Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 34

Energy

Prof.dr.ir. Taeke M. de Jong For study purposes only: the simulations have to be checked, improved and updated for use in practice. Other Simulations: Sun .xls Energy .xls Wind .xls Windvelocity(heigth) .zip Sound and noise .xls Water.xls Trafficnetworks .xls Earth .xls Earthquakes .xls Life .xls Human population .xls Living .xls Standaardverkaveling .exe Environment .xls Legends .xls FutureImpact .exe FutureImpact .rar SchermBytes .xls Mathematical functions: Statistical functions .xls Logaritmic functions .xls Power functions .xls Trigonometric functions .xls Integrals .xls Lineair .xls Linear algebra .xls Bifurcation .xls Bifurcation .xmcd Qudata.com - Y(x) Finder .url If these links do not work see: http://team.bk.tudelft.nl/ > Publications 2009

Attached to: Jong, T.M. de; Akker, C. van den; Bruin, D. de; Moens, R.; Steenbergen, C.M.; Toorn, M.W.M. van den (2009) Sun wind water earth living; Legends for design (Delft) TUD

.PDF version: Introduction Sun, energy and plants Wind, sound and noise Water, networks and crossings http://team.bk.tudelft.nl/Publications/2009/Territory59.pdf

If this screen appears and you trust me:

choose 'Enable macros' Choose Enable Macros

If this screen appears:

choose 'Do'nt update' choose 'Do'nt update'

You can change anything yellow in the sheets. Improve the spreadsheets if you can and mail me: T.M.deJong@tudelft.nl

Conversion

Converting energy units

energy per second (W) during a year wattyear (Wa) kilowattyear (kWa) megawattyear (MWa) gigawattyear (GWa) terawattyear (TWa) energy per second (W) during an hour watthour (Wh) kilowatthour (kWh) megawatthour (MWh) gigawatthour (GWh) terawatthour (TWh) energy per second (W) during a second watt.second, joule (J) kilojoule (kJ) megajoule (MJ) gigajoule (GJ) terajoule (TJ) petajoule (PJ) exajoule (EJ) solar constants x available solar influx outside the Earth's atmosphere x available solar influx at the Earth's surface

slide and click 1 Wa 1 kWa 1 MWa 1 GWa 1 TWa

used in electricity business 1 MWh 1 GWh 1 TWh

basic SI unit in physics approximately Wa/1000 000 000 Wa/1 000 000 Wa/1 000 1 GJ 1 TJ 1 PJ 1 EJ

1 x sun hitting Earth 1 x sun hitting surface

Page 1

Conversion
x available solar influx at a Dutch surface x usable solar influx at a Dutch surface wind constants x available wind at the Earth's surface x available wind at a Dutch surface x usable wind at a Dutch surface human constants x 100W energy slaves energy use constants (2000) x World A.D.2000 total energy use x Dutch A.D.2000 total energy use x Dutch A.D.2000 households total energy use x Dutch A.D.2000 persons total energy use electricity use constants (2000) x Dutch A.D.2000 total electricity use x Dutch A.D.2000 households electricity use x Dutch A.D.2000 persons electricity use old fasioned units kilogramme force over a metre (kgf.m) kilocalories (kcal) horsepower during an hour (pk.h) ton of TNT British thermal unit litres of crude oil Tonne of oil equivalent Barrel of oil equivalent Million tonnes of oil equivalent approximately Wa/102 000 000 used in food business derived from car business 1 ton TNT 1 nations using electricity 1 households using electricity 1 persons using electricity 1 world energy use 1 national energy use 1 household energy use 1 person energy use 1 slaves 1 x wind on Earth 1 x wind in the Netherlands 1 x wind usable in the Netherlands 1 x sun hitting the Netherlands 1 x sun usable in the Netherlands

heat required to raise one pound of water from 60 into 61 oF at normal 1 litre 1 TOE 1 BOE 4 MTOE

Page 2

Conversion

values units

0
3 1 m natural gas (aeq)

1 litre petrol 1 kg coal by coincidence nearly:


0.000000 3.000000 6.000000 9.000000 12.000000

= = = = =

10 10 10 10 10

1 Wa 0 kWa 0 MWa 0 GWa 0 TWa

8,760 Wh 9 kWh

= = =

10 10 10

2.057496 5.057496 8.057496

0 MWh 0 GWh 0 TWh

31,536,000 J 31,536 kJ 32 MJ

= = = = = =

10 10 10 10

1.501194 4.501194 7.501194 10.501194

0 GJ 0 TJ 0 PJ 0 EJ

10 10

17.236182 16.908280

0 x sun hitting Earth 0 x sun hitting surface

Page 3

Conversion

= = = = = = = = = = = = =

10 10

13.209310 12.209310

0 x sun hitting the Netherlands 0 x sun usable in the Netherlands

10 10 10

15.537200 11.838240 10.315364

0 x wind on Earth 0 x wind in the Netherlands 0 x wind usable in the Netherlands

10

2.000000

0 slaves

10 10 10 10

13.176084 11.000000 4.193820 3.795880

0 world energy use 0 national energy use 0 household energy use 0 person energy use

10 10 10

10.031726 2.580375 2.182435

0 nations using electricity 0 households using electricity 0 persons using electricity

3,214,679 kgf.m 7,534 kcal 12 pk.h

= = = = =

10

2.122785

0 ton TNT 29,890 BTU 1 litre 0 TOE 0 BOE 0 MTOE

om 60 into 61 oF at normal pressure 10 10 10 10


0.067000 3.123097 2.287790 9.725157

Page 4

Conversion

Page 5

Conversion

Page 6

Exergy: maximal work out of heat


100

DT 0.1 1 10 30 100 150 400 1000 10000 100000

% maximal work out of heat

80 60 40
20

Wn Q

DTn T0 DTn

0 1

10
oC

temperature difference DT

100

% W n/Q 0.0 0.3 3.3 9.3 25.4 33.9 57.7 77.3 97.2 99.7

1000

25

10000

100000

T0 DT T Q W

293 oK o 100 C o 393 K 1096 joule 279 joule

2000 304 25 %maximal efficiency

1 5 30 50 75 80 1200 1300 1399 2200 3590 4000 5850 7000

heat recovery from ventilation heat recovery from fume gass steam engine burning wood combustion engine rocket engine sun surface

% maximal work out of heat


100000

100 80 60 40
20

0 2000

1500
oC

temperature difference DT

1000

500

20 oC environmental temperature 0 megajoule (MJ) gigajoule (GJ) terajoule (TJ) 0 0 0 0 0 0

petajoule (PJ) 0 0

kilowattuur (kWh) 0 0

wattannum (Wa) 0 0

Wa means 'watt during a year' (a='annum'=year) 3 occasionally 1 'Wa' is approximately 1 m gas, 1 liter petrol or 1 kg coal

Gwa 0 0

ing a year' (a='annum'=year) gas, 1 liter petrol or 1 kg coal

40.0 30.0
/Wa
Photovoltaics

20.0
10.0

Probably

0.0 1940

1960

1980

2000

2020

Carnot cycle
T1 T2 V 70 m3 0.00005 60 0.00007 0.00010 50 0.00015 0.00020 40 0.00025 0.00030 0.00040 30 0.00045 0.00050 20
atm Pressure
o 20 C o 1400 C o 293 K o 1673 K

2933 16731 R joule/K decompression 8.31


compression

liter 0.05 0.07 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25 0.30 0.40 0.45 0.50

cc 50 70 100 150 200 250 300 400 450 500 atm=

P=molesRT/V Pa atm 814529 8.0 581806 5.7 407264 4.0 271510 2.7 203632 2.0 162906 1.6 135755 1.3 101816 1.0 90503 0.9 81453 0.8 101325 Pa

Pa 4646396 3318854 2323198 1548799 1161599 929279 774399 580799 516266 464640

atm explosion 45.9 50 8.0 32.8 50 45.9 22.9 15.3 in/out 11.5 500 0.8 9.2 500 4.6 7.6 5.7 5.1 4.6

moles heating 0.0167


cooling

10 0 0

100

200

300
cc Volume

400

500

600

default o 27 C inlet temperature o 1400 C explosion temperature

DT
% maximal work out of heat

0.1 100 1 10 80 30 100 60 150 40 1000 10000 20 100000


0 1

n Exergy: maximal work out of heat

% W /Q 0.0 0.3 3.3 9.3 25.4 33.8 77.3 97.2 99.7 82.47

600

1380

10

100

1000

10000

100000

oC

temperature difference

type

on revolutions per minute, r.p.m.

sec acceleration 0 100 km/h

cm3 cylinder content

position of cylinders

Nm max. couple

/1 compression

kg weight DIN

mm boring

mm stroke

280 SL 300 SL 350 SL 380 SL 420 SL 450 SL 500 SL

2746 2962 3499 3818 4196 4520 4973

4500 1500 8.9 185 138 4400 1500 8.8 188 140 4000 1600 9 200 149 4000 1540 8.5 204 152 3750 1600 8.5 218 163 3000 1600 9.7 225 168 3200 1600 7.9 240 179 http://www.mb107sl-club.nl/107_techniek.htm Fig. 1 Technical specifications of old Mercedes-Benz R 107 types produced from February 1971 t/m Augustus 1989

R R V V V V V

6 6 8 8 8 8 8

86 88.5 92 92 92 92 96.5

78.8 80.3 65.8 71.8 78.9 85 85

9 9.2 9.5 9 9 8.8 8.8

238 260 286 305 330 378 404

kW power

Hp power

cylinders

Car physics
Yellow area to be filled in as external data formula technical specifications given and direct conclusions 16 mm bore (boring) 17 mm stroke (slag) 3 cm cylinder volume per cylinder 18 cylinders 3 19 cm cylinder volume 25 compression 1/ 3 26 cm cylinder volume compressed km per litre fuel consumption 12 newton*m max. couple (force at 1m from axis) 13 on revolutions per minute, r.p.m. on revolutions per second, r.p.s. 14 kW power m radius tyre m distance covered by one wheel rotation wheel rotations per second at 100km/hr times slowing down engine rotation by gear 1/ newton force available on road without internal friction sec acceleration 0 100 km/h m/sec2 acceleration kg weight DIN newton force needed for acceleration newton force remaining to overcome frictions %force remaining to overcome frictions pk power W power on revolutions per minute, r.p.m. on revolutions per second, r.p.s. newton*m couple (force at 1m from axis) km/h top speed newton force needed for acceleration wheel rotations per second at top speed times slowing down engine rotation by gear 1/ newton force available to overcome friction force from engine 32 atm inlet pressure 35 atm outlet pressure 0 C inlet temperature K inlet temperature 0 C compression temperature K compression temperature 0 C explosion temperature K explosion temperature 21 joule/K universal gas constant R 30 mols fuel in cylinders (per 2 rotations) 32 33 34 35 newton/cm2 newton/cm2 newton/cm2 2 newton/cm inlet pressure compression pressure explosion pressure outlet pressure

http://team.bk.tudelft.nl/Publications/2005/Car/Car%20physics.

default 1963 Mercedes R117 280 SL

86.0 86.0 78.8 78.8 458 6 6 2746 9.0 9 305.16 6.9 238 238 4500 4500 75 112 0.3 1.9 14.7 5 4038 8.90 8.90 3.12 1500 1500 4682 -644 ? -16% 185 185 138000 138000 4500 4500 75 293 200 0 29.5 153 149040

0.9 1.1 27 300 400 673 1400 1673 8.314 0.10041350 9.12 184.12 457.70 11.15

39 newton maximum force on one piston power delivered by engine 2 40 newton/cm average pressure1 % pressure of maximum compression 2 41 newton/cm average pressure2 % pressure of explosion 2 42 newton/cm average pressure3 2 43 newton/cm average pressure4 44 45 46 47 joule energy1 joule energy2 joule energy3 joule energy4 joule energy1-energy2+energy3-energy4 48 joule energy per rotation (2 strokes) max. revolutions per minute, r.p.m. max. revolutions per second r.p.s. kW maximal power per cylinder 51 kW maximal power 49

4333

-1.01 33.0% 57.42 35.7% 159.78 1.01 -4.638 262.808 731.366 4.638 459.282 230 6000 100 23 138

fuel per hour on revolutions per second r.p.s. sec time (one hour) rotations 100 3600 360000

first calculation attempt starting by energy delivered joule energy delivered 82670793 53 joule/kg benzine total energy content 43000000 56 %efficiency combustion engine 19% joule/kg benzine available for motion 8267376.252 kg benzine used 10.00 54 kg/liter specific weight 0.72 liter fuel 13.89 second calculation attempt starting by cylinder content 30 mols fuel per rotation 0.05021 mols fuel (per rotation times rotations) 18074 molweight mixture 36 grmols 644353 molweight air 28.8 grmols benzine 356419 kg fuel 10.00 kg/liter specific weight 0.72 liter fuel 13.89 third attempt starting by forces to overcome newton force needed to overcome frictions 413 m covered at 200km/hr 200000 joule energy needed 82673763 kg benzine used 10.00 kg/liter specific weight 0.72

liter fuel

13.89

bk.tudelft.nl/Publications/2005/Car/Car%20physics.doc

default 1963 Mercedes R117 280 SL

0.0167356 per cylinder 91193 1841177 4576952 111458 Pa Pa Pa Pa 1 18 45 1 atm atm atm atm

delivered

er content

overcome

Heat Transport Costs


acceptable costs per dwelling per year years to repay the investments total investment per dwelling km distance to source /km transport investments basic investments total investments % interest per year interest million costs including interest Minimum number of dwellings needed or ha Glasshouses needed py y ih d id ib I iy iy c h hg 282 15 4230 21.25 3,700,000 6,100,000 84,725,000 5.0% 91,412,190 176 41,640 167
d 400000000 0 21.25 300000000 50 282 15 2125 37 61 50

Number of houses (distance to heat source)


100,000 90,000

minimal number of dwellings

80,000
70,000

200000000 100000000

60,000
50,000

Euro
0 10 20 30 40 50

40,000
30,000

-100000000 -200000000

20,000
10,000

-300000000
-400000000 -500000000

km distance

http://www.zuid-holland.nl/.../apps_livelink_save_doc.htm?llpos=1211265&llvol=-2000&th 125 20 2500 19 2,500,000 4,500,000 52,000,000 4.5% 73,409,129 125 50,164 201

h 400000000

Yield-costs

1,442 41,640 300000000 96,025.42

200000000 100000000 0 -100000000 -200000000


result yield costs profit repayed

-300000000
-400000000 -500000000 0 5

10

15
Years

20

25

30

nk_save_doc.htm?llpos=1211265&llvol=-2000&thema=nee y 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 21 39 h*py*y 11742479 23484959 35227438 46969917 58712397 70454876 82197355 93939835 105682314 117424793 129167273 140909752 152652231 164394711 176137190 187879669 199622149 211364628 223107107 234849587 246592066 258334545 270077025 281819504 293561983 305304463 317046942 328789421 340531901 352274380 364016859 375759339 387501818 399244297 410986777 422729256 434471735 446214215 457956694 -88961250 -93409313 -98079778 -102983767 -108132955 -113539603 -119216583 -125177412 -131436283 -138008097 -77218771 -69924354 -62852340 -56013850 -49420559 -43084727 -37019228 -31237578 -25753969 -20583304

-144908502 -15741229 -152153927 -11244175 -159761624 -7109392 -167749705 -3354994 -176137190 0 -184944050 2935620 -194191252 5430897 -203900815 7463813 -214095855 9011252 -224800648 10048939 -236040680 10551386 -247842714 10491831 -260234850 9842174 -273246593 8572911 -286908922 6653061 -301254368 4050094 -316317087 729855 -332132941 -3343520 -348739588 -8207688 -366176568 -13902188 -384485396 -20468537 -403709666 -27950327 -423895149 -36393331 -445089907 -45845609 -467344402 -56357625 -490711622 -67982366 -515247203 -80775468 -541009563 -94795349 -568060042 -110103348 10551386

Heat loss in pipes


K temperature difference W/mK heat conduction coefficient m pipe diametre m insulation thickness 2 W/m K heat transfer coefficient correction factor W/m heat loss m pipe length W heat loss Wa heat loss DT l D d a corr Q/secm l Q/sec Q

Gool, v.; e.a. (1986) Poly-energie zakboekje (Arnhem) Koninklijke PBNA pag. 574

138 0.051 0.4 0.0995 77% 2.2 71 26918 1904716 0.06

138 51 40 199 77

l steel is 50, so there should be a fac

26918

akboekje (Arnhem) Koninklijke PBNA pag. 574 http://www.rotterdamengineering.nl/content/view/28/66/ http://library.wur.nl/way/bestanden/clc/1870929.pdf l steel is 50, so there should be a factor 1/1000 in the formula of Gool(1986)

Heat transfer
J/(gK) Heat Capacity 1
o o

http://www.cheresources.com/heat_transfer_basics.shtml

Warm flow cooling


CpH mH TinH 3.16 141509 424 316 141509 424 g Mass 1 K Temperature in 1 K Temperature out 1 ToutH 176 176 J or Wsec Heat transfer QH -110897773.1 kWh Heat transfer Wa Heat transfer equivalent to approximately 1 litre of petrol, 1kg coal or 1m3 natural gas

Cold counter-current flow warming up


J/(gK) Heat Capacity 2
o o

CpC mC TinC ToutC

1.38 334905 341 908 262049766.3


700

138 334905 341 908

g Mass 2 K Temperature in 2 K Temperature out 2

J or Wsec Heat transfer QC

J Heat in 1 J Heat out 1 J Heat in 2 J Heat out 2

110897773.1 0 0 262049766.3
Temperature
oC

600 500 400 300 200 100 0 -100 -200 Wa DHeat 0.0 2.0 4.0 6.0
warm

8.0 cold 10.0

Log mean temperature diff. Temperature correction

-3 DTLM f

-296.43 0.75

75

Hot side temp. transf. co. Exch.wall thickness Wall mat. Therm. Conduct. Cold side temp. transf. co. Fouling coefficient J/sec m K transfer coeff. m2 Heat transfer area
2

hH Dx k hC Rf U A

liquid (25 C) Water 142 kg o 151 C -97 C


o

SGravity
3 1001 kg/m o 304 F 3 0.141 m

-143 F

-110898 kWsec -105111 BTU -31 kWh -3.5 Wa watt during a year

flow warming up
solid Paraffin wax SGravity 335 kg o 68 C
o 635 C

930 kg/m o 154 F


o 1175 F

0m

8.3 Wa

248375 BTU

3.5 Wa 0.0 Wa -3.5 Wa 0.0 Wa 8.3 Wa 8.3 Wa Wa Heat loss 4.8 Wa