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# University of the Philippines

College of Science

PHYSICS 73
2nd Long Probset

## 2nd semester AY 2013 - 2014

INSTRUCTIONS: Choose the best answer and shade the corresponding circle in your answer sheet. To change your answer, cross-out and sign your original answer and then shade your new answer. USEFUL CONSTANTS: Plancks constant: h = 6.626 x 10-34 J s Electron-volt: 1eV = 1.602 x 10-19 J

Hour 18 1. Which of the following statements is FALSE? A. All the laws of physics are the same in every inertial reference frame. B. The numerical values of the physical constants contained in the laws of physics are the same in every inertial reference frame. C. The laws of physics cannot provide a way to distinguish one inertial reference frame from another. D. The speed of light varies between inertial reference frames. E. One inertial reference frame has uniform velocity relative to any second and overlapping inertial reference frame. 2. Which of the following is a non-inertial reference frame? A. inside a box in an unpowered parabolic flight B. a helicopter hovering above the ground C. a freely-falling elevator D. an unpowered satellite orbiting the Earth E. a comet swinging in a hyperbolic flight around the sun

Hour 19 3. Two events occur at the same place and are 2m in time apart according to the lab frame. According to the rocket frame however, the two events are separated by 3m in space. What is the time separation of the two events according to the rocket frame? A. 13 m
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B. 5 m C. 0 D. 5 m E. 13 m 4. Which of the following is invariant for inertial reference frames? I. The distance between two events. II. The spacetime interval between two events. III. The time interval between two events. IV. The proper time of a worldline between two events. A. I only B. II only C. III only D. I and II only E. II and IV only 5. The coordinates (t, x, y, z) of event A is (1.0, 2.0, 3.0, 4.0) while that of event B is (8.0, 7.0, 6.0, 5.0). What is the interval between the two events? A. 3.7 B. 14 C. 6.6 D. 7 E. 5.9

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Hour 20 For the next two questions, refer to the spacetime diagram below.

6. What event/s can be caused by event B? A. A and C B. none C. D D. A E. B 7. What is the speed of the particle that travels from event A to event B? A. 1/3 B. 3 C. 6 D. 2 E. 0 8. In the lab frame, a particle is found to have a constant velocity v while it travelled a distance x such that it traces out a straight worldline in a spacetime diagram. What is the proper time along this worldline? A. x/ v
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B. (1-v2) -1/2 x/ v C. x D. (1-v2)1/2 x/ v E. 0 9. Which of the following statements is false? I. The proper time between two events depends on the worldline connecting the two said events II. A worldline can always connect two events separated by a spacelike interval III. The proper time of a worldline is frame independent IV. A worldline passing through an event A is always inside or on the lightcone of event A A. I only B. II only C. III only D. IV only E. All of them are true Hour 21 10. The coordinates (t, x) of two events for a lab frame is (0.0, 3.0) and (1.0, 2.0). For an observer in a reference frame moving at R = 0.20 relative to the lab frame, what is the interval between the two events? A. 0.0 B. 0.42 C. 0.43i D. 1.2 E. 1.0 11. Consider a rocket frame moving to the right with a constant velocity 0.6 with respect to a laboratory frame. The rocket observed that an event A happened at the coordinates (t = 0m, x = 5m). When did event A occur according to the laboratory frame?
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A. 6.25 m B. 3.75 m C. 0 m D. -3.75 m E. -6.25 m 12. The coordinates (t, x) of an event for a rocket frame moving at R = +0.200 relative to the lab frame are (1.00, 5.00). What are the coordinates of the same event as seen in the lab frame? A. (2.04, 5.31) B. (1.96, 5.09) C. (0.00, 4.90) D. (0.00, 4.70) E. (1.00, 5.20)

Hour 22 13. If (interval)2 < 0 for two events, then there exists an inertial reference frame where the two events A. occur at the same time. B. occur at the same place. C. occur at the same time and place. D. lie in the worldline of a photon. E. lie in the worldline of a particle with non-zero mass. 14. Two simultaneous events are observed in the lab frame to have a spatial separation of 3 m. In the rocket frame, the two events have a time separation of 1 m. What is the spatial separation of these two events in the rocket frame? A. 3 m B. 1 m C. 22 m D. 10 m
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E. There is no such rocket frame 15. Assume that the Earth is an inertial reference frame. A cube has a length of 10m as measured by an observer on Earth. What will be the volume of the cube measured by a rocket moving to the right at a speed 0.60 relative to the Earth? A. 512 m3 B. 640 m3 C. 800 m3 D. 1000 m3 E. 1250 m3 16. Consider a rocket frame moving with a constant velocity 0.6 along the +yaxis of a laboratory frame. If the rocket observed that an event A happened at the coordinates (t = 0m, x = 3m, y = 4m, z = 5m). What should be the coordinates (t, x, y, z) of the same event as measured in the laboratory frame? A. (3.75m, 3m, 4m, 6.25m) B. (2.25m, 3.75m, 4m, 5m) C. (3m, 3m, 5m, 5m) D. (3m, 5m, 4m, 5m) E. (5m, 3m, 3m, 5m) 17. Suppose two simultaneous events A and B occur at location x = 5m and x = 10m, respectively, in a lab frame. Which of the following is a CORRECT observation by someone in a rocket frame moving to the right with respect to the lab frame? A. Events A and B are simultaneous B. Event B occurred before Event A C. Event A occurred before Event B D. Events A and B are spatially separated by 5m E. Observation depends on the speed of the rocket

18. A spaceship of proper length 100m passes you at high speed. You measure the length of the ship to be 85m. What is the speed r of the spaceship?
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A. 0.53 B. 0.62 C. 0.28 D. 0.38 E. 1.31 19. A meter stick at rest in a rocket frame and makes an angle of 30 with the x axis. If rocket moves at r = 0.8 (relative to the lab frame) in the +x direction, what angle does it make with the x axis of the lab frame? A. 44 B. 19 C. 90 D. 24 E. 66

Hour 23 For the next two numbers, consider five events A, B, C, D, and E in a twoobserver spacetime diagram as shown below with the primed and unprimed axes for the rocket and lab frame, respectively

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20. What is the relative speed and direction of the rocket frame with respect to the lab frame? A. 0.29, moving to the left B. 0.25, moving to the right C. 0.20, moving to the right D. 0.25, moving to the left E. 0.29, moving to the right 21. Arrange the events in ASCENDING order according to their time of occurrence in the rocket frame. A. A < B < C < D = E B. A < B < D < C < E C. A < B < C < D < E D. A < B < C = D < E E. A < B = D < C < E 22. Consider the three-observer spacetime diagram below. The coordinates of event A in the different reference frames are (tA, xA), (tA, xA), and (tA, xA). Which of the following is TRUE?

A. tA = tA B. tA = tA C. tA = tA
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D. xA = xA E. xA = xA

23. Consider the two observer diagram below. The coordinates of the event (defined by the black dot) are (5.00, 5.00) in the lab frame. What are the coordinates of the same event in the rocket frame, moving with r = +0.25 relative to the lab frame, defined by the primed axes?

A. (4.39, 1.81) B. (3.87, 3.87) C. (2.89, 2.89) D. (4.04, 0.58) E. (3.87, 5.87)

Hour 24 24. In the lab frame, a massless particle was determined to have a velocity 1.00. A rocket frame, with velocity 0.25 relative to the lab frame, also observes the same particle. According to the rocket frame, what is the velocity of the particle? A. 0.00 B. 0.25 C. 0.50
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D. 0.75 E. 1.00 25. A source with speed 0.8 moving away relative to a stationary observer emits an electromagnetic wave of period T. What will be the resulting period of the wave as measured by the stationary observer? A. 0.3T B. 0.5T C. T D. 2T E. 3T 26. Two (futuristic) assassins, Aveline and Connor, are chasing their target. If the velocity of their target is 0.5 according to Aveline and 0.2 according to Connor, what is the velocity of Aveline according to Connor? (Assuming all of their motion are in one line, and their velocities are constant) A. -0.7 B. 0.7 C. - 0.3333 D. 0.3333 E. 0 27. A relativistic jet moves with velocity +v with respect to Earth. Along its path, it releases a deadly missile moving with velocity +0.3 towards another jet in front of it. If the same missile has a velocity +0.7 as measured by an Earth observer, what is v? A. 0.33 B. 0.40 C. 0.51 D. 0.58 E. 0.83 Hour 25 28. What is the total momentum of a 10 kg stationary particle with total energy of 10 kg?
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A. 10 kg B. 10 kg C. 0.1 kg D. 0 kg E. 1 kg 29. A particle of mass m is constrained to move in one spatial dimension. It was observed by the lab frame to travel a distance x during a time t at a constant velocity. What is the energy of this particle? A. ( (x)2 - (t)2 )-1/2 mx B. ( (t)2 - (x)2 )-1/2 mx C. ( (x)2 - (t)2 )-1/2 mt D. ( (t)2 - (x)2 )-1/2 mt E. ( (t)2 - (x)2 )-1/2 m 30. A particle with total energy of 6.0 kg moves along the +x-direction at a constant speed of 0.6. What is the magnitude of its momentum? A. 2.8 kg B. 3.6 kg C. 5.6 kg D. 6.0 kg E. 9.0 kg Hour 26 31. A particle of mass m is constrained to move in one spatial dimension. It was observed by the lab frame to have an energy of 4MeV and momentum of 3MeV. A rocket frame measures the momentum of this particle to be zero. What is the velocity of this rocket frame relative to the lab frame? A. 1/12 B. 3/4 C. 1/3
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D. 1/4 E. No such rocket frame exists 32. A particle of mass 4 kg is observed to be stationary in a laboratory frame. Suppose a rocket frame moves with a constant velocity 0.6 along the +x-axis of the laboratory frame, what is the magnitude of the momentum of the particle as measured in the rocket frame? A. 3.8 kg B. 3.0 kg C. 2.3 kg D. 1.8 kg E. 0.0 kg 33. A particle of mass m is constrained to move in one spatial dimension. It was observed by the lab frame to have a constant velocity v. A rocket frame, with velocity vR relative to the lab frame, is observing the same particle. What is the momentum of this particle according to the rocket frame? A. (1 - v2 )-1/2 (1 - vR2 )-1/2 m(v - vR) B. (1 - v2 )-1/2 (1 - vR2 )-1/2 m(1 - vR v) C. (1 - vR2 )-1/2 m(1 - vR v) D. (1 - v2 )-1/2 m(v - vR) E. (1 - v2 )-1/2 (1 - vR2 )-1/2 m 34. A particle of total energy 13 kg is moving to the right with momentum 12 kg as measured in a rocket frame. If the rocket frame moves with a constant velocity 0.6 along the +x-axis of a lab frame, what is the total energy of the particle as measured in the lab frame? A. 39.5 kg B. 33.0 kg C. 24.8 kg D. 13.0 kg E. 5.3 kg

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Hour 27 35. In the lab frame, a particle of mass m is found to have some kinetic energy T. In a rocket frame, its momentum was found to be zero. What is the energy of the particle as measured by the rocket frame? A. T B. m C. T + m D. T - m E. 0 36. An object is observed to move through the lab at high speed. Its total energy and the components of its momentum are measured by lab workers to be E = 4.95kg, px = 1.25kg, py = 0.99kg and pz = 0.99kg. What is the objects rest mass? A. 4.58kg B. 5.29kg C. 4.99kg D. 21.0kg E. 1.31kg 37. The total energy of an electron is measured to be 2.40 MeV. Given that the rest mass of the electron is 9.11 x 10-31 kg and its rest energy is 0.511 MeV, find the electrons momentum. A. 2.34MeV B. 5.50MeV C. 1.37MeV D. 2.45MeV E. 6.02MeV 38. The mass of a stationary object in reference frame S is 7.5 kg. In the S reference frame where the objects momentum is 10.0 kg, what is its kinetic energy? A. 45.0 kg
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## B. 25.0 kg C. 15.0 kg D. 5.0 kg E. 0.0 kg

Hour 28 39. A particle of mass m with kinetic energy 4m collides inelastically with a particle at rest of mass 2m. What is the total mass of the system after collision? A. m B. 3m C. 3.5m D. 4.6m E. 5m 40. Consider the hypothetical interaction: Two particle of equal rest mass m are moving towards each other at the same speed . They collide and stick together to form a single particle with rest mass M. What is M? A. 2m/(1 2)1/2 B. 2m C. 0 D. m/(1 2)1/2 E. m/[2(1 2)1/2] 41. Two photons, both with energy E, one moving in the +x axis direction and another moving in the -x axis direction, collide to create a particle with mass m. What is the kinetic energy of the created particle? A. 2E B. E - m C. 2(E - m) D. 2m E. 0
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42. A particle of mass m1 and kinetic energy T, collides head-on with stationary particle with mass m2. What is the sum of the final momenta of the two particles? A. T + m2 B. (T2 + 2Tm2)1/2 C. T + m1 D. (T2 + 2Tm1)1/2 E. T + m1 + m2
END OF EXAM

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