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CHESTER CASTLE

Conservation Plan
September 2001

Chester Castle Conservation Plan
prepared for

English Heritage

by Donald Insall Associates Ltd in association with Gifford and The Architectural History Practice

CHESTER CASTLE CONSERVATION PLAN CONTENTS VOLUME I
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 1
1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6

BACKGROUND TO PLAN
Introduction The Site Historical Background Purposes of plan Methodology Structure of the plan

2
2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4

UNDERSTANDING
Overview Chronology – Summary Outline of Previous Research and Studies Geology and Ecology 2.4.1 Geology 2.4.2 Geomorphology 2.4.3 The Changing Course of the Dee 2.4.4 Ecology A History of Chester Castle and its Site 2.5.1 The Pre Norman Site 2.5.2 The Norman Earls 2.5.3 The Welsh Wars 2.5.4 Hundred Years’ War 2.5.5 Richard II and Henry IV to the Wars of the Roses 2.5.6 Tudors and Stuarts 2.5.7 The Late 17th to Mid 18th Centuries 2.5.8 The Late 18th, 19th and 20th Centuries Special Historical Topics 2.6.1 Chester Castle Architecture and Comparisons 2.6.2 Wall paintings of the Chapel of St Mary de Castro 2.6.3 Summary of Thomas Harrison’s Life and Works 2.6.4 Chester Castle and the Picturesque in the 18th Century 2.6.5 Thomas Harrison’s Gaol

2.5

2.6

Chester Castle Conservation Plan Issue II: September 2001

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Donald Insall Associates

3 Brief Description of Existing Structures and Spaces 2.7 4 4. Interpretation and Appreciation 2.8.5 19th Century Regimental Buildings of the Inner Bailey The Work of Thomas Harrison The Castle’s Contribution to the Character of Chester Archaeology 2.7 Museum Collections 2.2 4.1 Plans and Photographs 2.1 Inner Bailey: Structures 4.3 Half Moon Tower 3.8.1 4.7 Archaeology Chester Castle Today 2.3 Curtain Walls 4.8.8.2 Inner Bailey: Courtyard and Raised Platform 4.3.8.4 Ownership and Management 2.7 4.8.6 Visitor Numbers 2.5 3.2.8.3.8 SIGNIFICANCE Methodology Overview Historical Associations 3.9 Townscape 2.4 4.3 4.6 4.1 Agricola Tower 3.8.5 Access.8.3.8.8.4 Inner Bailey Curtain Walls 3.2 Schedule of Structures and Spaces 2.4.8.1 Crown Earldom and Shire Governance 3.8.8.6 3.8.5 Half Moon Tower and Frobisher's House 4.7 Guard House and Cell Block ii Donald Insall Associates Chester Castle Conservation Plan Issue II: September 2001 .8.7 2.4.5 4.1 3.8.2 Military Power 3.10 Current Planning Policies 3 3.8 VULNERABILITY ISSUES Overview Condition Use and Vacancy Pressures for Change and New Development Understanding and Appreciation Ownership and Management Accessibility and Townscape Linkages Vulnerability Issues: Specific Buildings and Spaces 4.4.8 A Visitor’s Experience 2.3 Judicial and Penal Authority The Inner Bailey and Motte 3.2 Flag Tower 3.9 3.4 Flag Tower 4.4.4.2 2.6 Agricola Tower 4.

4.14 4.3 5. Gun Sheds and Other Buildings The Gun Store and Officer Stables The Squash Courts and Rifle Range Landscaping.13 4.9 Napier House Harrison’s Buildings Use of Harrison's Buildings Outer Landscape.8.1 5.11 4.1 A Visitor Strategy 5.8.8.4 APPENDIX A B C D Bibliography Full Chronology Ecology Report Study Plans (as per Gazetteer): Plan G1 Gazetteer Reference (all periods) Plan G2 Gazetteer Reference (existing buildings) Plan G3 Phasing/Periods of Construction Plan G4 Chester Castle Plan 1745 Plan G5 Chester Castle Plan 1745 overlaid on Existing Site Plan Plan G6 Chester Castle Existing Building Plan/Period of Construction Plan G7 Archaeology (Recent Investigations) VOLUME II Gazetteer Chester Castle Conservation Plan Issue II: September 2001 iii Donald Insall Associates .8.2 Car Parking and Servicing Strategy 5. Drives and Car Parks Summary of Key Vulnerability Issues 5 5.8.4.4.12 4.8 4.10 4.8.2 POLICIES General Aims and Principles General Policies A: Understanding/Research B: Setting/Landscape/Townscape C: Ownership/Use/Strategic Management D: Statutory Conservation E: Conservation of the Fabric F: Visitor access/Interpretation G: Development Issues H: Archaeology Policy Guidelines for Individual Elements Zone A: The Harrison Blocks Zone B: The Inner Bailey Zone C: Outer Landscape and Ancillary Buildings Priorities 5.9 4.8.

civil. The purpose of the plan is to provide an understanding of the site.1 1. in collaboration with Gifford and Partners and the Architectural History Practice. Understanding and appreciation: Chester Castle as an historical entity is largely unappreciated and has low visitor numbers. as they exist today but also for the historical themes to which they give expression and for their townscape value. New uses could bring pressure for change. as lead consultants. They also show the influence of the “sublime” and “picturesque”. military and judicial authority for 1000 years.1 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Introduction This conservation plan for Chester Castle was commissioned by English Heritage in June 2000 and undertaken by Donald Insall Associates. It provides a rare example of a single site continually used and adapted for the exercise of royal. from the time of William the Conqueror to the present day. These are reflected in its existing fabric. The Work of Thomas Harrison: The ‘Greek Revival’ style was an important expression of western thought and culture during the turn of the eighteenth century. 1 Donald Insall Associates  Chester Castle Conservation Plan Issue II: September 2001 . 1. Thomas Harrison’s new Shire Hall. the much altered original medieval Inner Bailey to the west and the outer landscape setting. This is not helped by the immediate appearance of the Inner Bailey as being vacant and neglected. Prison and Military buildings at Chester Castle from that period provide an example of immense national and international importance. its archaeology and its documentary records.   Condition: The state of repair and maintenance of the Inner Bailey. Urban Character and Tourism: The Castle makes an important contribution to the history and townscape of Chester.    1. explain its significance. and identify how that significance may be vulnerable and to set out policies for its management. which is in the guardianship of English Heritage. Medieval Religious Art: Religion was an important element of medieval life and the wall paintings of the Agricola Tower are an extremely rare example of religious art of the patronage of Henry III and although fragmentary are of high artistic quality. The whole is nationally significant not just because of the interest of the individual buildings.2 Significance Today. is variable. Use and vacancy: The decline in the use of Chester Castle as a military depot (it still remains a Regimental Headquarters) has left two significant buildings (Colvin and Napier House) vacant and with an uncertain future.3 Vulnerability Issues The significance of the site is vulnerable to a variety of current and potential threats. Court. The internationally important ‘Greek Revival’ buildings by Harrison. The intensive use of the parade ground for parking is detrimental to the setting of the historic structures. one of Europe’s best preserved historic towns and a world tourist destination. the Castle complex is characterised by three distinctive parts.  1000 years of British history: The site has direct associations with and adds to the understanding of many important aspects and events of national and local history.

 Ownership and management: The site is divided between various ownerships and management arrangements. F Visitor Access and Interpretation Policies: The existence of Chester Castle is obscure to many local people and visitors. B Setting.4 Policies The conservation plan polices are based on the conviction that the full significance of the Inner Bailey and the Harrison buildings must be preserved and presented in such a manner that they can be clearly appreciated and enjoyed by visitors. E Conservation of the Fabric: Carefully planned maintenance is essential to the future well being of individual structures and the whole site. policies accept that some change to the historic structures and spaces may be necessary to facilitate new uses or to secure the continued viability of established occupancy. General policies have been developed to provide the basis for future decision making and address the issues under the following headings: A Understanding and Research: Policies have been designed to insure that future proposals for repair and development are based on a comprehensive understanding of the Castle as an entity. Owners and developers whilst having regard to the best interests of their particular buildings and operations must also recognise the needs of other users and Chester Castle as a complete entity. Use and Strategic Management: These crucial and interlinked issues need to be addressed together. With the disposal of further leaseholds this will become more complicated. Policies are proposed which will ensure that its setting is protected and appropriately enhanced. Accessibility and linkages: The site is perceived as being remote from the city centre and other tourist attractions. and its Listed Buildings (graded I and II). which will help conserve the site. and to establish an appropriate level of car parking. However. D Statutory Considerations: Policies are designed to reinforce the protection and status of the site. The key policies address the need for further strategies: determine the extent to which the Castle is to be promoted as a visitor attraction. its constituent parts and its historical associations. C Ownership. which is a Scheduled Ancient Monument. Landscape and Townscape: The setting of Chester Castle is important both for the appreciation of the Castle itself and for its contribution to Chester's townscape. Policies urge that repair regimes must follow best practice guidelines because inappropriate maintenance techniques or poor workmanship can damage sensitive historic buildings and accelerate rather than prevent decay.  1. Pedestrian access to the Lower Bailey lies across a car park and is poorly signposted and views of the castle from the west are screened by tree cover within and adjacent to the Castle grounds. Chester Castle Conservation Plan Issue II: September 2001 2 Donald Insall Associates . G Development Issues: The scope for new building interventions or alterations without damaging the integrity of the whole and its setting is extremely limited. without which the strategic context for making crucial decisions about vacant buildings and structures is lacking. Policies promote its potential as a visitor attraction and the need for a clear visitor plan.

Key priorities are the need for a further study to determine the extent to which the site should become a visitor attraction and to resolve concerns about the intensity of car parking within the site. Policies emphasise the need to protect and record its value as an archaeological site. They are both necessary to inform decisions that will have to be made about the future of the Inner Bailey and the two major vacant buildings. Priorities: The study is concluded by highlighting those policies. Napier House and Colvin House. Policy Guidelines for Individual Elements: The general policies are followed by a series of detailed 'Policy Guidelines’. which systematically focus on the component parts of the study site. which should be addressed with particularly urgency. Chester Castle Conservation Plan Issue II: September 2001 3 Donald Insall Associates .H Archaeology: The site is a Scheduled Ancient Monument and included within in the County Sites and Monument record.

The Court Service. the lead consultants for the study. The individuals who have represented these bodies and their various departments have provided much valuable guidance and advice during the preparation of this document. by reputation one of Europe's best preserved historic towns. The Castle's law courts. The adjacent judicial and military buildings by Thomas Harrison which replaced the Castle's Outer Bailey at the beginning of the 19th century are included in respect that external envelope and spaces. Chester Castle Conservation Plan Issue II: September 2001 4 Donald Insall Associates . The site is an integral part of the City of Chester. Donald Insall Associates.SECTION 1 : BACKGROUND TO THE PLAN 1. museums. have been assisted by Gifford and Partners Ltd in respect of archaeology and the Architectural History Practice. Also included within the study area is the area of landscaping and car parking to the west and south which provides the Castle's immediate setting. The study area is centred on the Inner Bailey of Chester Castle part of which is in the guardianship of English Heritage. These inter-relationships both existing and potential have had to be included within the scope of this study. and the Castle contributes to the city's townscape and history. County Council facilities and car park are all important to the life of the town. 1. The following organisations are parties to the plan and have been represented on the commissioning team: English Heritage. During the preparation of the plan English Heritage have brought together a commission team comprising all those bodies with a direct ownership or management interest in the Site.1 Introduction This conservation plan for Chester Castle was commissioned by English Heritage in June 2000. Cheshire County Council. Site Location and Study Zone) Chester Castle is located on the southern side of the City Centre within the medieval City Walls and close to the River Dee.2 The site (see Figure 1. Chester City Council. The Cheshire Regiment Museum.

) Chester Castle Conservation Plan Issue II: September 2001 5 Donald Insall Associates . Site and Zone Plans I Location Plan (From EH publication. ‘Chester’ by P Carrington) II Site Plan III Study Zones Zone A – The Harrison Blocks Zone B – The Inner Bailey Zone C – The Outer Landscape (Individual buildings are identified on Plan No2.Figure 1 Chester Castle Location. Page 41.

Throughout the 12th and 13th century the early timber structures were replaced with stone curtain walls and towers to enclose an Inner and Outer Bailey. The plan proposes policies to protect and manage the significant aspects of the site as a whole and its principle elements. The Castle has continued to provide the base for shire governance. judicial authority and the military powers to the present time. The Inner Bailey no longer functions as a regimental depot and the leasehold disposal of two substantial former military blocks (Napier and Colvin House) has given the preparation of the plan a particular urgency. the Baron's wars and the wars of the Roses. These include:   the termination of the military use of the Inner Bailey. (Individual buildings are identified on Plan No2. shire offices. It provide within a single document a comprehensive background of understanding and policies which will:        help in the preparation of long-term management plans for the site as a whole. At the end of the 18 th century the Outer Bailey was removed and replaced by a new Shire Hall and military buildings. provide a clear set of guiding principles against which any new development proposals or new ways of using the site and its building can be tested and evaluated. Flag and Half Moon Towers of the Inner Bailey survive from the early medieval period. The Law Courts. Military Museum and Regimental Head Quarters remain in active use and much of the open areas within the study area are used for public and Council Office parking. Chester Castle Conservation Plan Issue II: September 2001 6 Donald Insall Associates . contribute to design and planning briefs for alterations to the existing fabric and possible new development. assist in the preparation of initiatives for interpretation and education. A central block and two wings enclosed a Parade ground all designed in Greek Revival style by Thomas Harrison. the marketing of the leasehold of two significant buildings formerly in military occupation. inform strategies and plans to improve accessibility to the site and enhance its potential to contribute to the life of the community and the local economy.3 Historical background Chester Castle dates from the later 11th Century when William the Conqueror constructed a Motte and Bailey as an important fortification to protect the northern Welsh border and Dee estuary. Page 41. inform and contribute to proposals to reveal and assist in the appreciation of the significance of the site. Certain particular circumstances and concerns have led to the requirement for the plan at this time.) Today the study site is split between various ownership. assist in making short-term action plans and day to day decisions. to explain its significance and how this is vulnerable now or may become so in the future. The Agricola.4 Purpose of the Plan In common with other conservation plans the purpose of this study is to provide an understanding of the site and its history. a prison and military functions. Throughout the 19th century the Inner Bailey continued to be adapted and added to as a Regimental Headquarters and depot. 1. leaseholders and guardianship. These accommodated law courts. The medieval castle played an important role in the welsh campaigns of Edward 1st.1.

Its diverse linkage with the City.6 Structure of the Plan The Conservation Plan is presented in two documents. The Policy Section is in three distinct parts. is supplemented by a gazetteer (Volume II). This has enabled a provisional view to be taken on the overall condition of the fabric.5 Methodology The key steps in the Conservation Plan process are:     Understanding the site. The main report with its key sections. historical. significance and vulnerability issues each begin with a general introduction to the broad issues involved and then proceed to discuss the topic in detail. The consultants have produced discussion papers and drafts for these sessions. Issues and Policies. Identifying issues and threats that could impact upon the site’s significance. Desk based research has been undertaken mainly using secondary sources and examining the limited primary sources where this has been possible. Understanding. In the case of Chester Castle. The key sections in the main document dealing with understanding. The first provides general policy statements on:    Understanding and resources Setting landscape and townscape Ownership. Devising policies to protect the site and its important aspects and enable it to be better understood and appreciated. This provides detailed information on each component of the existing fabric above ground and also on the structures that have previously existed and of which archaeological evidence may remain. (understanding. issues and policies) workshops have been held with the commissioning team to share knowledge and discuss vulnerability and policy development. the poor condition of certain important structures and spaces within the Inner Bailey. Determining the significance of the site and its individual components in terms of cultural. use and strategic management 7 Donald Insall Associates Chester Castle Conservation Plan Issue II: September 2001 . ecological or other special interest. The method of study has involved visits to the site by both the Client and the Consultant teams to gain an overall appreciation of its main components. Comments and ideas from the commissioning team have been crucial to the process and the final report. 1. its general condition and intensity of use. At each of the key stages in the process. 1.  the perception that the Castle is largely an unrecognised and unexploited asset within the City of Chester and that it has greater potential to contribute to its tourism economy. Previous condition surveys of the English Heritage guardianship area within the Inner Bailey have been supplemented by visual inspection of the exteriors of all the structures on the site. Vulnerability. considerable emphasis has been placed on:   Gaining an understanding and appreciation of the long history of the site and how it has changed and been adapted over time.

     Statutory and local planning policies Conservation of the fabric Access and interpretation Development issues Archaeology The second part provides “Policy Guidelines for Individual Elements” of the site and a final section highlights the most urgent priorities. Chester Castle Conservation Plan Issue II: September 2001 8 Donald Insall Associates .

88 c. c.160 c. The founding of St John’s church at Chester.200 c.SECTION 2: UNDERSTANDING 2. The battle of Chester fought between the kingdoms of Powys and Northumbria. Legio XX return to Chester. Certain important aspects of the site that are referred to in the main chronological account are further developed as “special historical topics”.1 Overview This section of the conservation plan provides an explanation of our understanding of Chester Castle.2 Chronological Summary 1st Millennium: c.79 c. It identifies the principle sources of information and previous studies that have provided the basis for the study and summarises the key events in the castles long history and the historical events with which they have been associated. The Understanding section ends with an account of Chester Castle. Some of the towers and gateways were rebuilt.74 A small auxiliary fort may have been established at Chester to oversee the lead/silver mines in Flintshire.100 c. The Roman legionary fortress of Deva was established at Chester by Legio II Adiutrix Pia Fidelis. This is followed by an historical account describing when. Lady of the Mercians. 2. how and why the first fortifications were constructed and how these have been added to and adapted over time. as it is today and how it is used and managed. The defences are partially reconstructed in stone. The north wall of the fortress was extensively repaired. A synod of the British clergy may have been held at Chester. Legio XX Valeria Victrix is stationed at Chester. A hoard of silver pennies was buried in a jar on Castle Esplanade.300 603 616 689 893-4 907 970 Chester Castle Conservation Plan Issue II: September 2001 9 Donald Insall Associates . A Danish army wintered at Chester. A royal burgh is established at Chester by Aethelflaed. reconstruction of barrack blocks and other buildings in stone.

£102.6d.400. and William of Northampton adorned the lesser chapel near the great hall with a depiction of the murder of Thomas Becket. and orders issued for its provisioning and repair. Ten ceiling corbels in the King’s great chamber were coloured. Henry III uses the castle as a base for his campaigns in Wales. Henry III replaces the wooden palisade round the outer bailey with a stone wall. spent on the work of the castle during the minority of Earl Hugh.11th Century: AD1070 12th Century: 1159-60 13th Century: c. the paintings in the Queen’s chamber renewed and a bridge made from the castle into the orchard. Henry III builds a new chamber over a cellar at a cost of £220. Motte and Bailey Castle founded by William the Conqueror. Henry III demolishes the hall in the outer bailey and builds a new Great Hall at a cost of £350. The King’s apartments were repaired. and an ‘oriel’ is constructed before the doorway of the King’s chapel. as well as a stable and carries out repairs to the King’s houses at a cost of £1. Prince Edward uses the castle as a base for his campaigns against the Welsh. c. 1327 Chester Castle Conservation Plan Issue II: September 2001 10 Donald Insall Associates .1210 The Agricola Tower is built as the bailey gatehouse with a first floor chapel. The Agricola Tower chapel is given a second coat of wall paintings of very high quality and focused on the Virgin Mary. The castle was used as a goal from this time. decorated with wall paintings. Edward builds a new outer gatehouse at a cost of £318.1230-40 1237 1241-5 1245 1246-8 1247-51 1249-53 1251-67 1284-91 1292-3 1299 14th Century: 1301 1310 The chapel in the Agricola Tower is converted into a treasury. The end of the independent earldom. Edward I adds new chambers for the King and Queen. Castle in the custody of Thomas of Warwick. £20 spent on the rebuilding of the castle bridge.7s. The shire hall was removed to a new position just outside the main gate of the outer bailey. the castle is taken over by the crown. and remains the administrative centre of the palatinate.

1579-81 17th Century: 1627-8 The Earl’s representatives reluctantly paid for repairs. Gonkes Chapel. to house the shire court. A new exchequer was built within the castle. It escaped physical damage and in 1646 surrendered with all its arms. chamber and new kitchen in the inner bailey. the Great Hall and several other chambers were all in disrepair. 1642-6 1646-59 1660-2 1662-4 1687 Chester Castle Conservation Plan Issue II: September 2001 11 Donald Insall Associates . and repairs were undertaken on the constable’s hall and other buildings of the inner ward as well as the bridges leading to the two gatehouses. £272 was spent on repairs to the great hall. At this time the castle was garrisoned by 8 companies of soldiers from Ireland and a newly appointed furbisher. A garden was created in the inner bailey for the judges to walk in at the Assize. 100 yards of wall had to be rebuilt.1328 The justice of Chester’s deputy had a hall. with a garrison under a military governor. including a new bridge into the castle. £170 spent on the repair of the inner bailey wall. during the revolt. and John Shaw the county surveyor estimated cost of repairs at £860. Much of the outer gatehouse fell down. The castle provided supplies and lodgings for soldiers before they embarked for Ireland. ordnance and ammunition intact. The castle was a royalist headquarters during the siege of Chester. Just over £546 was spent on repairs to the castle. gatehouses and shire hall. just outside the castle. The Great Hall is rebuilt at a cost of £650. The castle received a new armoury and Frobisher's shop. The parliament chamber to the south was also reconditioned to house the exchequer court. James II visited the castle and heard mass. with a garrison commanded by a military governor. The castle became a base for the County justices. Governor and garrison removed from the castle. the Great Chapel. 1337 1347 1353-5 1355 15th Century: 1401 16th Century: 1511 1536 1577-82 The exchequer is moved to a building adjoining the shire hall. Damory Tower. The castle was a supply base for parliamentary troops in Ireland.

Harrison demolished the exchequer and constables house. 1760-86 1785 1788 1789 1791 1794-9 19th Century: 1804 The inner gatehouse. Quarter sessions ordered the rebuilding of the goal. The castle received a mint for William III’s recoinage. provost cells and exchequer court was erected on the north side of the outer ward. It issued half-crowns. A ditch faced with a stone wall was constructed round the castle yard. A new Doric gateway (propylaea) was constructed. George Earl of Cholmondeley put Chester in a state of defence. assayer and 5 other officials. shillings and sixpences. grand jury room. 1690 1691 1696-8 18th Century: 1745 Castle under threat of attack by the Jacobites. A large portion of the curtain wall of the inner bailey behind the armoury fell down. portico and prison chapel were finished. repairing the castle’s defences and adding raised batteries in the inner and outer wards and a raised platform with a parapet south-east of the great hall. The roof of the exchequer court and protonotary’s office were repaired. Repairs to the armoury included 62 yards of brick walling. Another block housing the barracks. also the Flag Tower and Half-moon Tower were re-roofed. The main block including the shire hall. who requested two new companies of 100 men. 12 Donald Insall Associates 1806-10 1810 1811-13 Chester Castle Conservation Plan Issue II: September 2001 . master. The castle was used in the transport of soldiers to Ireland to repress the Jacobites. An extra mural magazine was constructed adjacent to the upper bailey wall.1689 Peter Shakerley was replaced as governor by Sir John Morgan. A passage with a new gateway was opened into the upper ward. but the work was never carried out. Repair work included the reconstruction of Lord Cholmondeley’s battery. This was staffe d by a comptroller (the astronomer Edmond Halley). then built the prison and southern parts of the main block. Square Tower and part of the curtain wall of the inner bailey were demolished and a new armoury block was erected in their place. a warden. and consent was given for the outer gatehouse to be removed and replaced by a new arch and guardrooms. protonotary’s office and prisoners’ wards had all been finished. and this was awarded to Thomas Harrison. The military architect Alexander de Lavaux was engaged to draw up a plan to strengthen the fortifications. The exchequer. Captain G French ascended in Lunardi’s balloon from the castle yard. A gun platform was built.

Harrison’s barrack block was restored. The guardroom cells in the upper bailey were constructed. Harrison’s ‘B’ block converted into accommodation for officers and judges. The guardroom in the upper bailey was constructed. The open ball alley was converted into straw sheds. Excavation and building recording in the inner bailey.1818 1830 The Agricola Tower is refaced in sandstone. 13 Donald Insall Associates 1922 1923 1939-57 1958 1972 1979-82 Chester Castle Conservation Plan Issue II: September 2001 . 1831-6 1846 1873 1875-7 1877 1878 1882 1884 1891 1892 20th Century: 1900-02 1921 The prison buildings were demolished. and the site of the prison became a drill ground for the local volunteer artillery. The miniature rifle range was constructed. directed by Peter Hough for the Department of the Environment. The prison was transferred to the crown. The site of the well in the upper bailey was uncovered and the water “found to be of excellent quality”. to make way for a new armoury and Napier House. The castle became the depot for the 22nd (Cheshire) Regiment. RHQ Cheshire Regiment took over ‘A’ block on the formation of Infantry Brigade Depots. 21 lime trees along the southeast side of the rifle range were planted. The extra mural magazine was taken down and the chapel of the Agricola Tower was used as the magazine. The site of the prison was used to build the new county hall. Demolition of the officers’ barracks and judges’ lodgings in the south east range of the inner ward. The Agricola Tower chapel ceased to be used as the magazine. Harrison’s main block in the lower ward was altered to include a new Nisi Prius Court. A conservation programme was undertaken on the wall paintings in the Chapel of the Agricola Tower by the Office of Works. The prison was closed to civil prisoners. The fire engine shed in front of the Agricola Tower was taken down. designed by T M Lockwood. Part of ‘A’ block was made into the regimental museum. subsequently recovered with a York stone slab. Protonotary’s office converted to a council chamber for the new county council The exchequer court was transferred to the War Department.

written by Alan Thacker. undertaken for English Heritage by the Courtauld Institute. 1997 1999 2. especially artists such as Moses Griffith. followed by articles written by Morris and Cox in the 1890’s.3 Outline of Previous Research Studies There have been many attempts since the late 19th century to chart the history and development of Chester Castle. The HQ for the Army Medical Services TA left Napier House. Conservation A detailed programme of conservation was undertaken on the wall paintings of the Agricola Tower chapel in 1990. Planning and Economic Development A Study of the Chester Castle area was undertaken in 1995 by Drivers Jonas for Chester City Council Chester Castle Conservation Plan Issue II: September 2001 14 Donald Insall Associates . The latest research carried out was the Chester Castle Condition Survey November 1998 by Buttress Fuller Alsop Williams for English Heritage (Quinquennial Inspection Report). Small scale watching brief and evaluation work has also been undertaken by Chester City Council Archaeological Service on two occasions. Simpson had another attempt at the history of the castle in 1925. Art-historical The castle has been a subject for artistic studies since the early eighteenth century. on behalf of the Department of the Environment. The most recent and comprehensive study on the history of the castle can be found in the forthcoming volume on the Chester Victoria County History. and these works are fully listed in the Bibliography (Appendix A).1992-3 Investigation and conservation of wall paintings in the Chapel of the Agricola Tower. and a survey of the historical documents pertaining to the King’s works at Chester Castle was undertaken by Colvin and others in 1963. Colvin House ceased to function as the Garrison Officers’ Mess. Archaeological The only serious archaeological investigations at the castle were undertaken by Peter Hough between 1979-82. Historical The first historical studies of the castle were undertaken at the turn of the nineteenth century first by Ormerod in 1882. This examined the current condition problems in detail and commented upon the recent repairs to the fabric. The most pertinent texts are indicated below. F.

2.4 Ecology In order to determine whether any aspects of the site as it exists today are of any ecological value a special survey was commissioned as part of the conservation plan study. Within Chester itself. Falling sea levels during the Medieval period had the effect of drying out and increasing the area previously covered by marsh and reducing the width of the River Dee to the west (Ward 1996. 1987. Chester Castle Conservation Plan Issue II: September 2001 15 Donald Insall Associates .2 Geomorphology The drift geology of the Chester castle site has been determined by the glaciations of the Devensian and more recently by the sedimentation regimes of the River Dee. During the Devensian maximum ice sheets flowing from the mountains of Wales are estimated to have reached a thickness of c. faulted and denuded strata of Carboniferous and Silurian age. As has been shown by Tooley (1978). with some glacial sand and gravel. which is floored by a considerable thickness of Permo-Triassic sediments. 11). or boulder clay. with an area of marsh immediately to the west of the Castle. These sediments are surrounded and underlain by folded. which is of limited interest. The report indicates that the site contains nothing of particular ecological significance. The only area where self seeded wild flora has been allowed to develop is on the semi derelict raised platform within the Inner Bailey. The width of the Dee to the west of the castle was reduced even further when the New Cut was excavated in the 1730's and the river diverted into a man-made channel from the Chester to Connah’s Quay. 450m in the Chester area.1 Geology and Ecology Geology In terms of solid geology. these glacial deposits have been eroded by the changing course of the River Dee. estuarine and riverine nature (Harris and Thacker. During the Early Medieval period Chester Castle would have been found within a bend in the river. which were formally known as Bunter Sandstone. Changing sea levels during the Holocene period have resulted in these alluvial deposits containing material of a marine. figure 2. In the area of Chester castle. 2. changing sea level has had a great effect on the course and width of the Dee. in relation to the River Dee has changed over the last millennium. which reach a maximum thickness of 300m in the area around Chester castle and produce a sandstone characterised by the presence of rounded quartzite pebbles of varying diameter (Harris and Thacker 1987. Succeeding the Kinnerton Sandstones are the Chester Pebble Beds. The Kinnerton Sandstones form the lower part of the Sherwood Sandstone Group. an area ideal for the placing of a settlement. the Permo-Triassic sediments consist of Kinnerton Sandstones and the Chester Pebble Beds.4.4). These spaces are not being managed to encourage the development or diversity of local species of flora or fauna but as “ornamental landscape”. 9.4 2.3 The Changing Course of the Dee Chester Castle’s location. Chester is situated in the faulted structural basin of the Cheshire lowland. 2.4. The soft landscaped areas are dominated by close mown grass and limited areas of shrubs. and underlying the Castle Site. at a point where the river narrows to something like its current width. which has scoured channels and deposited alluvial material. In the area of Chester these sandstones form part of the Mid-Cheshire ridge.4. 25).4. The movement and thawing of these ice sheets deposited till. 2. The report is included at Appendix C.

However. Chester Castle Conservation Plan Issue II: September 2001 16 Donald Insall Associates . the nature of this activity remains enigmatic. may indicate the site of a prehistoric stone monument of similar type. Furthermore. Roman Later Roman activity on the site is evidenced by stray finds indicative of occupation. with buildings positioned on sites overlooking the river and not along the main road. and the single standing stone. to the north of the castle during extension work to the Grosvenor museum in 1893 a decorated stone spindle whorl of prehistoric type was found (SMR record no. 85). as has been seen at other sites in Britain such as Hod Hill in Dorset.1 A History of Chester Castle The Pre Norman Site Prehistoric Nothing certain can be stated about the site of the castle prior to the erection of the Norman motte and bailey in 1070. A quick glance at the topographic location of the site would suggest that it has merits as an easily exploited defensive position. known by the medieval period as the Gloverstone.2. especially if occupying an earlier native Iron Age fortification.3024). Looking at the proposed layout in the southern extramural area of the legionary fortress (Mason.3023). The nature of these buildings would seem to be comparable with those encountered to the west of the fortress. during the pre-Flavian phase of activity at Chester (prior to the construction of the Roman legionary fortress) the site would have been a likely place to put an auxiliary fort. being sited on an outcrop of sandstone bedrock protruding into the Dee Estuary. to the west of the castle on the site of the Benedictine Nunnery (Police Headquarters building) a partially finished polished stone axe head of Early Bronze Age type was found during excavations in 1964 (SMR record no. Similarly. suggesting that a mixture of privately owned high status residences and official establishments should be anticipated (Mason. and would appear to have been in a rather sparsely populated area of the Roman extramural settlement. However. implying a high status building on the site (SMR record no.3001/0/25) (see Figure 2.5. 1980.5 2. 86) the site of the castle is adjacent to a possible mansio. To the west of the castle (in the area of the Police Headquarters building) part of an opus signinum floor was uncovered during construction work in 1914. These objects belong to a period in prehistory noted for monument building (most notably the standing stones of Stonehenge and Avebury). As such it would not be implausible to see the site having been exploited as a promontory fort in the late Iron Age. 1980. Roman Chester).

However. This would have brought the site of the castle within the defended Mercian settlement.AD 400-850 the area to the south of the fortress was probably down to cultivation or ploughland. 2). 1985. being formally divided into parcels of land 12 metres wide by a series of north-south aligned ditches (Mason. 1994. Chester Castle Conservation Plan Issue II: September 2001 17 Donald Insall Associates .Figure 2: Roman Chester (From EH publication. and secondly would have offered an incentive to settlement expansion further west. from the intensively occupied area of Lower Bridge Street. evidenced by the fact that after the Norman conquest the land was given away in piecemeal fashion to the various religious houses (ibid). 119-121). Anglo-Saxon It has been convincingly argued that the rebuilding of Chester and its foundation as a burh in AD 907 (by Æthelflaed ‘Lady of the Mercians’). Post-Roman The post-Roman situation in Chester is poorly understood but evidence from Lower Bridge Street would suggest that between c. 121). that had been in evidence since the ninth century (Ward. 1994. Between c. possibly for two reasons: firstly from a military stance it would have converted the defended area of the burh of Chester into a promontory site. it has been suggested that the south western area of the burh including the site of the castle was never actually developed at this time. Chester by P Carrington). would have involved the extension of the northern and eastern lines of the Roman fortress defences to the banks of the River Dee (Ward.AD 850907 the area seems to have been prone to periods of ephemeral short lived occupation evidenced on Lower Bridge Street by hearths and a timber building (ibid).

1962. with evidence for a gateway in the north wall. 607). 7s. comm. 1853) the first Norman Castle was built by William the Conqueror in AD 1070 when he brought his army to Chester to put down a rebellion. The castle became the palace of a Norman earldom until 1237 for which very little documentation survives. During these minorities a sum of £102. the square angle towers of the Inner Bailey (including the building known as the guard tower) were probably erected at the same time as the Agricola tower. The stratigraphy suggested that beneath the stone foundations to the defences of the west range of the Inner Bailey (believed to have been constructed c. A kitchen larder and butteries were also accommodated at the northern end of the hall. where during the building of a stone keep on the original earthen motte. and the earliest fortification would have been confined to the area of the later medieval Inner Bailey. 6d was spent on the castle. When precisely the Inner Bailey gatehouse was built is a matter of conjecture. Examination of this building has led to the conclusion that it had originally functioned as a gatehouse.1246). On the grounds of the castle’s developing plan and the technical innovations of 13th century castle architecture. The castle site was defended by natural falls on the south and west. produced a significant amount of redeposited Roman material which may have made up the fabric of the artificial mound. 1973. the stone Flag Tower in the Inner Bailey has been suggested to be the location of the original Norman keep (Cox. 1973. 7s and 6d was spent ‘on the work of the castle’ (Colvin et al. possibly representing up-cast from the original motte and bailey ditch (S Ward pers. with the exception of the minorities of Hugh II (1153-81) and Ranulf III (1181-1232) when the castle came into the hands of the king. 183). 2000. 101). 1963. embarked upon a series of building programmes including the castles of Beeston and Bolingbroke. it was necessary to encase the mound in a thick stabilising layer of clay (Kenyon. 1895. 11). and a further £20 on the castle bridge (Husain. The presence of the artificial mound on which the original Norman motte may have stood was confirmed by excavations conducted by Peter Hough in 1982. Although no direct evidence exists to support this.5. 239-276). twin towered gatehouses (usually with rounded gate towers) were an innovation of the 13 th century (Kenyon. the earlier of which may be dated to the time of Earl Ranulf III (Cather et al. on returning to England from the crusades in 1220. and by an artificial elevation on the north (Husain. However. Furthermore. The location of this bridge may have been in front of the building known as the Agricola Tower. Ranulf`s revamp of Chester castle may be supported by a recent study of the wall paintings surviving in the first floor chapel of the Agricola Tower. was a steeply sloping clay deposit believed to be the top of the motte (Ellis. or alternatively the £40 spent between 1181-7 may have accounted for some of these additions (Allen Brown et al. For a historical context it is worth noting that Earl Ranulf III of Chester (1181-1232). which suggests two phases of decoration can be discerned. 1996. 67). It may therefore be reasonable to suggest that Ranulf also furnished Chester Castle with a new gatehouse and mural tower (the half moon tower) at this time. thought to be of late 12th century construction. which had a solar at the southern end and chamber above. each of which were furnished with twin drum towered gateways and `D` shaped mural towers (ibid.2 The Norman Earls The motte and bailey castle According to Orderic Vitalis (Forester. Parallels for this clay deposit have been seen at other motte and bailey sites such as Durham Castle. 33). the sum of £375 spent on `the work of the city (of Chester)` between 1161-2 may have included work done to the castle. 63). At some point after it ceased to be the main entrance to the Inner Bailey the Agricola Tower had a hall added to its southern side. During 1995 an archaeological watching brief associated with the laying of new services in the Inner Bailey. 1990. 1990. possibly having been rebuilt in stone in 1159/60 when a sum of £102.2. 607-612).). Chester Castle Conservation Plan Issue II: September 2001 18 Donald Insall Associates . 101). which was blocked up during the 13th century (SMR reference 3007/1/7).

The following year Henry III ordered the construction of a new first floor chamber standing on a cellar (costing £219. signifying its considered importance. It has been argued that at this time Henry III had the chapel walls in the Agricola Tower repainted. and from this point onwards the earl of Chester was usually the heir to the throne of England. this work was still ongoing when the castle was captured by Simon de Montfort in 1264. who appointed Lucas de Taney as his justiciary until the following year when prince Edward besieged and subsequently recovered the castle (Simpson. 2000. and the lightly armed freeholders – the latter probably including archers. 0. and the new hall (the Great Hall) of the king. This force was recruited through the system of knight service. instructing his justiciary John de Gray. 3s. However. record number 3007/1/6). 80). which fell down in 1238 and cost £4. to remove “the wooden fence of the bailey around our castle of Chester. A second bridge leading from the castle into an orchard (presumably beyond the Inner Bailey) was ordered in 1245. 94). In 1251 Henry III commanded Alan de la Zouch to cause the wall of the outer ward to the castle at Chester. and may have been located in front of the arch by the Agricola Tower referred to as giving access from the kitchens to the Inner Bailey ditch. The Earl was able to strengthen his limited military resources by the institution of ‘dowry’ whereby law breakers would be given a place of sanctuary/asylum in return for military service. A growing alliance between Ranulf III and Llewelyn the Great probably prompted Henry III to annex the earldom of Chester to the crown in 1237. It is recorded that during Edward I’s reign the castle was used as a supply depot. which maybe equated with the solar and chamber attached to the hall of the Inner Bailey mentioned above.3 The Welsh Wars Following the annexation of the earldom by the king in 1237 the timber elements of the castle began to be rebuilt in stone. holding corn transported from Ireland. Staffordshire and Shropshire in 1277. This reference has led to some confusion regarding whether it pertains to the inner or Outer Bailey of the castle. 1963. The first reference regarding this comes from an order by Henry III in 1246. Henry III and Edward I used the castle at Chester as a base for their campaigns in North Wales. with large armies passing through the city from as early as 1241. 1925.5d). to be finished. and it is documented that the paintings in the queens chamber were ordered to be renewed by Henry in 1245 (Cather et al. The building at the southern end of the Great Hall (later used to house the Exchequer court) Chester Castle Conservation Plan Issue II: September 2001 19 Donald Insall Associates . for which the evidence suggests only eighty knights in the County of Cheshire. via a stone staircase (SMR record number 3007/1/6). which are begun. 1925. Ranulf III’s Great Charter (1215-16) recognized two classes of troops: the heavily armed knights. The other references to early maintenance work at the castle pertain to the rebuilding of the bridge to the keep.5. until the event of imminent invasion or siege. 2. however if we accept that the construction of the Outer Bailey was not undertaken until Henry III gained possession of the castle (Simpson. and when no danger threatened they were not compelled to provide castle guard at Chester. 607 -612).with steps providing access to the bailey ditch via a stone arch (SMR. 13s. Military During the early Norman Earldom the military strength of Cheshire was limited to a small feudal force called upon to defend the County against Welsh attack. These additions may have been undertaken as part of Ranulf III’s improvements. then the work of 1246 must pertain to the Inner Bailey curtain wall. 184). The Earls barons were also relieved from various other military obligations: they could not be compelled to serve beyond the eastern limit of the county (beyond the Lyme). and that you cause the said bailey to be enclosed with a stone wall” (Allen Brown et al. 9d to replace. although work undertaken by Henry III is equally possible.

The worth of the Cheshire soldiers is demonstrated by them being called upon by the King to fight in South Wales. leading to additional requirements from the king for accommodation for himself and his household. and “glazing of the queen’s chapel”. stables for his horses. with a further 620 men from Cheshire held in reserve. before it was finished the king gave orders for a twin-towered gatehouse to be built instead. and in May 1200 Cheshire footmen were sent to South Wales. After his death the work was continued by Reginald de Grey (justiciary of Chester). 13s. after which time the accounts for the castle were normally recorded by the chamberlains of Chester. The Justice of Chester (Reginald de Grey) was ordered to muster 2000 Cheshire men at Chester. In addition there was a picked corps of 100 archers from the Macclesfield hundred. Military During Edward I’s campaigns against the Welsh. to the north and east of the Great Hall. consisting of two drum towers with a vaulted passageway defended by two portcullises. 1298 1308 Edward I had Cheshire bowmen in his army at the battle of Falkirk in Scotland. 1963.was apparently of early 13th century character. In 1298-9 remedial works had to be undertaken on these chambers to prevent them from falling down. In 1254 Chester was given to Prince Edward until he succeeded to the throne in 1272. The new outer gatehouse was built in 1292-3 at a cost of £318. the chapel being identified as the `mass house` indicated within the Garderobe Tower on later plans of the castle. From this time the castle was used as a base for Edward I’s conquest of Wales. suggesting that their original construction was somewhat floored. together with other chambers and necessary buildings. 1963. and may have originally functioned as a chapel (Allen Brown et al. 400 Cheshire men were summoned for Edward II’s expedition to Scotland. quelling the uprising of Rhys. constructing a chamber for the king and another for the queen consort. and details of this work submitted by Thomas of Perton’s executors in 1286 include the purchase of “ boards to make the alter of the chapel”. 3d on “repairing the buildings of the king’s castle of Chester. and work began on the new gateway consisting of a simple arch with one portcullis and a brattice. who in 1291 had spent £863. and also a certain chapel and stable” (Allen Brown. 610). Chester Castle Conservation Plan Issue II: September 2001 20 Donald Insall Associates . 8d. 608). This gatehouse was also furnished with a prison and several other chambers. 1282 1287 1294-5 Cheshire provided 1300 soldiers for the campaign in North Wales. These new chambers together with the queen’s chapel appear to have stood in the Outer Bailey. These works included the rebuilding of the Outer gateway and the erection of new domestic buildings for the king and queen. The work was started by William of Perton in 1284. These events demonstrate that the Cheshire Bowman was developing into a battle hardened veteran highly desired by the king as the backbone to any campaigning army that may have been raised. the former entrance whose place it took was blocked up. and adequate fortifications for his security (Allen brown et al. However. 1963. This was a trend to be repeated by later monarchs in their campaigns in France. 609). 18s. sizeable contingents of Cheshire troops were drafted into his campaigning army: 1277 The army included 1000 Cheshire foot soldiers including both archers and spearmen.

and probably more at Chester. The following year the roof of the great chapel was recovered in lead. During the military campaigns against the Welsh 1277-95.5. the building of 10 new castles in Wales and 4 new ‘lordship’ castles in England took place. for cloth taken for use of the sergeants in Chester castle.Figure 3: Chester Castle in the later Middle Ages (From EH publication. a well known Chester merchant. provisions. The Pipe Roll for 1270-4 records the payment of 100s to John Arneway. Garrisons 1237-8 there was a guard of 3 knights and 30 sergeants at Beeston castle. while Chester Castle Conservation Plan Issue II: September 2001 21 Donald Insall Associates . Chester by P Carrington). In 1275-6 provision was made for men-at-arms in the Marches and at Chester and Beeston castles.4 The Hundred Years War When Edward of Caernarfon was made Prince of Wales and earl of Chester in 1301 he commissioned a picture of the martyrdom of St Thomas to be painted in the lesser chapel next to the Great Hall. Chester was of the greatest importance as a base for the military campaign and as the centre for the co-ordination of personnel. and building materials in a castle building programme of enormous scale. 2.

acquired for the purpose. During the 1330s levied archers from Cheshire were given a short coat of cloth and a hood. this number was subsequently revised to 600 archers 500 of whom were to come from Cheshire. It was the task of the Chamberlain of Chester to buy the cloth have the coats and hoods made up and have them delivered to the men. which suggests that it was the Outer Bailey wall that was being rebuilt. and the shire court was moved from its place in the great hall to a building outside the castle near the main gate. This work is unlikely to have been associated with the Inner Bailey as £170 was spent on the repair of the Inner Bailey wall between 1353-5. now held at the John Rylands Library. There is no detailed evidence for the evolution of the various towers associated with the Outer Bailey. Once when the men were arrayed at short notice they received their livery in London. and the archers of Cheshire were issued with a distinctive uniform. Sir John Griffyn. and as the reference suggests that even foundations had to be created. This is the only known example of 14th century English livery. Eddisbury Hundred. both of wool. Furthermore.100m) of the castle wall were being rebuilt (at a cost of £250). it may be reasonable to assume that the earlier wall was either of timber or insubstantial stone construction. and the Chapel Tower (thought to be the Garderobe tower on the 1745 plan by Lavaux) is referred to in 1347-8 (Allen Brown. per day for a leader. who reported that 20 perches (c. but later in June this number was increased to 400. The main improvement during this subsequent period was the provision of a new kitchen in the Inner Bailey for the justiciary’s deputy in 1328. and Nantwich Hundred. 1 s. Interestingly. He summoned 300 archers from Chester to assemble at Sandwich. The rates of pay for these men were 2 s. but that only the foundation was begun and not yet half finished (SC 12/22/96). In June 1359 the Prince was rallying an army to take to France (the Reims campaign 135960). Edward of Windsor was created Earl of Chester in 1312 and the administration was left in the hands of officials during his minority. however Gowestower is mentioned during the reign of Edward I (and is believed to be the western tower of the outer gatehouse). Hamo de Mascy and Hugh Golbourne. in 1356 six Cheshire men were sent back to England by the Prince probably as invalids. During the campaign that culminated with the battle of Poitiers in 1356 it is recorded that 300 of the best and most skilful archers in Cheshire were to serve with the Black Prince. the distance of 100m is roughly the length of the Outer Bailey curtain wall. and a seventh Cheshire man William Jodrell had written leave to return home stamped with the Prince’s seal. Chester Castle Conservation Plan Issue II: September 2001 22 Donald Insall Associates . Robert Brown. 1963. The outer gatehouse tower (known as Gowestower) was still functioning as a prison in 1399 as Sir Piers Legh of Lyme was housed there prior to his execution by the Duke of Lancaster. In 1337 the castle was surveyed by the justiciary and four members of t he prince’s council. Wirral and Broxton Hundreds. There is no record of a badge. Amongst these men the following leaders or captains are named: Macclesfield Hundred. Military Under Edward III and the Black Prince soldiering as a possible career became a reality. In 1310-11 a further £200 were spent on the work of the outer gate by the justiciary (but no details of the work are recorded). Once Edward II (1307-1327) became king. and green on the right side and white on the left. with the addition of the little buttery and kitchen for the comptroller in 1346-7. Sir John Hyde and Robert Legh. per day for an archer.the chapel in the Inner Bailey (probably in the Agricola Tower) was adapted in order to serve as a repository for the prince’s treasure. This is the oldest surviving example of an English Military Pass. Damaries Tower is mentioned in 1328. 611). along its western side between the Great Gateway and the Inner Bailey ditch (if you exclude the areas occupied by the flanking towers). per day for a squire and 6 d.

By 1415 Henry V was Earl of Chester and on 28 May Gilbert. The Prison The dungeon and prison of the castle are believed to have been in Goghestower at the Great gateway of the Outer Bailey. James de Shocklach and John de Sutton. and for putting him in the stocks with irons. who was charged with slaying Richard de Pulford in Budworth with a longbow. and in 1310 Adam son of John of the Woodhouses was committed to the punishment for burning his own house and carrying away the goods. vol. The Recognisance Rolls of 1397-8 furnish a list of fetters and other appurtenances delivered by William de Venables (Constable of the castle of Chester) to Thomas le Woodeward. Furthermore. William Troutbeck (Chamberlain of Chester) and John de Legh of Booths (Sheriff of Chester) were ordered to raise men-at-arms and archers in the Shire. The punishment of loading a prisoner with weights or pressing him to death was also introduced at this time. John Kelsall. Lord Talbot (Justice of Chester). William Massey. John Millington. Another prisoner was subjected to this punishment for remaining mute during his trail for burglary. During the reign of Edward III there is reference to a Roger de Ridelegh attempting to escape from the prison by removing some of the stones. which consisted of the daily diet on alternate days of three morsels of the worst bread and three draughts of standing water nearest to the prison door. John Sumerill (the deputy constable of the castle) was indicted for striking a prisoner.6 1906). In 1417 William Troutbeck raised 439 Cheshire archers for a second campaign in France. Richard Malpas. his deputy. at least 8 Cheshire archers were serving with Thomas Earl of Arundel at the battle including: Morgan Filkin. John survived the first application of this punishment and later obtained his acquittal through a technical plea. Chester by P Carrington) Chester Castle Conservation Plan Issue II: September 2001 23 Donald Insall Associates . At the battle of Agincourt (25 October) it is recorded that William Troutbeck had 50 men-at-arms and 650 archers in his retinue. During the reign of Edward I the Plea Roll contains details of a prisoner John son of Warin le Grovenour. John le Parker.S. for which the muster roll still exists (printed in the Cheshire Sheaf N. Figure 4 Chester in the Middle Ages (from EH publication. In court he behaved as a mute and was condemned to prison and the punishment of ‘ad dietam’. Henry Houghton. he was later reported as dead ad dietam. from which punishment he later died.

This bodyguard was divided into watches commanded by the following men: Ranulf of Davenport. In 1403 Cheshire men were fighting on both sides at the battle of Shrewsbury. Adam of Bostock.5. Thomas Halford. and brother of the sheriff) and having him beheaded for his staunch loyalty to Richard II. After the battle a quarter of the body of Henry Percy. they include: Bolde Tower referred to in 1428-9. to the southeast of the 1310 shire hall) referred to in 1441 and 1447-8.2. and his head was placed above the east gate. with the only costs incurred being associated with general maintenance and repair. On January 10 1400. Robert of Anderton. fought between Henry IV and Henry Percy (Hotspur).5 Richard II and Henry IV to the Wars of the Roses In 1401 the exchequer was moved outside of the castle to a building erected for its accommodation at one end of the new shire hall (established in 1310-11). Richard was later taken back to London and imprisoned in the Tower. Richard of Cholmondeley. insolent ruffians who lived on far too intimate terms with king. David of Alpraham. Thomas of Beeston. just beyond the outer gatehouse. John of Legh. Mss. Northwich hundred. Henry of Wettenhall. which necessitated Henry IV to order provisions to be stored at Chester castle by the Sheriff for a campaign into North Wales. They then marched to the east gate and removed the head of Peter de Legh. The castles importance as a prison and centre for legal administration was still however demonstrated by the fact that in 1459 the Earl of Salisbury’s sons were imprisoned there after the Battle of Bloreheath (Harl. but this was unsuccessful. Later that year Henry Duke of Lancaster occupied Chester castle while Richard II was on campaign with his army in Ireland. This was distributed by Robert de Legh (Sheriff of Chester) at the Exchequer court in the castle. In 1406 in response to rebellion in Wales orders were issued to raise the following troops from Cheshire: Broxton hundred. after this they issued a call to arms in the name of Richard II and having been swelled in numbers returned to the castle to lay siege for several days. His personal bodyguard was known to have been made up of Cheshire bowmen who were described as being intolerably arrogant. who refused to lay aside Richard's badge of the white hart. William of Warburton. Brownes Tower (located in the Inner Bailey) referred to in 1444-5. The guard itself comprised a long list of Cheshire men including: John of Aldersey. John of Winnington. William Wych. which he awarded to himself. Apart from this very little apparently happened to the castle during the fifteenth century. and Maysham’s Tower (located in the Outer Bailey. 28 Chester men assembled in the market place and having donned the badge of the white hart. along with the bodies of Sir Richard Venables (Lord of Kinderton) and Richard de Vernon (of Shipbrook) were sent to Chester to be hung from the gates ‘so long as they will last’. 2111). Several of the castle towers are first mentioned during the fifteenth century period but are assumed to have existed prior to this. Later in this year Owen Glyndwr led Welsh raids on the English border towns. this culminated with Henry seizing Peter Legh of Lyme (chief forester of Delamere. proceeded to the castle to demand its surrender. This included the provision of 20 archers to escort the provisions from Chester to Denbigh. Military In 1397 Richard II created the title Prince of Cheshire. In 1399 Richard II granted 3000 gold marks to the people of Chester who had suffered as a result of the battle of Radcot Bridge (1387) ie widows and dependents of soldiers killed during the battle. 4 lances and Chester Castle Conservation Plan Issue II: September 2001 24 Donald Insall Associates . 2 lances and 30 archers. Richard was captured by Henry and imprisoned at Chester castle with some of his loyal supporters such as Janico d’Artois and James Darteys.

A seventeenth century sketch plan of the castle attributed to Randle Holmes (Harl. 96). 1925. and his brother William was made Chamberlain. At the battle of Bosworth (1485). the list for which is held at PRO Chester. 2. Figure 4a. Prison After the siege of Chester. Sir Timothy Fetherstonehaugh was imprisoned at Chester Castle from where he wrote a farewell letter to his wife.40 archers. MSS.6 The Tudors and Stewarts During this period the shire court and the exchequer were moved back into the Outer Bailey of the castle. At this time the old shire hall was taken down and moved to Northgate Street where it was used as a granary in the corn market (Harl. Chester Castle Conservation Plan Issue II: September 2001 25 Donald Insall Associates . Thomas Stanley had a retinue of 3000 Cheshire men dressed in red coats and wearing the badge of the hart’s head. 4 lances and 50 archers. before his execution on 22 October 1651. during which time the chapel on the first floor of the Agricola Tower was converted into a magazine. 445) suggests that these buildings are almost certainly the ones illustrated in Moses Griffith’s watercolour of the Outer Bailey (probably painted prior to the work started in 1785). The castle was garrisoned during the Civil War. Macclesfield hundred.) In 1450 Thomas Stanley was made Justice of Cheshire by Edward IV. 2125). Nantwich hundred. 4 lances and 40 archers.5. Bucklow hundred. (NB a lance is a unit of 3-4 spearmen. and in the ministers accounts for 1579-81 are listed the costs of re-edifying the parliament house within the castle. and also the construction of a shire hall (Simpson. Chester by P Carrington). In 1459 The Fitton contingent that fought at the battle of Bloreheath included 68 men from Gawsworth. MSS. which shows them to be of stone construction. to be converted into the exchequer. with a gallery. 6 lances and 60 archers. Chester Castle in the 16th Century (from EH publication.

involving the demolition of the Outer Bailey. the first was in the Inner Bailey adjacent to the sally port steps. in the absence of any real threat. a storekeepers house and a carpenters workshop. Chester Castle Conservation Plan Issue II: September 2001 26 Donald Insall Associates . which included a new armoury. the location for this was to be in the Inner Bailey. these were not carried out. utilising the Frobisher’s shop. This area was subject to detailed survey and small-scale excavation by Peter Hough between 1979-82. and the building of a new forge and chimney in the Frobisher’s shop for the repair of weapons. including a pair of stairs and floorboards at first floor level. and was to be serviced by a storekeeper's or Furbisher. 15). and re-roofing of the Flag Tower and Half-moon Tower. which had served as the marking room for the mint. During the last two decades of the seventeenth century additions were made to the area of the Inner Bailey between the guards’ tower and the Half-Moon tower. noting that a few shot would lay the place open. Little appears to have been done to the Castle until the early 1780s when the scheme for the new gaol. and details of its formal layout as a knot garden can be seen on Lavaux’s plan of 1741. which demonstrated a complicated sequence of developments between 1686 and 1769 (Ellis.2. was first mooted. ammunition. The armoury was named on a map of 1769 as an ordnance storehouse. and the walls were not thought to be strong enough to support cannon fire. stores. This garden may be shown on a castle survey of 1682-4. Between 1696-8 Chester castle housed one of the Royal mints used for the recoinage of the realm by William III. To this end two new batteries were added to the castle.7 The Late Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries During repairs undertaken on the shire court buildings in 1660 a garden was created in the Inner Bailey ‘for the judges to walk in at the Assize’. which included 62 yards of brick walling.5. 1996. later corrupted to Frobisher (Ellis. The armoury was built in 1686-7 to house a `considerable magazine of arms. the comptroller for which was the scientist and antiquarian Edmund Halley. and the second was in the Outer Bailey on the eastern side of the outer gatehouse. A report compiled in 1745 on the condition of Chester castle suggested that the defences were in a poor state of repair. and other habiliments of war`. records the taking down of the mint ovens and chimneys. This account also refers to restoration work done to the Frobisher’s shop. In 1691 repairs were undertaken on the armoury. The Jacobite cause was finally and brutally crushed at Culloden. An inventory of the equipment issued to Chester for fitting out the mint still exists. An account made after the mint had ceased production in 1698-9. This building is still standing although the upper storey was much altered during the nineteenth century. powder. and although there were suggestions for up grading the defences at Chester Castle. and the order to undertake the preparations was issued to the Governor Colonel Kirby in 1696. 1996). Only 2 of the 18 pieces of artillery were thought to be fit for use.

with the Barracks being some 220 feet and the Propylaea some 80 feet beyond the curtain wall (Ockrim. which was begun in 1769. 73). Figure 6 The rebuilding by Thomas Harrison which replaced the Outer Bailey (from early 20th Century post card) The central block consisted of the Shire Hall. London.2. Harrison also employed rustication on the wings flanking the Shire Hall.5. To the left of the central block. Demolition of the Outer Bailey and rebuilding by Thomas Harrison The architectural history of Chester Castle from the mid-1780s is dominated by the work of Thomas Harrison. (See Figure 6). Fig. His completed scheme comprised a central block with two flanking wings built over the former medieval Outer Bailey and extending beyond over land in the Gloverstone area. 1984. 1988. this overlooked the felons’ yard and felons’ wards which were built on the river level. a drop of some twenty six feet. below which was the Chapel.8 The late Eighteenth. A drawing/engraving (Hore. Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries Figure 5 Chester Castle from within the Outer Bailey in the 18th century before rebuilding. The completed complex occupied a considerably greater area than the medieval castle. 24) shows the gaol river façade wings to have been heavily rusticated in the manner of George Dance’s Newgate Gaol. Chester Castle Conservation Plan Issue II: September 2001 27 Donald Insall Associates . p. with accommodation for male debtors on the north (right) and female debtors on the south (left). Immediately behind was the Gaoler’s House.

began in 1811 (Simpson. PRO MPH 1/1162). now housing the Museum of the Cheshire Regiment). p. The nineteenth century also saw considerable changes in the Inner Bailey. this range was considered too far gone to repair and was demolished (Simpson. p. now Napier House.’ (Pevsner. The Army agreed. Harrison was responsible for refacing Agricola’s Tower (Pevsner. The 1841 Ordnance report shows the site being used for an Artillery Gun Shed and a soldiers’ ablution block (PRO WO 55/2741). The work included the removal of a twelve gun battery on the south wall. was converted for use by them and a new armoury. In the years immediately following the end of the Napoleonic Wars. (“A” Block. and reached by a staircase [which exited by way of the Sally Port. Construction of the central block began in 1788 and was substantially completed by 1802. p. 1988.72).] This armoury is shown as a proposed building on a plan of 1804 (PRO MPH 1/1162). pp. the Propylaea. By 1830. p. and documents in the Public Record Office reflect the deep concern expressed by local residents about the risk of an explosion. Plans for the Armoury were under consideration by 1804. now Colvin House. It had originally been intended to construct this new armoury entirely in brick. p. culminating in July 1819 with a petition to Lord Sidmouth (PRO WO 44/55). 1971. evidencing his Chester Castle Conservation Plan Issue II: September 2001 28 Donald Insall Associates . In 1817 a fire broke out in the west wing of the Gaol. 1983. however. Work on the final phase. 1971. Harrison’s Armoury. The ground floor of Napier House was used as an armoury and the two upper floors as additional soldiers’ accommodation. 157). or Grand Entrance. and there is much correspondence in the latter half of 1819 concerning the security of Chester castle (PRO WO 4455). but in 1832 the Dee Bridge Commissioners requested that red stone be used to match the Castle and City walls. p. 1925. and in February 1786 Thomas Harrison was awarded the first premium. 1925. (“B” Block. Royal Engineers (Simpson. The total cost of these two projects was some £7. This prompted concern that mobs might attack military establishments throughout the country. and the plans for the Barracks were approved in 1806 (Ockrim. Plans were drawn up in February 1820 to build an elegant classical guard house in the centre of the Inner Bailey at a cost of £418 (PRO WO 44/55 and plan and elevation by Captain George Gipps. there was concern on the part of Lord Liverpool’s government that the economic recession might result in serious civil unrest.was the Barracks. and to build a new battery to protect the entrance Inner Bailey (PRO MPH 1/1162). but the building appears to have been completed by the time of the 1806 Ordnance Report (PRO WO 55/2300). which was used by the Army as a powder store. subject to reimbursement of the additional £250 cost. 157) The decision to rebuild the Outer Bailey was taken in 1784. 76). 1925. It was demolished during the construction of Napier House in the 1830s (Simpson. The large court formed by these three ranges is entered by way of a Propylaea of the Greek Doric order with pedimented lodges on each side. p. causing considerable damage. who was subsequently to be closely involved with the building work. Following the demolition of the Officers’ Quarters and Judges’ Lodging. but it was not proceeded with then because the Board of Ordnance strongly objected to ‘the levelling of so ancient and venerable a structure’ (PRO WO 44/55). was built under the supervision of Captain Kitson. At this time there was a proposal to demolish the Officers’ Quarters and Judges’ Lodgings. now known as Colvin House). 76). this latter plan is annotated with a reference to Thomas Harrison. The scheme has been described as ‘one of the most powerful monuments of the Greek Revival in the whole of England. 108) and was completed by 1815 (Ockrim. and in 1893 an officers’ stable was built there. an incident known as the Peterloo massacre. The Nineteenth Century During the Napoleonic War a new armoury was built in the Castle ditch abutting the south wall.000 (PRO WO 55/1886). and to the right was the Armoury. In July 1819 troops opened fire on peaceful demonstrators in Manchester. 75). 1925. Interestingly. 59-66). the second going to William Cole.

1925. The chapel of St Mary de Castro was reconverted and became the private chapel of the Cheshire Regiment in 1922. the military prisoners were transferred to Kendall in the following year (Simpson. Although no attempt was made on the Castle in the 1820s. but nevertheless many arrests were made and quantities of discarded arms and ammunition were subsequently found in the suburbs (Simpson. Nicholas Street. p. During the Second World War huts for temporary accommodation of soldiers were erected in various places. 111-115). In the event none of these schemes appears to have been executed. after clearance. 49) have. and was awarded a Civic Trust prize in 1969 (Hore. 117-118). The building was completed in 1967. together with swords. Fortunately. Edgar Taberner. Work was interrupted by the Second World War and the new building was not officially opened until 1957. as well as the despatch by special train of 574 men of the Scots Fusilier Guards from London. Externally the Harrison ensemble facing the Parade Ground has remained remarkably intact. In 1877. all local prisons were taken over by the government. and prompt action was taken by the authorities in Chester. completed in 1993. Chester Castle Conservation Plan Issue II: September 2001 29 Donald Insall Associates . opening to the public soon after. 1925. but there have been changes internally in the Assize Court block following the erection of ancillary Court buildings in the former prison yards. a new County Police Headquarters was built to the design of the County Architect. and some of the former cells were used for offices and stores (Simpson. detectives in Liverpool got wind of the plot. During the 1930s plans were made for a new County Hall. however. In the 1960s it was decided to create an inner ring road. 1925.continued involvement with building activities at Chester Castle. 1984. p. Chester Gaol remained in use until 1884 when the civilian prisoners were moved to Knutsford. to be built on the site of Harrison’s gaol. and blocking up the front entrance to the Armoury (PRO MPH 1/1162). The site of the Militia Building was purchased and. pp. 1971. 158). 118). p. opening in the early 1920s. been vacated by the Ministry of Defence and an alternative use is being sought for them by the Crown Estate Commissioners. and vegetable plots were laid out in the Castle ditch (CRO 758/2). where it was believed some 35. 44) and Napier House (Gazetteer No. Colvin House (Gazetteer No. The conspirators made no attempt to take on the reinforced garrison.000 stand of arms. An earlier proposal by Gipps of November 1819 involved building a new guard house over the entrance to the Inner Bailey. which involved constructing a roundabout at the junction of Grosvenor Street. in 1867 a real threat arose when the Fenian brotherhood planned an assault on the Castle and its Armoury. and Castle Street. ammunition and powder were stored. It moved to its present location in “A Block” in 1968. The site of the felons’ prison was converted into a drill ground with an entrance for guns at the west end of Shipgate Street. E Mainwaring Parkes was responsible for the design (Pevsner. 38). The County Architect. pp. The Twentieth Century The Regimental Museum was initially housed in the ground floor of Agricola’s Tower.

There is little evidence to suggest that his defensive improvements of the Inner Bailey at Chester were ever substantially altered until mid 18th century and the time of Harrison.2. Comparable sites in the country are limited to a small number of well known and prestigious landmarks such as Carlisle Castle. Henry III and Edward I The work of Henry III and Edward I (both as Prince and King) can be far more accurately chronicled. Ranulf III The only surviving element of the castle attributable to the work of Earl Ranulf III is the Agricola Tower. at which point the northern gateway was apparently blocked up. Ranulf embarked upon several castle building programmes at sites including Beeston and Bolingboke. It could be argued that Ranulf’s castles of the 1220’s were inspired by his experiences in Europe and the Holy Land. These circumstances have led to a continuous need for development and change. Much of the remaining work that Ranulf may have been responsible for in the Inner Bailey may be conjectured from the early eighteenth century plans prepared by Lavaux and others. other than occasional periods of repair. probably hastily constructed to house troops and the royal entourage during successive campaigns in North Wales. In the case of Beeston castle it was sited on a crag. Historically it is known that on his return from the crusades in 1220.1 Special Historical Topics Chester Castle’s Architecture and Comparisons This section examines the architecture of Chester Castle and makes comparisons with other examples of castle sites. probably attributable to Earl Ranulf III. the capitals and vaulting of which are closely related to those in a chapel in the east transept of Chester abbey (now the Cathedral). like the Half-Moon tower at Chester. A more substantial rebuild appears to have been attempted between 1246-53 when the King’s and Queen’s chambers in the Inner Bailey were revamped. which was probably intended to function as the gatehouse to the Bailey. Chester Castle is in many respects an extremely rare site in that it has remained a military base and centre for judicial administration for the best part of a thousand years. Each of these castles were furnished with twin drum towered gatehouses and ‘D’ shaped mural towers. Furthermore.6 2. The first floor seems to have been designed as a chapel from the outset. and the remodelling and major rebuilding of the castle by Thomas Harrison. on the north-eastern side of the Inner Bailey defensive circuit. The high quality wall paintings in the Agricola Tower are attributed to Henry III’s improvements. but this would appear to have been an earth and timber rampart. much of which can be historically documented. The Agricola Tower seems to have ceased to function as a gatehouse during the early thirteenth century. the arrangement of the mural towers and gatehouse buildings at Beeston can be seen to have been influenced by the layout at Chester. with a shear drop to its rear. and involved state of the art castle building technology. For the majority of this time it has also been in the exclusive ownership of the Crown. a Great Hall was erected in the Outer Bailey and the defences of the Outer Bailey were ordered to be rebuilt in stone. and may even be by the same mason. very much like the site at Chester.6. the building of the Outer Bailey and improvements to some of the buildings in the Inner Bailey during the reigns of Henry III and Edward I. The defensive circuit of the Outer Bailey was almost certainly established by Henry III after 1237. This may provide the context for the subsequent ‘D’ shaped twin-towered gatehouse of the Inner Bailey. as opposed to simple maintenance. a fact made even more likely by his reputation as a Chester Castle Conservation Plan Issue II: September 2001 30 Donald Insall Associates . From the historical perspective two notable periods of rebuilding can be identified: The rebuilding in stone of the towers and curtain wall in the Inner Bailey.

It might be expected that comparisons for this phase of Chester Castle must be sought amongst the imposing English castles of North Wales. and yet the medieval character of the churchyard and the immediate vicinity has been preserved (see photograph 6.patron of wall painting at other royal residences such as Winchester Castle in 1233 and Clarendon Palace in 1249. but is not in any way obtrusive. At Chester. His work is artistically of the highest order. The elaborate wall paintings of the Agricola Tower chapel. There is the open Parade Ground. which was ordered to have its bailey defences repaired in the same year as those of Chester’s Outer Bailey. Prince Edward was granted control of Chester Castle between 1254-72 and probably oversaw the completion of the building programmes initiated by his father. the adjoining hall range (subsequently demolished). plate 2 and photograph 35. then. and in particular the castles of Ludlow and Hereford seem to be of similar design. plate 11). flanked on three sides by impressive civic structures. it would seem that Henry III’s castles at Dyserth and Deganwy are the most fitting parallels for Chester. In Harrison’s time. certainly during this time the castle was used as a base for continued campaigns against the Welsh. with Agricola’s Tower (refaced by Harrison). and Carlisle and Dover in England. where new buildings were necessary. it is visible from the Propylaea. new barrack accommodation was built some distance from the Castle. these were inward facing barrack blocks placed round a parade ground. Stirling and Edinburgh in Scotland. However. then the Flag Tower. however. and the range of buildings including the former Mint. It should also be remembered that the improvements to Chester Castle were largely a product of Henry III’s reign. No other Chester Castle Conservation Plan Issue II: September 2001 31 Donald Insall Associates . as at Carlisle. Thus. but that representations of the Virgin were the most commonly ordered subjects of all. Added to this most of Edwards' castles were built from scratch. Edward was one of his favourite subjects. and again we rely on early eighteenth century plans and watercolours of the castle for information on their appearance and layout. for which a detailed study has already been undertaken. the Armoury and Barrack Block are only components in the much larger scheme. However. There are a small number of other sites where redundant medieval castles were converted into barracks in the early nineteenth century. Similarly treated is St Mary’s Church. Thomas Harrison The ensemble Harrison created is a unique blending of neo-classicism and medieval architecture. From documentation pertaining to Henry III’s wall paintings and other imagery it i s apparent that St. walking into the Inner Bailey would have been to step back from the turn of the nineteenth century to the middle ages. and were not constrained by earlier monarchs castle building programmes. making them the major surviving painting of Henry III’s patronage. and. a fundamental problem with this line of enquiry stems from the fact that none of Henry and Edward’s buildings at Chester remain upstanding. especially in the case of Dyserth. although the curtain wall of the Upper Bailey was retained. almost nothing survives of his wall paintings other than fragments from Clarendon Palace and Winchester Castle. however. and. his only improvement to its structural appearance during this time was the addition of the Outer Bailey gatehouse in 1292-3. Conwy and Caernarfon are not surprisingly more technologically advanced than Chester. and defined by the ditch and railings. the pattern was to retain the curtain wall. and the intelligent positioning of buildings results in a number of almost self-contained spaces. After becoming King in 1272 Edward I continued to use Chester Castle as his base of operations against the Welsh. Half Moon Tower. therefore Edward I’s castles in North Wales like Rhuddlan. are the only remaining testament to the work of Henry. Chester Castle’s prominence as a border fortress may also lead to comparisons at other sites in the Welsh Marches. passing through a neo-classical gateway is the Inner Bailey. are rare examples. This tallies well with the paintings at Chester Castle. Although Henry III was an almost obsessive patron of the arts. entered through the Propylaea.

2 The Wall Paintings in the Chapel of St Mary de Castro. 2000. and in 1817 two engravings. Chester by P Carrington) The most complete and best-preserved fragment is the Visitation in the southern quadrant of the eastern bay (ill. concluding that at that time the condition was “fair”. published in Hanshall’s History of Cheshire. 79). p. 2. It shows Elizabeth holding her right hand under the Virgin’s chin. since some of the figures could be identified as the priest Theophilus and the repentant thief Ebbo. Pl. and it is considered likely that the vault was decorated with a programme devoted to the Infancy of Christ (Cather. 172). including the Adoration of the Magi. was carried out over the period 1992-4. The chapel is a parallelogram in shape. The use of frames surrounded by foliage has an English parallel in the Holy Sepulchre Chapel. John Musgrove. Figure 7 Wall painting (from EH publication. made a sketch (Simpson. During its period as a storeroom the walls had been whitewashed and racks etc had been attached. The paintings are at present indistinct. The chapel had been used as a military store and magazine for a very long period. Agricola’s Tower The chapel of St Mary de Castro can be dated architecturally to the late 12 th or early 13th century. Winchester Cathedral of c1220 (Cather. uncovering of the paintings and minor repairs. but apparently were more clearly defined in 1810. in collaboration with the Courtauld Institute of Art. p. The fragmentary condition of the paintings makes it difficult to identify positively most of the remaining scenes. Other narrative scenes have been positively identified. which included a full art historical study. During August 1995 the Ancient Monuments Laboratory carried out an audit. Chester Castle Conservation Plan Issue II: September 2001 32 Donald Insall Associates . 200. when a local artist. possibly shown being saved from death on the gallows by the intercession of the Virgin. namely the time of earl Ranulf III (1187-132). 1A). 1925. 78). as well as graphic and photographic documentation. 2000. 1925.examples have been located where Shire Courts. and is contained within a trefoil frame.6. 172). Col. in Cather et al. measuring 19 feet 4 inches in length and averaging in breadth 16 feet 6 inches. The height to the apex of the groining is 16 feet 6 inches (Simpson. all causing damage to the plaster on which the wall and ceiling paintings had been executed. p. but it has been suggested that the Miracles of the Virgin is one of the themes. and was returned to original use as the chapel of the Cheshire Regiment in 1922. Conservation work. technical analysis. Shire government and military use have all been retained on the same site since the early medieval period. indicate significant areas of painting. p.

Col. the academy’s patron. Warrington and Cranage. 2000. and are an addition to the very few surviving examples of his royal patronage. 1995. 2. 466-470. which was completed in 1788. who eventually exercised his prerogative and sanctioned Harrison’s membership. and indeed compare the treatment of the vault programme and certain of the assumed subjects with other English work. instances being Winchester. pp. Clarendon Palace. disguised as a beggar. appealed directly to Pope Clement. Park and Pender is correct. Pl. 2000. p. an element in the story of St Edward and the Ring. There were leading schools of painting at Canterbury.6. what survives is not as extensive as at Winchester Cathedral (Chapels of Holy Sepulchre. In contrast. the Grosvenor Chester Castle Conservation Plan Issue II: September 2001 33 Donald Insall Associates . In 1773 he competed for the annual architectural prize of the Academy of St Luke. and Guardian Angels. finally settling in Chester in 1795. By 1779 he had moved back to the north of England. However. The paintings are of extreme importance. This was the first bridge to be built in England with a level road surface from bank to bank. where the chapel was repainted. Cather and colleagues do not suggest a foreign artist. and known painters such as Matthew Paris and William of Westminster produced work of the highest quality. and the visual impact on the viewer is limited because of the condition and fragmentary nature of the remains. Winchester and St Albans. He returned to England in 1776. however. 183). Yorkshire. IIIB) and this might be St John. although the technique had been employed in France for some time. because of their age and the exceptionally high quality of their execution. where the Queen’s chamber was redecorated in 1245. 181). It would be quite wrong to assume that there were no competent painters in England in the first half of 13 C. He was. unless otherwise noted) Thomas Harrison (1744-1829) was born in Richmond. a saint for whom Henry III felt particular empathy (Cather. p. Cather and colleagues note that the technique employed may have been true fresco (p. The paintings can be classed as being of national significance. then they shed valuable light on the artistic tastes of the king. which resulted in much better preservation. and the son of a joiner. He was responsible for further bridges at Derby. which carried with it rights to membership of that prestigious body.3 A Summary of Thomas Harrison’s Life and Works (Colvin. He travelled to Italy in 1769 at the expense of Sir Lawrence Dundas of Aske. c1250). irrespective of the patronage. unsuccessful. namely that the paintings were probably executed for Henry III. en route to Rhuddlan to campaign against the prince of Gwynedd.A fragment on the east wall shows the head and shoulders of a figure wearing a straw hat (Cather. Kendal. which was unusual for English work of that time. 184). This may well have been the time at which the chapel itself was decorated (Cather. An early and important commission was for a new bridge over the River Lune at Lancaster. Henry III frequently had his chapels and palaces repainted. causing a chemical change. c1225. and Chester Castle. and believing that he had been discriminated against. most of which was painted onto dry plaster (secco). 2000. If the conclusion reached by Cather. This in turn might suggest that this wall cycle was devoted to St Edward. 1233. and in that year the construction of an ‘oriel’ is documented before the door of the king’s chapel. Italian painters worked on wet plaster. Cather records that: [Henry’s] first recorded visit to Chester was in 1241. and a very rare surviving example. and exhibited two drawings at the Royal Academy in the following year. as well as his largest commission as a bridge builder.

Indeed. his reputation is founded on his civic architecture. Gilpin travelled widely in Britain. Where landowners were not fortunate enough to have a convenient gothic ruin on their estate. offered to manage the 4th Earl of Scarborough’s estates ‘with Poet’s Feeling and with Painter’s Eye. His plans and drawings were presented to the Chester Archaeological Society in 1849 by Miss Harrison. A view of the Old Dee Bridge and the river would almost certainly have been considered pleasingly Picturesque. His Gothic design was completed by 1799. another Chester Castle Conservation Plan Issue II: September 2001 34 Donald Insall Associates . including the House of Correction (18078). 1999. just as the landscape painting of Claude. the 200 feet span made it the largest stone arch in the world. Harrison enjoyed a high reputation with his fellow architects. Capability Brown. idealised the scenes depicted. p. developed in the last decades of the eighteenth century into a complex aesthetic. p. which found itself alongside Burke’s “Sublime and Beautiful”. the Wesleyan Methodist Chapel. Medieval ruins. by which time he was well into a similar reconstruction at Chester. and are presently deposited in the Cheshire Record Office. notably William Gilpin. and became a favourite topic for discussion amongst the better educated middle classes.6. for example. 1971. most notably Broomhall for Lord Elgin. Northgate Street (1808). the News Room. he was responsible for the Portico library. were seen as being particularly Picturesque. Gardens. Harrison received part of his remuneration for his work on Chester Castle by way of a grant of land in Nicholas Street on which he built his own house (Emory. particularly seen against a turbulent cloud-scape. much favoured by English collectors. and continued that ‘there are many hints for the history of English architecture at Chester’ (Crook. landscape designers considered their work to be art of a high level. In Manchester. C R Cockerell. opined in 1823 that he ‘has a divine spark’ (Colvin. 1995. and which was awarded considerable intellectual attention by its proponents. In 1788 he was awarded the commission to reconstruct Lancaster Castle. Harrison’s ‘Chester Castle complex forms the finest group of Greek Revival buildings in Britain . and a good example of a ruin to visit in the vicinity of Chester is Beeston Castle. He completed a number of commissions in Chester. as Sanderson Miller did at Hagley Park. sketching landscapes and he published his theoretical principles in the form of three essays in 1792. In Howard Colvin’s opinion. such as monasteries and old castles.the neo-classical counterpart to Greenwich Hospital -’ (Colvin. Harrison’s massive backdrop of the heavily rusticated gaol would have produced a sense of terror. and Uvedale Price. which included a new Shire Hall. 1995. The North Gate. and water features were seen as examples of art “improving” on nature. 946).’ What started off as an adjective. it was common to construct one. A walk round the restored walls of Chester would have provided the opportunity of stopping to admire certain views and vistas. p. 2. 167). St John Street (1811) and the widening of the Old Dee Bridge (1825-6). could well have produced a frisson of awe which denoted the Sublime. Although Harrison executed designs for country houses. Fountains Abbey and Riveaulx Terrace are examples of incorporating ruins into a garden. Grand Jury Room and Gaol. the Exchange and Commercial Buildings (1806-9) and the Theatre Royal (1806). and then to discuss the effect they produced.Bridge at Chester. for 2nd Earl Grosvenor (180810). but the bulk of the old Castle ramparts.4 Chester Castle and the Picturesque in the Eighteenth Century Picturesque initially denoted ‘as in or like a picture’. William Payne Knight. Proceeding on. At the time of its construction. 466). architecture. with their statues. one of the best travelled and intellectual of nineteenth century architects. Mosely Street (1802-6). 467). p. The interest in the Picturesque spread beyond intellectual circles. and was much used when discussing garden design. which was begun in 1827.

Examples include the work of Le Roy and of Stuart and Revett in their archaeological publications on the architecture of classical Athens. Figure 9 Chester Castle and the River Dee (from early 20 th Century post card) A particularly interesting feature of Chester Castle is the juxtaposition of Harrison’s Neoclassical ensemble between a heavily restored medieval castle and the medieval church of St Mary. which embraces conservation in all its guises. Both are a move away from the acceptance of a strictly classical theory of art. are closely linked in aesthetic terms. Equally important would have been the views of the Grosvenor Bridge and the views of the Castle from the south. It is a measure of Harrison’s skill that there is no apparent clash of styles.attribute of the Sublime. although ostensibly dissimilar. the monumentality of both castle and gaol would have formed a complimentary whole. Chester Castle Conservation Plan Issue II: September 2001 35 Donald Insall Associates . Chester) Neo-classicism and the Picturesque. it could be argued that the intellectual views of this period adumbrated the late twentieth century concept of “heritage”. and also that when viewed from the opposite bank of the river. the dominant aesthetic of the Augustan period of the eighteenth century. Figure 8 Chester Castle and River Dee during the 18 th Century (from EH publication. since both look for inspiration to archaeology and the close examination of historic buildings and artefacts. vistas now almost lost because of later tree planting. and both play a part in the development of the highly influential nineteenthcentury aesthetic of Romanticism. (See Figures 8 and 9 View of River Dee and Chester Castle 18th century). Indeed.

The architecture is equally simple and majestic. 69). there should be facilities for warm and cold bathing and a chapel should be built for the use of the prisoners. p. p. he was responsible for the cast iron of the arcades and passages. Chester Castle Conservation Plan Issue II: September 2001 36 Donald Insall Associates . so as to completely command a view of every part of the prison.2. 1988. 21. p. formed in September 1786. and for the furnishing of the cells. in 1784. provides a detailed description of Harrison’s design (quoted in Ockrim. Cells should be clean and airy. including making recommendations for beds and mattresses (Ockrim. Dupin. 1983. appears to have been influential on Harrison. The chapel of the prison is between the upper and lower level under the Gaoler’s House and in the same semi-circular form: … On the lower level. 1785. … In the centre is the Gaoler’s house. 1988. J Hemmingway. The leading architect to specialise in prison design was William Blackburn (1750-1790). and John Legh of Adlington (Ockrim. 1995. since. 1779. The Builder (vol. and also speculates that Harrison may have visited the celebrated Maison de Force. 70). are the cells for solitary confinement and condemned criminals. p. 60). projecting from the line of the upper level. which had been rebuilt in 1773 (Ockrim. p. These Acts stipulated that there should be separate accommodation for male and female prisoners and that the different classes of inmate should likewise be separated. John Leigh of Oughtrington.71). 1983. Harrison was also closely involved with the fitting-out of the new gaol. Howard’s interest began following his appointment in 1773 as high sheriff of Bedford and for the remainder of his life he travelled widely in this country and in Europe visiting prisons and recording the treatment of their occupants. p. 128). 1983. quoted in Ockrim. and the Gaol Bill. who was responsible for eighteen prisons. 1983. and in 1793 copies of a pamphlet published by Paul ‘containing many useful hints as to the care and regulation of gaols …’ were requested from Gloucester (Ockrim. Much of the impetus behind gaol reform in Britain in the late eighteenth century can be attributed to the work of John Howard (1726-1790). notably the Penitentiary Act.6. Sir George Paul. the building committee. In 1777 he published The State of the Prisons in England and Wales. and an Account of Some Foreign Prisons. 1784-88 (Ockrim. p. with Preliminary Observations. included Sir Henry Mainwaring Bt. and immediately under the extreme line of the extreme line of the upper.5 Thomas Harrison’s Gaol The new gaol was commissioned by the Justices of the Peace for the County of Cheshire. Gloucestershire. pp. The interior arrangements are well contrived and bespeak much regard for humanity. Moira Ockrim considers that the configuration of the felons’ yards is close to Blackburn’s Northleach Bridewell.97). Blackburn was paid to review the early plans for Chester. 69) records a visitor to Chester. including Oxford. Ghent. p. in History of the City of Chester. 1983. [The gaol] is from the nature of the ground built on two levels. a M. also the very complete cold and warm baths. 4167). His work was to be influential in the drafting of new legislation concerning prisons. 204. on the west side the female debtors’ rooms and court yard with the prison hospital adjoining. George Leycester. the large and airy yard of the male debtors. Liverpool and Gloucester (Colvin. The upper line of the building on the east side consists of the turnkey’s room. The latter. as commenting: The Sessions House and Panoptic prison of Chester are united in the same building which is assuredly the handsomest of its kind that is to be seen in Europe. which owed much to the ideas of its Governor.

the second an evaluation undertaken by S Ward in 1993. with 84 cells.1070. 1996. evidenced by a layer of redeposited clay. which are discussed below. and phases V-VI comprised 19th century alterations to the upstanding elements. the area covered by the Norman motte has potentially preserved archaeological deposits that have remained undisturbed since c. The known archaeological resource mainly corresponds to the footprint of the medieval castle. The final phase to be completed was the debtors’ rooms. probably a three storey. pp. Half Moon Tower and adjoining curtain wall. The results of these excavations an be summarised as follows: Medieval The earliest deposits encountered demonstrated that the medieval masonry defences in the western range of the inner bailey were built on top of the pre-existing Norman motte. The 1979-82 investigations were confined to the area of the Flag Tower and the western range of the inner bailey. This established six phases of construction in the area: phase I comprised the medieval elements of the Flag Tower. Sand and clay deposits were also found to overlie the redeposited clay and these produced pottery of 14th century date. measuring approximately 2m east-west by 7m north-south. 1996. The castle has been the subject of three archaeological schemes of investigation (located in Appendix D Plan G7): the earliest was an excavation undertaken by P Hough between 197982. and area C was between the Flag Tower and Old Mint buildings. which were ready for occupation in February 1801 (Croom. Further insights of the archaeological resource have been gained by intermittent fieldwork conducted over the past 20 years. the extent of which is illustrated in Appendix D Plan G5. (Croom. associated with this was a single posthole.7 Archaeology The archaeological resource of Chester Castle consists substantially of buried remains. phase IV consisted of the mid 18 th century brick rebuilding of a section of the curtain wall. containing 32 cells. and the third a watching brief undertaken by Chester Archaeology Service in 1994. A programme of building recording work was carried out prior to demolition of 19th century brick built buildings in the western range. potentially spanning from prehistory to the present day. area B was to the north-west of the Sally Port and to the south of the Flag Tower. Three areas were selected for excavation: area A was located to the east of the Flag Tower and measured approximately 12m east-west by 7m north-south. An area of paving outside the eastern entrance to the Flag Tower lay directly above this clay and was thought to confirm the medieval origins of the tower’s entrance. 6-8). 5-6). Chester Castle Conservation Plan Issue II: September 2001 37 Donald Insall Associates . but significantly they have remained largely undisturbed since the end of Harrison’s building programme. and a matron’s house. 2. In 1832 a new block designed by William Cole Jnr. and was completed by August 1793.Work started on sinking the foundations of the felons’ prison in July 1789. crescent-plan block. was built. Furthermore. and was sited to the northeast of the felons’ prison. A new building designed by Robert Griffiths of Stafford was erected between 1867 and 1870. This was H-shaped in plan with between three and five storeys because of the land contour. infirmaries. pp. phase III comprised the main late 17 th century structural elements of the Old Mint and Armoury.

172050). which produced clay tobacco pipes (c. which was 150mm thick and overlay mixed deposits of friable stony loams. To the south of the Old Mint were the remains of a bakehouse with a large brick oven.5m and contained finds of late 18th/early 19th century date. The artefacts comprised high status Roman and medieval pottery and glass. At this point the trench was stepped in wards and lower deposits of sandy clay loam containing sand lenses were encountered. The aim was to excavate two trial holes. and was confined to the excavation of a service trench to a depth of c. in order to investigate subsidence in the surface of the car park. copper alloy. at which depth a sandstone structure was encountered.1m. These layers persisted to a depth of at least 2. bottle glass. as well as painted wall plaster fragments. The excavator felt that the tendency of the deposits encountered (in trenches 1 and 2) to tip from northwest to southeast indicated the site of the outer bailey ditch. which contained clay tobacco pipe (c. A pit was cut through these layers and filled by a mixture of sand and clay deposits. which may have accommodated a porch for the entranceway.1690-1720). Chester Castle Conservation Plan Issue II: September 2001 38 Donald Insall Associates . which appeared to be laid as dumps that pre-dated the armoury building. a stone lined drain/culvert was detected running along side the north wall of the Armoury. The 1993 evaluation was sited in the parade ground of the Outer Bailey. window glass. The friable stony loams dating from Harrison’s rebuilding of the castle in the late 18th century. which was believed to have been caused by the buried outer bailey ditch of the medieval castle. and although this material was felt to be residual it does point to the quality of the archaeology that may exist in the vicinity. Finds recovered from these deposits dated from the early/mid 17th century through to the late 18th century. Also cut through the dumping episode were the sandstone footings to the armoury building. iron and blacksmithing debris.1710-20). as well as 17th century pottery.4m. The results are summarised as follows:  Trench 1: Directly beneath the tarmacadam surface was the crushed sandstone surface of the parade ground. immediately to the southwest of Harrison’s ‘A’ block.   The watching brief undertaken in 1994 was located in the inner bailey. Late 17th century To the east and south of the Flag Tower were layers of dark soil containing stone brick and mortar. as well as pottery and glass of late 17th century date. Mid 18th century The standing building recording had produced evidence for alterations to earlier buildings during this period.16th/17th century Outside the eastern entrance of the Flag Tower was a spread of cobbles associated with two linear trenches. Trench 2: As with Trench 1 the parade ground surface was encountered beneath the modern tarmacadam. No archaeological features were recorded. These layers produced clay tobacco pipe (c. Archaeologically.1640-60). the floor of the bakehouse initially comprised a mortar surface beneath which were clay tobacco pipe fragments (c. lead. but a significant assemblage of finds were recovered. Beneath this lay friable stony loams to a depth of 1.

2.8

Chester Castle Today
This final part of the ‘Understanding’ section presents a description of Chester Castle as it exists today in terms of its existing fabric, its use, management and its provisions for visitors. The setting of the Castle and its contribution to the townscape of Chester is examined and current planning policies are outlined. The description of the site commences with a series of plans and photographs, which are referred to later in the text.

2.8.1

Plans and Photographs This section includes the following sequence of plans and photographs illustrating Chester Castle, as it exists today.

Plans
Plan 1 Plan 2 Plan 3 Plan 4 Plan 5 (a) Study Zones, (b) Buildings and Landscapes Existing Buildings and Structures Existing Uses Townscape Areas and Views Ownership

Photographs Plan 6 Plates 1-2 Plan 7 Plates 2-8 Plan 8 Plates 9-12 Location of photographs Zone A Zone A: Harrison, Building and Castle Square Parade Ground Location of photographs Zone B Zone B: Inner Bailey Location of photographs Zone C. Zone C: Outer Landscape

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Plan 1 Study Zones, Buildings and Landscapes

Study Zones
Zone A – The Harrison Blocks (1795 – 1826) Zone B – The Inner Bailey (Late 11th to 19th Century) Zone C – The Outer Landscape

Building Form and Landscape

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NB For photographs of structures and spaces see pages 45-57 and the Gazetteer entries.

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Chester Castle Conservation Plan Issue II: September 2001 42 Donald Insall Associates .

Chester Castle Conservation Plan Issue II: September 2001 43 Donald Insall Associates .

Chester Castle Conservation Plan Issue II: September 2001 44 Donald Insall Associates .

Plate 1 1. Parade Ground Car Park Chester Castle Conservation Plan Issue II: September 2001 45 Donald Insall Associates . Propylaea 4. Harrison North (A) block 3. Shire Hall Portico viewed through propylaea 2.

View of parade ground car park from Agricola Tower roof 6.Plate 2 5. Mary’s on the Hill tower beyond 7. Entrance to Regimental Museum – Harrison North Block 8. View from Shire Hall Portico towards Police Station Chester Castle Conservation Plan Issue II: September 2001 46 Donald Insall Associates . Entrance to County Offices with St.

Plate 3 9. Entrance to Inner Bailey 10. Agricola Tower with cell block and Guard House to the left 12. Agricola Tower roof Chester Castle Conservation Plan Issue II: September 2001 47 Donald Insall Associates . Agricola Tower entrance 11.

Plate 4 13. Inner Bailey and location of well. surrounded by bollards 14.Napier House Chester Castle Conservation Plan Issue II: September 2001 48 Donald Insall Associates .

Sally Port and closed access to Higher ramparts. Inner Bailey ramp leading to rampart walkway. 17. Rampart walls east of Sally Port. Chester Castle Conservation Plan September 2001 49 Donald Insall Associates . View from Eastern Ramparts. 18. Napier House to left and Flag Tower to right. 16.Plate 5 15.

Plate 6 19. Chester Castle Conservation Plan September 2001 50 Donald Insall Associates . View from north rampart. 21. Closed to public. North rampart and roof of Flag Tower. 20. Higher rampart north of Sally Port.

Flag Tower. Fireplace within Half Moon Tower. 24.Plate 7 22. Frobishers House to the right. 25. Flag Tower to the left. Stairs within Frobishers House. 23. Chester Castle Conservation Plan September 2001 51 Donald Insall Associates .

ground floor chamber 27. Flag Tower. showing gun slit.Plate 8 26. Brick face of curtain wall to the west of the Flag Tower. Chester Castle Conservation Plan September 2001 52 Donald Insall Associates . Flag Tower and Frobisher’s House. 28.

Ramparts rising above Motte Chester Castle Conservation Plan Issue II: September 2001 53 Donald Insall Associates .steps lead to Sally Port 32. Gun shed 30.Plate 9 29. Ramparts and Napier House 31. Ramparts and Motte .

Half Moon Tower 34.Plate 10 33. Curtain wall (Flag Tower at rear) Chester Castle Conservation Plan Issue II: September 2001 54 Donald Insall Associates .

Plate 11 35. Dense undergrowth adjacent to Town Wall walk 38. St Mary’s on the Hill and Rear of Harrison North Block 36. Model of Harrison’s Grosvenor bridge Chester Castle Conservation Plan Issue II: September 2001 55 Donald Insall Associates . Castle Drive below town walls 39.

End of Town Wall walk at main road . Car parking in outer landscape Chester Castle Conservation Plan Issue II: September 2001 56 Donald Insall Associates . Gated Drive leading to Castle Drive 40. Driveway leading to car parks in outer landscape 42.Plate 12 39.the Castle lies beyond the car park 41.

View of Castle from Grosvenor Bridge Chester Castle Conservation Plan Issue II: September 2001 57 Donald Insall Associates .Plate 13 43.

The distribution of uses throughout the site is illustrated in Plan No 3. ‘B’ the Inner Bailey and ‘C’ the Outer Landscape.2. which exist today.8.2 Chester Castle Today – Schedule of Structures and Spaces The following Schedule identifies the buildings.Harrison Complex: The complex of buildings designed by Thomas Harrison including the Castle Square parade ground. structures and spaces. Plan No 1 identifies the Zone boundaries and Plan No 2 names and locates the various the Buildings and Spaces. They fall within three distinct zones: ‘A’ the Harrison buildings. its entrance and enclosure (site of former Outer Bailey) Gazetteer Ref 42 43 Building/Space *English Heritage Guardianship Use Listed Building I I II Harrison Shire Hall Harrison A Block Statue of Queen Victoria County Court County Council Office Cheshire Regimental Museum Regimental Head Quarters Vacant Car Park Attendant’s Office Car Park 44 41 45 Harrison Colvin House Harrison Entrance Arch (Propylaea) Parade Ground Enclosure Parade Ground Castle Square I I II Zone B . Zone A .Inner Bailey: The curtain walls and towers and all the medieval and later buildings which they contain Gazetteer Ref 5 10 6 49 17 50 7 11 11 Building/Space *English Heritage Guardianship Use Listed Building I I I II I II I I II Half Moon Tower* Frobisher’s House* Flag Tower* Napier House Agricola Tower* Guard House and Cell Block* Sally Port* Curtain Walls* (Sally Port to Half Moon Tower) Curtain Walls and Access Rampart* (east of Sally Port) Vacant Vacant Vacant Vacant Part Chapel – Part open to public* Display Area open to Public Closed Walk way not open to public Rampart walk open to public Chester Castle Conservation Plan Issue II: September 2001 58 Donald Insall Associates .

Zone B continued Gazetteer Ref 16 Building/Space *English Heritage Guardianship Use Listed Building - Inner Bailey Court Yard* Inner Bailey Court Yard* Raised platform adjacent to Flag and Half Moon Towers* Inner Bailey Court Yard* Marked by bollards only Open to Public Closed to public Open to Public Zone C . Chester Castle Conservation Plan Issue II: September 2001 59 Donald Insall Associates . Colvin House: This no longer functions for military purposes and stands vacant with its lease offered for sale. These enclose a parade ground.Outer Landscape: The area of outer landscaping including the car parking areas. A Block: The building. The Shire Hall: This building contains the County Courts and has recently been the subject of a major internal restructuring and restoration programme. are in red sandstone. its enclosed courtyard and ancillary structures are still in military use.Harrison Complex (Plates 1 and 2) The centrepiece of the “Greek Revival” composition designed by Thomas Harrison is the Shire Hall. An entrance at the north end of the building provides access to the County Offices. driveways and ancillary buildings to the south of Zones A and B and extending to the town walls Gazetteer Ref 50/55 64 Building/Space *English Heritage Guardianship Use Listed Buildings II - Gun Sheds and Officers Stables Squash Courts Rifle Range Motte (Castle mound) Drive leading to Gun Shed Drive leading to gated Town Wall archway and car park Public Car park Storage Vacant Vacant Publicly accessible Publicly accessible Publicly accessible Publicly accessible 2. The lower floor is occupied by the Regimental Museum and the upper floor is used as the Cheshire Regiment’s Head Quarters. which is complemented by two projecting wings. Those elevations. Castle Square. The structures are all in outwardly good condition.3 Brief Description of Existing Structures and Spaces Zone A .8. Other parts of the building are used by the l ocal cadet force. All the principle elevations are in yellow sandstone. ‘A’ Block to the north and Colvin House to the south. which is entered through the propylaea. which overlook the Inner Bailey.

There is a good understanding of the condition of the structures within Guardianship as these were the subject of a detailed quinquennial inspection in 1998 prepared for English Heritage by Buttress Fuller. The public has access to the ground and first floor levels only. The adjoining Cell Block has had further displays but is now closed. The wall paintings in the Chapel are very faded and may be being affected by damp conditions. panelled doors and remnants of wallpaper. The Guard House is a single room. Guard House and Cell Block: (Plate 3) These joined 19th Century single storey utilitarian sandstone buildings are in generally good condition. listed Grade II is located on the area of the Shire Hall portico. The building is not open to the public. The Parade Ground (Castle Square): The parade ground is generally surfaced in black tarmac. public access to the upper chamber and roof deck has been closed for safety reasons (principally lack of supervision). The windows frames have been removed and the openings are boarded but not sufficiently securely to be pigeon proof. A statue to Queen Victoria. The building has a weatherproof roof and the window openings are boarded. The stair continues to a further second floor level and terminates at the roof deck above.The Entrance Propylaea: Part of the entrance archway is in use as the car park attendant’s office. The internal structural walls and floors remain but only limited fittings exist which are of any interest (eg a ‘dumb waiter’). Bollards and other ‘Street Furniture’ are all contemporary. The whole is generally in good condition but evidence of water penetration has been noted recently. The wall between the Frobisher’s House and the Half Moon Tower contains evidence of possibly pre 18th century stone door surrounds and blocked off openings The Flag Tower: (Plates 5 and 6) This two storey sandstone structure is partially derelict. The early sandstone structure has been refaced externally in the 18th/19th centuries and ‘Georgian’ proportioned window openings were formed in the outward facing elevation. Evidence of the 19th/20th century military quarters still remain and include cast iron fireplaces. Although once permitted. The floors are littered with droppings and dead birds. Half Moon Tower: (Plates 7 and 10) The Frobisher’s House was built at the rear of and gives access to the medieval Half Moon Tower. Externally much of the stonework has been refaced during the 19th and 20th centuries. Frobisher's House: (Plate 7) This 19th century two storey building was built for military use (its last use was as a sergeant’s mess) on the site of an earlier structure (possibly 17 th century). Structures and Spaces within English Heritage Guardianship. Remnants of pre-19th century brickwork are still evident at lower levels. which is open to the public and contains display material explaining the castle's history. Agricola Tower: (Plate 3) The Tower comprises an entrance chamber at ground floor level with a stair turret leading to the Chapel of St Mary de Castro at the first floor. The only remaining historic surfaces are in limited areas immediately adjoining the principle buildings. Extensive views of the city’s skyline and the countryside to the west and north can be gained from the tower’s rooftop. A central walkway through the car park space is defined by red tarmac and a further strip of red tarmac leads alongside the North Block to an entrance to County Hall. Day to day responsibility for their care and supervision is the subject of a local management agreement between English Heritage and Chester City Council. Zone B: Inner Bailey (Plates 3 to 8) The Buildings. A timber-framed screen fills the pointed arch on the lower level of the south elevation. The tower now contains two floors. It cannot be seen from without the Inner Bailey as it is flush with and does not now project Chester Castle Conservation Plan Issue II: September 2001 60 Donald Insall Associates .

It is now vacant and its lease under offer. At ground floor level a door in the east elevation leads to an interior space. The three elevations projecting into the Inner Bailey are all in very poor condition. Between the south elevation of Napier House and the curtain wall walkway is a narrow low space. which was once occupied by buildings that have been demolished.above the curtain wall. A further door on the north elevation leads to another ground floor chamber. Twelve concrete bollards mark the site of a well. these 19th century the County Council now uses sandstone military buildings for storage. (Two boarded entrances at first floor level. Toilet Block: At the rear of the Agricola Tower is a norrow space adjoining the side of the Shire Hall. The building is not open to the public. Curtain Walls: East Section (east of the Sally Port): These are open to the public and generally in fair condition. A stone arch and steps span across this from a doorway into Napier House. Possibly much of the existing stone work dates from its original construction. Napier House: This substantial 19th century military building reflects the general style of the slightly earlier buildings by Harrison. chases for flashings and lime wash are all evident externally). Chester Castle Conservation Plan Issue II: September 2001 61 Donald Insall Associates . masonry pockets for supporting timbers. which is not in use. Curtain Walls: West Section (between the Half Moon Tower and Sally Port) (Plate 5) The narrow and poorly protected rampart walkway has been closed for public safety and parts of the stonework require urgent attention. The Sally Port is gated and not open to the public. which once abutted the tower. Evidence is present of structures. It is closed to public access by a fence and brick wall. The Squash Court: This mid 20th century building are in fair condition is of little historic importance. No 28). A sandstone archway at the North end of the curtain wall links to the Agricola Tower. which remains from a once adjoining building now demolished. They appear in good condition externally. At the last end of the passage is a modern brick toilet. Zone C: The outer landscape (Plates 9 to 13) The Gun Store and Officer Stables: Utilitarian but well designed. has been left as rough ground. Raised Platform Adjacent to the Flag and Half Moon Towers: (Plate 7. Ground surfaces are mainly in tarmac and concrete flags. This site. Railings and handrails protect the ramp but sections are of very poor appearance and of limited safety value. Rifle Range: This prefabricated corregated iron structure was located on the site in the 1920s and is of some historic interest as a military structure. No 22 and Plate 8. Timber joints exist at first floor level but there are no floorboards and no staircase access. The internal face between the Flag Tower and Sally Port has an outer skin of brickwork. It appears externally and internally to be in good condition. There is a small single storey later addition at the west end in brickwork. Inner Bailey Main External Space: The ground surfaces are mainly in tarmac but an area of stone paving leads from the entrance archway to the Parade Ground. This is thought to be part of the remains of a medeival structure (Kitchen and Butteries) and lead to the north ditch. The internal face of the Curtain Wall between the two towers contains much early stonework and evidence of now demolished buildings.

This chapel is currently barred from public access.Landscaping. and a second by the sally port steps. However. creating the impression of a barred door. there is no admission charge and no custodial staff or shop facilities.8. with the Flag Tower. Park. These two buildings. Likewise. and involved the demolition of the brick buildings erected in the early nineteenth century on the west side of the Inner Bailey. 2. the trees and shrubs to east adjacent to the Town wall are not “maintained” and hinder views of the castle from various directions (Plate 11). and Pender in 2000. It should be noted that this is not a definitive statement of legal ownership. Chester City Council produced an archaeological report on this work in 1996. but it was not until the National Survey of Medieval Wall Painting that their significance was fully appreciated. This work was directed by Peter Hough on behalf of the Department of Environment. Soft Landscape: (Plate 9) The grassed areas including the castle motte are close mown. The Agricola Tower is not externally signposted and the visitor is left to stumble upon it. All of the external signage now has a faded and somewhat weatherworn appearance. Are in fact the only ones currently accessible to the public. and the entrance is a heavy oak door that tends to swing closed. Uncertainties appear to exist and further examination is recommended. however. and limited views of the chamber can be obtained from a wrought iron gate. The chapel in the Agricola Tower was known to have contained fragments of medieval wall paintings since 1817. The block attached to the Guard house has contained display material but this is now not shown to the public. A “Chester Castle Group” comprising owners and interested parties has been formed to discuss future strategy for the site. the results of which were published in an article by Cather. the guard room which houses a series of information panels pertaining to the history and development of the castle is not externally signposted. The scheme was designed to make the medieval and postmedieval history and development of the castle more intelligible to the public. which included light surface cleaning and limited uncovering.5 Access. Chester Castle Conservation Plan Issue II: September 2001 62 Donald Insall Associates . they contain no features of historic interest. Within the Agricola Tower the signage is limited to an information panel set in the entrance of the first floor Chapel that can be read through the heavily barred gate. The site of the Inner Bailey is currently maintained as an open monument by English Heritage. clearly stated. All are surfaced in tarmac and are 19th and 20th century in origin. the Guard House and the Agricola Tower. maintenance and ownership is spread between a variety of agencies and is broadly outlined on Plan No 3. in fact its significance is altogether played down. Drives and Car Parks: (Plate 12) The driveways and car parks located within the outer landscape are managed by Cheshire County Council.8. Apart from the entrance gateway to the main road. interpretation and appreciation The area of the Inner Bailey was occupied by the military until 1954. by revealing structures long hidden behind modern buildings. There is no public access to the third floor or the roof of the tower. sally port and old mint left in a boarded up and fairly dilapidated state. The extent of English Heritage Guardianship is. On the external zones of the monument signage is limited to an information board in front of the Flag Tower. 2. and thereafter the buildings remained unused until a programme of clearance was undertaken between 1979-82. Ownership and Use Responsibility for the day to day management.4 Management. A programme of remedial treatment was undertaken by English Heritage in 1992-93. as Chester Archaeology Excavation and Survey Report No 10.

No information booklets.6 Visitor Numbers At present the castle. there is no signage to the castle from either the town centre. The Military Museum This museum located in Harrison's north wing houses a collection of material mainly pertaining to the Cheshire Regiment. The small finds are held by the Ancient Monuments Laboratory of English Heritage. when tourism in Chester is at its height. the doors to the aforementioned buildings were not unlocked at the times they were supposed to be. An estimated 50% of these visitors did not actually enter any of the buildings accessible to the public (such as the guard room or Agricola Tower). inter alia. are held by Grosvenor museum service. nineteenth century Ordnance Reports and plans of the Castle (Class WO/55) and correspondence files (Class WO/44). Chester’s Grosvenor Museum (not located on the Study site) The full paper archive and artefact collection from the 1993 evaluation and the 1995 watching brief at the castle site. is poorly signposted and fairly inaccessible to the public. The situation is further complicated by the fact that on more than one occasion during weekend visits to the monument. Chester Castle Conservation Plan Issue II: September 2001 63 Donald Insall Associates . for interpretive purposes. These revealed deposits which pre dated the Flag tower thought to be the upper levels of the Norman Motte and its later occupation during the 17th century. and seemed fairly unsure about what they actually had access to. while undertaking the study.8. contained within the Pipe Rolls of the relevant monarchs. guides or pamphlets have been produced on the castle other than a leaflet advertising the Military Museum. The museum also houses a collection of the water colour paintings pertaining to the castle by Moses Griffith. 2. and as such covers most of the aspects related to the modern period of occupation by the army at the castle. which it completely surrounded. nor is there any link between the castle and the city walls tourist trail. drawn in 1741. tourist information or Grosvenor Museum locations.7 Museum Collections The 1979-82 Excavation In 1979 a decision was made by the Department of the Environment to demolish the old armoury to expose the Flag tower. particularly the Inner Bailey. 2. When this had been removed limited excavations were undertaken in the Flag Tower and in front of the Frobisher’s House. The Public Record Office The Public Record Office in London houses much of the original documentation regarding the castle. Evidence was found near the Frobisher’s House of ovens that may have been associated with the old mint and 17th century brickwork. it was estimated that the Inner Bailey received two visitors an hour during the summer months. The PRO also has. The paper archive for the 1982 excavations is housed on microfilm along with photographic and drawn records at the national archaeological record. On a typical day.8. Several earlier pieces of material are also in this collection including an original print of the proposed castle layout by Lavaux. As far as the tourist trail is concerned. The artefacts and environmental finds are held by English Heritage Historical Properties (North) in 15 boxes (42 x 22 x 17 cm) with a number of smaller boxes.

But concentration is not helped by a feeling of slight unease. My map shows that the wall walk starts again a short distance along Castle Drive. the place has had quite a history. I feel rather uncomfortably. My route was to start at the cathedral and work my way along the medieval town walls. In a small room are a number of information panels. Is it safe? Will I get locked in? Outside again. Still I must give it a try after getting this far. A sign tells me that there are parts of the medieval Castle. To the right of this building rises a long ramp leading to the battlements. Now having completed half of my tour I descend from the walls just past the old bridge across the Dee. I find myself reading with some fascination. At this point a sign gives information about Chester Castle. I can see odd areas of plaster and yes there are some vague forms and patches of dull colour. The low building is a guard house and cell block. They appear slightly aging but have illustrations of the castle in better and more interesting times. So I wind my way through the cars in that direction. I walk into a rather dreary and unused looking space. This seems to run so close by the Castle and the towers (the Flag. The wall walk rises above Castle Drive. Surely the old castle must be behind these to the right. On the other side of the ramp and further to my right is scene of dereliction. But how do I get to it? The town wall passes over a drive leading up to what must be the castle entrance but there is no way down until the wall path ends at a main road.2. A sign invites entry but the massive door looks very shut and no one is about. This must be it! A sign gives some information and opening times. not being familiar with the town. Next to the guardhouse is the Agricola Tower. an illustrated explanation and the ability to get closer.8 A Visitor’s View An Imagined Commentary by a first time visitor to Chester Castle: “I had to plan a tour of Chester’s main historic site in advance of visitors arriving from abroad and. An impressive classical entrance archway is reached which to leads onto a car park enclosed by a group of fine classical buildings. I head up the main road where hopefully I will find an entrance. I thought it best to make a reconnoitre.8. the Inner Bailey. Half Moon and Agricola towers are indicated on the map) that there must surely be a way in from here. I've seen no one for the past half and hour. If only there was better light. Unease returns and I move urgently down the stairs. The view ahead is dominated by a large sandstone building – apparently a vacant military barracks. taking in the Roman remains and then the Castle before returning back to the City Centre. an information sign explained that this was once the original entrance to the area that I'm now in. Its gated off but looks interesting. At least they look in good repair if not inspiring. could they be part of the castle? The town wall walk takes a sharp turn to the right and further on the trees and shrubs thin out to reveal military ramparts rising above a grass mound. I hear a noise below. The information said there were wall paintings. Again a shut door and not inviting but I decide to quickly look inside. This ground floor chamber is certainly medieval and up a flight of stone spiral steps is a small chapel. All this appears very disappointing. Surprise! It opens. I survey the scene to my left where there is a low stone building with a tower beyond. Chester Castle Conservation Plan Issue II: September 2001 64 Donald Insall Associates . (There are no ticket formalities). alone and its getting late into the afternoon. Through the trees and dense undergrowth on the other side of a fence I catch glimpses of old sandstone walls. A raised area of rough ground and weeds is fenced off and beyond are high wall some in brick and parts in crumbling stone from which projects a squat tower and the white painted with boarded up windows.

Chester Castle Conservation Plan Issue II: September 2001 65 Donald Insall Associates . "this area is always open but we don't get many visitors”. "No thanks. More signs tell of buildings and features of the castle that have long gone. I'm not surprised. A pity because it’s the thrill of climbing narrow winding stairs and having wide views over scary drops that makes castles fun places to visit. I walk across the tarmac space and notice a ring of concrete bollards. There are some views from the lower ramparts. loosely based on his first visit to Chester Castle). Up the ramp and onto the walls. The platform was once an emplacement for guns but where are they now? Cannons always kept the children amused for a time. I retrace my steps to the entrance to the Inner Bailey. At the end of the building that forms the far side of the car park "square" a banner announces the entrance to the military. An information board tells you that this is the site of the castle well. museums.“Just about to lock up”. But there is no possibility of throwing a penny and making a wish here. I've seen all there is. Well. says an official lady with keys. but this castle area doesn't seem to be a tourist hot spot so I head on up to the town and hopefully a bit more excitement. Two foreign tourists are hesitating. "No" she said. “but you could stay another five minutes if you wish”. wondering whether to go any further. Not being a linguist I pass by heading across the car Port towards the City Centre. I will not be bringing my visitors here!!” (Written by R A Fraser. The high exciting looking walls are out of bounds. the lower walls.surely the river is down below. They would pretend to aim and fire them but there’s not much to FIRE the imagination here. but will you be locking the main gate? I’d rather like to look at the walls”. Donald Insall Associates.but you can't see much because of all the trees.

This space. the brick squash court and the corrugated iron structure of the rifle range. No 29). The Castle with its sandstone ramparts together with Harrison's imposing military and county buildings and Grosvenor Bridge create a notable arrival point to the town when approached from the south. The open grass mound rising up to the western Inner Bailey Walls gives an impression of the approximate form of the early castle motte (see Plate 9. a ‘no mans land’ between city and county jurisdiction where fairs were held. is best viewed and appreciated from this location. (see Plate 11. 5. The area immediately below the Inner Bailey is enclosed by the town wall and the row of tall lime trees that runs alongside. The actual bridge. No 37). which characterise the historic core of the town. 2. reputed at the time to be the world’s longest single stone span. Together the Castle and town walls contribute to the character of the immediate townscape and provide links with surrounding historic structures and spaces. 6. No 35):    The rear of Harrison’s space and A Block enclose and define the setting of the church.9 Townscape Chester is one of Europe’s best preserved towns and the Castle contributes to its ‘Townscape’. To the east of the arch is a replica model (Listed Grade II) of Harrison’s Grosvenor Bridge. The surrounding Townscape areas are identified (refer to plan 4) as follows: 1. Within this space are located the late 19th century Gun Store (Listed Grade II). 4. The area appears and functions as a semi-private space (Plate 9. enclosed by its mellow sandstone walls and mature limes has a secluded restful quality away from the bustle of the town. Located in the westerly section of the town wall is a 19th century stone archway leading through to a gated driveway with views into the castle grounds. No 32).8. Plan No 4 identifies the main views of the Castle together with the views that can be gained of the city and countryside from the castle’s tower and ramparts. Chester Castle Conservation Plan Issue II: September 2001 66 Donald Insall Associates . Its imposing character and scale provide an interesting contrast to the more intimate grain of streets and buildings. Below the town wall is the lower level of Castle Drive and the densely vegetated banks of the river Dee. Harrison's entrance arch to the Parade ground is the castles most prominent feature at this point in the townscape (see Plate 1. No 30). The area to the west of the Castle Square parade ground was formerly known as the Glover Stone.2. To the northeast the Castle has strong visual and historic links with St Mary’s on the Hill (Plate 11. To the west of the castle mound is an extensive public parking area enclosed by buildings and fencing. 3. The medieval church has historical associations with the early Castle and its present Regiment The church and the rear of Harrison’s eastern wing contribute to defin ing the townscape qualities of the steep and cobbled St Mary’s Hill and its termination with Castle Street.

which protect and enhance the character of the area and are compatible with their existing cultural activities will be permitted. included in Appendix. Chester City Council has prepared a City Centre Conservation Area Character Assessment as guided by PPG15 and PPG1 and this will carry a degree of weight in terms of development control. Enhancement Objective 6. Employment: Section 5 of the Draft Local Plan deals with economic issues and outlines the constraints on various sites. Although the 1997 Draft Local Plan has been subject to changes in the period prior to the public inquiry. It contains thirteen separate entries in the current Schedule of Buildings Listed for their Architectural and Historic Interest. Although not a formal development plan.8. Local Planning Policy The Chester Draft Local Plan 1997 is currently at the Public Inquiry stage. Chester Castle is located within the City Conservation Area and as such is covered by policies DENV 38 to 53. The 19th century Guard House and Cell block and Napier House are listed Grade II.5. Zone B – The curtain wall and towers between the Half Moon Tower and the Sally Port are listed Grade I. Policy DTE3 indicates that in relation to the Chester Castle Area and other areas “a range of employment purposes. or that “opportunities for landscaping” to reduce its impact are considered. including cultural and tourism uses. Zone C – the Gun Sheds and Officers Stables are listed Grade II. The wall and railings also by Thomas Harrison enclosing the parade ground and provost house to the north of A Block are listed Grade II. Whilst it is not yet formally adopted it is being used by the City Council for development control purposes. In summary: Zone A – The principal buildings by Thomas Harrison are all listed Grade I. The Agricola Tower is listed Grade I. The detailed entries are included in Appendix B.23 refers to the visual intrusion of the car parking in the “Castle Square” and suggests that it be removed. To increase awareness of the importance and quality of areas of architectural or historical importance. The key objectives of the Plan’s Policies for Conservation Areas are:    To ensure the preservation and enhancement of areas of architectural or historical interest.2. Parking Policies DENV 54 to 59 will apply to all the Listed Buildings in the Study Area. presumably on the basis that these appear to have been realigned from the original medieval structures in the 18th century. it is not anticipated that these will have a significant impact on the Plan’s Policies. which may relate to Chester Castle. together with the Frobisher’s House. To be responsive to the economic and social needs for change in historic areas. Listed buildings: Section H of the Draft Local Plan relates to Listed Buildings. Section D covers the Castle Area. Chester Castle Conservation Plan Issue II: September 2001 67 Donald Insall Associates .10 Current Statutory Protection and Planning Policies Statutory Protection The site of the Inner Bailey is a Scheduled Ancient Monument. Conservation Areas: Section G of the Draft Local Plan sets out the Council's policies for Conservation Areas. The curtai n walls to the east of the Sally Port are listed Grade II.” The policy makes it possible for new development and uses to be considered for planning approval provided that the proposals do not conflict with the Local Plan’s Conservation Area Policies.

2. 5. Reinforcing Chester as the “People’s place” (a lively cosmopolitan City). 3.Tourism: Section 5. Policy DCV4 identifies the Castle Area as a Cultural/Heritage area and states that any development within the area shall be compatible with and reinforce its cultural character. 4. Spreading the ‘load’ (Chester Castle is in the list of areas for tourists still to ‘discover’ and which could assist in spreading the load away from congested areas). Within the above policy DTE15 identifies the castle area as a location for heritage related tourism attractions.60 sets out a Tourism Strategy for Chester. Provision for visitor attractions. Culture and Heritage: Within the Culture and Leisure Section of the Draft Local Plan. The preamble outlines five objectives: 1. Attracting visitors to stay longer. Tourist facilities. Chester Castle Conservation Plan Issue II: September 2001 68 Donald Insall Associates .

diversity and potential. rarity. civil. The internationally important Greek Revival buildings by Harrison. The Castle’s continued importance was to a considerable extent the result of being a crown possession. the much altered original medieval Inner Bailey to the west and the outer landscape setting. Chester Castle Conservation Plan Issue II: September 2001 69 Donald Insall Associates . It is also based on the Planning Policies Guidance for determining heritage merit as provided by the government in PPG15 and PPG16 and associated legislation. Consideration has been given to all the above criteria in applying the following classifications to the site as a whole and the various components of Chester Castle:     Internationally significant Nationally significant Regionally significant Locally significant 3. in particular the:    Character of conservation areas Special architectural and historical interest of Listed Buildings National importance of Scheduled Ancient Monuments Account has been taken of the detailed criteria for Scheduling Ancient Monuments as provided by PPG16. It provides a rare example of a single site continually used and adapted for the exercise of royal. The assessment of significance is based on the ‘understanding’ of the Castle’s history and development as explained in the previous section.1 Methodology In order to develop policies to assist the conservation and management of the site and its various elements it is necessary to identify why Chester Castle is significant.SECTION 3: SIGNIFICANCE 3. Chester Castle played an important part in this early process. The whole is nationally significant not just because of the interest of the individual buildings as they exist today but also for the underlying themes of political and cultural history to which they give expression and for their townscape value. fragility/vulnerability. its archaeology and its documentary records. documentation. group value. military and judicial authority for 1000 years Royal and Feudal Power: The Norman conquest of 1066 began a crucial stage in the establishment of the monarchy and the feudal system. 1000 years of British history: The site has direct associations with and adds to the understanding of many important aspects and events of national and local history. from the time of William the Conqueror to the present day. These are reflected in its existing fabric. the Castle complex is characterised by three distinctive parts. survival/condition.2 Overview Today. thereafter the Earldom reverted to the Crown. For two hundred years following the conquest it was the seat of power of the County Palatine under the Earls of Chester. This indicates that in assessing the importance of an ancient monument weight should be given to: period.

Urban. Military: Throughout its long history it has had direct association with important national and international military campaigns. one of Europe’s best preserved historic towns and a world tourist destination. Chester Castle played an important part in this process.1 Historical Associations (Significance status: National/Regional/Local) Crown. Court. judgment and punishment. The tidal river Dee (until the later Middle Ages) provided a safe harbour for sea going craft penetrating into the hinterland of the North West coast. The Work of Thomas Harrison: The Greek Revival style was an important expression of western thought and culture during the turn of the eighteenth century. Judicial and Penal: The Castle has been in continued use as a place for the dispensation of justice: for trial. testify to the importance placed on maintaining the character of the views from the walls and river Dee. legal and political components. which were constructed from the local red sandstone. Chester Castle Conservation Plan Issue II: September 2001 70 Donald Insall Associates . The design of Harrison’s buildings as they interfaced with the older castle and town views and the rebuilding of the castle ramparts can also be seen to have been influenced by the concepts of the picturesque and the sublime. legal and civil control. Thomas Harrison’s new Shire Hall. giving the hereditary earls of Chester considerable autonomy in military. logistics and technology. Its importance is demonstrated by the fact that Chester was created a Palatinate. Prison and Military buildings at Chester Castle from that period provide an example of immense national and international importance. Earldom and Shire Governance The Norman conquest of 1066 began a crucial stage in the establishment of the nation and the development of its military. During this period the town walls were repaired and converted into a promenade. This is further emphasised by the fact that when the earldom was without a hereditary heir in 1237 its title and function were taken over by the crown. The 18th and 19th centuries saw a growing awareness of recreational travel and the recognition of local character. Its buildings and form help tell the storey of the changes in military organisation. It was a key staging point for the land route to the North Wales coast. 3.3. The 19th century military buildings at Chester Castle. The Castle site itself was located on a raised promontory providing a defensive position in relation to the river anchorage and port. Character and Tourism: The Castle makes a key contribution to the history and townscape of Chester. the north west of England and the sea crossing to Ireland.3 3. Medieval Religious Art: Religion was an important element of medieval life and the wall paintings of the Agricola Tower are an extremely rare example of religious art most probably of the patronage of Henry III and although fragmentary are of high artistic quality and of national significance.Civil Governance: Chester Castle has been the base for the exercise county governance since its 11th century foundation to the present day. Chester commanded a militarily strategic position at the northern end of the border region between England and Wales (the Welsh Marches). The motte and bailey castle at Chester established in 1070 by William the Conqueror was the northernmost of three established by the King to subdue the north west of England and protect the border from Welsh incursion.

The castle has been a base for county governance from the early Middle Ages through to the present day. came the major addition of an Outer Bailey. Records show that for a two-year period (1696-98) a mint for the production of coinage was sited at the Castle.3. This led to the incorporation of Wales as a Principality within the Kingdom. The castle’s importance as a milita ry site was consolidated because it was in the direct possession of the crown from the 13th century. Chester Castle Conservation Plan Issue II: September 2001 71 Donald Insall Associates . workshop and a Frobisher’s house were constructed on the northern side of the Inner Bailey. no longer in existence.2 Military Power Chester Castle is a rare example of a site. The site has direct links with important military events and campaigns throughout the last millennium. which included new Barracks and Armoury enclosing a parade space. Documentary evidence shows that much building activity took place in phases during the 13th century within the Inner Bailey to accommodate appointed officials and visits by the earl and monarch. During the later years of the 17th century further armoury. The earls of Chester (during the Palatinate) and then the Crown were responsible for the administration of the Shire. archaeology and documentary records how the early fortifications have been adapted and expanded in response to developments in military technology and organisation. stores. were also completed during that period. During the reign of William III the Castle was the site of a royal mint. Dramatic changes took place in the late 18th and early 19th century with the removal of the old Outer Bailey and the rebuilding phase by Harrison. The Outer Bailey. with Great Hall and further accommodation. date from this period. which has been continually developed and adapted as a military base over almost 1000 years. The Harrison buildings are still occupied today for legal and county functions. The Inner Bailey remained and continued to be modified for military use throughout the 19th and 20th centuries. which still remains. and the Flag Tower. It demonstrates through its existing fabric. walls were further strengthened and modified and battery positions added. Also in the 13th century. probably on the site of the original keep. including:    The Norman Conquest – Chester’s Motte and Bailey castle consolidated Norman rule in the north west of England Barons Wars – supporters of Simon de Montfort held Chester Castle in the struggles against Henry III Welsh Campaigns of Henry III and Edward I – Chester Castle provided the main base and commanded the supply route for the military campaigns and the construction of Edward I’s castles along the North Wales coast. an early gatehouse. 3. with the importance of Chester in the Welsh campaigns of Edward I. The original timber motte and bailey was strengthened in the 12th century with square stone towers. Following the Jacobite rebellions of the first half of the 18th century. The 13th century saw the construction of a new gatehouse. Its location is likely to have been between the Frobisher’s House and the Flag Tower on the north side of the Inner Bailey. The Elizabethan period saw the construction of a new Shire Hall and Exchequer and these were maintained in use until being replaced during the Castle’s rebuilding of 1788 to 1822 by Harrison. These towers with rounded external form illustrate the developing military architecture of the time. and the “half moon” tower. The castle complex continued to be maintained and developed for military purposes over the following centuries. The existing Agricola Tower.

The Civil War – Chester was a royalist stronghold. At first floor level is an exquisite vaulted Chapel dedicated to St Mary de Castro. Chester Castle Conservation Plan Issue II: September 2001 72 Donald Insall Associates . Buildings within the castle have been used throughout its history as prison accommodation.3. The Chapel contains rare medieval wall paintings. The Cheshire Regiment was raised on the nearby Roodee at that time (1689). survives as a rare surviving example of a late 12 th Century castle gatehouse. Grade I Listed.     3. It is the most complete remaining part of the early fortification. where the King was imprisoned for a time on his return from Ireland. A new prison was included within the Harrison complex. Although much of its external stone surfaces were refaced in the 19th century. 3. 3.1 The Agricola Tower (Significant status: National) The Agricola Tower. They are fragmentary but of high artistic quality and may well be some of the only known surviving wall paintings of Henry III’s patronage or even of the last Norman earl.3 Judicial Authority From its earliest times the Castle has been a seat for the dispensation of justice and penal correction. Wars of the Roses – Chester Castle was involved in the struggles of Richard II against the House of Lancaster whose supporter seized the Castle. 1745 Jacobite Rebellion – Chester Castle was used for the imprisonment of rebel soldiers after their defeat at Preston 19th Century Garrison Base – Chester Castle was the base for the Cheshire Regiments which played a major part in military actions across the British Empire and also in assisting the civil power maintain order in the expanding industrial towns of the North of England. now demolished. illustrated important changes in prison design after the penal reform legislation of 1784-8. The ground floor chamber has a fine stone vaulted ceiling and an Early English doorway leading to a stone staircase. Courts of justice were provided within the Harrison rebuilding and these have been in continuous use up to the present day. Together with the mound from which they rise. At the time it was considered as a major advance in the humane treatment of prisoners. The Inner Bailey and Motte (Significance status: National) The existing towers and curtain walls of the Inner Bailey contain surviving elements of the medieval fabric. The Gaol.4. This space is thought to have been altered during the 14th century. The city and its castle were heavily involved in the campaigns and subjected to an important siege. the whole is still sufficiently intact to be appreciated and of great value. Judges lodgings were constructed within the Inner Bailey and in 1660 a garden was provided within the Inner Bailey for their relaxation. they provide a rare example of the continuous adaptation of an original Norman motte and bailey. William III and Ireland – Chester Castle was an important staging point on the military supply route to Ireland. It is now used as a Regimental Chapel.4.

Originally it was to have been in brick but with financial support the Dee Commissioners persuaded the military authorities to use red sandstone to compliment the older surrounding structures. The Agricola Tower was retained by Harrison. and then refaced in the existing red sandstone.3 The Half Moon Tower (Significance status: National) This D shaped tower. is believed to occupy the site of the original Norman keep. link the surviving medieval towers and may well contain part of the early fabric. is likely to have been constructed in the second stage of the reinforcement of the Norman castle in the early 13th century.3. These have since been reinforced and refaced and the existing visible fabric is likely to be largely 18th / 19th century. Listed Grade I.4. listed Grade I.4 The Inner Bailey Curtain Walls (Significance status: National) The early Norman timber palisades enclosing the Inner Bailey are likely to have been replaced by fortified stonewalls during the mid thirteenth century by Henry III. the walls still clearly define the original space of the Inner Bailey. repaired. It contains interesting evidence of its occupation as military quarters during the 19th Century. which abut the Agricola Tower. The Guard House and Cell Block. In 1786 the section to the east of the Sally Port was reconstructed outside the original line. its overall shape remains intact.4. Although altered during the following centuries and possible reduced in height. especially the views from the Dee and the walls. They are simple but well detailed structures robustly constructed in Chester Castle Conservation Plan Issue II: September 2001 73 Donald Insall Associates . which the early keep surmounted. were built in the latter part of the 19th century. The Napier block built in the 1830s with armouries on the ground floor and barracks above by Royal Engineer designers is architecturally well considered and is Grade II listed. Nevertheless. which had become a recreational promenade.4. The reconstruction/refacing of the curtain walls was also undertaken in sandstone to match the character of the recently rebuilt Town Walls and the incorporated castelletions must have had a visual purpose rather than a military function. The Curtain Wall north of the Sally Port is listed Grade I and to the east is listed Grade II 3.4. The internal adaptations and additions to the Inner Bailey were functional military structures but the use of red sandstone testifies to the recognition of the contribution they made to the character of Chester.5 The 19th Century Regimental Buildings of the Inner Bailey (Significance status: Regional) The Harrison phase of development together with the more utilitarian buildings and adaptations of the late 18th and 19th centuries both within and below the Inner Bailey. Although altered during the following centuries and refaced. 3. provide an important example a regimental HQ during the expanding period of the British Empire. The use of red sandstone signifies the sensitivity at the time of its to its location.2 The Flag Tower (Significance status: National) This dates from the 12th century and signifies the first stage of the strengthening the original timber fortifications. The massive thickness of its masonry walls testifies to its defensive purpose and great age. The raised platform between the Flag Moon Tower and Half Tower constructed in the 16th century for the Frobisher’s building and armoury are probably an adaptation of the original motte formation. its plan form and some original fabric remain intact. The Flag Tower. 3.

The two create a “gateway” to the Chester’s town centre when approached from the west. Chester is one of Europe’s best preserved historic towns and many facets of history are reflected in its architecture and townscape from Roman times onwards. They signify the need for cells to accommodate periods of incarceration rather than the former military punishment of flogging. Its architecture gives expression to its functions by invoking feelings and impressions of power and authority. The existing adaptations of the Half Moon Tower as military quarters are an interesting reminder of the Tower’s continued use into the 19th and early 20th centuries. It is rare because of the scale and complexity of project and the fact that it remained within the design control of a single acclaimed architect over its extended period of design and construction.5 The Work of Thomas Harrison (rebuilding of 1788 to 1822) (Significance status: International) Thomas Harrison’s substantial rebuilding of the Castle that took place at the beginning of the 19th century is of immense importance and has listed Grade I status. 3. The design of Harrison’s buildings.6 The Castle’s Contribution to the Character of Chester (Significance status: National) By reputation. especially as they interfaced with the older castle and town views.   It is a nationally and internationally outstanding example of architecture in the Greek Revival style. It is built on the site of 17th century remains (the Frobisher’s House) and is listed Grade 1 in association with the Half Moon Tower. Chester Castle is an essential part of this rich fabric.    There is a strong visual and stylistic link between Harrison’s Castle complex and the nearby Grosvenor Bridge designed by the same architect. Harrison’s military wings and parade ground expressed the status of the Army and its important role in expanding and defending the Empire. 3. The design of the brick 19th century military Sergeant’s Mess at the rear of the Half Moon Tower is utilitarian. is an example of the period’s interest in concepts of the picturesque and the sublime.sandstone. Chester Castle Conservation Plan Issue II: September 2001 74 Donald Insall Associates . The Toilet block at the rear of the Agricola Tower is of no significance. The central building and its two projecting wings together with the Propylaea and enclosing boundary creates a complete assemblage enclosing an impressive space. The gun store building to the west of and below the Outer Bailey (listed Grade II) is further evidence of the military expansion of the later 19th century and again the sandstone construction refers to the local character.

The views gained from the Castle’s towers and ramparts provide an additional experience and appreciation of the City and its countryside to the West and the North. Harrison’s imposing military and from the county buildings and Grosvenor Bridge create an outstanding arrival point to the town fro mthe South and West. The castle with its sandstone ramparts. The castle complex is bounded on two sides by the town wall “circuit” which is crucial to Chester as a visitor attraction and of the major historic importance. The castle and town walls together contribute to the character of the immediate townscape and link with surrounding historic structures and spaces. The value of this resource is further heightened by the fact that the site contains not only the remains of an entire Norman motte and bailey castle. In this sense the site is a complete resource. and its future importance depends heavily upon its continued management as such. which remained largely unaltered until the time of Harrison. The Castle is part of and adds to this significance. Chester Castle Conservation Plan Issue II: September 2001 75 Donald Insall Associates . The massive ramparts rising above the river and the views to the west and south from their battlements contrast with the more intimate scale and grain of the town and add to the visual experience of the whole.     3. containing archaeologically stratified structures. but also an entire 13 th century castle.7 Archaeology Chester Castle is a Scheduled Ancient Monument. The site offers a most important resource. features and deposits. which can be securely dated by well documented historical events.

(General policies to address these issues are included in Policy Topic C) 4. Perhaps even more fundamental to the consideration of vulnerability than ‘physical condition’ is ‘appreciation’ and ‘use’. Here remedial action is urgently required to prevent further decay. learned from and appreciated. The structures that make up the Inner Bailey. ‘Use’ should be considered in its broadest sense. Structures that are not understood and appreciated are at best ignored and at worst prone to removal or alteration to the extent that significance is lost.SECTION 4 : VULNERABILITY ISSUES 4. (General policies to address these issues are included in Policy Topic E) 4. whether they will be capable of sustaining the fabric or whether they bring destructive pressures. The current use of the Parade Ground for car parking is detrimental to the setting and appreciation of the whole site. In particular a structure can be said to be in ‘use’ as a monument to be enjoyed.2 Condition Poor physical condition is the most visibly apparent threat to a building and its significance.3 Use and Vacancy The greatest changes in use have taken place over the past ten years with the decline of the military functions.4 Pressures for Change and New Development Finding new uses for the two former military buildings. Potential problems do not just relate to those buildings that are vacant now but to the future and significance of the whole. cultural history and its relationship with the townscape of Chester. threaten all the key areas of importance. the Inner Bailey’s Flag and Half Moon Towers and Frobisher’s House may well bring pressures for adaptation. range from those being well maintained and in good condition to others that are in extreme states of disrepair.1 Overview The significance of Chester Castle falls very broadly into three categories: political history. Further pressures for change and new development may arise Chester Castle Conservation Plan Issue II: September 2001 76 Donald Insall Associates . At Chester Castle the Harrison blocks are generally sound and in good repair. Poor quality repair with inappropriate mortars can exacerbate the problem.8. The yellow sandstone to the frontages of the Harrison buildings is not as susceptible to this form of decay but still needs to be treated with care. however. Issues related to the use of particular buildings are examined in Section 4. A common concern applicable to the Inner Bailey is the vulnerability of the local red sandstone masonry to weathering and delamination. Vacancy and the uncertainty of future uses. ‘Use’ is critical because buildings that are not in a use that is able to generate sufficient funding for maintenance will often be vulnerable to decay (unless cared for by the State or a concerned owner as a ‘monument’). In what way are these areas of importance threatened? This section of the Conservation plan examines the vulnerability of the castle both as a whole and in terms of its individual components. The Inner Bailey is no longer the heart of a busy regimental depot and Colvin House and Napier Barracks now stand empty and open to lease. building extensions and new structures. 4.

Viewed externally. Their scale and the castellated upper sections suggest military use but perhaps even this is not immediately obvious to the casual observer.5 Appreciation and Understanding Chester Castle has been crucial to the history Chester for over 1000 years and during that period has on many occasions played an important role in the nations affairs. A detailed understanding of the development of the medieval structures (towers. Lack of general appreciation.  (General policies to address these issues are included in policy sections A and F) Chester Castle Conservation Plan Issue II: September 2001 77 Donald Insall Associates . However. (General policies to address these issues are included in Policy Topic G) 4. The reasons why there is a lack of general appreciation are complex and interrelated. there are some gaps in available knowledge. poorly considered design which ignores the historic significance of the site could be extremely detrimental. Neither is the Inner Bailey’s great age immediately obvious when viewed internally especially as much of the visible fabric is 19th century and the whole dominated by the Napier Barrack Block. Any change will have to be carefully and rigorously controlled. “Chester Castle? What Castle?” Anecdotally many people seem unaware that Chester has a castle. The Regimental Museum and displays within the Agricola Tower have low visitor numbers and require considerable investment to update the forms of presentation so that they can complement Chester’s other historic attractions and better support its tourist economy. curtain walls and Sally Port). the walls of the Inner Bailey do not appear ancient. It contains buildings.    A knowledge of pre-Norman occupation of the site. Nevertheless the stories they tell are crucial to the understanding of the Castle and potentially there is greater scope for the two to work together for the benefit of the whole (an upgrading of the Regimental Museum is currently in progress). While this conservation plan has established a good general understanding of the site.in relation to the buildings and landscaped areas below the Inner Bailey to the west and south. its historic development and significance. A detailed understanding of what archaeological evidence remains below ground especially beneath those presently unbuilt upon areas that may be vulnerable to future change. A fundamental problem is that to many people it does not appear as a ‘traditional’ castle. structures and artistic work of international and national cultural significance. The poor condition and appearance of much of the Inner Bailey is also a major impediment to visitors and their understanding of the site. A precise and detailed understanding of the current ownership. Their outer faces are mainly late 18th/early 19th century. It is largely unappreciated as an “entity” and its displays explaining the military and medieval significance of the site appear to have few visitors. leasehold and license arrangements as related to property. Development can bring opportunities for greater use and awareness of the site and funding for historic structures. understanding and perception represent a major threat to the survival of the fabric and to realising its full potential. Yet. rights of access and parking.

and the Crown Estates. Visitors approaching from the walls and Riverside Drive car park have to make a detour and pass alongside the busy main road to the Harrison’s entrance propylaea. Ownership and control is crucial to the long-term future of the Castle. whether it is to remain low key or whether the site is to be developed and presented as a major attraction.7 Accessibility and Townscape Linkages Chester Castle’s location. The condition and presentation of much of the Inner Bailey is lamentable. In particular control of the Crown property is split between English Heritage. and the Ministry of Defence. The views of the Inner Bailey from the west are obscured by dense tree cover and from the town walls by a heavy shrub and under storey layer (compare Figure 9 with the present situation). however. management and understanding on the part of the various agencies potentially pose serious long-term threats. so it does not receive the attention of any casual passing visitors.4. which has a management agreement with Chester City Council. Yet. In practice. it is vested with various departments within those large organisations or other external agencies. the Ministry of Defence. without a clear understanding of the planned intensity of visitor use. Of all the varied and interlinked issues the most critical is the lack of a clear vision about the future of key aspects of the site and in particular the extent to which it should become a heritage based visitor attraction as indicated in the Chester Local Plan and the report for the City by Drivers Jonas in 1995. setting and physical relationship with the town are important to its significance but in some respects they are also problematic:   It is perceived as being remote from the city centre and other tourist attractions Although adjacent to the City Walls and Riverside Drive it has no direct access from either. Lack of coordinated planning. The approach from the city centre is not obvious and the first views of the Castle are of the high blank walls at the side and rear of Harrison’s A Block. Disposal of leaseholds for quick commercial gain or on terms that did not address conservation issues could have a damaging impact on individual buildings and on the complete entity.   (General policies to address these issues are addresses in Policy Topics B and F) Chester Castle Conservation Plan Issue II: September 2001 78 Donald Insall Associates . There is no pedestrian through route across the site.6 Ownership and Strategic Management Chester Castle is divided between two freehold ownerships. subject to confirmation). the Crown and Cheshire County Council. Napier House and Colvin House stand vacant and the appreciation of Harrison buildings surrounding Castle Square is considerably diminished by the extent of car parking. the strategic context for making these decisions is lacking. (General policies to address these issues are included in Policy Topic C) 4. (Plan 3 generally shows the current position. who are seeking to dispose of two major leaseholds (Colvin House and Napier House). They then have to negotiate a route through the car parking within the parade ground to either the Inner Bailey in one direction or the Regimental Museum in the other.

are maintained and in use as a museum/ display space but because of very low visitor numbers their future role must be uncertain. The structures and spaces within the control of English Heritage received a Quinquennial Inspection in 1998. upon which former structures that abutted the north west wall once stood. There may well be buried archaeological remains of considerable value which could be exposed and damaged during restructuring of spaces and levels to adapt the area for new uses. The Napier Barrack block is vacant and its lease is on the market but future uses are uncertain.8 4. Guard and Cell Block. This is a narrow archway (by Harrison) which may be prone to damage if used by heavy vehicles.     The raised platform.  Appreciation/Setting issues: The Inner Bailey has the appearance of an abandoned 19th century military depot uninviting to visitors. Use issues: The space serves as the only access for visitors to the Agricola Tower and Curtain Walls.4. Access for servicing vehicles. parking and the routing of utilities could present particular issues and potential problems. usable access for vehicles and pedestrians will constrain future use. The Flag and Half Moon Towers are vacant and not usable in their current condition.1 Vulnerability Issues: Existing Buildings and Spaces (refer to policy guidelines PG8 to PG17) Inner Bailey Structures Overview: Although in the Guardianship of English Heritage the Flag Tower and Half Moon Towers and Curtain Walls are abandoned and partially derelict. pedestrians.8. The single. 4. also in Guardianship. Chester Castle Conservation Plan Issue II: September 2001 79 Donald Insall Associates . Five categories of priority were identified on a scale of 1(urgent) to 5. The Sally Port is kept locked because of the perceived safety and security issues. The ground surfaces and ramp to the wall walkway are generally unattractive tarmac and concrete paving which provide no historic references.    New uses for the Napier building and the vacant Towers are uncertain but will inevitably involve changes and adaptations to the existing surfaces ramps and levels. The Agricola Tower. That report examined the condition of the fabric in detail and provided an outline schedule of works and budget costs. The well is hidden beneath the tarmac surface and located only by concrete bollards. The document (Chester Castle’s Quinquennial Inspection Report November 1998 by English Heritage) should be referred to for a detailed understanding of these issues and threats to the fabric related to the physical condition.2 Inner Bailey: Courtyard and Raised Platform (refer to policy guidelines PG11 to PG13) Condition issues: The courtyard ground surfaces are in fair condition but generally of poor appearance. Heavy use by both pedestrians and vehicles would be potentially dangerous. There are no firm plans for their future. The raised platform level has been left as unmaintained rough ground following the demolition of former military buildings.8. is unattractive and neglected.

The Flag Tower’s external wall has a significant structural crack. The Parapets and high-level walkway on this section require some attention. Appreciation/Setting issues: The inner face of the north west curtain wall is most likely to be on the exact line of the medieval wall.4. Appreciation/Setting issues: The significance of the Flag tower being the site of the original keep is difficult to appreciate. 4. No 34). Externally the tower has two 19th/18th cent. Views across the river from the south west ramparts (to which visitors can gain access) and the impression of the strategic nature of the site are obscured by dense tree cover. No 25 and Plate 10. No existing usable internal floors without adaptation. The curtain wall between Sally Port and Agricola Tower is accessible to visitors. Condition issues: Frobisher’s House a partly derelict shell.8. Appreciation/Setting issues: The appearance of the half Moon Tower as seen from the Inner Bailey is obscured by the abandoned shell of the Frobisher’s House. Unfortunately. Use issues: Not in use. This is faced in the brickwork remains of a much later structure now demolished.3 Curtain Walls (refer to policy guidelines PG9 and PG10) Condition issues: The walls are generally sound but poor sections exist internally between the Flag and Half Moon Towers. Derelict and dilapidated appearance. Use issues: Curtain wall between the Sally Port the Half Moon Tower . 4. these north west ramparts are the highest of all the curtain walls and would afford the best distance views and appreciation of the form of the medieval castle. window/door openings (with hand rail leading to the grass mound below). These are boarded up and give an abandoned appearance. Half Moon Tower is in fair condition but the window/door openings on the outer wall are poorly boarded up and effectively open to the elements.5 Half Moon Tower and Frobisher’s House (refer to policy guideline PG6) Use issues: These buildings are not in use and not capable of use without adaptation.The outer face of the medieval walls was reconstructed during the late 18th and 19th centuries and incorporated a narrow high level walkway suitable for maintenance purposes but not for visitor access.8. Good views could be obtained from the roof of the tower but this is inaccessible.8. 4.6 Agricola Tower (refer to policy guideline PG8) Chester Castle Conservation Plan Issue II: September 2001 80 Donald Insall Associates . Viewed externally from the Inner Bailey it is impossible to locate because its upper section has been removed and its position is not reflected in the form of the external walls.4 Flag Tower (refer to policy guideline PG7) Condition issues: The structure is derelict and a significant crack in the west wall could indicate continuing instability (Plate 7. Internally its setting is very detrimentally affected by the derelict condition of the raised platform upon which it stands.8.

8.8. Appreciation/Setting issues: Setting compromised by generally neglected appearance of the Inner Bailey 4. No visitor access be gained to upper room and roof level. 4. this is in active use as Law Courts and with recent investment and the sensitive adaptations to its fabric it will remain so into the foreseeable future. The wall paintings in the chapel. mainly good but water ingress evident. PG5. Appreciation/Setting: The evidently well researched displays present a useful aid to understanding Chester Castle but they are low key and of insufficient scale and draw to attract more than the occasional interested visitor. Harrison’s A Block: In use with Military Museum on ground floor and Regimental HQ on upper floor. Appreciation /Setting issues: External 19th century refacing masks the towers great age. Condition issues: Structurally. which is gated and locked. The Regimental Chapel on the first floor is gated and visitors excluded. Different uses will have varying demands on the external space. It is occasionally used for religious purposes. are difficult to view.9 Harrison’s Buildings and Castle Square Parade Ground (refer to policy guidelines PG1. PG3. PG4. condition good.8 Napier House (refer to policy guideline PG12) Use issues: The building is vacant and its future use uncertain. Chester Castle Conservation Plan Issue II: September 2001 81 Donald Insall Associates . Appreciation/Setting issues:   The Setting of the whole architectural composition is dramatically affected by the mass of car parking in the parade ground The views looking outwards along the main axis from the central block towards the parade ground entrance are considerably devalued by the car parking in that space and the siting of the police block beyond (Plate 2). condition good.7 Guard House and Cell Block (refer to policy guideline PG5) Use issues: The exhibition space is open to the public but has low visitor numbers. Harrison’s Colvin House: Vacant and its lease is on the market with future uses uncertain. appreciate and interpret. 4.8. Condition issues: None. condition good. Wall paintings appear to be in a deteriorating condition and affected by water ingress/damp. This is the originally intended use for the building and is therefore entirely compatible with its significance. PG2. Condition issues: Generally. typically vehicular access for servicing and parking. PG6 and PG7) Use issues: Harrison’s Shire Hall: None.Use issues: The tower is open to the public but has very low visitor numbers. Condition issues: None.

4. The outer landscape area is poorly served in terms of pedestrian access.8. Gun Sheds and Other Buildings (refer to policy guidelines PG18 to PG24) 4.13 Landscaping. This would not be appropriate. adjacent to the town wall. however the Rifle Range is of some historic interest as an early twentieth century pre-fabricated military building. The Chester City Centre Character Assessment proposes landscaping the Parade Ground to reduce the effect of the parking.10 The Outer Landscape.   Roads and traffic noise and fumes make the surroundings to the parade ground unpleasant and pedestrian access unwelcoming The whole lacks visitor interpretation.8. Drives and Car Parks (refer to policy guidelines PG18 and PG20) The driveways and car parks located within the outer landscape are well maintained but detract from the setting and appreciation of the castle.12 The Squash Courts and Rifle Range (refer to policy guidelines PG21 and PG24) These 20th century buildings are of no architectural importance. The boundary walls and railings and the Provost House lack the Grade I listed status enjoyed by the main Harrison buildings (they are Grade II listed). Chester Castle Conservation Plan Issue II: September 2001 82 Donald Insall Associates .8. hinder views of the Castle from various directions. condition good Appreciation/setting: The tarmac surfaced drive and parking areas adjoining the building do not enhance its setting.14 Soft Landscape (refer to policy guidelines PG21 and PG24) The trees and shrubs to the east.8. in use for storage Condition: None. 4.11 The Gun Store and Officer Stables (refer to policy guideline PG18) Uses: None immediate.8. 4. 4.

9 Summary of key vulnerability issues           Poor public awareness and understanding of the castle as an entity and its significance Low visitor use of the Museums Derelict condition of the Flag and Half Moon Towers and associated curtain walls Poor condition of certain elements of the of the Agricola Tower Poor condition and difficulty of interpretation of the Agricola Tower wall paintings Poor appearance of the ground surfaces within the Inner Bailey Car parking within the Parade Ground detrimental to the appearance of the Harrison blocks Poor pedestrian accessibility Linkages to other tourist routes and destinations not developed Challenge of securing uses for the major vacant buildings which will: (i) generate adequate funding to secure the future of their fabric (ii) allow the significance to be appreciated (iii) not damage the fabric or significance Decisions about individual buildings or spaces made without consideration to the historic context could jeopardize the whole Lack of a clear vision about the site’s role as a visitor destination Gaps in archaeological understanding    Chester Castle Conservation Plan Issue II: September 2001 83 Donald Insall Associates .4.

Determining a philosophy and approach to this area is absolutely fundamental to the conservation plan for the entire site. Of equal importance is recognising and preserving the international significance of the Harrison blocks and their setting. should be seen as mutually supportive endeavours. Finding new uses that can support the upkeep of the two major vacant buildings (Harrison’s Colvin House and Napier House) will involve change. Safeguarding the medieval fabric within the three towers will require significant capital spending and revenue upkeep as will the 18 th century curtain walls. Chester Castle Conservation Plan Issue II: September 2001 84 Donald Insall Associates . The policy section is in three parts. on the other. dereliction and no clear future use is the Inner Bailey. Conservation of historic significance on the one hand. both for individual owners and the city as a whole. a “do nothing” approach is not a desirable option from any standpoint. specific “policy guidelines for individual elements” and a conclusion highlighting those policies which should be pursued as a priority. This Conservation plan is predicated on the conviction that the Inner Bailey is of such significance it must be conserved and its significance appreciated both from within and without.5 5. “general policies” which apply to the study site as a whole. Strategies for development and future use are required which secure the appropriate balance between conservation objectives and the financial interests of the individual owning or developing parties. Any future uses both for the vacant buildings within the Inner Bailey and the Harrison Wings must be entirely consistent with and supportive of this approach and with the objective of securing a wider appreciation of the significance of both the individual elements and the whole. Its potential as a heritage visitor attraction has not yet been realised or sufficiently explored. The part of the castle site. and achieving the best economic outcomes.1 POLICIES General Aims With the departure of the military depot and the medieval fabric in various states of disrepair. future use and site interpretation. There is no reason why economic potential should not be gained from the unique significance and qualities of the site provided that this is consistent with its future preservation. It must be presented in such a manner as to demonstrate clearly its historic and cultural significance and its evolving physical form from its earliest beginnings as a motte and bailey fortification. All this will demand an imaginative and flexible approach to preservation policy. which is at very serious risk through vacancy.

curtain walls.2 The Agricola Tower The Flag Tower The Half Moon Tower and Frobisher’s House The Curtain Wall between the Sally Port and Half Moon Tower The Sally Port A programme of non-intrusive survey such as ground penetrating radar should be undertaken in the Harrison Parade ground area and Inner Bailey with a view to locating accurately the buried remains of the ditch. Prior to any new development or landscape enhancement.2 A General Policies Understanding and Research It is most important that proposals to safeguard the fabric and promote the appreciation of the castle are based on a comprehensive understanding of its constituent parts and its historical associations. A detailed research agenda addressing site archaeology and documentary records should be devised and pursued within the context of local and national priorities.1 Proposals for the future of Chester Castle must be founded on and driven by a deep understanding and appreciation of the site’s significance Proposals for any one part of the site must be considered in the light of a detailed knowledge. A2. sensitive archaeological investigations should be pursued within those areas to achieve a greater understanding of the medieval Castle and possible earlier occupations of the site and also to inform decisions relating to the planning of the new proposals. Consideration should be given to undertaking and to the permanent display of archaeological excavations which would enhance the Castle’s tourism/local interest potential provided this did not conflict with other essential uses on the site. gatehouses.5.1 Further site studies should involve examination and recording of the existing structures within the Inner Bailey to as far as possible to establish the date of original construction and to understand in detail the subsequent changes that have taken place. The structures to be further examined are:      A2.5 Studies should be undertaken of records held by the following organisations which have not been examined as part of the Conservation plan study and which may add to Chester Castle Conservation Plan Issue II: September 2001 85 Donald Insall Associates . Site archaeology A2.4 Documentary research A2. A1 A1. A2 Further research should be undertaken to add to the understanding of the site and fill gaps in knowledge revealed through the conservation plan study. flanking turrets and associated buildings.3 A2. Some gaps in current understanding have come to light and should be addressed. understanding and appreciation of the significance of the site as a whole.

The level of recording should be in proportion to the impact of the works and the significance of the building. The objective of protecting and where possible enhancing views to and from the castle should be an important consideration in the assessment of planning applications The important views of the castle (identified within 2. which become subject to development proposals should be surveyed and recorded in accordance with best practice as advised by English Heritage. Recorded information should be held by each building owner in order to guide maintenance and repair programmes and as background information for future reviews of the Conservation Plan. Historic buildings should be recorded following the guidance of the former Royal Commission on the Historical Monuments of England (now part of English Heritage)“Recording Buildings-A descriptive Specification (RCHME 1996) or the current relevant professional standards. Information provided by such recording should be deposited with the Local Planning Authority. structures and below ground archaeology. Landscape and Townscape The setting of Chester Castle is important both for the appreciation of the castle itself and for its contribution to Chester's townscape. Archaeological evidence should be recorded in accordance with the Institute of Field Archaeologist’s Standard Guidance for Archaeological Excavations (1994) or the current relevant professional standards. Conflicts exist between the objectives of seeking to reduce the level of parking and the need to accommodate the operational parking necessary to support established uses and the future occupancy of the historic buildings. Some current hard and soft landscape features are detrimental to views of the castle and setting.2 A3. It should be protected and appropriately enhanced. the Chester City Council’s Urban Archeology Data base and the County Sites and Monuments Record and the National Monument Record through English Heritage North West Region.1 B1.4 A3. identified as having a degree of significance.8) to which particular attention should be given are as seen from: B1. feature. A particular issue is the extent of car parking within the site which is detrimental to its appearance.3 A3.1 A3. artefact or archaeological deposit. A3.2 Chester Castle Conservation Plan Issue II: September 2001 86 Donald Insall Associates .5 B Setting.8.the understanding of the Castle:   The Cheshire Regimental Museum Chester Diocesan records (NB The PRO and the Grosvenor Museum appear to have been well researched) Recording A3 All individual buildings. B1 The setting of Chester Castle should be protected and appropriately enhanced both for the appreciation of the castle itself and for its contribution to Chester's townscape.

PG7.3 B4 B4.2 B4. account should be taken of the setting of the Castle and in particular the Propylaea and the axial view from the Shire Hall. The Local Plan should retain and strengthen policies to preserve and enhance views of and from the Castle.3. PG23.1 Chester Castle Conservation Plan Issue II: September 2001 87 Donald Insall Associates .1 B3. Account should be taken of the need for tree management to exploit near views and distant vistas of the castle.3 Grosvenor Bridge Town Wall pathway Town Wall pathway at junction with Nicholas Street Nicholas Street St Mary’s Hill Edgar’s Field The riverside path on the south side of the Dee and Curzon Park In the design of any redevelopment proposals for the Police Headquarters site. Existing tarmac surfacing to the driveways and parking spaces with the study area should generally be reconsidered and replaced with materials more sympathetic to the historic buildings and environment (refer also to detailed policy guidelines PG7.3) The guidance set out in English Heritage’s Street Improvements in Historic Areas should be followed.2 B3. PG6. The existing soft landscape and any new landscape features should be designed and managed to enhance the character and significance of the site.2.       B1. (refer also to detailed policy guidelines PG21. New landscape features or management regimes should not seek to draw attention to themselves but contribute to and reinforce the character of the whole. (for use of spaces in relation to a Visitor Strategy refer to policy C2) (for use of spaces in relation to a Parking Strategy refer to policy C3) B2 B3 The hard landscape surfaces within the site should respect and enhance Chester Castles’ historic character and significance. B3. PG17) Areas of stone or other natural paving should be retained (refer also to detailed policy guidelines PG17.1) Consideration should be given to managing appropriate areas in a manner which encourages a greater diversity of local flora and fauna. The uses of the open areas within the site should be compatible with the historic and architectural significance of the site and the operational requirements of the existing historic uses.1 B4. Future reviews of the Chester City Council’s Local Plan and the Character Assessment of the Chester City Centre Conservation Area should support the objectives of protecting and enhancing the wider setting of the Castle. PG20.3 B5 B5.

2 The section of the Character Assessment of the City Centre Conservation Area. Lighting of spaces and buildings for presentation purposes as well as functional requirements. Individual occupiers should review their operational and future development strategies in the light of the conservation plan policies. Ownerships are fragmented and a mechanism to facilitate collaboration is required.5 Chester Castle Conservation Plan Issue II: September 2001 88 Donald Insall Associates . A public realm plan should be devised to further the objectives of protecting and enhancing the immediate setting of buildings and structures within the site and in particular to take account of:     The necessary enhancement of hard and soft landscaping. C1. Those Parties with direct ownership/leasehold interests in the site should collaborate in the preparation of strategies for the future management of the site and to this end the informal steering group already established should be further consolidated. and establishing an appropriate level of car parking. B6 C Ownership. The key issues to be addressed involve: determining the extent to which the Castle is to be promoted as a visitor attraction.1 C1.3 C1. leaseholds. developers and occupiers of the site should work within the framework of the Conservation Plan. Owners and developers whilst having regard to the best interests of their particular buildings and operations must also recognize the needs of other users and Chester Castle as a complete entity.2 C1. which refers to the detrimental affects of car parking. Access and servicing requirements for operational users and visitors.B5. These are all fundamental to the future of the site and a range of urgent investment decisions. Use and Strategic Management These crucial and interlinked issues need to be addressed together. finding appropriate new uses for the vacant buildings. In making decisions about the selection of future occupiers and developers preference should be given to those able to demonstrate a track record of sympathetic working with historic buildings and sensitive settings.4 C1. The use of spaces particularly in relation to the visitor and parking strategies. C1 All those directly involved in the future use and management of Chester Castle should act as responsible custodians of valuable heritage not only in relation to their own particular demise but also for the site as whole and collaborate accordingly. Existing and future owners. licenses and maintenance responsibilities should be shared between the various parties with a direct owning or occupying involvement in the site. should be revised to the effect that the introduction of soft landscaping into the parade ground would not be an appropriate means of reducing the impact of car parking. Information about principle ownerships.

1 C3. and Cheshire County Council Offices.1 D1. Scheduled Monument and Conservation Area status should be maintained and rigorously applied. the operational requirements of the established and potential users and the requirements for general public parking. New uses within the site must be supportive of:       existing uses each other the significance of the site as whole the significance of the building they occupy the visitor strategy the interpretation and understanding of the site C2. the Chester City Local Plan. at whatever level. The Local Planning Authority and English Heritage should be consulted at the earliest stage of any proposals for new buildings or alteration or extensions to existing buildings. The visitor strategy should be guided by and take account of the conservation plan policies and must propose realistic capital.2 C4 C4. All development must take account of the guidance set out in PPG 15.C2 C2. New uses should urgently be found for vacant buildings that are compatible with and supportive of the Conservation Plan Policies. English Heritage has Guardianship responsibility for the Inner Bailey and this involves a duty to preserve and promote public understanding and enjoyment of the buildings within its control. on the one hand and on the other. Such a sensitive site requires the full application of the protection provided by the Planning Acts. other relevant legislation and Local Plan Policies. D1 The level of protection afforded through Listed Building. and other current best practice. Vehicular servicing must have regard to the requirements of site users. the physical constrains imposed by the historic structures and the need to enhance ground surface appearance.1 D Statutory Considerations This site is a Scheduled Ancient Monument and contains Listed Buildings (graded I and II). to which intensive car parking is detrimental. revenue. A parking and vehicular servicing strategy should be devised to further the objectives of enhancing the immediate setting of buildings and structures within the site. management and marketing plans. and the operational requirements of the Law Courts.2 C3 C3. The parking strategy must achieve a workable balance between the objective of enhancing the appearance of Castle and its surrounding spaces and driveways. PPG 16.1 Urgent priority must be given to devising and implementing a visitor strategy The visitor strategy must achieve a workable balance between the Castle as a heritage attraction. D1.2 Chester Castle Conservation Plan Issue II: September 2001 89 Donald Insall Associates .

maintenance and audit regimes which will ensure that defects are not ignored for so long that the fabric suffers avoidable damage and decay. Owners should develop management guidelines. health and safety and operation of buildings. In the interpretation and implementation of regulations which prescribe requirements for the design. D1. Detailed maintenance plans should be developed for each building (exteriors and interiors) and all the external spaces based on the principles set out in the Conservation Plan. Areas of external space although owned by one party are of common concern and it follows that standards of care and enhancement should be jointly agreed for the benefit of the whole.4 D2 D3 English Heritage should take full and active regard to its responsibilities in respect of its Guardianship role for the Inner Bailey which involves a duty to preserve and promote public understanding and enjoyment thereof. Repair regimes must follow best practice guidelines as inappropriate maintenance techniques or poor workmanship can damage sensitive historic buildings and accelerate rather than prevent decay.1 E1. (Helpful guidance is set out in the English Heritage note Easy Access to Historic Properties). repair. Repair and Enhancement Carefully planned long term maintenance and some urgent action is essential to save the future well being of individual structures and the whole site. The Technical Pamphlets and Guidance Sheets published by the Society for the Protection of Ancient Buildings.2 E1. for all structures and their interiors identified as being significant to the site. The maximum interval between inspections should be 5 years The repair of historic structures on the site should follow the best practice guidance contained within:   Repair of Historic Buildings. in conjunction with English Heritage and the Local Authority.3 Consideration should be given by English Heritage to recommending that the original wall and railing enclosure to the Parade ground are to be upgraded to Grade I as this forms an integral part of the Listed Building Grade I assemblage by Thomas Harrison. For example:  As with all modern codes and standards the requirements of the Disability Discrimination Act must be carefully balanced with the conservation objectives. All buildings and structures on the site should be subject to periodic inspection. This will help to define those minor works which will not require consent and what types of more major work is likely to receive consent. construction. Principles and Methods by C Brereton published by English Heritage. E Conservation of the Fabric Maintenance.D1. SPAB) E1.3 Chester Castle Conservation Plan Issue II: September 2001 90 Donald Insall Associates . E1 Buildings and spaces within the site must be regularly and appropriately maintained in accordance with current best practice. due account should be taken of the heritage status and significance of the site.

Without a clear visitor plan. The specific guidance set out in the Inner Bailey Quinquennial Inspection Report. All those involved with maintenance and repairs should be fully aware of their roles and responsibilities. or those which change or intensify the use of buildings or spaces should also be linked to building repair. Upon the renegotiation or disposal of leaseholds.1 E2. This also has implications for heritage tourism in Chester as a whole. Its potential as a visitor attraction and as a resource for understanding the history of Chester is not being realised. whether it is to remain low key or whether the site is to be presented as a major heritage attraction. Information about primary maintenance responsibilities should be shared between the various parties with a direct owning or occupying involvement in the site. the owners and managers must be established.3 E2. repair. within the limitations of structural integrity to large scale masonry replacement E1. HLF. The principle maintenance issues relate at Chester Castle to stonework. the context for making decisions about vacant buildings is lacking. All potential sources of grant funding should be investigated to support major schemes of repair and public realm enhancement (EH. the main recommendations being:     A phased programme of pointing is essential and fine lime putty mortars should be employed.4 E2 English Heritage should undertake an urgent programme of first time consolidation of the historic fabric within the Inner Bailey. EC) Capital projects involving new development.2 E3.2 E2. November 1998 for English Heritage. freeholds or licences the contract conditions should be reviewed having regard to the Conservation Plan Policies. Individual occupiers should review their maintenance strategies in the light of the conservation plan policies and detailed guidelines. external spaces and boundary/party structures must be co-coordinated to ensure that the historic fabric is preserved and enhanced to a common standard.3 F Visitor Access and Interpretation The existence of Chester Castle is obscure to many local people and visitors.1 E3. Responsibility for the care of buildings. Loose and friable stone fabric should be removed prior to pointing Stone blocks should only be replaced if there is a danger to the structural or weathering of the whole Acceptance of natural erosion is preferable.4 Resources E3 All owners and those responsible for maintenance of buildings structures and spaces should seek to ensure that adequate revenue and capital provision is made for appropriate maintenance. Insufficient advantage is currently being taken of the potential linkages between the Castle and Chester’s other heritage museums and sites Chester Castle Conservation Plan Issue II: September 2001 91 Donald Insall Associates . Financial arrangements made at the disposal property or reversion of leaseholds should take due account of the need to ensure that sufficient finance is available for proper building repair and maintenance. E2. Clear lines of communication between users. E3. and enhancement.

F2.5 Interpretation F3 A comprehensive. Means should be explored to enable visitor access to these features. coherent strategy for interpretation of the whole site should be developed and implemented using appropriate and varied media. In particular Consideration should be given to facilitating visitor access to the fine architectural interior of the Harrison Courtrooms within operational constraints.4 Physical Access F2 Access to those parts of the parts of the Castle which are currently restricted or closed should be improved within the constraints of operational requirements. Provisions for disabled people (including blind. Chester Castle especially those parts normally closed to the public should be included in projects such as Heritage Open Days. Consideration should be given to improving pedestrian movement within the study area and linking this to interpretation signage. Advantage should be taken of the potential linkages between the Castle and Chester’s other heritage museums and sites particularly:   The Regimental Museum The Grosvenor Museum F1.1 F2.2 F1.4 F2. The knowledge and enthusiasm of people with special knowledge or interest in the site and associated topics should be utilised as a resource. The historical importance of the site should be used as a resource for educational projects and suitable information should be prepared.1 Intellectual access should be facilitated by the production of general guide books and research publications taking account of the latest research.3 F2.2 F2.3 F1. Pedestrian accessibility and signage to the Castle from the City Centre and from the town walls should be considerably improved.General F1 The general public must be enabled and encouraged to appreciate the significance of Chester Castle and to this end a Visitor Strategy is urgently required (see also policy C2) Intellectual Access F1. partly sited and those with ambulant difficulties) must be considered in the planning of access and pedestrian facilitation in accordance with developing statutory requirements The towers and rampart walkways of the Inner Bailey provide vantage points from which the form and significance of the early fortification can be understood and appreciated and which provide views over the city. safety and security. Chester Castle Conservation Plan Issue II: September 2001 92 Donald Insall Associates .

of a quality at least commensurate with the historic buildings. Interpretation material should contain sufficient information on context and location to enable appreciation of setting and relationship to extant and lost features and. and respect for authenticity should be applied. Interpretation media (signage. extensions and new structures should be well designed.5 G Development Issues New Development and Change to the Existing Fabric The scope for new building interventions or alterations without damaging the integrity of the whole.4 F3. should be appointed for all design work and its implementation at Chester Castle.1 G2. Any new building or extensions should be limited to development which would support the re-use of existing structures or benefit the conservation and appreciation of the site as a whole. to navigate the site. represent good stewardship and support the conservation of the site as a whole. the setting and vistas is extremely limited. Material should refer to other complementary services.1). some change to the historic structures and spaces may be necessary to facilitate new uses or to secure the continued viability of established occupancy which will help conserve the site.4 G2 G2. of minimum necessary intervention. alterations to historic buildings or landscaping at Chester Castle will involve reconciling the new to the old so that the significance of the old is preserved and enhanced. quality and material to location and should be reviewed at intervals for condition and for accuracy of content (see policy F4.1 The content of historical interpretation material should convey the ‘story’ of the site as a whole and should take into account latest research finding. reversibility. simply. However.F3. Professional consultants and contractors with a track record of sensitive work to historic buildings and areas.2 G1. The principles. These principles should be balanced against the importance and sensitivity of the buildings and the benefits of the proposal to the conservation of the whole site.3 G1. Where possible reference should be made to significant artefact collections or objects which have strong association with the site and consideration should be given to onsite display.1 G1.2 F3. not diminished. displays. Any alteration or adaptation of existing buildings and structures must be necessary for their re-use. Physical proposals for existing buildings should be informed by the inherent G1. All alterations. F3. G1 The design and construction of any new structures.3 F3.) should be appropriate in scale. sites and collections. and membership of the appropriate professional bodies. promoted by English Heritage and the Society for the Protection of Ancient Buildings. New buildings should not be erected to accommodate uses which could reasonably be housed in existing buildings.2 Chester Castle Conservation Plan Issue II: September 2001 93 Donald Insall Associates . etc.

character, form and special qualities of the building. G2.3 New work to existing buildings should not imitate original work so closely that new and old become confused. Substantial alterations and insertions might have a strong character of their own while minor works should not draw attention to themselves. New buildings, additions or alterations should be “of their time” and should not be capable of confusion with the original. They should complement rather than parody existing buildings. “Solid” elements of new structures should compliment the character of the dominant material of the adjacent historic structures. New utilities, mechanical and electrical services should be planned to minimise their impact and to avoid damage to any building fabric, features, artefacts, historic services or below ground archaeology of significance. Below ground services should be designed and implemented taking account of the archaeological significance of the site.

G2.4

G2.5

G2.6

Demolition and Removal G3 Buildings and features identified as having a level of “significance” are all important to the understanding of Chester Castle. It is most desirable that these should be retained. Any removal of fabric must be shown to have real benefits to the wider conservation objectives, which outweigh the loss A small number of buildings, features and ground surfaces are of no intrinsic value and do not contribute to the significance of the site. These elements are identified in the Policy guidelines for Individual Elements.

G3.1

G3.2

Assessment, Evaluation and Recording G4 All buildings, artefacts, features and areas, if these are to be subject to change, must be assessed and evaluated and recorded before design decisions for future proposals are made. The results of the investigation work should inform the design and decision making process. cross ref to PPG 15, 16 Detailed record must be made of any part of the site which will be irreversibly altered, lost or demolished prior to the work taking place. (See understanding) As built records must be made following any works of alteration and held in safe keeping by the owner for future reference.

G4.1

G4.2

G4.3

H

Archaeology
The site is a Scheduled Ancient Monument and included within the County Sites and Monument record and the Chester City Council’s Urban Archaeology Data Base. Part of Chester City Centre is designated an Area of Archaeological Importance, one of only five towns in England specifically protected in this way and the Castle site is within this zone. Archaeology is the subject of specific policies within the Chester City Local Plan.

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H1

The significance of Chester Castle as a Scheduled Ancient Monument of National importance must be respected and given due weight in future management, maintenance and development proposals. There is a presumption in favour of retaining archaeological deposits, especially those of national importance, in situ. The approach set out in PPG16 should be followed for all proposals affecting archaeological features Any proposals for development must be informed by careful assessment and evaluation. Mitigation through design modification to avoid damage or removal of archaeology is to be preferred. Where a development proposal affecting below ground archaeology or landscape features is accepted as of benefit to a building or structure of key significance or to the conservation of the site as a whole, then the works should be subject to an appropriate programme of watching and recording. Interpretation of the landscape and below ground archaeology is as important as the interpretation of buildings, structures and artefacts.

H1.1

H1.2

H1.3

H1.4

H1.5

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5.3.1

Policies Guidelines for Individual Elements
This section of the Conservation Plan provides general guidance on the relative importance of particular elements. It highlights thematic issues such as access and indicates a broad policy approach covering such issues as repair, adaptability and use. Broad policy guidance is provided for the main buildings and spaces where relevant in relation to:     Preferred future use Condition (not referred to if not an obvious issue) Allowable change to fabric Archaeology/Recording/Further Study

Zone A - The Harrison Blocks This study is concerned with the external fabric of these buildings and structures. Internal examination has been excluded from the Conservation Plans’ project brief) PG1 PG1.1 Harrison A Block (North Wing) Preferred future uses: Current uses as Regimental HQ, Military Museum, Territorial Army local cadet unit are highly appropriate Allowable change to the fabric: None to two frontage elevations. Possible the most minor interventions to side and rear external high boundary walls to facilitate access requirements in the event of changes in use. Harrison Colvin House (West Wing) Suitable future uses: Those that would positively assist with the appreciation of the particular building and site as a whole without placing undue demands for servicing and parking which could have a negative impact on the whole. New uses should: a) be compatible with the existing structures in terms of state requirements. b) not be prejudicial to and preferably enhance the appreciation and understanding of the individual building and site as a whole. c) not place undue and incompatible demands on vehicle and pedestrian access and servicing infrastructure. d) be environmentally acceptable in the sense that their operation does not detrimentally impact on other established uses, for example in terms of noise generated or times of peak use. e) be appropriate neighbours and cooperative with the other established users of the site and the Castle as a monument and visitor attraction. In particular residential use is unlikely to be appropriate as this could conflict with visitor access, attractions and events and lead to further demands for parking.(see also PG7.1.1) PG2.2 Ensure that the marketing and disposal of Colvin House leasehold would not conflict with a “visitor strategy”. (In this regard residential use is unlikely to be appropriate).

PG1.2

PG2 PG2.1

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Harrison’s Propylaea Desirable Future uses: Interpretive/security control. PG7.3 Zone B .1 PG7. Specifically the ground surface should remain as grass with no additional landscape features which would detract from the design or the architectural forms beyond and space within.1. Accessibility should be extended to the upper level. Harrison Central Block (Shire Hall) Preferred future uses: Current use as Crown Court is highly suitable.3 Allowable change to the fabric: None to two frontage elevations.2 PG4 PG4.(see policy C3) PG7. Parade Ground enclosing wall and railings Allowable change to the fabric: None. Allowable change to the fabric: None. operational parking and service access Allowable change to the fabric: Replacement of tarmac with gravel surfaces should be encouraged. The disposition and intensity of car parking has an extremely detrimental effect on the impression of the whole Castle and the views and appreciation of the Harrison Blocks in particular.1 Undertake a parking and access strategy for the castle square parade ground.1 PG4. Parade Ground Suitability/Sustainability of Current Use: Undesirable.PG2.1 Agricola Tower Preferred future uses: The Tower must remain open to public view.The Inner Bailey PG8 PG8. Allowable change to the fabric: None to two frontage elevations.1 PG6 PG6.2 PG5 PG5. PG3 PG3. Landscape immediately adjacent to parade ground enclosure Allowable change to the fabric: None. The minimum works the necessary to secure access to the roof level should be undertaken provided that early fabric or appearance is not compromised.2 Chester Castle Conservation Plan Issue II: September 2001 97 Donald Insall Associates . Allowable change to the fabric: None to the early fabric. Interpretation of the whole and particularly the Chapel wall paintings should be considerably enhanced. The layout and design of ground surface must be simple and robust and not draw attention to itself but provide a suitable setting for the architectural composition.2 Desirable Future uses: Event space/ open space.1 PG7 PG7. PG8.1 PG3. Possible most minor interventions to side and rear to allow for low key operational change. Possibly the most minor interventions to the rear external facilitate new uses. Consider enabling access to a viewing platform at roof level. Stone surfaces adjacent to the buildings should be retained.

But other uses could be considered provided these were to the benefit of the appreciation of the site as a whole and its conservation.PG8.4 PG8. But other uses could be considered provided these were to the benefit of the appreciation of the site as a whole and its conservation Allowable change to the fabric: Limited alteration adaptation could be considered to facilitate change provided this was in connection with a conservation/development strategy benefiting the whole. The Tower should be the subject of a detailed study analysing in detail the changes to the fabric over its life span. Consider enabling access to a viewing platform at roof level. PG9.2 PG10. But other uses could be considered provided these were to the benefit of the appreciation of the site as a whole and its conservation. shutters. doors etc.1 Undertake an urgent study to assess whether the Agricola Tower frescoes are at risk and the conservation measures required.1 PG11. PG8.1 Guardhouse and Cell Block Preferred Future uses: It would be desirable to continue and enhance the existing historical displays and public accessibility (refer to Policy F. PG9 PG9. Half Moon Tower and Frobisher's House Preferred future use: Open the building for public access and interpretation facilities. The main internal components (fireplaces. Further/Recording/Further Study: These structures should be the subject of a detailed study analyzing in detail the changes to the fabric over their life span. Allowable change to the fabric: None to any pre-19th Century structural fabric. This should inform detailed proposals for repair and any future change.3 PG10. Prior to making longer term decisions about their future the buildings should continued to be repaired and interiors better protected from weather and pigeon infestation. Further Study: There is evidence of changes to roof and floor levels. architraves. A strategy for the urgent preservation of the wall paintings should be undertaken as soon as possible. Flag Tower Preferred future uses: Open the building for public access and interpretation.4). A further study should explore possible options in connection with the use of the use of the surrounding derelict” platform area” and Flag Tower. This may be affecting the Chapel wall paintings.2 PG10 PG10. Allowable change to the fabric: None to the Pre 19th Cent. dating from the 19th Cent.4 PG11 PG11.2 Chester Castle Conservation Plan Issue II: September 2001 98 Donald Insall Associates . Condition: Poor. and possibly earlier should be retained.1 PG10.3 Condition: Evidence of water penetration must be urgently addressed. structural fabric of the Half Moon Tower.4. Alteration and adaptation of the Frobisher’s House could be considered to facilitate change provided this was in connection with a conservation/development strategy benefiting the whole.

Allowable change to the Fabric: None to the external face of the Curtain wall.2 PG12. Between the Sally Port and the Flag Tower the wall is faced with extensive brick work. Allowable change to fabric: None to the medieval structure.PG11. Curtain Wall – Half Moon Tower to Sally Port Preferred future use: Facilitating public access walkway would be a desirable objective but to make the necessary alterations for public safety may compromise historic fabric. Map evidence suggests this may be 17th century but from site inspection appears later and requires further investigation. Between the Flag Tower and the Half Moon Tower the wall predominantly remains as sandstone and is likely to contain visible medieval fabric. Sympathetic change or modification to the face which retained specific features of interest ( e. public access without considerable change and modification. It is in a ruinous state and demands the highest attention.1 PG13.4 PG12 PG12. the 19 th century gun slits) could be allowable.1 PG12. Condition: variable with poor sections requiring attention (refer to 1998 Quinquennial Report). Further Recording/Further Study: The rampart walkway appears in its visible form and finishes 19th century. Further/Recording/Further Study: The Tower should be the subject of a detailed study analyzing the changes to the fabric over its life span. Traces of previous building and in particular a chimney is of interest and should be retained. Consideration should be given to commissioning a feasibility study into its archeology and whether public access could be made possible to all or part of the walls without compromising historic significance.2 PG13.4 PG13 PG13. On the internal face to the Inner Bailey there is evidence of earlier but now demolished structures. PG11. This could not accommodate. The route would not be suitable for disabled access. Particular issue for consideration would be likely to focus on safety and security and the means of accommodating pedestrian movement between the lower level and the town wall. in safety.g. Condition: Upper entrance archway in fair condition.3 Condition: The Flag Tower almost certainly on the site of the original William I timber keep. Further recording/further study: Consideration should be given to undertaking a feasibility study to test the viability of bringing back the Sally Port into use. retains its plan form and early fabric from its reconstruction in stone in the mid 12th century.3 PG12.4 Chester Castle Conservation Plan Issue II: September 2001 99 Donald Insall Associates . This should inform detailed proposals for repair and any future change. A further study should explore possible development options in connection with the use of the Flag Tower together with the surrounding derelict “platform area” and Half moon Tower.3 PG13. Sally Port Preferred future use: Opening up this as a access for public use could be desirable both to aid appreciation of the early Castle and to improve pedestrian routes to and from the Town walls. Internal steps not inspected.

Preferred future use: It is important to the appreciation of the site that the rampart walkway remains open to the public. Further research/study: The future of the raised platform must be considered in relation to the future role for the Flag Tower and Half Moon Tower. It should be used in conjunction with and provide a setting for the Flag and Half Moon Towers. Napier House Preferred future use: Any uses which would not require external alterations to the building and which did not place demands on the external spaces within the Inner Bailey which compromised public access to or the appreciation of the site as a visitor attraction. Inner Bailey Ground Surfaces and Space at rear of Agricola Tower Suitability of current use: Maintenance of public pedestrian access is of key importance to the appreciation of the site. Parking should be discouraged other than essential operational requirements (see policy C3).1 Curtain Wall South East Sections and Associated Ramped Access. Limited service access for vehicles should be permitted.1.1 PG16. local repairs are required (refer to 1998 Quinquennial Report).3 PG15. but the most minor.2 Limited use could be made of the Inner Bailey spaces by a future user of Napier House provided this did not conflict with other uses particularly visitors and the appreciation of the Inner Bailey as a whole. PG16. The archway linking the Curtain Wall Walkway with the Agricola Tower should be retained. Allowable change fabric: No historic surfaces remain worthy of preservation.PG14 PG14. Part of the area was a garden prior to the late 18th century. It is also important that the access ramp remains not only because its evidence of the historical change within the site but also because it provides easy access to the walls and a circular route. (In this regard residential use is unlikely to be appropriate). Below ground structures archaeological evidence could exist which are significant and sensitive to change.1 Chester Castle Conservation Plan Issue II: September 2001 100 Donald Insall Associates .1 PG15. The entrance to Napier House from the Curtain Wall terrace to the south could be brought back onto use provided public access was not compromised. PG16. Allowable Change to External Fabric: None.3 PG17 PG17.2 PG15.2 PG14.4 PG16 PG16.1 Ensure that the marketing and disposal of Napier House leasehold would not conflict with a “visitor strategy”. Condition: Rough ground requires hard and possibly soft landscaping to facilitate public access. In particular: PG14. Condition: Generally sound. Inner Bailey Raised Platform Preferred future Use: The space should not remain in its current derelict condition.3 PG15 PG15. This could be reflected/referred to in the design and layout of the space although this landscape design should not diminish importance of the historic structures.

Consideration should be given to its removal and replacement with soft landscaping. The parking area to the west of the driveway is sufficiently distant from the castle not to have a detrimental affect on its immediate setting. Any future design proposals for new surfaces should consider the possibility of revealing or otherwise expressing the early ground plan of structures within the Inner Bailey and especially the well. Driveways and Parking Areas The existing parking area adjacent to the southern rampart of the Inner Bailey is detrimental to its setting. Allowable Change to Fabric: Minor change to facilitate new uses could be considered. Consideration should be given to replacing the tarmac areas with more appropriate and sympathetic materials.PG17. The Rifle range could be retained as an interesting reminder of an early 20th century military building.2 Allowable Change to the Fabric: The limited area of stone paving that remains should be retained. The main objective of the plan should be to allow for views of the castle from the town wall and also to improve more distant views both to and from the castle ramparts. Consideration should be given to the removal of the Toilet block at the east end of the passageway at the rear of the Agricola Tower.1 Chester Castle Conservation Plan Issue II: September 2001 101 Donald Insall Associates .2 PG19 PG19.1 The Gun Shed and Officers Stables Preferred future uses: Continuation of office/storage use or the provision of visitor/leisure facilities. The driveway leading to the locked gated archway through the town wall and Castle Drive is used for parking. Squash Courts and Rifle Range Consideration should be given to the removal of the Squash Courts and the use of the site in conjunction with the alternative role for the Gun sheds.1 PG20 PG20.1 PG20. Further Recording/Further Study: Any proposal to renew the ground surfaces should require careful removal and inspection/recording of any archaeological evidence. Consideration should also be given to the prohibition of parking along the driveway to improve appearance and safety of the pedestrian route. PG18. Any proposals for this car park should take account of the need to maintain and enhance views of Chester Castle. have a negative impact on important views of the Castle as seen from the Grosvenor Bridge and the castle wall. PG17.3 PG21 PG21.3 Zone C . Trees and shrubs The trees and shrubs adjacent to the town wall should be the subject of a management plan. Consideration should be given to allowing pedestrian use to the entrance of Castle Drive in order to improve accessibility from the Castle Drive car park.Outer Landscape and Ancillary Buildings PG18 PG18.2 PG20. It does however.

PG22 PG22.1

Pedestrian Access No facility currently for pedestrian access from the Town walls. Consideration should be given to enabling pedestrian access to this part of the site from the Town walls and Castle Drive. Grassed Areas These ground areas should remain as existing in order to maintain views of the castle and for the existence and form of the motte to be appreciated. Further tree or shrubs planting or development which constricted views should be avoided.

PG23 PG23.1

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5.4
5.4.1

Priorities
A Visitor Strategy As highlighted throughout the study, certain issues need to be addressed with very considerable urgency. This short concluding section highlights those strategic management policies which are crucial, to the future of the Castle. The summary of vulnerability issues highlighted the inertia that may result from the lack of a clear vision about the sites role as a visitor destination. The condition and presentation of much of the Inner Bailey is lamentable and Napier House, and other historic structures stand vacant. Decisions about new uses and investment in the repair and enhancement of the fabric are urgently required. Yet, without a clear plan for visitor use, whether it is to remain low key or whether the site is to become a major attraction, the strategic context for decisions about repair and bringing back buildings and spaces into use is lacking. Policy C2 states that urgent consideration should be given to developing a “visitor strategy” to determine the extent to which the Inner Bailey is to function as a visitor attraction. The options could range from: a) No visitor provision. (This would be contrary to the policies of the Conservation Plan) b) A modest upgrading of the existing provision which should include: (i) Improving access and interpretation for the Agricola Tower Guard House and cell block (ii) Landscaping and making accessible the raised platform area and securing and maintaining and presenting the Flag and Half Moon towers and Frobisher’s House suitable for external viewing (iii) Enhancement of the currently accessible courtyard, ramps and walkways c) Development of the Castle as an important visitor attraction for Chester. For example a proposal to develop the site as an interpretive centre telling the story of medieval Chester could involve: (i) Bringing the Frobisher’s House and Half Moon and Flag Towers into use (ii) An enhanced use of the Agricola Tower, Guard House and Cell Block (iii) Enabling the public to gain access to the roof top levels of the towers and possibly parts of the upper rampart walkways

5.4.2

Parking and Servicing Strategy Car Parking is the other major issue in relation to the future use of vacant buildings and about how the setting of the castle is to be enhanced. The current extent of parking within the site raises serious conflicts. On the one hand there is the need to support the beneficial use of historic buildings but account must also be taken of the negative impact of parking on setting and appearance. Policy C3 calls for a parking and vehicular servicing strategy to be devised and this is urgently required.

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Urgent Repairs in the Inner Bailey The report highlights the poor state of repair of structures within the Inner Bailey which are within the Guardianship of English Heritage. Policy E1.4 proposes that urgent attention to be given to preventing further deteriation by implementing a first time consolidation programme.

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APPENDIX A Chester Castle Conservation Plan Bibliography Chester Castle Conservation Plan Issue II: September 2001 Donald Insall Associates .

O. 68v. Ches. 141. p.Chester Castle Conservation Plan Bibliography Primary sources PRO WO44 PRO WO55 PRO WORK 14 PRO Board of Ordnance in-letters. Ches. O. Ches. R. O. O. QAM 3. R. R. R. QAB 2/1/1. O. Office of Works files SC . 226. QAB 5. O. VIII/340. O.). 33 Chas. 1806 to 1851. O. QAB 6/120.) Ches. R. QJB 16a. Ches. QAB 1/1/1. R. O. R. QAB 2/1/43. 42. R. Ches. R.) Ches. O. O. QAB 4. R. Ches.. R. Ches.. R. O. Chester Castle Conservation Plan Issue II: September 2001 Donald Insall Associates . HDT Title Deeds Ches. 12-20.Special collections: Minister’s accounts PRO PRO PRO PRO PRO PRO PRO PRO PRO PRO SC 6/774/13-15 SC 6/778/3 SC 6/Hen. 9. QAB 2/1/2-3. QAB 6. Sess. O. QJB 15a (unfol. R. 178. R. Ches. QAB 1/8. Ches. Ches. QAB 2/6/58-9. Board of Ordnance miscellaneous papers. R. pp. O. 15. QJB 13a (unfol. QJB 14a. R. EDD 16/120 p.62. Ches. R. 7. QJB 4/34-5. O. QJB 20a (unfol. 92v. Ches. O. QAB 2/1/8. SC 12/22/96 E 101 – Exchequer. Ches. 12 Apr. QAB 6/20. Ches. O. R. 3v. Ches. Ches. O. Ches. Ches. pp. R. O. ff. Ches. Ches. QJB Judicial: Sessions Books Ches. O. R. R. including periodic reports on Chester Castle. HDT 136. O. R. QAB 2/6/1-3. m. O.53. O. ff. Ches. King’s Rememberancer: Accounts various E 101/486/7 E 101/487/11 E 101/489/21-5 E 101/351/6 MINT 1/6. QAB 1/1/3.. R. O. QAB 1/1/2. 14. O. II. 21. 193. R. R.

R. 1272-81. 172v. B. MS. Pat. Pat.L. 2091. Chester City R. Cal. 1307-13. 170. 397. Harl. Pat. 6. 2002. Close 142. Pat. MS. Cal. 427. Harl. 100. Pat. Cal. 1327-30.O. 258. Close 1327-30. 1245-51. m. Close 1313-18. 2149. R. 425. 70. 1321-4. Chester Castle Conservation Plan Issue II: September 2001 Donald Insall Associates . Chester City R. III. 1226-40. 244. 1258-66. 411. Pat. 194. 1441-6. 294. 169. Close 1323-7. 82. 1245-51. c. Sess.L. 141. Cal. 482 Cal. 416. Cal. 1381-5. 1391-6. Close 1307-13. Cal. CR 63/2/120. ff. 311-19 B. Pat. Harl. HDT 2356. O. Lib. Cal. MS. f. Chester Castle Rebuilding Act. 1232-1307.L.L. Ches. 265. III. 131. MS. Cal. 311. B. Cal. 49. Lib. Cal. 294. 1788. 271. 7-8. 30. B. 28 Geo. O. C. Cal. Pat. 1247-58. Lib. Close 1288-96. f. SF/Chester Castle. 240. 142. 288. Cal. 187. 189. Cal. 1240-5. 223. B. Cal. 505. 7568. Cal. Pat. Fine R. ff. Lib. 184-5. Cal. Close 1272-9. 1. 2. 433. Lib. 487. 1. Cal. Chester Castle Goal Act. 2073. 1807. 1327-1337. Cal. 29.O. 188-9.L. MR 3. Lib. Cal. 73. Cal. Harl. 47 Geo. MS.Ches. Cal. f. Pat. 169. Cal. Cal. Fine R. 1232-47. Harl. 272. Pat. 450. 348. Cal. 134. 101. Cal.

In Pipe Rolls 164. 1655. 1687-9. 208.ed. 1603-10. pgs 16. and Tristram. 49. 1898. 2000. Bks.P. 319. S. S. Dom. Cal. Treas. 1969 Picturesque Chester. 452. 59. 123-5 Ches. 76 Cal. 1651-2. Boughton. 315. 529. 1880. Cal. 170-189. Cal.). R. 143. 454. Cal. P Borenius. Cal. 177. 1672. Dom. Ches. 1693.P. 153. Ches. J. 282-3. 1645-7. 669. 673. Dom. 210. 186. S. 565.1675-6. 36-7. 33. Cal. Ches. In Pipe Rolls 27-8. Dom. Sources Cheshire Sheaf. 1694-5. 1547-80. 473. Cal. Ches.P. Medieval Archaeology. 563. S. 457. 181.P. 54. 1648-9. In Pipe Rolls 149. 630. 1679-81. Bks. Cal. 268. Chronicon.M. 1972 ‘The Accounts of the Chamberlains and other officers of the county of Chester’ 1301-1360 The English Heritage Book of Chester. 636. London: Batsford English Heritage 1994 ‘Henry III’s Wall Paintings at Chester Castle’. S. Paris. 76. 474. 209-10.Cal. 54. 435-6. 442. 98-99. Dom. vol II. 256. E. Dom. Ches. Art and Architecture at Chester. 179. Ches. 1997 English Medieval Painting. Thompson. Cal. Stewert. pp.P. R. 364. In Pipe Rolls 45. Cheshire Sheaf.P. In Pipe Rolls 94-5.P. Dom. Ches. 31. Chart.P. British Archaeological Association Conference Transactions XXII. 570. S. E. Adam of Usk Beck. 1256-1300. 219. Cal. In Pipe Rolls 38. S. S. pgs 27-8. 492. 176. Cal.P. 633. 1st series vol 1. 147. 166. Dom. 30. Chart. Ches. Dom. 680. 423. 3rd series.P. 78-9. 303. 179. T. 1581-90. 176-9* Tudor Cheshire pg 19. 1652-3. 165. Brown. S. 478. 1700-1. S. 120. Dom. S. 1257-1300. 1301. 498. 117. 1661-2. In Pipe Rolls 2-3 Ches. Carrington. 471. Constables of Chester Castles. In Pipe Rolls 113. 521. R. Treas. 173. Cal. 176. 81. 1656. D Park & R Pender Chester Record Office Chester Castle Conservation Plan Issue II: September 2001 Donald Insall Associates . Ches. Dom. In Pipe Rolls 88. 1581-90. 526. Cal. In Pipe Rolls 172. S.P. 363. 168. A Thacker (ed. 1681-5. 92. 47-48. 52. 1689-62. P Cather. In Pipe Rolls 71. 183. 248. 312. 196. 425.

1996. Ellis. Pt. pg 2 State of Prisons. The Middle Ages. pgs 13-16* ‘The Earldom of Chester and its Charters’. R. 1962 Vol. M. T. London. P. P & others Emory. (ed) Thacker. 1970 The Mint at Chester for the great recoinage of 1696-1698. G.S. E J & Moore. Medieval History. April 22. London: Oxford UP for University of London Institute of Historical Research. Pt. 1997.S.T. Alex Manning.A.Childs. 1979 ‘Chester’. T Prestwich. London. 1971. H. ‘The 17thC Armoury & Mint’. 1991 Chester Castle. Geddes.5. Cheshire Community Council. M. 1971. Country Life. 1975 Vol. T. J.S. A. ed.M. pgs 30.S. J M Crouch. Journal of the Architectural. with additional new works erected by the Rt Hon. 1999 ‘Chester Mint’. 1982 ‘Architecture of Thomas Harrison.L. pgs 69-95.J. W. pgs 159-178 Excavations at Chester. II’. English Heritage 1993 Curious Chester.C. A. D Davison.A. J. Excavations at Chester: Chester Castle. de Lavaux. pgs 12-17 ‘Cheshire under the Three Edwards. Howard. J Colvin. Jas. Chester 1900. Driver. M. A forthcoming The Army. Vol. A Thacker. Ellis. XXVI. Cheshire Rising of 1400. A history of Cheshire Vol. lxi. The Earl of Cholmondely Wall Painting Condition Audit: Chester Castle.H Ockrim. Historia Ecclesiastica. 1901 Chester In Plantagenet & Tudor Reigns. Seaby Coin and Medal Bull 754.H. 66. [ed] Simpson. pgs 128-138. 1485-1660. pgs 400-403 A plan of the Castle of Chester circa 1745.S. Ed. 71-132. B. Chester Castle. 1.C.E Morris.Chibnall. Chateau Gaillard Conference in Castle Studies pg 37-46* Cheshire in the later Middle Ages. ‘Excavations at Beeston Castle’ J. J. pp. J. 4. Morris. 1925 ‘The Lord Edward’s Lordship of Chester’. 119-120. Politics and Finance under Edward I. J. Moore. John Ryland’s Library pgs 387-9. F Studd. London.C. Archaeological and Historical Society. 2. Prestwich. Beeston Castle. Vol 71. Pg 1-25. A T & Lewis. English Heritage Ancient Monuments Laboratory.II and the Glorious Revolution.S. pg 206 War. 1991 ‘Early earthwork Castles: a New Model’.ed Kennet. 1983. pg 9. Hough. Cheshire. Country Life. History of the King’s Works.L. 1967. lxxi. C eds. Cheshire. 1974 Welsh Wars of Edward I. ‘Chester Castle. new series. 944-7. Vol. Journal of the Chester Archaeological Society. (1780 ed). CN Morrill. M Orderic Vitalis Pennant.C. Chester and North Wales. 22nd April 1971. 157* ‘English Castles in Reign of Edward II’. 3. 2.C cvii. 1894 ‘Thomas Harrison and the Rebuilding of Chester Castle: A History and Reassessment’. J. (Victoria History of the Counties of England) Chester Castle Conservation Plan Issue II: September 2001 Donald Insall Associates .) Crook. Chester. ‘Administration of Norman Earldom’. pgs 115. The Seventeenth-Century Armoury and Mint. A History of the County of Chester 5: the city of Chester. Jnl. 1485-1660. pp. Hewitt. R Thacker. 236-7* Tours in Wales (1784). pgs 946-7 ‘A Most Classical Architect: The Architecture of Thomas Harrison’. CXXVIII. T & S Stewart McNiven. pt.H. In: Thack. Chester. J M Crook.118-120.A.T. H (gen. London. Peter. AD 907-1925’. Bull. 2. P. 160-6 Cheshire 1630-60.

Nathaniel (after 1696. DW1778 V III/0/4 British Museum.329 1939. George (1794-1857) Chester Castle. William (1743-1805) Chester Castle & Skinners Yard Old county hall at Chester Castle Chester Castle.2 Pickering. Chester Castle Quinqennial Inspection November 1998 Chester Castle Area study for Chester City Council in 1995 Chester Castle County Gaol.299. Cheshire. 1727 1954. copy dated 1775 Cheshire Record Office 931/1061 Cheshire Record Office 931/1058 Cheshire Record Office QAB 6/49 Paintings in Grosvenor Museum Nichoson.1’ 1942. Moses (1747-1819) Griffith.) Theses.43. Kings MS map. for English Heritage. unpublished Diploma in Landscape History. Cheshire 1942.307 Bailey.265. Thomas (1744-1829) Castle Portico 1952. J Manning.18131830) Byrne. Ancient Monuments Laboratory Report 33/97 The Life and Work of Thomas Harrison of Chester. Courtauld Institute of Art.A. 1744-1829.52. Outer Bailey Chester Castle.294 ‘Chester Castle Pl.291 Castle Chester Castle Pl. 1988. 1996 Wall Painting Condition Audit.Chester Castle.1 ‘Chester Castle Pl. T Chester Castle 330a. T and Steward.1954 Buck.* (References marked * are made in secondary sources and have not been directly researched as part of this study. M The Environs of Chester Castle. S Ockrim.330 1942. Harrison. Chester Castle. J Buttress Fuller Alsop Williams Drivers Jonas Croom. copy of the 1725 map Cheshire Record Office 931/1060.328 1939. William (fl.299. 1984. unpublished PhD.3 before 1779) Chester Castle Conservation Plan Issue II: September 2001 Donald Insall Associates . ix – 8a Cheshire Record Office 931/1057. Francis (1753-1844) Griffith. Moses (1747-1819) Griffith.89 1939.95 Chester Castle 245. unpublished report for RCHME.1 Cc 298.286. Outer Gateway Chester Castle 1936. Maps Referred to 1682-4 1725 1741 1740’s 1748 1769 c1857 Staffordshire Record Office.2’ 1942.42 Metcalf Chester Castle 1942. Dissertations and Unpublished Reports Hore.2 The south-west corner of Chester 1942. Moses (1747-1819) Batenham. University of Liverpool.

4 1956. Chester Castle.A.168. Chester Castle Varley. Bernard L (b 1924) County Hall.East Range.83 1963.154 Cheshire Sites & Monuments Record Record Number 3007 / 1 / 0 3007 / 1 / 1 3007 / 1 / 2 3007 / 1 / 3 3007/ 1 / 4 3007 / 1 / 5 3007 / 1 / 6 3007 / 1 / 7 Site Name Chester Castle Chester Castle. Inner Bailey Chester Castle. 1772 Godfrey.A.18.A.Chester Castle. J Outer Castle Gateway Romney.Guard Tower.22 148.7 1959.Half Moon Tower Chester Castle.6 151. Thomas (1744-1829) Preliminary designs for the Propylaeum.1745) Plan of Chester Castle Cook.A. 1727 Buck.from new bridge Buck.1975 1975.32.1958 1959.235 1965.A.148.1965 87.1870) Chester Castle & old bridge. S & N NW view of Chester Castle Cuitt Jnr.1967 1973. 1824 Pether. David Chester Castle from across the Dee Harrison. G Chester Castle 1777 Rayner.A.50 148.111 1960.17 1979. Thomas (1744-1829) Railings opposite Chester Castle Haghe. Chester. 1836 1956.15 1975. 1815 Batenham. George (1779-1854) Chester Castle from Nun’s Gardens Stuart. Inner Bailey Chester Castle. Samuel Chester Castle (from N. Thomas (d. John (active 1850-82) Buck.1963 1965. William (1808-1852) Procession of High Sheriff passing Chester Castle.9 1959. Alexander (fl.115 1962.A.570 1998. 1994 Evans.2 54. Louise (1832-1924) Chester Castle ‘Drawaza’ Chester Castle from the North.103 1994. John (1786-1863) Chester Castle Cuitt Jnr.A. F J (1810-1840) Shire Hall.148.184 1965.168. Inner Bailey Chester Castle.1958 100. Barracks & Assize 60) courts Cox.31.236 255. Joseph Chester Castle Evans & Gresty (active 1854.54. Louis (1806-95) The Castle & St Bridgets’ Church Tasker. R B Skinner’s Yard. Henry (1828-1865) Chester Castle by Moonlight Unknown (early 19th century) The Propylaeum.1360 1960. Chester Castle Harrison. John (1778-1842) Chester Castle & Skinners’ Yard Cuitt. George (1779-1854) Chester Castle from the Dee. S (18th century) Chester Castle Batenham Chester Castle Pike. George Chester Castle Picken. Mark (1868-c1934) Chester Castle & the river Dee Howard.Flag Tower.60 1960.74 52.A.W) Baas.38 36.15 1996.Agricola Tower Inner Bailey Chester Castle Conservation Plan Issue II: September 2001 Donald Insall Associates . Neale T (b 1926) Chester Castle 1996 Havell.Gatehouse. Nathaniel (1696-1779) Chester Castle & Savings Bank Chester Castle from the North west. George (1779-1854 Chester Castle from Castle street Cuitt Jnr. Inner Bailey Chester Castle.10 1963.148.19 1980.1987 1989.Gaesty.Inner Bailey Chester Castle. March 1845 de Lavaux.

Outer Bailey Chester Castle-Tower. West Range outer Bailey Chester Castle. Outer Bailey Chester Castle.Gatehouse.East Range. Outer Bailey Chester Castle.3007 / 1 / 8 3007 / 1 / 9 3007 / 1 / 10 3007 / 1 / 11 3007 / 1 / 12 3007 / 1 / 13 3007 / 1 / 14 3007 / 1 / 15 3007 / 1 / 16 Chester Castle.East Range. Outer Bailey Chester Castle.Great Chapel.Outer Bailey Chester Castle.Garden Chester Castle Conservation Plan Issue II: September 2001 Donald Insall Associates .Outer Bailey Chester Castle.Stables. East Range.Tower. Outer Bailey Chester Castle.

APPENDIX B Chester Castle Conservation Plan Full Chronology Chester Castle Conservation Plan Issue II: September 2001 Donald Insall Associates .

Worked stone tools (polished axe heads) have been found in the area. Legio XX used to support the governor of Britain (Claudius Albinus) in his bid for the imperial throne. c. 300 Chester Castle Conservation Plan Issue II: September 2001 Donald Insall Associates .1250BC-AD43 AD 43 c. The Roman legionary fortress of Deva was established at Chester by Legio II Adiutrix Pia Fidelis.74 Roman invasion of Britain. flood plains and terraces.100 c. c. reconstruction of barrack blocks and other buildings in stone.79 c.2500-1250BC c. Chester serving as a military depot. The defences are partially reconstructed in stone. Worked stone tools (microliths) manufactured by Hunter-gatherers have been found in the area.FULL CHRONOLOGY Botanical evidence suggests a densely forested environment dominated by lime and oak woodland.160 197 c. A small auxiliary fort may have been established at Chester to oversee the lead/silver mines in Flintshire.4400-2500BC Palaeobotanical evidence suggests some woodland clearance confined to river valleys.88 c. The north wall of the fortress was extensively repaired. and pre-Roman plough marks were observed at a site on Frodsham street. c. Most of the men in Legio XX are detached to serve on the Hadrianic and Antonine frontiers of northern Britain.120-160 c. Desertion of many upland settlements due worsening climate and soil exhaustion. Legio XX return to Chester.200 287-93 c. though there is little evidence for cultivation in the Chester area at this time. The beginnings of hilltop enclosures (hill forts). Palaeobotanical evidence suggests a wooded environment with small local clearances probably given over to cereal cultivation. Legio XX Valeria Victrix are stationed at Chester. Some of the towers and gateways were rebuilt. Clearance increasing during the latter part of the period to the extent that some parts of the landscape became permanently open. Late Iron age pottery (VCP) has been recovered from Chester. Last mention of Legio XX. this time supporting Carausius in a bid for the imperial throne.

and remains the administrative centre of the palatinate. the castle is taken over by the crown.1230-40 1237 1241-5 1245 1246-8 1247-51 1249-53 Chester Castle Conservation Plan Issue II: September 2001 Donald Insall Associates . 603 616 689 875 893-4 907 970 1070 1159-60 c. A synod of the British clergy may have been held at Chester. Werburgh are brought to Chester from Hanbury (Staffordshire). The relics of St.402 410 Roman coinage ceases to reach Roman Britain. The King’s apartments were repaired. Motte and Bailey Castle founded by William the Conqueror. £102. The Agricola Tower is built as the bailey gatehouse with a first floor chapel. The Agricola Tower chapel is given a second coat of wall paintings of very high quality and focused on the Virgin. The founding of St. A royal burh is established at Chester by Aethelflaed.7s. £20 spent on the rebuilding of the castle bridge. decorated with wall paintings.6d. Henry III builds a new chamber over a cellar at a cost of £220. spent on the work of the castle during the minority of Earl Hugh. the paintings in the Queen’s chamber renewed and a bridge made from the castle into the orchard. Lady of the Mercians. The castle was used as a goal from this time. A hoard of silver pennies was buried in a jar on Castle Esplanade.1210 c. Henry III demolishes the hall in the Outer Bailey and builds a new Great Hall at a cost of £350. The Roman emperor Honorius abandoned responsibility for the defence of Britain. The end of the independent earldom. and an ‘oriel’ is constructed before the doorway of the King’s chapel. Henry III uses the castle as a base for his campaigns in Wales. Henry III replaces the wooden palisade round the Outer Bailey with a stonewall. The battle of Chester fought between the kingdoms of Powys and Northumbria.c.John’s church at Chester. A Danish army wintered at Chester.

A new attilliator (weapons maker) was appointed. and William of Northampton adorned the lesser chapel near the great hall with a depiction of the murder of Thomas Becket. chamber and new kitchen in the Inner Bailey. Ten ceiling corbels in the King’s great chamber were coloured. The justice of Chester’s deputy had a hall. and repairs were undertaken on the constable’s hall and other buildings of the inner ward as well as the bridges leading to the two gatehouses. The castle is acquired by Simon de Montfort after the battle of Lewes. prior to its surrender. and orders issued for its provisioning and repair.400. After Despenser’s fall the castle reverted to the crown. Edward I stayed at the castle while awaiting Llywelyn ap Gruffudd’s response to his summons to do homage. The castle is granted to Edward II’s favourite Hugh Despenser the younger. Castle in the custody of Thomas of Warwick. as well as a stable and carries out repairs to the King’s houses at a cost of £1. 1264 1265 1275-7 1282-3 1284-91 1292-3 1294 1296 1299 1301 1310 1322 1326 1327 1328 1329 1337 Chester Castle Conservation Plan Issue II: September 2001 Donald Insall Associates . The chapel in the Agricola Tower is converted into a treasury. Edward builds a new outer gatehouse at a cost of £318. The castle is held by Lucas de Taney (the justiciary appointed by Simon de Montfort) and besieged by Prince Edward's men (James de Audley and Urian de Saint Pierre) for 10 weeks. The castle is used as a base for Edward I’s third campaign in Wales. Edward I adds new chambers for the King and Queen. The shire hall was removed to a new position just outside the main gate of the Outer Bailey. Prince Llywelyn’s brother David and 5 squires were held hostage in the castle goal. 100 yards of wall had to be rebuilt. Six scots taken at the battle of Dunbar were held in the castle goal.1251-67 Prince Edward uses the castle as a base for his campaigns against the Welsh. The castle is used as a base for Edward I’s second campaign in Wales. The King’s houses in the Outer Bailey were renovated for the Earl of Warwick and given a new chapel.

Eleanor. The castle is successfully defended by the Chamberlain of Chester. The jailors of the castle and Northgate. The castle provided supplies and lodgings for soldiers before they embarked for Ireland. £272 was spent on repairs to the great hall. gatehouses and shire hall. Sir Piers Legh of Lyme was executed at the castle by the Duke of Lancaster. under the control of a master mason and master carpenter. Prince of Wales (Being only 5). A new exchequer was built within the castle.1347 Gonkes Chapel. was detained at the castle for practising the King’s death. Henry VI spent an average of £25 a year on the maintenance of the castle. during the revolt. Rockley and Rooley fought together on the Roodee. Damory Tower. The Great Hall is rebuilt at a cost of £650. the Great Hall and several other chambers were all in disrepair. £170 spent on the repair of the Inner Bailey wall. to house the shire court. the Great Chapel. The exchequer is moved to a building adjoining the shire hall. A charter was passed to maintain the castle’s independence from the city. 1353-5 1355 1374-96 1397 1399 1400 1401 1404 1422-61 1441 1447 1474 1495 1506 1511 1536 1577-82 1579-81 Chester Castle Conservation Plan Issue II: September 2001 Donald Insall Associates . £25 a year on maintenance. Henry VII appointed a new master mason and again spent c. Henry Bolingbroke stays at the castle twice. the office of Keeper of the King’s artillery in Cheshire and Flintshire is first mentioned. The castle was garrisoned by 8 men-at-arms and 35 archers. Duchess of Gloucester. just outside the castle. The castle was garrisoned by 8 archers. The parliament chamber to the south was also reconditioned to house the exchequer court. the County Sheriff and the Constable. The office of master mason at the castle lapsed. was conveyed to the castle at Christmas with much pomp. Edward. The castle became a base for the County justices. from a siege during the Earl’s Rising.

including a new bridge into the castle. The castle goal was full of royalist prisoners after the battle of Worcester. and cost of repairs was estimated at £860 by John Shaw the county surveyor. A survey of the castle was undertaken for the county justices. A garden was created in the Inner Bailey for the judges to walk in at the Assize. The castle was a royalist headquarters during the siege of Chester.1585 On St. Sir Geoffrey Shakerley was governor and was ordered to disband the foot company garrisoning the castle. 500 marks was spent on the castle. By 1681 there were only three gunners remaining.000. The castle was condemned as old and ruinous. The principal gentry of the county were sent as prisoners to the castle. with a garrison commanded by a military governor. and shots were exchanged with royalists who had entered the city. 1613 1624 1627-8 1636 1642-6 1646-59 1651 1655 1659 1660-2 1662 1662-4 1666 1680 Chester Castle Conservation Plan Issue II: September 2001 Donald Insall Associates . Sir Evan Lloyd was appointed governor. 16 pirates were committed to the castle goal for taking a ship out of Wirral. In addition.Andrew’s day the castle bridge fell down killing two horse and some cattle transporting coal. The Earl’s representatives reluctantly paid for repairs. A survey of the castle estimated the cost of repairs at £5. It escaped physical damage and in 1646 surrendered with all its arms. Just over £546 was spent on repairs to the castle. ordnance and ammunition intact. with a garrison under a military governor. under suspicion of being disaffected with Cromwell’s government. Much of the outer gatehouse fell down. Governor and garrison removed from the castle. Sir Theophilus Gilbey was granted a warrant to enlist and arm 60 foot soldiers to be kept under array at the castle. The castle was a supply base for parliamentary troops in Ireland. Fears of an uprising among disaffected parliamentarians stimulated the King to order the proceeds of the local mize to be paid to the governor for additional repairs. Castle put into a state of defence during the rising of Sir George Booth. The Earl of Derby tried to escape but was recaptured upon Dee bank.

George Earl of Cholmondeley put Chester in a state of defence. shillings and sixpences. but the work was never carried out. The men were quartered in public houses and private dwellings. 1687 1689 1690 1691 1694 1696-8 1714-27 1715-17 1728 1745 1760-86 1785 Chester Castle Conservation Plan Issue II: September 2001 Donald Insall Associates . Repair work included the reconstruction of Lord Cholmondeley’s battery. 500 Jacobite prisoners were brought to the castle after the government’s victory at Preston. and this was awarded to Thomas Harrison. Quarter sessions ordered the rebuilding of the goal. It issued half-crowns. and a new garrison was installed. assayer and 5 other officials. repairing the castle’s defences and adding raised batteries in the inner and outer wards and a raised platform with a parapet southeast of the great hall. master. Repairs to the armoury included 62 yards of brick walling.1682-6 The Duke of Monmouth visited the castle and issued a new commission to Shakerley to act as governor. Captain G French ascended in Lunardi’s balloon from the castle yard. who requested two new companies of 100 men. Peter Shakerley was replaced as governor by Sir John Morgan. a warden. A company of c. At this time the castle was garrisoned by 8 companies of soldiers from Ireland and a newly appointed furbisher. and the castle received a Roman Catholic chaplain. A large portion of the curtain wall of the Inner Bailey behind the armoury fell down. The castle was used in the transport of soldiers to Ireland to repress the Jacobites. The military architect Alexander de Levaux was engaged to draw up a plan to strengthen the fortifications. James II visited the castle and heard mass. A gun platform was built. The castle received a new armoury and Frobishers shop. also the Flag Tower and Half-moon Tower were re-rooved. Castle under threat of attack by the Jacobites. The roof of the exchequer court and protonotary’s office were repaired. 90 invalids was drawn out of Chelsea hospital to garrison the castle. This was staffed by a comptroller (the astronomer Edmond Halley). Military stores and ordnance were removed to the Tower of London. The castle received a mint for William III’s recoinage. The castle was commanded by a governor and two companies of invalid soldiers.

1789 1791 1794-9 1802 1803 1804 1805 1806-10 1811-13 1814 1818 1826 1831-6 Demolition of the officers’ barracks and judges’ lodgings in the southeast range of the inner ward. portico and prison chapel were finished. Another block housing the barracks. A ditch faced with a stone wall was constructed round the castle yard. A new Doric gateway (propylaeum) was constructed. William Wilson was executed at the castle for setting fire to a barn in Tiverton. The exchequer. then built the prison and southern parts of the main block. provost cells and exchequer court was erected on the north side of the outer ward. The Agricola Tower is refaced in sandstone. May 28th. and consent was given for the outer gatehouse to be removed and replaced by a new arch and guardrooms. Castle garrisoned by a company from a regiment stationed in Manchester. The main block including the shire hall. grand jury room. Square Tower and part of the curtain wall of the Inner Bailey were demolished and a new armoury block was erected in their place. Castle garrisoned by the 46th Foot (became 2nd Bn The Duke of Cornwall’s Light Infantry). 5 prisoners broke out of the castle on March 31st.1788 Harrison demolished the exchequer and constables house. The prison was found inadequate by visiting justices. The guardroom in the upper bailey was constructed. Donald Insall Associates 1846 1849-50 1860-70 1865 Chester Castle Conservation Plan Issue II: September 2001 . Harrison’s ‘B’ block converted into accommodation for officers and judges. The inner gatehouse. to make way for a new armoury and Napier House. The Militia were called up on April 4th and assembled at the castle. A passage with a new gateway was opened into the upper ward. protonotary’s office and prisoners’ wards had all been finished. The military hospital on Castle Street was erected by William Cole the younger. 5 convicts made their escape from the castle.

The open ball alley was converted into straw sheds. and the site of the prison became a drill ground for the local volunteer artillery. one company of 54th Foot 2nd Bn.1867 The Liverpool Fenians planned an attack on the castle. ‘Larry’ the regimental bear had to be shot having sustained injuries while jumping through the window of a moving train when the regiment was leaving Chester in 1871. The prison was closed to civil prisoners. The Rifle Brigade. The straw sheds were converted into dining halls for the men. Protonotary’s office converted to a council chamber for the new county council The exchequer court was transferred to the War Department. Castle garrisoned by the 2nd Bn. The prison was transferred to the crown. The artillery corps received new QF 4. The Dorsetshire Regt. 1867-9 1869-71 1871-3 1873 1875-7 1877 1878 1882 1884 1891 1892 1899-1902 1900-02 1903 1904 Chester Castle Conservation Plan Issue II: September 2001 Donald Insall Associates . Castle garrisoned by the 7th Bn. designed by T. and the garrison was reinforced by three additional companies from Manchester. The Cheshire and Cearnarvonshire Artillery Volunteers used the straw sheds in the castle ditch to house their 40-pounder guns The prison buildings were demolished. guns.Lockwood. 81st foot RHQ (became 2nd Bn. The guardroom cells in the upper bailey were constructed. 14th Foot The West Yorkshire Regiment (Prince of Wales’ Own).7in. King’s Own Royal Regiment (Lancaster).M. Harrison’s main block in the lower ward was altered to include a new Nisi Prius Court. North Lancashire). Castle garrisoned by the 4th Foot. The castle became the depot for the 22nd (Cheshire) Regiment. local volunteers and several hundred men from London and Aldershot. The Loyal Regt.

The miniature rifle range was constructed. Colvin House ceased to function as the Garrison Officers’ Mess. 1922 1923 1938 1939-57 1958 1972 1979-82 1992-3 1997 1999 Chester Castle Conservation Plan Issue II: September 2001 Donald Insall Associates . 21 lime trees along the southeast side of the rifle range were planted. B block (Colvin House) became the Machine Gun Training Centre. Harrison’s barrack block was restored. undertaken by English Heritage and the Courtauld Institute. Part of ‘A’ block was made into the regimental museum. The fire engine shed in front of the Agricola Tower was taken down. Excavation and building recording in the inner bailey. An extensive conservation programme was undertaken on the wall paintings in the Chapel of the Agricola Tower by the Office of Works. Investigation and conservation of wall paintings in the Chapel of the Agricola Tower. The site of the well in the upper bailey was uncovered and the water “found to be of excellent quality”. The HQ for the Army Medical Services TA left Napier House.1921 The Agricola Tower chapel ceased to be used as the magazine. subsequently recovered with a York stone slab. directed by Peter Hough for the Department of the Environment (now English Heritage). The site of the prison was used to build the new county hall. RHQ Cheshire Regiment took over ‘A’ block on the formation of Infantry Brigade Depots.

APPENDIX C Chester Castle Conservation Plan Ecology Report by Colin Hayes of Ecology First Chester Castle Conservation Plan Issue II: September 2001 Donald Insall Associates .

APPENDIX D Chester Castle Conservation Plan Study Plans (as per Gazetteer) Chester Castle Conservation Plan Issue II: September 2001 Donald Insall Associates .

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