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Dai cuong dien


6huong 16
aI cuong ve ghan ung
dIen hoa va cac ghuong
ghag ghan tch dIen hoa
2
Dai cuong dien
aI ruong
Nguyen tac
Mot so khai niem
Cac thuyet cua qua trnh ien hoa
Phan loai
3
Dai cuong dien
hguyan Iar
Cac PPPT ien hoa la cac phng phap
Da tren cac qui luat, cac hien tng co
lien quan ti phan ng ien hoa xay ra tren
ranh gii tiep xuc gia cac cc va dung
dch phan tch
Da vao tnh chat ien hoa cua dung dch
tao nen moi trng gia cac cc
4
Dai cuong dien
MoI so khaI nIam
ien cc
Phan ng ien hoa
The can bang ien cc
Nguyen to ien hoa
S ien phan
5
Dai cuong dien
Ian rur (aIarIroda)
ien cc he noi tiep nhau cua cac tng dan ien,
trong o tng au tien va tng cuoi cung la kim loai,
tng kia la dd chat ien ly
Phan ng ien hoa- p trao oi e- xay ra tren be mat
cua day kim loai M va cau t trong dd
- Kim loai nhung vao dd cha ion cua no M/M
n+
//
Pt/H
2
,H
+
//
Ag/Ag
+
//
Pt/Fe
3+
,Fe
2+
//
Ag/AgCl ,Cl
-
//
- Kim loai tr Pt nhung vao dd cha
oi oxyhoa-kh Pt/Ox,Kh//
- Ban kim loai Pt c phu mot lp muoi Pt tiep
xuc ong thi vi kh va dd cha ion cua no
- Kim loai M c phu len be mat mot lp muoi
kho tan MA, tiep xuc vi dd cha anion A
-
cua no

6
Dai cuong dien
Tha ran bang dIan rur
Th du:
e Zn Zn 2
2
+
+

-Tren ranh gii tiep xuc gia kim


loai va dd chat ien ly xuat hien mot
ien the the can bang ien cc
- Nguyen nhan: xuat hien lp ien
tch kep tren ranh gii tiep xuc gia
kim loai va dd chat ien ly
- Lp ien tch kep ong vai tro nh
mot tu ien ma mot ban cua tu ien
la be mat kim loai tch ien, con ban
kia la lp dd tiep xuc vi no tch
ien trai dau. Hieu the gia hai ban
tu ien la the can bang ien cc
Zn
ZnCl
2
-
-
-
-
+
+
+
+
Zn/Zn
2+
//
7
Dai cuong dien
hguyan Io dIan hoa (VoIIaIr raII, gaIvanIr raII)
Ky hieu cua nguyen to ien hoa
Zn/Zn
2+
//Cu
2+
/Cu
Anode/dung dch/Cathode
(+)Zn/Zn
2+
//Cu
2+
/Cu(-)
v E Cu e Cu
v E Zn e Zn
Cu Cu
Zn Zn
43 , 0 , 2
76 , 0 , 2
/
2
2
/
2
2
= +
=
+
+
+
+
e
-
Cu
2+
Zn
2+
Cu
Zn
-
+
V
Salt Bridge
E = E
c
-E
a
Salt Bridge
gel + KNO
3
8
Dai cuong dien
8u dIan phan (aIarIroIyIIr raII)
+
+

+
2
2
2
2
Cu e Cu
Zn e Zn
e
-
Cu
2+
Zn
2+
Cu
Zn
-
+
Salt Bridge
- Thc hien phan ng ien
hoa di tac dung nguon
ien nang ngoai ap at vao
ien cc
- Phan ng xay ra vi s lu
thong cua dong ien co
cng o xac nh, do s di
chuyen cua ion di tac
dung cua ien trng
9
Dai cuong dien
6ar gIaI doan rua moI phan ung dIan hoa
S di chuyen cau t t long dd en be mat
ien cc
S trao oi ien t gia cau t va ien cc:
s phong ien
S hnh thanh va thoat san pham khoi be
mat ien cc
10
Dai cuong dien
6ar yau Io anh huong phan ung dIan hoa
Ban chat cua dd
Ban chat va nong o cua cau t khao sat (dang t
do hay dang phc)
Hien tng oi lu do anh hng cua nhiet o
Hien tng ien di do anh hng cua ien trng
Hien tng khuyech tan do s phan cc nong o
Ban chat cua ien cc
Chat cau tao va be mat ien cc
Hieu the ap at vao ien cc, mat o dong ap at
Ban chat cua san pham thoat ra be mat ien
cc: dang kh, dang long va dang ran
11
Dai cuong dien
6ar IhuyaI rua qua Irnh dIan hoa
Ly thuyet ien phan n gian the can
bang ien cc
Ly thuyet ien phan co dung ng
dong the
Ly thuyet ien phan co xet en s di
chuyen cua cac ion va phan t trong
dung dch
12
Dai cuong dien
uong dong Iha
Ap at the E vao ien cc tao p ien hoa va o
cng o dong I xuat hien trong dd. (I t le vi so
ien t chuyen t chat kh en ien cc hay t
ien cc en chat oxy hoa trong mot n v thi
gian)
Tang dan E, I tang
ng bieu dien I = f (E) goi la ng dong the
13
Dai cuong dien
uong dong Iha
Dd ch cha chat oxy
hoa hay chat kh
Qui c ve dau:
I>0 vi p oxy hoa
I<0 vi p kh
- E
1
, E
2
la the ma t o phan ng oxy hoa hay kh xay
ra vi van toc nhan thay goi la the phan huy
- Vi moi cau t oxy hoa hay kh, ng dong the
thay oi theo ban chat ien cc va dung dch
Kh Ox
I
E E
1
Ox
Kh
I
E
E
2
14
Dai cuong dien
Ly IhuyaI dIan phan don gIan uong dong Iha
Dd cha cap oxy hoa kh (ve ng dong the tng
chat, t o co ng dong the cua he, xem bang tong
ai so ng dong the tng chat)
He nhanh
- E
cb
la the tai o 2 p oxy hoa va
kh xay ra cung van toc
Kh Ox
I
E
Ox
Kh
E
cb
- Khi ap at E
1
> Ecb, p oxy hoa
xay ra vi van toc i
ox
> i
kh
(p
oxy hoa chiem u the)
- Khi ap at E
2
< E
cb
, i
kh
> i
ox
(p
kh chiem u the)
15
Dai cuong dien
Ly IhuyaI dIan phan ro dung duong dong Iha
Ox2
Kh2
E
cb2 E
I
Kh1 Ox1
E
cb1
E
A
E
C
E
2 2 2 2
1 1 1 1
,
,
cb
cb
E kh e n ox
E ox e n kh
+

- Xet he ien phan
cha 2 cau t kh
1
va
ox
2
- Ap at hieu the E len
hai ien cc e p ien
hoa xay ra vi cng
o I
E = E
A
E
C
Hieu so E
A
E
Cb1
hay E
cb2
E
C
goi la qua the cua he
ng dong the He cham
- E
A
va E
B
: the ien
cc anode va cathode
16
Dai cuong dien
ua Iha
Nguyen nhan
Van toc phong ien cham
ien tr trong cua bnh ien phan
S phan cc nong o gay ra bi mot so
cau t tiep xuc vi ien cc a tham gia
phan ng ien hoa
17
Dai cuong dien
ua Iha
o ln qua the phu thuoc
Ban chat ien cc (nguyen lieu che tao,
hnh dang ien cc)
Mat o dong I
s
= I/S
Dd ien phan: dang cau t, nhiet o...
Dang san pham sinh ra be mat ien
cc (kh, long, ran)
18
Dai cuong dien
Vung hoaI dIan rua dung moI
Dung moi
la nc,
khi ien
phan co
p oxy
hoa kh
xay ra
v E OH SO e O H SO
v E H MnO e O H MnO
v E H MnO e O H Mn
SO hay MnO Mn
v E H e H
v E OH H e O H
v E O H O e OH
v E H O e O H
93 , 0 , 2 2 2
69 , 1 , 4 3 2
23 , 1 , 4 2 2
, khc ion
0 , 2 2
828 , 0 , 2 2 2
40 , 0 , 2 4 4
229 , 1 , 4 4 2
0 2
3 2
2
4
0
4 2 2
0
2 2
2
2
4 2
2
0
2
0
2 2
0
2 2
0
2 2
= + +
= + +
= + +
= +
= + +
= +
= +

+
+ +
+
+

19
Dai cuong dien
Vung hoaI dIan rua dung moI
Khoang the co the xay ra phan ng
oxy hoa kh cua nhng cau t
khac ma khong chu anh hng
cua dung moi goi la vung hoat ien
cua dung moi
I
E
2
O OH

2 2
O O H
2
2
MnO Mn
+

4 2
MnO MnO
2
2 H H
+

2
4
2
3
SO SO
O H H
2 2

Chat ien ly tr
Vung hoat ien cua
dung moi
Rao the
Rao the
20
Dai cuong dien
u doan phan ung dIan hoa
Th t u tien
cua nhng p
ien hoa trong
vung hoat ien
cua dung moi se
giam t trong ra
ngoai
Khi ap at hieu
the E gia 2
ien cc, se
tng ng khoang
the c chon
tren gian o dong
the sao cho
cng o dong
2 ien cc bang
nhau I
A
= I
C
E
C
E
I
E
A
I
A
I
C
u tien giam
u tien giam
21
Dai cuong dien
Trang thai dng khi ien phan
Dong khuyech tan
ng cong phan cc
Ly IhuyaI dIan phan ro xaI dan su dI
rhuyan rua rar Ion va phan Iu Irong dung
d}rh
22
Dai cuong dien
ong khuyarh Ian
Trong qua trnh ien phan, cau t di
chuyen en be mat ien cc do:
ien di (do anh hng cua ien trng)
oi lu (khuay tron dd, nhiet o)
Khuyech tan (do chenh lech nong o gay
ra bi s tham gia phan ng ien hoa cua
cau t sat be mat ien cc
23
Dai cuong dien
ong khuyarh Ian
ien phan trong ieu kien
Loai ien di (them vao dd ien phan lng
ln chat ien ly tr)
Loai oi lu (gi yen dd nhiet o co nh)
Cation tham gia phan ng ien hoa di chuyen
en ien cc ch do phan cc nong o trong
dd ch co dong khuyech tan I
kt
= 10
-6
A
24
Dai cuong dien
ong khuyarh Ian
i
kt
= K
kt
(C
dd
C
dc
)
i
kt
= K
kt
(C
dd
C
dc
)
K
Kt
: he so t le hay he so khuyech tan
trang thai dng dong khuyech tan at en gia tr
cc ai, I
kt
= I
gh
i
gh
= K
kt
(C
dd
C
dc
)
i
gh
= K
kt
C
dd
Theo qui c ve dau
25
Dai cuong dien
ong khuyarh Ian uong rong phan rur
26
Dai cuong dien
6ar phuong phap phan Irh dIan hoa
Ihong dung
Phng phap vi ien phan (phng phap
ien hoa ch th)
Chuan o ien the
Phng phap cc pho
Phng phap chuan o Amper
Phng phap ai ien phan
Phng phap ien khoi lng
Phng phap ien lng

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