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July 11, 2009

2009 marks fifteen

years experience in
designing and building
CPV (Concentrated
Photo Voltaic) systems
that produce electrical
power at substantially
reduced cossts when
compared to
conventional photo
voltaic systems.
achieved costs of
seven cents per peak
watt. At these prices
hydrogen is made at
$0.11 per kg and
gasoline from CO2 for
$0.20 per gallon.

Concentrated Photovoltaics
radically reduced energy costs
By William Mook
It costs about a dollar a square while limiting the amount of I have been working for
inch for a wafer of silicon. silicon available for solar use. fifteen years on another idea.
Expose that silicon to sunlight and Using less costly polysilicon What if we could concentrate
you’d need about eleven square also reduces costs, but the light to a tiny spot and build a
inches to make one watt of power efficiencies are reduced as well. photocell to convert light to
in full sunlight. This translates to This achieves costs of one-third electricity at that tiny spot? How
over fifty-cents per kilowatt-hour that attained by using wafer inexpensively could solar panels
of energy, about seven times more silicon. Yet, new uses of be made if we did that? The
costly than electricity you buy polysilicon in manufacturing answer is, less than a penny a
from your local utility. Even MEMs devices and HDTVs has peak watt!! This is hundreds of
though there is no fuel burned in caused a rise in prices of times less costly than any system
the process. polysilicon as solar use grows. now contemplated, and changes
Others have attempted to Companies like Nanosolar the paradigm of solar from one of
reduce the cost of solar panels by have taken silicon dust mixed in a many high-cost alternatives to
reducing the cost of that square binder to create printable solar existing energy systems, making
inch. Using surplus silicon taken panels that have the potential to solar the primary energy of the
from the consumer electronics lower costs to one-fifth the cost of twenty-first century capable of
industry has cut costs in half, wafer silicon systems. replacing fossil fuels while
lowering energy costs overall.

MÖKENERGY July 11, 2009
Solar cheaper than oil?
our society is built on “Hydrogen at $110 per
low-cost energy metric ton makes gasoline,
diesel fuel, and jet fuel
From 1850 through 1950 the cost of from coal at $0.20 per
primary energy decreased from an gallon today while building
inflation adjusted $150 per barrel to $2 a hydrogen infrastructure
per barrel!! Over this period a society that does away with oil and
built on low-cost energy arose to replace coal altogether in less than
a society based on slavery. Since 1950
ten years.”
the price of oil has risen to exceed $50
per barrel and social progress has ended. William Mook, founder MÖKENERGY
Despite massive computerization,
automation and extensive use of
robotics, the rising cost of energy has
stalled the rise in living standards
enjoyed through the 1950s and has put
on permanent hold many of the
futuristic dreams of the 1950s. At
present, alternatives to fossil fuels are
expected to cost far more than fossil fuels
while lowered expectations are sold as a US Primary Fuel Production
natural consequence of environmental
concerns. Meanwhile, more people work
more hours for less, while energy break this cycle. That’s why low-cost during questions asked at a press
alternatives have been routinely ignored conference that, “By 1970 power would
companies report record profits which is
and marginalized. In 1956 King be too cheap to meter” Who was Louis
a direct consequence of higher cost
Hubbert chief geologist for Shell Strauss? Director of the Atomic Energy
reported that he was able to compute the Commission. Dr. Strauss was replaced
Why are energy costs rising?
logistic curve for oil production in the US later that year by Eisenhower.
Because the amount of fuels our industry
and throughout the world. All geologists Since that time Hubbert’s findings as
is set up to use are limited. If you believe
know about the logistic curve. It applies well as low-cost nuclear, have been
the energy companies there are no good
to anything you look for. Whether marginalized while alternatives like solar
alternatives. This is not true. Why
quarters in a change jar, or oil in the are approached in ways that avoid or
would the energy companies lie to us?
Because it benefits them for energy costs ground. In 1956 enough data was ignore their potential to lower overall
available to know conclusively that oil energy costs. Before the 1990s CPV
to rise. They sell a commodity that is in
production in the USA would peak in wasn’t even considered a viable
short supply. The only way they can
1970 and oil production would peak in alternative because many felt wrongly it
maintain high profits is to sell what they
the world in 2015. That’s why in 1956 was impossible to increase intensity on
have at high prices. Low cost alternatives
Louis Strauss, said to science reporters PV cells to more than 2x ambient.

Too little load, and you have a burn out.

Balance of System Cost So, energy load, and energy source must
the other cost center be balanced to work efficiently and safely.
To achieve this balance requires a
Electricity is a high-value substantial investment in balance of
commodity. So why use it to make a low system costs. So, even if solar panels
value fuel that when burned makes heat? were free along with solar energy, these
AC electricity available on demand costs make solar energy non-competitive
is certainly a high-value commodity. But, with even today’s energy prices.
what about DC electricity available only Is there a solution?
when the sun shines? That is not so Certainly! Don’t use DC electricity
valuable. In fact, considerable processing to make AC electricity. Use DC
Electrolytic Hydrogen
of DC electricity is needed to make electricity instead to make hydrogen from
Fifty-two megawatt-hours of DC solar electricity practical use of it at all. water. Why hydrogen? Because
makes a metric ton of hydrogen from nine To work efficiently, a solar panel
metric tons of deionized water when the sun hydrogen can be used to make fuels we
shines at less than $110. must be tied to a balanced load. Too use today at less cost than we pay today.
much load, and you have a brown out.

USA as an energy exporter
MÖKENERGY July 11, 2009

Coal water and sunlight

9,800 square miles of ultra-low-cost solar panels “The USA today has the capacity to
installed on a handful of abandoned mine lands in arrange its existing resources so that it
the US West is sufficient to produce 300 million tons becomes the world’s largest exporter of
of hydrogen gas from 2,700 million kiloliters of oil products.”
water each year.
The 300 million tons is piped to all of the William Mook
nation’s 1,036 coal fired power plants. There, 180
million tons of hydrogen is burned to replace the
1.14 billion tons of coal now burned at these plants.
Meanwhile, another 120 million tons of hydrogen is water sets up the beginnings of a hydrogen economy
combined directly with the coal at each of these which eliminates the balance of fossil fuel use
plants to produce 7 billion barrels of liquid fuel throughout the world with hydrogen exported from
products, including gasoline, diesel fuel and jet fuel. the USA.
For an assured supply of hydrogen gas under all
weather conditions and seasonal variations, a 100
day supply of hydrogen gas is stored in spent oil
wells across the nation. This process mobilizes
immobile oil now trapped underground. This oil,
added to conventional oil production allows the
United States to export two billion barrels of liquid
fuel products even while consuming 6.8 billion
barrels of liquid fuels each year.
Since this approach to energy requires the
production, storage and distribution of massive
quantities of hydrogen gas, the development of a
hydrogen economy is a natural consequence of this Add water to sunlight and get low-cost
approach. hydrogen. Send that hydrogen to coal fired
Eliminating the burning of coal reduces power plants to be burned to eliminate half our
carbon footprint. Convert the unburned coal to
America’s carbon footprint by half. The
gasoline to eliminate our oil import problem.
development of hydrogen sources from sunlight and Export excess along with hydrogen to balance
our economy.

Solar panels costing
less than $28 per
square yard feeding
low cost variable load
electrolyzers produce
hydrogen at less than
$110 per metric ton.

Low cost hydrogen

delivered by pipeline to
America’s 1,036 coal
fired power plants is
burned instead of coal
eliminating most of our
country’s carbon

The stranded coal is

converted at the coal
fired power plant into
gasoline, diesel fuel
and jet fuel in
quantities large
enough for the USA to
export these fuels to