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(1)
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(2)
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Atweh,Kemmis, &
Weeks,1998

,1998

,1999action research 1940 Kurt Lewin


Stephen M. Corey
,1991;,1999;,1998;
Atweh,Kemmis, & Weeks,1998

Lewin(1947) 1
;2 ;3
,2000b
Elliott(1991,p7)

Kemmis McTaggart(1988,p5) :
,,,

Stringer(1996,p4):,
,,,,\


2000

practitioner action-research

interactive R & D McKernan,1991

action inquiry
reflective practice

action science(Argyris & Schon,1978)


action learning
collaborative inquirycooperative inquiry
Reason,1988participatory researchKemmis &
McTaggart, 1982classroom action research
Denzin & Lincoln,1998

interactive R & DR research ; D


development

action inquiry
Holter Schwartz-Barcott(1993)

1;2;3
;4,1996
reflective practiceself reflection
educational action Elliott

action sciencepraxis

social justiceArgyris
Schon the theory of action

action learning: Reg Revans

---

collaborative inquiry
1976
Ford Teaching Project

cooperative inquiry:
;

participatory research:PR

classroom action research:


( )

,1998


J.CollierK.Lewin S.M.Corey 50
60
L.StenhouseJ.ElliottW.F.Carr
S.GrundyS.Kemmis

McTaggart,1997;,2000a
80

50 60
technical action researchKemmis
McTaggart,1982; 60 70 --
teacher as researcherpractical
action research;
emancipatory action research
(Mckernan,1991b)

( )
J.Collier 1945

,1998

Collier change
root-grassed
social planning,1998
K.Lewin Collier
Iowa
Child Welfare Station

McTaggart,1997Lewin Collier
Lewin

,2000b

Lewin
J.ElliottS.Kemmis Lewin Collier

Elliott,1991 50

organizational development(,
2000;Owens,1995
Lewin
Lewin
1970
80
Elliott,1991; McTaggart,1997
60
School-based curriculum reform

teacher as researcher
Schools CouncilNuffield Foundation
Laurence Stenhouse Humanities
Curriculum Project,HCP(Reason,1988)

Stenhouse Elliott
Stenhouse(1975,p34)
;

Stenhouse,1975Stenhouse

Elliott(1991,p40)
;
7


collaborative action research

Elliott(1991)

Elliott,1991
Elliott Stenhouse
Lewin
self reflection
educational action
Elliott

hermeneutic process
Elliott,1991LEA

Certificate in Educational Research

ethnographyhermeneutics
teacher as reformer
,2000
S.GrundyS.Kemmis
Kemmis McTaggart1982

off campus model


Kemmis

Kemmis McTaggart,1982

(approach)

1946 Lippit Radke(1946)

Mckernan1991b
Kurt Lewin(1946;1947)

Mckernan1991b Lewin(1947:333)

Lewin Marrow
Lewin
Freud Lewin

(insight)
Mckernan1991b
Corey(1953:141)


Borg Gall(1979:37)

(Borg 1981)

Mckernan1991b
Noffke 1989

2000


1999b


Elliott1992
2000

1999b

Mckernan1991b
-


Mckernan1991b
John Elliott
Elliot

(Elliott 1981)

Mckernan1991a

1999b


Carr Kemmis
10

(Carr Kemmis1986)



Mckernan1991b


1999b


1999b

Stenhouse
2000

(Stenhouse 1981)

Mckernan 1991a


11

(1) Lewin (Spiral Circle)


Kurt
Lewin(19461952)

(planning)(acting)(observing)(evaluating the
result of the action)(McTaggart1997p.27)kemmis and McTaggart
Lewin

(McTaggart1997
p.27
Lewin reflective
spirals factfinding/reconnaissance

1998
Lewin
4-1 4-2
Planning

Reflecting

acting

observing
4-1Kurt Lewin
McNiff(1988p.22)
4-1 Lewin

McNiff1988p.22

12

4-2

Plan

Reflect

Observe

plan

act

reflect

act

observe

4-2Kurt Lewin
McNIFF(1988p.23)

13

McNiff1988pp.23-24

1
(2)

( ) Kemmis Elliott
1. Stephen Kemmis
Kemmis Lewin Lewin
Kemmis
Kemmis Lewin

Lewin Kemmis selfreflective


McNiff1988p.26Kemmis 4-3

14

4-3Kemmis
(1998p125)
2. John Elliott
Elliott Adleman

(1)

(2)
(McNIFF1988p.29)
Elliott Kemmis
Kemmis
Ellitto
4-4

15

4-4Elliott
(1998p.126

( ) Eubbtt
Eubbtt Kemmis Elliott Kemmis

(McNIFF,
1988)Ebbutt (looping back)
(1998 p.244)
4-5

16

4-5Eubbtt
1998p.244

( ) McNiff
McNiff
McNiff Kemmis
Elliott McNiff
()
(
1998p.245) McNiff
(spin-off spiral) 4-6

4-6McNiff

( ) Somekh
Somekh Lewin

Somekh
17


1998p248
Somekh 4-7

4-7 A
4-7
B
4-7 C



4-7 C B
1997pp9-10

4-7Somekh


Somekh

()

18

McTaggart1997p34

( )

( )

OHanlon1996p.87

(2000p.169)

( )
(1998 pp.251-252)
(Hopkins, 1985; Woods, 1986; Bell, 1987; Pollard & Tann, 1987)

1. (narrative records)
()()
2. (mentor)(supervisor)

3.
(portfolios)(appraisal)
4.
5. (solicited opinion)
19

6. ()
7. (focus group)
8. (shadow study)
9.
10.


CarlgrenHandal & Vaage 1994p.99

( )

(2000) AltrichterPosch Somekh


4-8
()


()

()

20

4-8
2000p.155

()
()

( )


2000pp.199-200
Somekh

1.
2.
3.
4.

Whyte Research network

(Whyte1991p.144)

( )

21

1
2
3

4
5

6
7

(
1998)


( )


1998p261

22

( )

()
(1998p.270)

(cycle)(spiral)

(narration)

(
2000p248)
()
()

(open-endedness)


Bogdan & Biklen, 1982
Cohen & Manion, 1989, 1994aKemmis & Wilkinson, 1998,
, 1999b, 2000
( )
23

( )

( )

( )

( )

( )


24

( )

( )

( )

( )


25

, 1999b

Johnston, 1994

, 1998


, 2000
,
1998

1.

2.

Hancock1997

, 1998
Little1990

, 1998
,
2000
, 1998
3.

, 1998
26

4.
Hargreaves1996

, 1998

Carr
Kemmis, 1986


, 1999a
5.


, 1998
6.
Carr & Kemmis1986

7.
Johnston 1994

,
1998 McKernan1994

, 1999b
8.

, 1998




27


, 2000
,
1998, 1994a, 1994b, 1999b, 2000

1.

2.

3.

4.

28


1.

2.

3.

schoolbased management SBM


empowerment


1999
1991
1996
29


2000
2000
1998

1998
1999
1994 a 216
1994 b 4125136
(1999a)
(1999b) 1999
(pp.1~16)1999
5 19 23
2000a

2000b
Atweh,B.,Kemmis,S.,& Weeks,P. (Eds.) 1998 Action research in
practice.New York:Routledge.
Argyris,C. & Schon,D. 1978 .Theory in practice:Increasing professional
effectiveness.San Francisco:Jossey-Bass .
Australia(1999).Action Research Resources at Southern Cross
University WWW pageURL
http://www.scu.edu.au/schools/gcm/ar/arhome.html(visited
12/31/2000)
Bogdan, R. C. & Biklen, S. K.1982.Qualitative research.
New York. :Allyan & Bacon.
Canada:Participatory Action Research of Queen's University.
WWW pageURL http://www.goshen.edu/soan/soan96p.htm(visited
12/31/2000)

Carr, W & Kemmis, S.1986.Becoming critical: Education, knowledge and


action research. London: The Falmer Press.
Cohen,L.& Manion, L.1989.Research methods in education.RKP
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actions: Research on teachers thinking and practice. London:
The Falmer Press.
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Inquiry.
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schools.Norwich:Centre for Applied Research in Education,University of
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Keynes:Open University Press.

Kemmis,S.
McTaggart,R. 1988 .The action research
planner.Geelong:Deakin University Press.
McTaggart,R.(1988).Action Research:A prologue to praxis.Geelong:Deakin
University Press.
Mckernan, J.(1991a). Curriculum action research . LondonKogan Page.
Mckernan, J.(1991b). Action inquiry Studied enactment, in E. C.
Short(Ed)., Forms of curriculum inquiry .New York.: SUNY.
McNIff, J. (1988). Action research: Principles and practice . Lodon: Macmillan
.
McTaggart, R. (1997). Participatory action research. New York: State
University of New York Press.
OHanlon, C. (1996). Professional development through action research in
educational settings. London: The Falmer Press.
Owens,R.G.(1995).Organizational
behavior
in
education(Fifth
Edition).Boston:Allyn and Bacon.
Reason,P.1988.Human inquiry in action:Developments in new
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Stenhouse,L. 1981 .What counts as research.British Journal of
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practitioners.CA:Sage.
UK:Collaborative Action Research Network University of East Anglia
WWW pageURL http://www.uea.ac.uk/care/carn/(visited
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page http://www.bath.ac.uk/~edsajw/visited 12/31/2000
U.S.(1993): PARnet of Cornell University .
WWW pageURL http://www.parnet.org/ (visited 12/31/2000)
Whyte, W. F. (1991). Participatory action research. London: Sage .

31


PARnet Cornell University , USA
http://www.parnet.org/
1993
participatory action
32

research participatory action research


laboratory

WEB Links To Participatory Action Research Sites ( Queen's


University)
http://www.goshen.edu/soan/soan96p.htm

Queens University
Teacher Research
Educating the Reflective Practitioner

Action Research at Bath University (UK)


http://www.bath.ac.uk/~edsajw/
Bath University

download 2000 6

Collaborative Action Research Network University of East


AngliaUK
http://www.uea.ac.uk/care/carn/

University of East Anglia


CARN

Educational Action
Research Triangle
Journal Ltd.

Action Research Resources at Southern Cross University, Australia


http://www.scu.edu.au/schools/gcm/ar/arhome.html
Southern Cross University

University of East Anglia


Triangle Journal Ltd.
Educational Action Research

Action Research Network


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