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Criminal Justice System

Criminal Justice System - is the system of practices and institutions of governments directed at upholding social control, deterring and mitigating crime or sanctioning those who violate laws with criminal penalties and rehabilitation efforts. Goals of Criminal Justice 1. to protect individuals and society 2. to reduce crime by bringing offenders to justice 3. to increase the security of the people

Criminal Justice System consists of three main parts 1. legislative - create laws 2. courts - adjudication 3. corrections - jail, prison, probation, parole

Participants of Criminal Justice System 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. police - first contact of offender since they investigate wrongdoing and makes arrest. prosecution - proves the guilt or innocence of wrongdoers. court - venue where disputes are settled and justice is administered. correction - after accused is found guilty, he is put to jail or prison to be reformed. community - where the convict after service of sentence comes back to be integrated to be a productive member of society.

Community Policing - the system of allocating officers to particular areas so that they become familiar with the local inhabitants. Early History of Punishment 1. Early Greece and Rome a. most common state administered punishment was banishment and exile. b. economic punishment such as fins for such crime as assault on slave, arson, or house breaking. 2. Middle 5th to 15th century a. blood feuds were the norm. b. law and government not responsible for conflict. 3. Post 11th century feudal periods a. fine system, punishment often consisted of payment to feudal lord. b. goals, public order and pacifying the injured.

c. corporal punishment for poor who can not pay. 4. 1500's a. urbanization and industrialization, use of torture and mutilation showed and punishment began to be more monetary based. b. use of gallery slaves - ship-rowers. c. shipped inmates to american colonies 5. 1700's - early 1800's a. increase in prison population b. gap between rich and poor widens c. physicality of punishment increases Goals of Punishment 1. General Deterrence - the state tries to convince potential criminals that the punishment they face is certain, swift, and severe so that they will be afraid to commit an offense. 2. Specific Deterrence - convincing offenders that the pains of punishment is greater than the benefits of crime so they will not repeat their criminal offending 3. Incapacitation - if dangerous criminals are kept behind bars, they will not be able to repeat their illegal activities. 4. Retribution/Just Desert - punishment should be no more or less than the offenders actions deserve, it must be based on how blameworthy the person is. 5. Equity/Restitution - convicted criminals must pay back their victims for their loss, the justice system for the costs of processing their case and society for any disruption they may have caused. 6. Rehabilitation - if the proper treatment is applied, an offender will present no further threat to society 7. Diversion - criminals are diverted into a community correctional program for treatment to avoid stigma of incarceration.The convicted offender might be asked to make payments to the crime victim or participate in a community based program that features counseling. 8. Restorative Justice - repairs injuries suffered by the victim and the community while insuring reintegration of the offender.Turn the justice system into a healing process rather than a distributor of retribution and revenge. 3 Broad Categories of Crime 1. Sensational crime

2. Street Crime 3. Corporate Crime, White Collar Crime, and Organized Crime. Sensational Crime - certain offenses are selected for their sensational nature and made into national issues.Much of what we know about crime comes from the media. Street Crime - includes a wide variety of acts both in public and private spaces including interpersonal violence and property crime. Justice - the quality of being just, fair and reasonable. Rule of law - is a legal maxim whereby governmental decisions be made by applying known legal principles. Judge - a public officer who presides over court proceedings and hear and decide cases in a court of law either alone or as part of a panel of judges. Prosecutor - the person responsible for presenting the case in a criminal trial against an individual accused of breaking the law. Law - is a system of rules of conduct established by the sovereign government of a society to correct wrongs, maintain the stability of political and social authority and deliver justice. Plaintiff - the person who brings a case against another in court of law. Respondent - the defendant in a lawsuit. Appellee - the respondent in a case appealed to a higher court. Appellant - the party who appeals the decision of the lower court. A person who applies to a higher court for a reversal of the decision of a lower court. Stare Decisis - the legal principle of determining points in litigation according to precedent. Latin for "to stand by that which is decided", general practice of adhering to previous decisions when it makes new one. Miranda Doctrine - criminal suspect has the right to remain silent which means they have the right to refuse to answer questions from the police.They have the right to an attorney and if they can not afford an attorney, one will be provided for them at no charge. Pro Bono - legal work done for free. Writ - a form of written command in the name of the court or other legal authority to act or abstain from acting in some way.

Subpoena - is a writ issued by a court authority to compel the attendance of a witness at a judicial proceeding. Summon - a legal document issued by a court or administrative agency of government authoritatively or urgently call on someone to be present. Discretion - the use of personal decision making and choice in carrying out operations in the criminal justice system. What is twelve table? early Roman laws written around 450 BC which regulated family.religious, and economic life. What is the medical model of punishment? - a view of corrections holding that convicted offenders are victims of their environment or sick people who were suffering from some social malady that prevented them into valuable members of society. What is the difference between Indeterminate sentence and Determinate sentence? 1. Indeterminate sentence a. a term of incarceration with a stated minimum and maximum length. ex. 3-10years b. prisoner is eligible for parole after the minimum sentenced has been served. c. based on belief that sentences fit the criminal, indeterminate sentences allow individualized sentences and provide for sentencing flexibility. d. judges can set a high minimum to override the purpose of the indeterminate sentence. 2. Determinate sentence a. a fixed term of incarceration ex. 3 years b. these sentences are felt by many to be restrictive for rehabilitative purposes. c. offenders know exactly how much time they have to serve. Various Factors Shaping Length of Prison Terms 1. Legal Factors a. the severity of the offense b. the offenders prior criminal record c. whether the offender used violence d. whether the offender used weapons e. whether the crime was committed for money 2. Extra Legal Factors a. social class b. gender c. age

d. victim characteristics What are the institutions of socialization? 1. Family 2. Religion 3. Schools 4. Media Family - is the primary institution of socialization in society.