+-
+ s+ feedback += +=- = +== =-+ +-+=, === -+:+
+= +=- = - -= + =-=c = -+:=
+==: += =+- =+-c - -= = +- =-
c
-- feelings, emotion -=, ==-==-- =-- ==- == +
--= --+ +== =+ c
- ==- follow-up, monitor ==++ +==: s+ - =s+ + :c =
+==: --- -
= ++ friendly, amicable =+-+
+== functional += =+, == =-+
==+ ++ fundamental right ==+-+ =, -a+ ---+-, +-- ==--, +=+
---+-, -+ ---+-, ==s- ---+-, ++-
---+- + +
===+ generalisation == === =+ -==+ -=- =- =--
== =+-+ ++= + = == ++=
+ =+ c- - -+ =-=-
--=++ globalization --=++
== =-=- group dynamic ==+ =-===+ +-++ +=a
Training Handbook on Psychosocial counselling for CEDC Trainers Guide 225
)>B (Glossary)
==- guiding philosophy == =- +=, =+= =-=- +=
++=+ guilt += =+ +==: ==- s- ==== =+- -
---
-+== --c hesitant/reluctance +- +- += =- :- ++, --c
-=- hierarchical ===- == += == r-
=t == high Risk =t -
=- holistic == + - +=: ===-
=- == = holistic care +, =-=+, ===+ == +=: === +-
=- =+==+ ===
=- illusion =+
+= -=- implementation -=, -+ - ==-=: =-+ += == =-
- += immutable, worthy -+==, -+ =- ==+
of imitation
-: increased = - =r=+ === -: -
- = insights + - -= - === ==-= - -- = - = +=-
- + ==+ = + =-+, == + - =-
-+- =- institutionalise ===+ =-+ - =--+ =+ += +==-
==-
==+ intellectual, senior =-, =:+ =a, =:=-, ++ =c
-+= interaction : - : =t =a== - -=+ - +-,
==- - c=+=
-+ =- internal resources =a= --- ==- - -
-=-+ intentional =-=-
= ++ c interrogation =-+ +- =-+ -=- =+ +- r-
--a+ inter-personal =a-=a== - +- +- +
--+ === intervention ==-= --= + =a=: ==+ --= =+
-==-, +--- -==- - ==-==: -== +-
+- =- =+=+ ===
--- intrinsic -+
==+ judgmental --+- - +-- += =- ==+ =-=+-
+- lamentation +:== -
--= -+= local government/bodies =++ --= -+ -+=
+=- long term == ======
= - ====- low-self esteem +- ====- += +, --=+, = +=
-=- =c - --
=--+- management =--- =- -+=
--+ --+ manual - +--+
-+- materialism += - -+ ====: =t =- - -
- -
= =+ mechanism =++ =-
= --= minimum, +=-=
+==- modify =+- =-, =+ =-, += +--- -==-
+-++ mutual : +=
=== network == =:+ - ==+ ==-
- == non-verbal communication + +== -= + ==== =- ==,
=+ ==
---=- objective =++
-= +- observation -, +-
== oriented (towards) == +, -= -+ == +
-= =+ overview === :, ==- - +=
+ - = =r= =- paraphrasing = = + --
-++ periodic + ===+ ==, -++ ==
-= =- planned += - ==- =-:+
+ - + pre-conceived notions +- +- -== += - =-:+ +
===: - preservation == -
226 Training Handbook on Psychosocial counselling for CEDC Trainers Guide
)>B (Glossary)
-= = +-=- private-space --- -= =+-=-, == - - =:- -=--
= +-=-+ =
+ -: - promotion =t- -, = =+-- === =-
--=- proud, pride, selfrespect = ===-, =-
=- =+=+ psychologist =-=+ =+ =+= =- =a
+==: PTSD (post traumatic --=+ - + +=- =a+ =-=+-=
stress disorder) - ---+ -==-+ --=
+s+ -= puppet +=, - == -=:- +s, ++: + +-=,
+- + =a+- +a ==+ :== += =-
-- rapid, quick - c=, =:,
----+ realistic =, ==, ---+
=+ =- referral services =+ =+c +- - =-, =-- ---= =+=
=+ = :+=+= +s+c +:- =-
--+- rejected =-+-, --+ =- - ==+
+ -- a repetition -==-
+--- report -=+ --, +=
= -=a resource person --, ==== - -- - =-+ == =-
=+c
+ -- +- restore/reestablish/ +---= -==-, +--= =-,
rehabilitate
== review =--, ====-=+ =+ =-
=+ -- role play +- =+ +-+ +- =-
==: = -+ t--
= +-= secrecy, confidentiality ==, =: - -=--
--== self awareness == === -=: += +-+ + ==--
=--= self-confidence ++ + --=
= self-defense +-
--+--==- self reflection += +- --, -=, =, ==-= =
=== =- =--, =--
=+ session +- +- += =-=: -=- =+ ===, =s+
--+ - sharing -=, -- == =t-
-+ skilled, expert +r-, =-
=- + -==- somatization disorder =- - --+ += = +- + ----+ ==
=a =- stimulate/stimulation + , + =-
= style += =- -+,
-==- subjective ==-, =a=- =: - =+= +-
=+- supervision =+ +==: ==+ +== = -= + c -
- =- +=
== ==+ ===+ supportive relationship ==- == +-+ -=- =+=+ === +-==-
+==+ =a-=a==+ ===+
+:- system, =, ++=, +=
+ test, trial = --
=++ the one who practices =+- =- =a
-- to cope ==- =-
=+ trafficking - =- a
-=- = transitional phase +---+ =
=-- unconscious = ----, -+
= -===- values, recognition +- +- =:-=: == - -
+ verbalise -=, -- =: + +== = =+ +=
=a =-
+-:- victim, sufferer +- +- ==-= - --== +:-==- =a
= + warm ==, =+, =
+-= =:- welfare theory +-= =:-
+= = work/task/job-oriented += =-- == ==-, +== +-
+= ===+ working relationship += ==+-+ -=- -=+ +- =a-=a==+ ===+
United Nations Childrens Fund
Regional Office for South Asia
P. O. Box 5815
Lekhnath Marg
Kathmandu, Nepal
Telephone: 977-1-4417082
Facsimile 977-1-4418466 / 4419479
www.unicef.org