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CONTROL AND COORDINATION

Q1 What is the difference between a reflex action and walking? Difference between a reflex action and walking is as under: REFLEX ACTION WALKING 1. It is not under the control of 1. It is under the control of will will i.e., we cannot control i.e., we can control by by thinking about them. thinking about them. 2. Spinal cord controls reflex 2. Brain controls walking. action. Q2 Which part of brain, maintains posture and equilibrium of the body? Cerebellum of hindbrain maintains posture and equilibrium of the body. Q3 What is the role of the brain in reflex action? The mid-brain controls reflex movements (actions) of the head, neck and trunk. It also controls the reflex movements of the eye muscles, changes in pupil size and shape of the eye lens. The medulla oblongata of hindbrain controls heartbeat, breathing, blood pressure, sweating, coughing, sneezing, vomiting and salivation. Q4 How is the shaple of the plant cells changed? The shape of the plant cells changes by changing the amount of water in them, resulting in swelling or shrinking. Q5 How does the pea plant climb up other plants or fences? The pea plant climb up other plants or fences by means of tendrils Q6 Are tendrils sensitive to touch? Yes, tendrils are sensitive to touch. Q7 What cause of the tendril to cling to object? When the tendrils come in contact with any support, the part of tendril in contact with the object does grow as rapidly as the part of the tendril away from the object. Thus causes the tendril to circle around the object and thus cling to it. Q8 What are external stimuli? The factor that are external to the plant and bring about a response, are called external stimuli. Q9 Define GEOTROPISM.

Downward movement in response to gravitational force of the plant e.g., roots. Q10 What are nastic movements? In some plants the movement is neither towards nor away from the stimulus, e. g., the leaves of touch-me-not (Memosa pudica) plant bends or droops on touching. Q11 Which other stimulus influences the roots other then gravity? Water influences the roots other than gravity. Roots grow towards water. Q12 Out of hydrotropism and GEOTROPISUM, WHICH stimulus is stronger in roots? Hydrotropism Q13 Which part of the plant shows phototropism? Steam Q14 What are the influences of light stimulus on roots? Light stimulus has no influence on roots. Q15 What is the main characteristic of touch-me-not plant? On touching the leaves of the touch-me-not plant they close at once and after sometime the leaves spread out again. Q16 Do plants have nervous or muscular system? No. Q17 Do plants respond to change in environment as ANIMALS? How can observe their response? Yes, plants also respond to changes in environment. We can observe this through observing specific plant movements. Q18 Give an example to show that plants respond to external stimuli. When we touch the leaves of touch-me-not plant, they fold up and drop. This shows that plants respond to external stimuli. What are the two types of plant movements? Two types of plant movements are:1. Movements independent of growth. 2. Movement dependent on growth.

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Give example of a movement in plant that is independent of growth. When we touch the leaves of chui-mui, the sensitive touch-me-not plant, the leaves bend and droop down. This movement is independent of growth.

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In absence of nervous and muscular tissue, how the leaves of sensitive plant detect touch and move in response. The plant detects the touch through electrical-chemical changes that is communicated from one cell to another. Plants do not have specialized tissue to conduct the information. The response in terms of bending and drooping of leaves in the touch -me-not plant is because of change in shape of plant cells. Plant cells change shape by changing the amount of water in them. Input of water results in swelling where as water loss causes shrinking.

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What are the difference between the process of responding to stimulus in case of plants and animals? PARAMETER Presence of specialized tissue for conduction of information Mechanism of change of shape IN PLANTS Not present IN ANIMALS Nervous tissues present

Achieved through changing the water content of cells

Achieved through rearrangements of specialized proteins

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Give examples of movement due to growth in plants 1. Growth of seedling from seed during germination. 2. Coiling of tendrils when they come in contact with other plants or fence in climbers. 3. Bending of stem towards light 4. Growth of roots towards the gravitational pull. 5. Growth of pollen tubes towards ovule. 6. Movement of sunflower in response to day or light What is the term given to the growth movements in plants? Tropic movement Define tropic movements. The movement of a plant towards or away form the direction of stimulus is known as tropism.

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What are the characteristics of tropic movements? 1. Tropic movements are directional. This means that plants respond to stimuli slowly by growing in a particular direction.

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Tropic movements are dependent on the stimulus. The stimulus can be light, gravity, touch or chemicals. Plants respond to these by either growing towards the stimulus (positive) or away from stimulus (negative). Tropic movements are growth movements. In absence of stimulus the growth will stop. Growth related tropic movements are comparatively slower than those that are independent of growth.

5. Name different type of tropic movements. Different types of tropic movements in plants are: 1. PHOTOTROPISM movement in response light. 2. CHEMOTROPISM movement due to chemicals. 3. GEOTROPISM movement to response to gravitational force. 4. HYDROTROPISM movement in response to water content.

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Give one example of phototropism, geotropism, chemotropism and hydrotropism. 1. 2. 3. 4. PHOTOTROPISM When a growing plant is exposed to unidirectional light it responds by bending towards the light. GEOTROPISM Roots of plants always grow towards gravitational force. CHEMOTROPISM Growth of pollen tube towards ovule. HYDROTROPISM Movements of roots towards water.

All types of tropic movements are directional. They can be towards the stimulus (positive) or away form it (negative). For example, shoots are positively phototropic (grow towards light) but roots are negatively phototropic (grow away from light). Similarly, shoots are negatively geotropic but roots are positively geotropic. Q31 How do plants respond to external stimuli? Plants lack nervous and muscular tissues. In the absence of these tissues, the stimulus cannot be communicated in the form of electrical impulse. Therefore, plants use electrical means of communication. In plants, the stimulated cells release a chemical compound (plant hormone) that would diffuse all around the cell. The other cell recognizes this chemical and responds accordingly. Q32 What are the plant Hormones? Give example. Chemical substance that performs the function of control and coordination in plants are known as plant hormones. For e.g., auxin is a plant hormone. Name various plant hormones. Auxins, Gibberellin, Cytokinin, Abscisic acid and Ethylene.

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Give the functions of various plant hormones. 1. AUXINS It is synthesized at the shoot tip region and helps in the growth of cells. Auxin is sensitive to light. It moves in the direction away from light. 2. GIBBERELLINS Help in growth of stem in the internodes regions. 3. CYTOKININS It promotes cell division and is present in areas where rapid growth takes place like fruits and seeds. 4. ABSCISIS ACID The hormone acts as growth inhibitor. Action of this hormone stops growth. For e.g., wilting and falling of leaf is controlled by abscisis acid. 5. ETHYLENE Helps in ripening of fruits.

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Explain the mechanism of action of auxin during phototropic response. Phototropism is growth movement in plants in response to light. The shoot of the plants bend towards light where as root bends away from light. This phenomenon is controlled by plant hormone auxin. The mechanism of action of auxin during phototropism is as follow: Auxin is synthesized at the shoot tip. It helps the cells to grow longer. Auxin shows a characteristic feature of moving from side exposed to light towards shady side of plant. This results in uneven growth of plant cells at the tip region. Cells in shady side grows longer and faster than those in exposed side. Thus, the shoot bends towards light.

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What are hormones? Hormones are chemical substances secreted in trace amounts by specialized tissues, called endocrine glands. They help in control and coordination of various body parts and their functions.

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What are endocrine glands? Endocrine glands are body parts having specialized glandular tissues, which secrete chemical called hormones. These hormones help in regulating various body functions.

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Why endocrine glands are called ductless glands? Endocrine glands are also called ductless glands because they do not have ducts and their secretion the hormones, are poured directly into the blood.

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What are the characteristics of hormones? Characteristics of hormones are: (i) They are specific chemical messengers. (ii) They are secreted by endocrine glands. (iii) They are poured directly into the blood and carried by blood circulation.

(iv) (v) Q41

They act on specific tissue/organ called target organs. They are secreted in very small amounts and only when required by the body.

Name the endocrine glands of human body. Some endocrine glands of our body are Pituitary (hypothesis), Pineal, Thyroid, Parathyroid, Pancreas, Adrenal, Testes, and Ovary.

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Tabulates the functions of hormones secreted by various endocrine glands in the human body. HORMONES SECRETED 1. Relasing Hormones 2. Growth Hormones 3. Tropic hormones 4. Prolactin 5. Vasopressin 6. Oxytocin 7. Thyroxin 8. Parathyriod hormones 9. Insulin 10.Glucagon 11.Adrenalin & corticoids 12.Testosterone FUNCTIONS Regulates secretes of hormones from Pituitary. Development of muscles and bones. Regulate the hormones secretion of some endocrine glands like thyroid, adrenal, testes, ovaries etc. Regulation and functioning of mammary glands. Osmoregulation: regulation of water and electrolyte balance in body. 1.Contraction of smooth muscles during child birth 2.Lactation Regulation of carbohydrate, fat and protein metabolism. Regulation of blood calcium and phosphate levels. Lowering blood glucose Increase of blood glucose Regulation of Blood pressure. Heart rate Carbohydrate metabolism and mineral balance Regulation of Male accessory sex organs. Secondary sexual characters in males like moustache, beard, change in voice, etc. Regulation of Female accessory sex organs Secondary sexual characters in females like growth of mammary glands, heir pattern, etc. Maintenance of pregnancy.

13.Estrogen

14.Progesterone Q43 What is neuron?

Neuron is the largest cell in the body. It is an elongated branched cell having 3 components cell body, dendrites and axon, neuron are therefore, the structural and functional unit of nervous system. Q44 Phytohormones (PLANT HORMONES) : are chemical substances naturally occurring in plant parts which bring about control and coordination in various plant activities, such as growth, development and response to environment. What is a synapse. The functional junction b/w the nerve endings of an axon of a neuron and dendrits of the next neuron are called a synapse. Q46 Write the function of hormone thyroxine in our bodies? Because it stimulates the contraction of the smooth muscles of uterus at the end of pregnancy and helps in child birth. Q47 Q48 Q49 Which endocrine gland performed the dual function of production of enzymes as well as hormones? Pancreas. What happens at the synapse between two neurons? At the synapse two neurons join together. How do we detect the smell of an agarbatti? The olfactory receptors are present in the lining of the nose. These receptors send the information of the incense to the brain through a cranial sensory neuron where olfactory lobes of forebrain analyse and produce the sensation of smell. Q50 Which signal we get disrupted in case of spinal cord injury? An injury to the spinal cords will cause loss of all sensation, loss of reflex action, causing paralysis and degeneration of muscles. Q51 Name the hormones secreted by the thyroid gland the pituitary gland and the pancreas, mention their function. I II Thyroid gland produces thyroxines. It regulates the metabolism of carbohydrates, fats and proteins and provide balance for growth. Pituitary gland produces the growth hormones. It regulates growth and development of the body. If there is deficiency of this hormone in the childhood as dwarfism. If the hormone is produced in excess in childhood, it causes gigantism and child will grow into a giant.

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III PANCREAS

Secrets insulin. Insulin maintains glucose level in the blood by changing excess glucose into glycogen, when it is not secreted in sufficient amount, the person suffers from diabetes.

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Mention the different types of receptors found in human body and the sensation they perceive. The different types of receptors are: I PHOTORECEPTORS II PHONORECEPTORS III OLFACTORECEPTORS IV GUSTATORY RECEPTORS V SKIN : Perceive light e.g., eyes. : perceive sound waves e.g., ears. : Perceive sense of smell e.g., nose : Perceive sense of taste e.g., tongue. : Sense of hotness, coldness, touch,

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Explain reflex actions? Reflex action is defined as an unconscious, automatic and involuntary response of effectors i.e., muscles and glands, to a stimulus. Which is monitored through the spinal cord?

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What is difference between reflex action and walking? A reflex action is an automatic response to a stimulus which is not under the conscious control while walking is a voluntary action which is controlled by brain.

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How is movement of leaves of the sensitive plant different from a movement of a short towards light. The movement of the leaves of the sensitive plant is neither towards nor away form stimulus like touch (mastic movement) while movements of short is towards stimulus like light. The movement of leaves of sensitive plants is not directional while the movement of short is directional.

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How do auxins promote the growth of a tendril around a support? Tendril of a plant like pea is sensitive to touch, when it comes in contact with support, the side of the tendril touching the support does not show growth, as auxin do not move into this region. But the side of the tendril which is not in contact with he support grows due to the effect of the auxin s. Due to access growth on this side, the tendrils circle the support and climbs up.

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Why is the use of iodized salt advisable? Because iodine is necessary for the thyroid gland to produce thyroxin hormone. Thyroxin regulates carboxy protein and fat metabolism in which is required for growth. Deficiency of iodine in the body causes disorder like swollen neck and disease called goiter.

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How does our body response when adrenaline is secreted in the blood? It prepare a person to meet the emergency conditions by increasing heart beat, respiratory rate and access supply of blood to the skeletal muscles.

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Why are some patients of diabetes treated by giving injections of insulin? Insulin hormone is secreted by pancreas. This hormone helps in regulating sugar level in the blood. Its deficiency results in high sugar level in the blood and causes many harmful effects.

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How does phototropism occur in plants? The directional or tropic movement towards the light or away from the light is called phototropism. The short respond by bending away from the light.

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What is the need for a system of control and coordination in an organism? The different organs of our body work in co-ordination. When we perform any activity, for example when we are taking food, our eyes help in locating the food, our nose to our mouth, our hands brings the food to our mouth and saliva status the digestive process, So control and coordination is essential in maintaining a state of stability and a steady state between the internal conditions of an organism and the external events.

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How are involuntary actions and reflex actions different from each other? Reflex actions are not controlled by brain. They are controlled by spinal cord. Involuntary actions are controlled by midbrain and hind brain. Speed of response is slowing in involuntary but speed of response is very fast in reflex actions. 1. Experience Of reflex action removing hand from hot object. 2. Experience of involuntary actions blood pressure, Salivation. Why pituitary gland is called master gland? Pituitary gland controls a numbers of functions of the body and secrets about nine hormones. It also controls activity of other endocrine glands, so it is called master gland.

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What is a nerve impulse? Information in the form of an electrochemical impulse which passes through neurons is known as nerve impulse.

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What is a motor nerve? A nerve which carries information from the CNS to the effectors organ is called motor nerve.

VERY SHORT QUESTION Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q5 Q6 Q7 Q8 Q9 Q10 Q11 Q12 Q13 Q14 Q15 Q16 Q17 Q18 What is endocrine gland? Name the five endocrine glands found in human body. Name the one female hormone. What are hormones? What is hydrotropism? Which fluid is present between cranium and nerves? Which part of brain contains cerebrum? Which is the highest coordinating centre of body? Which part of brain controls birthing movements? Where is electric impulse converted to chemical impulse? Into how many parts is the brain divided? How do plants respond to a stimulus through they dont passes a nerves system. Give an example of a hormone which promotes growth in human beings. Which hormone in animals helps in emergency? Which glands produce adrenaline? Which plants hormones inhibits growth? Where are auxins produced in the plants? Which parts of brain (Nervous system) are involved in following activities? (I) Balancing of the body posture (II) Salivation and vomiting (m. ob) (III) Reflex action (IV) Thinking Which hormone is known as birth hormone? Where are adrenal glands situated/ What is cranium? What are meninges? Name the type of coordination in plant and animals? Write parts of neuron? Are tendrils sensitive to touch? Define tropism the movement of plants in the direction of a stimulus is called tropism? Why endocrine glands are are called ductless glands? Who gave the term hormone? Bay liss and starling? What are the dual glands? Give the two examples. How do hormones reach to different parts of the body? What are parts of force brain? Write name of three hormones secreted by pituitary glands.

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