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ing/ed adjective An -ing/ed adjective changes in different situations, e.g.

The book is very interesting; I am very interested in the book.

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A Accuracy The use of correct forms of grammar, vocabu#ary and $ronunciation. In an accuracy activity, students ty$ica##y give more attention to correctness. %ee f#uency.

Achievab#e target, goa# An aim that is not too difficu#t for the #earner to reach.

Achieve aims, objectives &hen a teacher succeeds in teaching what he/she has $#anned to teach.

Achievement test

An achievement test is used to see how we## students have #earnt the #anguage taught in c#ass. Achievement tests are often at the end of term or end of the year and test the main $oints of what has been taught in that time.

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Ac'uisition noun, ac'uire verb To #earn a #anguage without studying it, just by hearing and/or reading and then using it. This is the way we a## #earn our first #anguage.

Active ro#e, $assive ro#e &hen students think about their own #earning and what their own needs are and try to he#$ themse#ves #earn more, they are taking an active ro#e. A $assive ro#e is the o$$osite of an active ro#e.

Active voice In an active sentence, the subject of the verb usua##y does or causes the action, e.g. I wrote the #etter. %ee $assive voice.

Activity book, workbook An activity book or workbook has e(tra $ractice and is often used for homework. It usua##y accom$anies a coursebook.

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Activity-based #earning A way of #earning by doing activities. The ru#es of #anguage are #ooked at either after the activity or not at a##.

Ada$t materia#! To change a te(t or other materia#, so that it is suitab#e to use with a $articu#ar c#ass.

Adjective An adjective describes or gives more information about a noun, $ronoun or c#ause, e.g. a hot day.

Adverb An adverb describes or gives more information about how, when, where or to what degree something is done, e.g. They sang beautifu##y.

Affi( A meaningfu# grou$ of #etters added to the beginning or end of a word to make a new word. Affi(ation is the $rocess of adding a $refi( or suffi( to word.

Aim &hat the teacher tries to achieve in the #esson or course.

Ana#yse #anguage To think about #anguage, e.g. what the form of the structure is and why it is being used in this way in this situation.

Antici$ate #anguage $rob#ems &hen teachers are $#anning a #esson, they think about what their students might find difficu#t about the #anguage in the #esson so that they can he#$ them #earn more effective#y at certain $oints in the #esson.

Antonym The o$$osite of another word, e.g. hot is the antonym of co#d.

A$$ro$riacy noun a$$ro$riate/ina$$ro$riate adj )anguage which is suitab#e or correct in a $articu#ar situation. %ee register.

Arouse, generate interest To make students interested in a task.

Artic#e An artic#e can be definite the!, indefinite a! or *ero -!, e.g. I was at -! home in the sitting room when I heard a noise.

Ask for c#arification To ask for an e($#anation of what a s$eaker means, e.g. &hat I mean is+. &hat do you mean,

As$ect

A way of #ooking at verb forms not $ure#y in re#ation to time. The $erfect, continuous and sim$#e are as$ects. The continuous as$ect, for e(am$#e, suggests that something is ha$$ening tem$orari#y.

Assessment criteria The 'ua#ities against which a student-s $erformance is judged for assessment. .or e(am$#e, assessment criteria for judging students- writing may be" accuracy of grammar, use of vocabu#ary, s$e##ing and $unctuation; organisation of ideas.

Assum$tions &hen teachers think about what they be#ieve their students wi## or wi## not know or how they wi## behave in a $articu#ar #esson. .or e(am$#e, a teacher $#ans to teach $resent sim$#e using the conte(t of jobs and dai#y routines. The teacher makes the assum$tion that students wi## know basic job vocabu#ary and so wi## not s$end time in the #esson $resenting these words

Attention s$an /ow #ong a student is ab#e to concentrate at any one time.

Auditory #earner A #earner who remembers things more easi#y when they hear them s$oken a#oud. This ty$e of #earner #ikes the teacher to say a new word a#oud as we## as writing it on the board.

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Authentic materia# &ritten or s$oken te(ts which a first #anguage s$eaker wou#d read or #isten to. They may be taken from news$a$ers, radio etc. The #anguage is not made easier.

Au(i#iary verb An au(i#iary verb is a verb used with other verbs to make 'uestions, negatives and tenses, e.g. be, do, have.

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0 0ase form of the verb The base form of the verbis the infinitive form of a verb without 1to-, e.g.go.

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0i#ingua# dictionary This uses trans#ation from the target #anguage into another #anguage for definitions and

e(am$#es. %ee mono#ingua# dictionary.

0oard game A game $#ayed by two or more $#ayers on a board and often using dice. Teachers can use these for contro##ed #anguage $ractice.

0rainstorm noun 2 verb To think of ideas usua##y 'uick#y! about a to$ic often noting these down!. This is often done as $re$aration before writing or s$eaking.

3 3ategorisation noun, categorise verb To $ut things into the grou$ category! to which they be#ong. .or e(am$#e, students might categorise a #ist of different foods into grou$s such as fruit and vegetab#es.

3hant noun 2 verb To re$eat a $hrase, sentence or $oem, usua##y with others, in a regu#ar rhythm.

3hart A drawing or gra$h that can be $#aced on the c#assroom wa## and can show information such as irregu#ar verb forms or $re$ositions.

3hora# dri## In a chora# dri## the teacher says a word or sentence and the students re$eat it together.

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3#arify To make c#ear what you mean.

3#ass $rofi#e A descri$tion of a## the students in a c#ass, inc#uding their age, abi#ity etc.

3#assroom management The strategies used by a teacher to organise the c#assroom and the #earners, such as seating arrangements, different ty$es of activities, teacher ro#es, interaction $atterns.

3#ause A c#ause consists of a verb and genera##y! a subject. A c#ause can be a fu## sentence or a $art of a sentence.

3#osed $airs &hen students do $airwork with the $erson sitting ne(t to them and no one e#se #istens. %ee o$en $airs.

3#o*e test A ty$e of task in which students read a te(t with words missing and try to work out the missing words. The missing words are removed regu#ar#y from the te(t, e.g. every seventh word. A c#o*e test is used for testing reading abi#ity or genera# #anguage use. This is different to a ga$-fi## activity which can focus on testing a s$ecific #anguage $oint. %eega$-fi##.

3o-o$eration noun, co-o$erate verb, co-o$erative adj &orking together and he#$ing each other. In some grou$ work activities students wi## co-o$erate to find the answer or so#ve a $rob#em.

3ognitive $rocesses!

The menta# $rocesses invo#ved in thinking, understanding or #earning.

3o##ective noun A co##ective noun is a noun which inc#udes a grou$ of $eo$#e or things, e.g. the $o#ice, the government.

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3o##ocation &ords which are used together regu#ar#y, e.g. The teacher made a $resentation 45T The teacher $erformed a $resentation.

3o##o'uia# )anguage used in informa# conversations or writing.

3ommunicative activity A c#assroom activity in which students need to communicate to com$#ete the activity.

3ommunicative A$$roach A way of teaching which is based on the $rinci$#e that #earning a #anguage successfu##y invo#ves communication rather than just memorising a series of ru#es. Teachers try to focus on meaningfu# communication, rather than focusing on accuracy and correcting mistakes a## the time. %ee 6rammar-Trans#ation method.

com$arative adjective A com$arative adjective com$ares two things, e.g. /e is ta##er than she is.

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3om$onents of a #esson $#an! The main $arts of a #esson $#an, e.g. aims, $rocedure, timing, aids, interaction $atterns, antici$ated $rob#ems, assum$tions.

3om$ound noun A com$ound noun is a combination of two or more words which are used as a sing#e word, e.g. a f#ower sho$, a headache.

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3om$ounds 4ouns, verbs, adjectives or $re$ositions that are made u$ of two or more words, e.g. assistant office manager, bring back, #ong-#egged, due to.

3once$t checking The techni'ue of asking conce$t 'uestions or other techni'ues to check that students have understood a new structure or item of #e(is. A conce$t 'uestion is a 'uestion asked by the teacher to make sure that a student has understood the meaning of new #anguage, e.g. the new #anguage structure 7 used to 7 /e used to #ive in 8aris. 3once$t 'uestion 7 9oes he #ive in 8aris now, Answer 7 4o.

3onditiona# A $ossib#e or imagined situation usua##y with 1if-, e.g.If it rains, I wi## get wet. but it-s not raining now!

3onditiona# forms A verb form that refers to a $ossib#e or imagined situation. 6rammar books often mention three kinds of conditiona#s" .irst conditiona#, e.g. I wi## come if I can. %econd conditiona#, e.g. I wou#d go if they asked me.

Third conditiona#,e.g. I wou#d have seen her if I had arrived ear#ier.

3onfidence The fee#ing someone has when they are sure of their abi#ity to do something we##. Teachers often do activities that he#$ students to fee# more confident about their own abi#ity.

3onjunction A conjunction or connector! is used to connect words, $hrases, c#auses or sentences, e.g. I #ike tea but I don-t #ike coffee because it-s too strong for me.

3onnected s$eech %$oken #anguage in which the words join to form a connected stream of sounds.

3onscious of! To know that something e(ists or is ha$$ening, or to have know#edge or e($erience of something; to be aware.

3onso#idate To return to something to understand and remember it more com$#ete#y. .or e(am$#e, students can conso#idate a grammar $oint by doing e(tra $ractice.

3onsonant Any #etter of the :ng#ish a#$habet e(ce$t the vowe#s a, e, i, o, u and sometimes y. %ee vowe#.

3onsu#t To get advice or information from someone or something, e.g. a dictionary or grammar book.

3ontent-based #earning &hen a subject, e.g. maths or history, is taught through the second #anguage.

3onte(t The situation in which #anguage is used or $resented in the c#assroom. The words or $hrases before or after a word which he#$ a student to understand that word.

3onte(tua#ise To $ut new #anguage into a situation that shows what it means, e.g. The music in the disco was very #oud. %ee set the scene, conte(t.

3ontinuous assessment A ty$e of testing which is different from a fina# e(amination. %ome or a## of the work that students do during a course is $art of the fina# mark.

3ontraction A shorter form of a word or words, e.g. you have ; you-ve; it is ; it-s.

3onvey meaning To e($ress or communicate meaning. Teachers focus on conveying meaning when they $resent new #anguage.

3orrection code

3orrection codeA series of symbo#s a teacher may use to mark students- writing so that they can correct mistakes by themse#ves, e.g. 8 ; $unctuation mistake, T ; tense mistake.

3ountab#e noun A countab#e noun has a singu#ar and $#ura# form, e.g. book -< books.

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3oursebook, te(tbook A coursebook or te(tbook is used regu#ar#y by students in the c#ass. It genera##y contains grammar, vocabu#ary and ski##s work. A coursebook unit is a cha$ter of a coursebook.

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3rossword $u**#e A word game in which students com$#ete a grid. %tudents write the answers to definitions in the s'uares on the grid. It is often used to revise vocabu#ary.

9 9ec#ining, refusing an invitation

To refuse or dec#ine an invitation, e.g. I-m sorry but I can-t.

9educe meaning from conte(t To guess the meaning of an unknown word by using the information in a situation and/or around the word to he#$, e.g. I drove my van to the town centre and $arked it in the centra# car $ark. =an must be some kind of vehic#e because you drive it and $ark it.

9eductive #earning An a$$roach to #earning in which students are first taught the ru#es and given a## the information they need about the #anguage. Then they use these ru#es in #anguage activities. %ee inductive #earning.

9efinition noun, define verb An e($#anation of the meaning of a word, e.g. in a dictionary.

9emonstrative adjective demonstrative adjective shows how $hysica##y c#ose the s$eaker or writer is to the object, e.g. this near!, that far!.

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9emotivate verb demotivated adj To make someone #ose motivation.

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9e$endent $re$osition A de$endent $re$osition is a word that is a#ways used with a $articu#ar noun, verb or adjective, e.g.interested in, de$end on, bored with.

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9eterminer A determiner is used to make c#ear which noun is referred to, or to give information about 'uantity, and inc#udes words such as the, a, this, that, my, some, e.g. That car is mine.

9eve#o$ ski##s To teach students how to do activities #ike #istening, and he#$ them to understand how to

#isten.

9eve#o$menta# error A deve#o$menta# error is an error made by a second #anguage #earner which cou#d a#so be made by a young $erson #earning their mother tongue as $art of their norma# deve#o$ment, e.g. I goed there #ast week I went there #ast week!.

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9iagnostic test A diagnostic test is used to identify $rob#ems that students have with #anguage. The teacher diagnoses the #anguage $rob#ems students have. It he#$s the teacher to $#an what to teach in future.

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9ia#ogue A conversation between two $eo$#e.

9ice

%ma## b#ocks of $#astic or wood with si( sides and a different number of s$ots on each side. They are used in board games.

9i$hthong A vowe# combination usua##y invo#ving a 'uick but smooth movement from one vowe# to another, e.g. /ma/ as in my

9irect 'uestion The actua# words that someone says when asking a 'uestion, e.g. 1&hat do you mean, %ue,-, asked 8eter. %ee indirect 'uestion.

9irect s$eech The actua# words someone says, e.g. /e said, 1>y name is ?on.-

9isci$#ine noun 2 verb The way a teacher kee$s contro# of students in the c#assroom.

9ominate verb, dominant adj To have a very strong inf#uence over what ha$$ens. If a $articu#ar student is dominant in c#ass, then other students get #ess chance to $artici$ate active#y. If a teacher dominates, the #esson is teacher-centred.

9raft noun 2 verb, re-draft verb A draft is a $iece of writing that is not yet finished, and may be changed. A writer drafts a $iece of writing. That is, they write it for the first time but not e(act#y as it wi## be when it is finished. &hen the writing is changed, it is re-drafted.

9ri## A techni'ue teachers use for encouraging students to $ractise #anguage. It invo#ves guided re$etition or $ractice.

: :cho correct &hen a student makes a mistake, the teacher re$eats the mistake with rising intonation so that students can correct themse#ves, e.g. %tudent" /e don-t #ike it. Teacher" 9on-t, %tudent" /e doesn-t #ike it.

:dit To correct mistakes in a $iece of writing, and $erha$s shorten or change the words of some $arts of the te(t to make it c#earer or easier to understand.

:#icit &hen a teacher asks carefu# 'uestions to get students to give an answer.

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:m$hasis noun, em$hasise verb &hen s$ecia# force is given to a word when it is said because the word is im$ortant, e.g. I want to start the #esson atsi( o-c#ock not seven.

:nab#e To make someone ab#e to do something. A teacher can enab#e students to become inde$endent #earners by teaching them how to study by themse#ves.

:ncouragement noun, encourage verb &hen a teacher he#$s students to succeed by giving them confidence, e.g. 15f course you can do it@ Aou are doing very we##-. %ee confidence.

:nergy #eve#s The fee#ing in a c#assroom. If students are interested and working hard, then the energy #eve#s are high; if students are bored or tired then the energy #eve#s are #ow.

:n'uiring To ask for information, e.g. &hat time does the train #eave,

:rror A mistake that a #earner makes when trying to say something above their #eve# of #anguage or #anguage $rocessing.

:va#uation &hen a teacher co##ects information about students- $erformance and abi#ities. %ee assessment.

:($ectation noun

A be#ief that something wi## ha$$en, e.g. /e has an e($ectation that he wi## win.

:($#ain to make something c#ear and easy to understand. .or e(am$#e, B/e e($#ained the #aws of $hysics to his studentsB.

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:($#oit materia#! To use materia# for a $articu#ar $ur$ose.

:($osure noun, e($ose verb &hen #earners #isten to or read #anguage without being conscious#y aware of it.

:($ress To show or make known a fee#ing or an o$inion in words. :($ressing abi#ity, e.g. I can swim.

:($ressing intention, e.g. I-m $#anning to visit him ne(t year. :($ressing necessity, e.g. /e needs to get a new $ass$ort. :($ressing ob#igation, e.g. Aou must wear a seatbe#t. :($ressing $ermission, e.g. 3an I have a #ook at your book, :($ressing $reference, e.g. I-d rather have coffee than tea. :($ressing $robabi#ity, e.g. /e shou#d be in #ater.

:(tension task An activity which give students further $ractice of the target #anguage or the to$ic of the #esson.

:(tensive #istening/reading )istening to or reading #ong $ieces of te(t, such as stories. Aou may #isten to or read some $arts in detai# and may skim other $arts. %ee intensive #istening/reading.

:(tract 8art of a te(t.

. .acia# e($ression A teacher can show how they fee# through their face, e.g. smi#ing, showing sur$rise.

.actor A fact or situation which inf#uences the resu#t of something, e.g. the factors which decide whether someone #earns a #anguage successfu##y or not.

.a#se friend A word in the target #anguage which #ooks or sounds as if it has the same meaning as a simi#ar word in the #earners-first #anguage but does not.

.eature e.g. of connected s$eech! A feature of something is an interesting or im$ortant $art or characteristic of it.

.eedback noun 2 verb, conduct, e#icit or give feedback

To te## students how we## they are doing. This cou#d be at a certain $oint in the course, or after an e(ercise that students have just com$#eted. To communicate to a s$eaker that you understand or not! what they are saying.

.#ashcard A card with words, sentences or $ictures on it. A teacher can use these to e($#ain a situation, te## a story, teach vocabu#ary etc.

.#i$chart A $ad of #arge sheets of $a$er fi(ed to a stand, which teachers use for $resenting information to the c#ass.

.#uency, ora# f#uency The use of connected s$eech at a natura# s$eed without hesitation, re$etition or se#f-correction. In a f#uency activity, students ty$ica##y give more attention to the communication of meaning, rather than correctness. %ee accuracy.

.ocus on To direct someone-s attention to something. To make someone notice something.

.ocus on form To $ay attention to #anguage by identifying and $ractising it.

.orma# assessment, eva#uation &hen a teacher judges students- work through a test and then gives a forma# re$ort or grade to students, to say how successfu# or unsuccessfu# they have been.

.ormative assessment, eva#uation &hen a teacher gives students feedback on their $rogress during a course, rather than at the end of it so that they can #earn from the feedback. %ee summative test.

.unction The reason or $ur$ose for communication, e.g. making a suggestion; giving advice.

.unctiona# A$$roach

A way of teaching which uses a sy##abus based on functions rather than on grammatica# structures.

.unctiona# e($onent A $hrase which is an e(am$#e of a function and shows the $ur$ose of the s$eaker, e.g. )et-s... . This $hrase is one way to make a suggestion. It is an e(am$#e or e($onent! of the function of suggesting. %ee function.

6 6a$-fi## An activity in which students fi## in the s$aces in sentences or te(ts. This is often used for restricted $ractice or for testing a s$ecific #anguage $oint. This is different from a c#o*e test which can focus on reading abi#ity or genera# #anguage use. %ee c#o*e test.

6erund, -ing form A noun which is made from the $resent $artici$#e form of a verb, e.g. I hate sho$$ing.

6esture noun 2 verb A movement with $art of the body, e.g. hand, head.

6et students- attention To make students #isten to the teacher, $ossib#y after they have been doing grou$ or $airwork.

6oa#s Aims that a student or teacher may have.

6rade #anguage! To use #anguage that is the correct #eve# for the students and is not too difficu#t. %ee graded reader.

6raded reader A story book with #anguage that has been made easier for students.

6rammar-Trans#ation method

A way of teaching in which students study grammar and trans#ate words into their own #anguage. They do not $ractise communication and there is #itt#e focus on s$eaking. A teacher $resents a grammar ru#e and vocabu#ary #ists and then students trans#ate a written te(t from their own #anguage into the second #anguage. %ee communicative a$$roach.

6rammatica# structure The arrangement of words into meaningfu# sentences. A grammatica# structure is a#so a grammatica# #anguage item, e.g. $resent $erfect sim$#e.

6ra$h A drawing that uses a #ine or #ines to show how two or more things are re#ated to each other.

6reeting To we#come someone, often with words, e.g. /e##o, how are you,

6rid A $attern of straight #ines that cross each other to make s'uares.

6rou$ dynamics The re#ationshi$ between members of the c#ass.

6uidance /e#$ given by a teacher with #earning, or with doing a task.

6uided discovery A way of teaching in which teachers $rovide e(am$#es of the target #anguage and then guide the students to work out the #anguage ru#es for themse#ves.

6uided writing A $iece of writing that students $roduce after a #ot of $re$aration by the teacher. The teacher may give the students a $#an to fo##ow, or ideas for the #anguage to use.

/ /andout, worksheet A $iece of $a$er with e(ercises, activities or tasks on it that a teacher gives to students for a

range of reasons during a c#ass.

/eadword A word whose meaning is e($#ained in a dictionary. It usua##y a$$ears in bo#d at the to$ of a dictionary entry.

/esitate To $ause before or whi#e doing or saying something. %tudents often hesitate if they are trying to find the correct words to say, because they are nervous, or need more time to think.

/igh#ight To mark words on $a$er or on a com$uter screen using a co#our so that they are easier to notice. To focus on something so that students rea#ise it is im$ortant, e.g. to high#ight a mistake by under#ining it.

/omo$hone A word which sounds the same as another word, but has a different meaning or s$e##ing, e.g. I knew he had won; I bought a new book.

I Ice-breaker An introductory activity that a teacher uses at the start of a new course so that students can get to know each other.

Idiom A grou$ of words that are used together, in which the meaning of the who#e word grou$ is different from the meaning of each individua# word, e.g. %he fe#t under the weather means that she fe#t i##.

Ignore errors! To choose not to $ay attention to something such as an error made by a student. A teacher may do this if they want to he#$ the student with f#uency, not accuracy.

I##ustrate meaning To show what something means, e.g. I was nervous when I got on the $#ane because I hate f#ying.

Im$erative

The form of a verb that gives an order or instruction, e.g. Turn to $age CD.

Inde$endent study %tudying without a teacher $resent. This can be done at home, in a #ibrary etc.

Indirect 'uestion The words someone uses when they are te##ing someone what somebody e#se asked, e.g. 8eter asked %ue what she meant. An indirect 'uestion can a#so be used when someone wants to ask something in a more $o#ite way, e.g. 1I was wondering if you cou#d he#$ me- indirect 'uestion! instead of 13ou#d you he#$ me,- direct 'uestion!. %ee direct 'uestion.

Individua# dri## In an individua# dri## the teacher says a word or sentence and one student re$eats it a#one.

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Inductive #earning An a$$roach to #earning in which students are not first taught the ru#es of grammar. They work out the ru#es for themse#ves by using the #anguage. %ee deductive #earning.

Infer attitude, fee#ing, mood To decide how a writer or s$eaker fee#s about something from the way that they s$eak or write, rather than from what they actua##y and o$en#y say or the words they use.

Infinitive The infinitive form is the base form of a verb with 1to-. It is used after another verb, after an adjective or noun or as the subject or object of a sentence, e.g. EI want to study-, 1It-s difficu#t to understand-.

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Infinitive of $ur$ose This is used to e($ress why something is done, e.g. I went to the #esson to #earn :ng#ish.

Informa# assessment, eva#uation &hen a teacher decides whether a student is doing we## or not, or whether a course is successfu# or not, but without a test or an officia# re$ort or grade.

Information-ga$ activity A c#assroom activity in which students work in $airs or grou$s. %tudents are given a task, but they are given different information and to com$#ete the task, they have to find out the missing information from each other.

Instructing To order or te## someone to do something, e.g. 8#ease turn to $age CF and do e(ercise C.

Intensifier A word used to make the meaning of another word stronger, e.g. /e-s much ta##er than his brother; I-m very tired.

Intensive #istening/reading ?eading or #istening to focus on how #anguage is used in a te(t. %ee e(tensive reading/#istening.

Interaction noun, interact verb, interactive strategies Interaction is 1two-way communication-. Interactive strategies are the means used, es$ecia##y in s$eaking, to kee$ $eo$#e invo#ved and interested in what is said, e.g. eye contact, use of gestures, functions such as re$eating, asking for c#arification.

Interaction $atterns The ways in which students work together in c#ass, such as o$en c#ass, $airwork, grou$ work and individua# work.

Interference &hen the #earner-s mother tongue inf#uences their $erformance in the target #anguage. A #earner may make a mistake because they use the same grammatica# $attern in the target #anguage as they use in their mother tongue. The )C grammatica# $attern is not a$$ro$riate in )F.

Inter#anguage )earners- own version of the second #anguage which they s$eak as they #earn. Inter#anguage is constant#y changing and deve#o$ing as #earners #earn more of the second #anguage.

Interrogative A 'uestion form.

Intonation

The way the #eve# of a s$eaker-s voice changes, often to show how they fee# about something, e.g. if they are angry or $#eased. Intonation can be rising or fa##ing or both.

Introductory activity An activity which takes $#ace at the beginning of a #esson. Introductory activities often inc#ude warmers and #ead-ins.

Invo#vement Taking $art in an activity, being invo#ved in it.

Irregu#ar verb An irregu#ar verb does not fo##ow the same ru#e as regu#ar verbs. :ach irregu#ar verb has its own way of forming the $ast sim$#e and $ast $artici$#e, e.g. go -< went $ast sim$#e! -< gone $ast $artici$#e!.

Keyword s!"

Item A $iece of #anguage, e.g. a vocabu#ary or a grammar item.

The $arts of a test to which a student has to res$ond.

G Gigsaw #istening/reading A te(t which is divided into two or more $arts. %tudents have to #isten to or read their $art, then share their information with other students in order to com$#ete the task. In this way, the te(t is made into an information-ga$ activity.

Gumb#ed $aragra$hs, $ictures, sentences A te(t in which the $aragra$hs or sentences are not in the correct order, or a series of $ictures that are in the wrong order. The students have to $ut the te(t or $ictures into the correct order.

K Kinaesthetic #earner A #earner who #earns more easi#y by $hysica##y doing things. This ty$e of #earner #ikes to move around or move objects whi#e #earning.

Keyword s!"

)C/)F )C is the #earner-s mother tongue or first #anguage; )F is the #earner-s second or other #anguage.

)abe# To match the name of an object to the object. %tudents are often asked to #abe# $ictures of objects with the correct name.

)anguage awareness Hnderstanding the ru#es of how #anguage works.

)anguage #aboratory A room in a schoo# where students can $ractise #anguage by #istening to ta$es and by recording themse#ves s$eaking.

)ayout The way in which $arts of a te(t are organised and $resented on a $age. 3ertain te(ts have s$ecia# #ayouts, e.g. #etters and news$a$er artic#es.

)ead-in noun, #ead in verb The activity or activities used to $re$are students to work on a te(t or main task. A #ead-in often inc#udes an introduction to the to$ic of the te(t or main task and $ossib#y study of some new key #anguage re'uired for the te(t or main task.

)eaf#et, brochure A $iece of $rinted $a$er that gives information or advertises something. This is one e(am$#e of rea#ia.

)earner autonomy noun, autonomous adj, #earner inde$endence &hen a student does not need a teacher to #earn, but can set their own aims and organise their own study they areautonomous and inde$endent. >any activities in coursebooks he#$ students to be more inde$endent by deve#o$ing#earning strategies and #earner training.

)earner characteristics The ty$ica# things about a #earner or #earners that inf#uence their #earning, e.g. age, )C, $ast #earning e($erience, #earning sty#e.

)earner $rofi#e A descri$tion of a student, inc#uding their abi#ity and their

needs.

)earner training The use of activities to he#$ students understand how they #earn and he#$ them to become inde$endent #earners.

)earning contract An agreement between the teacher and the students about their ro#es and res$onsibi#ities i.e. what the teacher wi## do and what the students wi## do to he#$ the students to #earn!.

)earning resources The materia#s or too#s which he#$ students #earn, e.g. books, com$uters, cassettes etc.

)earning strategies The techni'ues which a student conscious#y uses when #earning or using #anguage, e.g. deducing the meaning of words from conte(t; $redicting content before reading.

)earning sty#e The way in which an individua# #earner natura##y $refers to #earn something.

)e(ica# A$$roach A way of ana#ysing #anguage that is based on #e(ica# items such as words, mu#ti-word units, co##ocations and fi(ed e($ressions rather than grammatica# structures. %ome :)T books and materia#s organise their sy##abuses around the )e(ica# A$$roach.

)e(ica# set A grou$ of words or $hrases that are about the same to$ic, e.g. weather 7 storm, to rain, wind, c#oudy etc.

)e(is Individua# words or sets of words, e.g. homework, study, whiteboard, get dressed, be on time.

)inguistic 3onnected with #anguage or the study of #anguage.

)isten/read for detai# To read or #isten to a te(t in order to get meaning out of every word.

)isten/read for gist To read or #isten to a te(t to understand its genera# meaning or $ur$ose. %ee skim.

)isten/read for mood To read or #isten to a te(t in order to identify the fee#ings of the writer or s$eaker. %ee infer attitude/fee#ing/mood.

> >ain aim The main aim is the most im$ortant aim, e.g. the teacher-s main aim in a #esson cou#d be to teach the $resent $erfect in the situation of trave#.

Keyword s!"

>ain c#ause &hen the teacher arrived, the students sto$$ed ta#king.

Keyword s!"

>ain stress %ometimes, a word may have two stresses, in which case one sy##ab#e takes the main stress. In the word inde$endent, for e(am$#e 1$en- takes the main stress.

>atching task A ty$e of task in which students are asked to $air re#ated things together, for e(am$#e, match two ha#ves of a sentence, or a word with a $icture.

>aturity noun, mature adj .u##y grown or deve#o$ed. If a #earner is mature in attitude, they behave in an adu#t way. A #earner-s maturity $hysica#, emotiona# and menta#! inf#uences a teacher-s a$$roaches and/or decisions.

>eaningfu# something which shows the meaning of #anguage.

something which has a va#ue for students in the rea# wor#d.

>emorab#e 9escribes something which is easy to remember.

>emorise To #earn something so that you can remember it #ater.

>ime noun 2 verb 0ody movements used to convey meaning without using words.

>ing#e noun 2 verb A ming#e is an activity which invo#ves students wa#king round the c#assroom ta#king to other students.

>inima# $air Two words which are different from each other on#y by one meaningfu# sound, and by their meaning, e.g. hear, fear.

>i(ed abi#ity, mi(ed #eve# The different #eve#s of #anguage or abi#ity of students studying in the same c#ass.

>oda# verb A moda# verb is a verb used with other verbs to show ideas such as abi#ity or ob#igation or $ossibi#ity. They inc#ude can, must, wi##, shou#d, e.g. I can s$eak .rench, but I shou#d study even harder.

Keyword s!"

>ode# noun 2 verb A c#ear e(am$#e of the target #anguage for students to write down and save as a record. If a teacher is focusing on the target #anguage of a #esson, they usua##y choose a mode# sentence, which they write on the board. The teacher often mode#s the #anguage as we##, by saying it c#ear#y before dri##ing the students.

>onitor

To watch over students in order to make sure that they are doing what they have been asked to do, and he#$ them if they are having $rob#ems.

>ono#ingua# dictionary This uses on#y the target #anguage for headwords, definitions, e(am$#es etc. %ee bi#ingua# dictionary.

>other tongue The very first #anguage that you #earn as a baby, which is usua##y the #anguage s$oken to you by your $arents. A#so ca##ed )C or first #anguage.

>otivation noun, motivate verb >otivation is the thoughts and fee#ings which make us want to do something and he#$ us continue doing it.

>u#ti$#e-choice 'uestions A ty$e of task in which students are given a 'uestion and have three or four $ossib#e answers. They choose the correct answer.

4 4arrate To te## a story or ta#k about something that has ha$$ened. Teachers often narrate stories to young #earners.

Keyword s!"

4atura# order The order in which #earners natura##y #earn some items in their first or other #anguages. %ome #anguage items are #earnt before others and it can be difficu#t for teachers to inf#uence this order.

4eeds The #anguage, #anguage ski##s or #earning strategies a student sti## has to #earn, or the conditions they need to he#$ them #earn.

4egotiating To have a discussion with someone to reach an agreement, e.g. If you he#$ me now, I-## he#$ you ne(t week.

4eutra#

A sty#e of s$eaking or writing that is neither forma# nor informa#, but in-between. It is a$$ro$riate for most situations.

4ominate To choose and name one student to s$eak or do a $articu#ar task.

4ote-taking noun, take notes verb 4ote-taking is one of the subski##s of writing. To take notes means to write down ideas in short form.

4oun A $erson, $#ace or thing, e.g. e#e$hant, gir#, grass, schoo#./u<

5 5bject This is a noun or $hrase that describes the thing or $erson that is affected by the action of a verb, e.g. I saw >ary in the c#assroom. %ee subject.

5bjective test An objective test is marked without using the e(aminer-s o$inion, e.g. true/fa#se 'uestions, mu#ti$#echoice 'uestions. There is a c#ear right answer.

Keyword s!"

5ne-to-one A teaching situation which invo#ves on#y one teacher and one student.

5$en c#ass &hen the teacher #eads the c#ass in an activity and each student is $aying attention to what is ha$$ening. &hen students res$ond, they do so in front of everyone in the c#ass.

5$en com$rehension 'uestions A ty$e of task in which students read or #isten to a te(t and answer 'uestions using their own words.

5$en $airs

In o$en $airs, one $air does a $airwork activity in front of the c#ass. This techni'ue is usefu# for showing how to do an activity and/or for focusing on accuracy. %ee c#osed $airs.

5ra# test A test of s$eaking abi#ity.

5utcome ?esu#t. This is what the teacher ho$es wi## be the resu#t in terms of #earning at the end of the #esson.

5ver-a$$#ication of the ru#e &hen a student uses a grammatica# ru#e too much, making an incorrect word or structure by fo##owing a regu#ar $attern, e.g. a student says There were three gir#s correct $#ura# form! and two mans. incorrect $#ura# form!

5verhead $rojector 5/8! A $iece of e'ui$ment that makes images a$$ear on a wa## or screen. It can be used in a c#assroom instead of a whiteboard or b#ackboard.

5verhead trans$arency 5/T! The $#astic sheet a teacher can write on and use on an overhead $rojector 5/8!.

8 8ace The s$eed of the #esson. Teacher can vary the $ace in a #esson by $#anning different activities in order to kee$ the students- attention.

8aragra$h noun 2 verb A $aragra$h is $art of a #onger $iece of writing such as an essay, which starts on a new #ine and usua##y contains a sing#e new idea. &hen a writer is $aragra$hing, he/she is creating $aragra$hs. %ee to$ic sentence.

8ara$hrase noun 2 verb To say or write something in a short and c#ear way, using different words. If a #earner is not sure of the e(act #anguage they need to use, they can $ara$hrase, i.e. e($#ain their meaning using different #anguage.

8art s! of s$eech A descri$tion of the function of a word or a $hrase in a sentence, e.g. noun, verb,

adjective.

8artici$ation noun, $artici$ate verb To take $art in something, e.g. a #esson or c#assroom activity.

8artici$#e $ast and $resent! The form of the verb that is used to make tenses or adjectives, e.g. an interesting fi#m $resent $artici$#e!; I haven-t seen him today. $ast $artici$#e!

8assive voice In a $assive sentence, something is done to or ha$$ens to the subject of the verb, e.g. The tree was hit by the car. %ee active voice.

8eer assessment, eva#uation &hen students give feedback on each other-s #anguage.

8eer feedback .eedback given to a student by another student in the c#ass.

Keyword s!"

8ersona# aim A $ersona# aim is what the teacher wou#d #ike to im$rove on in his/her teaching, e.g. To reduce the time I s$end at the whiteboard.

Keyword s!"

8ersona#isation noun, $ersona#ise verb &hen a teacher he#$s a student to connect new words, to$ics, te(ts or grammar to their own #ife.

8honeme The sma##est sound unit which can make a difference to meaning e.g. /$/ in $an, /b/ in ban. 8honemes have their own symbo#s $honemic symbo#s!, each of which re$resents one sound. &ords can be $resented in $honemic scri$t usua##y Internationa# 8honetic A#$habet or I8A!, e.g. /d

8honemic chart A $oster or #arge diagram of the $honemic symbo#s.

8hrasa# verb, mu#ti-word verb A verb which is made u$ of more than one word e.g. a verb 2 adverb $artic#e or $re$osition! which has a different meaning from each individua# word, e.g. #ook after 7 A mother #ooks after her chi#dren.

8hrase A grou$ of words which make sense, but do not form a sentence.

8icture stories %tories that are in $ictures instead of words.

8#acement test A $#acement test is used at the beginning of a course to identify a student-s #eve# of #anguage and find the best c#ass for them.

Keyword s!"

8#ura# noun A $#ura# noun is more than one $erson, $#ace or thing and can be regu#ar or irregu#ar, e.g. boys, women.

Keyword s!"

8ortfo#io A co##ection of work that a student uses to show what they have done in $re$aration for a $articu#ar course or e(am.

8ossessive 1s- and whose &ays of showing or asking who something be#ongs to, e.g. 1&hose book is it,1It-s %ue-s-.

$ossessive adjective A $ossessive adjective shows who something be#ongs to, e.g.my, our.

Keyword s!"

8ractice 3ontro##ed $ractice, restricted $ractice &hen students $ractise the target #anguage in restricted situations in which they have #itt#e or no choice of what #anguage they use. The teacher focuses on accurate use of the target #anguage. )ess contro##ed, freer $ractice &hen students $ractise the target #anguage more free#y, with more choice of what they say and what #anguage they use.

8raise To te## someone they have done we##, e.g. That-s e(ce##ent. &e## done@

Keyword s!"

8re-teach vocabu#ary! 0efore introducing a te(t to students, the teacher teaches vocabu#ary from the te(t which they think the students do not a#ready know.

8redicting

To say what you think is #ike#y to ha$$en, e.g. I think the story wi## end ha$$i#y.

8rediction noun, $redict verb A techni'ue or #earner strategy students can use to he#$ with #istening or reading. %tudents think about the to$icbefore they read or #isten. They try to imagine what the to$ic wi## be or what they are going to read about or #isten to. This makes it easier for them to understand what they read or hear.

8refi( A $refi( is a meaningfu# grou$ of #etters added to the beginning of a word, e.g. a$$ear 7 disa$$ear.

Keyword s!"

8re$osition A word used before a noun, noun $hrase or $ronoun to connect it to another word, e.g. /e was in the garden.

8resentation noun, $resent verb To introduce new #anguage.

8resentation, 8ractice and 8roduction 888! A way of teaching new #anguage in which the teacher $resents the #anguage, gets students to $ractise it in e(ercises or other contro##ed $ractice activities and then asks students to use the same #anguage in a communicative way in their $ractice.

8rob#em so#ving %tudents work in $airs or grou$s to find the so#ution to a $rob#em. 8rob#em-so#ving activities usua##y he#$ to deve#o$ f#uency.

8rocedure The detai#s of what is going to ha$$en in each stage of a #esson.

8rocess noun A series of actions $erformed in order to do, make or achieve something.

8rocess writing

An a$$roach to writing, which #ooks at writing as a $rocess and inc#udes different stages of writing such as $#anning, drafting, re-drafting, editing, $roofreading.

8rocessing #anguage The way in which the brain works on #anguage, conscious#y or unconscious#y, in order to #earn or understand it.

8roductive ski##s &hen students $roduce #anguage. %$eaking and writing are $roductive ski##s. %ee rece$tive ski##s.

8roficiency test A $roficiency test is used to see how good students are at #anguage, or use of the #anguage. The contents of a $roficiency test are not chosen according to what has been taught, but according to what is needed for a $articu#ar $ur$ose, e.g. :ng#ish for hote# rece$tionists, :ng#ish for studying at university. 3ambridge :%5) .irst 3ertificate in :ng#ish .3:! and I:)T% are e(am$#es of $roficiency tests.

Keyword s!"

8roficient To be very good at something because of training and $ractice, e.g. s$eaking

:ng#ish.

8rogress test A $rogress test is used during a course in order to assess the #earning u$ to that $oint.

8roject work An activity which focuses on com$#eting a task on a s$ecific to$ic. %tudents often work in grou$s to create something such as a c#ass maga*ine. %tudents sometimes have to do some work by themse#ves, sometimes outside the c#assroom.

8rom$t To he#$ #earners think of ideas or to remember a word or $hrase by giving them a $art of it or by giving another kind of c#ue. %ee word $rom$t.

Keyword s!"

8ronoun A word that re$#aces or refers to a noun or noun $hrase just mentioned. 9emonstrative $ronoun, e.g. this, that.

5bject $ronoun, e.g. him. 8ersona# $ronoun, e.g. I subject $ronoun!,me object $ronoun! 8ossessive $ronoun, e.g. mine ?ef#e(ive $ronoun, e.g. myse#f ?e#ative $ronoun, e.g. which

8roofread To read a te(t checking to see if there are any mistakes in s$e##ing, grammar etc.

8ro$er noun A $ro$er noun is the name of a $erson or $#ace, e.g. ?obert, )ondon.

Keyword s!"

8unctuation The symbo#s or marks used to organise writing into c#auses, $hrases and sentences to make the meaning c#ear, e.g. fu## sto$, ca$ita# #etter, a$ostro$he and comma.

8u$$et A mode# of a $erson or anima# that a teacher can move by $utting their hand inside it, which is often used when teaching young #earners.

I Iuantifier A word or $hrase such as 1much-, 1few- or 1a #ot of- which is used with a noun to show an amount, e.g. I don-t have much time; I have a #ot of books.

Iuestion tag A $hrase such as 1isn-t it,- or 1doesn-t he,- that is added to the end of a sentence to make it a 'uestion, or to check that someone agrees with the statement, e.g. It-s very co#d, isn-t it,

? ?aise awareness To he#$ students understand something that they may not a#ready know. .or e(am$#e, if you teach #earning strategies, it can raise students- awareness of how they #earn.

?ank ordering An activity in which students have to $ut things into order of im$ortance for a given situation, e.g. they have to decide which four things to take on ho#iday with them $ass$ort, toothbrush,

money etc.! from a #ist of ten. This is a#so known as $rioritising.

?a$$ort, bui#d ra$$ort The re#ationshi$ between the teacher and students. Teachers try to bui#d or create a good ra$$ort or re#ationshi$ with their students.

?ea#ia ?ea# objects such as menus, timetab#es and #eaf#ets that can easi#y be brought into the c#assroom for a range of $ur$oses.

?ece$tive ski##s &hen students do not have to $roduce #anguage; instead they read or #isten to a te(t. %ee $roductive ski##s.

?ecyc#e To teach words or structures that have been taught before, for revision and more $ractice.

?eference materia#s, resources The materia#s which teachers and students can use to check information, e.g. grammar books, dictionaries or 39?oms.

?ef#ect on teaching To think about a #esson after teaching it.

?eformu#ation noun, reformu#ate verb &hen a teacher corrects what a student has said by re$eating the sentence correct#y, but without drawing the students- attention to their mistake. This is usua##y the way $arents 1correcttheir young chi#dren-s #anguage mistakes.

?egister The forma#ity or informa#ity of the #anguage used in a $articu#ar situation. .orma# register or #anguage is used in serious or im$ortant situations, e.g. in a job a$$#ication. Informa# register or #anguage is used in re#a(ed or friend#y situations, e.g. with fami#y or friends.

?egu#ar verb A regu#ar verb changes its forms by adding -ed in the $ast sim$#e and $ast $artici$#e, e.g. wa#k -< wa#ked $ast sim$#e!.

Keyword s!"

?einforce To make a student-s understanding of the target #anguage more com$#ete by going over it again. %ee conso#idate.

?e#ative c#ause The students who were sitting near the front stood u$./i<

Keyword s!"

?e$etition To say something again, often for $ractice. This is often done in dri##s.

?e$orted statement &hen someone-s words are re$orted by another $erson, e.g. %he said she was sorry. %ee indirect 'uestion.

?e$orting verb A verb such as 1te##-, 1advise-, 1suggest- used in indirect s$eech to re$ort what someone has said, e.g. Gane advised Gohn to study harder.

?e'uesting, making a $o#ite! re'uest To ask someone $o#ite#y to do something, e.g. 8#ease cou#d you o$en the window,

?es$onse noun, res$ond verb A re$#y or reaction to communication such as a #augh, a smi#e, saying something. Teachers and students may res$ond to each other in writing, s$eech or in the form of a facia# e($ression.

?evision noun, revise verb &hen a student or teacher #ooks at #anguage or ski##s that have a#ready been taught again in order to remember this #anguage better. Teachers often do this in the c#assroom to he#$ students to $re$are for a test.

?hyme &ords that sound the same, e.g. hat, cat. A song or $oem with words that sound the same at the end of

each #ine I be#ieve I can f#y. I be#ieve I can touch the sky.

?hythm A regu#ar $attern of stress and sy##ab#e #ength.

?o#e-$#ay A c#assroom activity in which students are given ro#es to act out in a given situation.

?outine %omething which is done regu#ar#y such as a teacher setting writing homework every .riday. Teachers try to deve#o$ some routine habits in the c#assroom, e.g. a#ways asking students to record new words with their meaning and an e(am$#e sentence.

?ubric &ritten instructions for a task.

% %can To read a te(t 'uick#y to $ick out s$ecific information.

%cheme of work A basic $#an of what a teacher wi## teach for a number of #essons.

%eating arrangement The way the students sit in the c#assroom, e.g. in rows, in a circ#e around the teacher, in grou$s around different tab#es.

%eating $#an A $#an of where the students shou#d sit in the c#assroom.

%e#f-access centre, #earning centre

A $#ace with #earning resources such as books, com$uters and cassettes where students can study by themse#ves.

%e#f-assessment, eva#uation &hen students decide for themse#ves if they think their $rogress or #anguage use is good or not.

%e#f-correction &hen students are ab#e to correct #anguage mistakes they have made when asked without he#$ from the teacher or other students.

%entence com$#etion A ty$e of task in which students are given $arts of a sentence and are asked to com$#ete the sentence, using s$ecifictarget #anguage.

%entence stress is where different words in a sentence are stressed. In :ng#ish these are usua##y the informationcarrying words. In the sentence It was a #ove#y evening, and the tem$erature was $erfect, the main stress, when s$oken, is $robab#y on the word $erfect. %tress can therefore be used to show meaning, to em$hasise a $articu#ar $oint or fee#ing./b<</</b<</<

%entence transformation A ty$e of task in which students are given a sentence and have to com$#ete a second sentence so that it means the same as the first, e.g. It-s too co#d to $#ay tennis. It JJJJJJJJJJJJ to $#ay tennis. enough! It isn-t warm enough to $#ay tennis.

%e'uence noun 2 verb A se'uence is a series of things, e.g. activities in a #esson. %tudents can se'uence $ictures in a story i.e. $ut them in order.

Keyword s!"

%et a 'uestion, task, test To give students a task or test to do or a 'uestion to answer.

%et the scene, the conte(t To e($#ain or $resent the conte(t of something students wi## read, hear, ta#k or write about, to make the situation c#ear for them.

%i#ent $eriod The time when students who are beginning to #earn a first or second #anguage $refer to #isten or read! for some time before $roducing the #anguage.

%ingu#ar noun A singu#ar noun is one $erson, $#ace or thing.

Keyword s!"

%ituationa# $resentation A way of $resenting new #anguage through a sim$#e story or situation. The teacher may use $ictures or other aids to he#$ them create the situation.

%ki##, subski## The four #anguage ski##s are #istening, s$eaking, reading and writing. :ach ski## can be divided into sma##er subski##s that are a## $art of the main ski##, e.g. identifying te(t organisation reading!; identifying word stress #istening!.

%kim

To read a te(t 'uick#y to get a genera# idea of what it is about.

%#i$ &hen a student makes a #anguage mistake that they are ab#e to correct themse#ves without he#$ from the teacher. %ee error.

%$ecification noun, to s$ecify aims! verb A c#ear and e(act descri$tion of what the teacher wants students to #earn. Aims are s$ecified at the beginning of a #esson $#an.

%$ecu#ating To guess something, e.g. I think it might be an easy test.

%tage, ste$ A section of a #esson. )essons work through different stages such as #ead-in, $resentation, contro##ed $ractice etc.

%timu#ate discussion! To encourage students to ta#k about something. This can be done in different ways such as through a te(t or a $icture.

%trong/weak forms If the word is unstressed, the weak form of vowe#s may be used, e.g. I can /kn/! s$eak Ita#ian, .rench, :ng#ish and %$anish. The sound // is ca##ed the schwa. If a word is im$ortant, then the strong form is used, and the $ronunciation changes, e.g. I can /kn/! s$eak a #itt#e %$anish in an emergency.

%tructura# A$$roach A way of teaching which uses a sy##abus based on grammatica# structures. The order that the #anguage is $resented is usua##y based on how difficu#t it is thought to be.

%tudent-centred &hen the students are at the centre of the activities and have the chance to work together and think for themse#ves. %ee teacher-centred.

%ubject This is the noun or $hrase that goes before the verb in a sentence to show who is doing the action, e.g. Gohn $#ays tennis every %aturday. %ee object.

%ubject-verb agreement &hen the form of the verb matches the $erson doing the action of the verb, e.g. I wa#k, he wa#ks. If a student writes I wa#ks, then it is wrong because there is no subject-verb agreement.

%ubjective test A subjective test is marked using the e(aminer-s o$inion about the 'ua#ity of the answer. The answer is not sim$#y right or wrong, e.g. marking written stories, com$ositions, interviews, conversations, story-te##ing.

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%ubordinate c#ause /i<&hen the teacher arrived, the students sto$$ed ta#king./i<

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%ubsidiary aim A subsidiary aim is the secondary focus of the #esson, #ess im$ortant than the main aim. It cou#d be the #anguage or ski##s students must be ab#e to use we## in order to achieve the main aim of the #esson or a ski## or #anguage area which is $ractised whi#e focusing on the main aim.

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%ubstitution dri## In a substitution dri## the teacher $rovides a sentence and a different word or $hrase which the student must use or substitute! in e(act#y the same structure, e.g. Teacher" I bought a book. 8en. %tudent" I bought a $en.

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%uffi( A suffi( is a meaningfu# grou$ of #etters added to the end of a word to make a new word which can be a different $art of s$eech, e.g. care 7 carefu#.

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%ummary noun, summarise verb To take out the main $oints of a #ong te(t, and rewrite them in a short, c#ear way, using fu## sentences.

%ummative test

A summative test is used at the end of a course. %ee formative assessment/eva#uation.

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su$er#ative adjective Asu$er#ative adjective com$ares more than two things, e.g. /e is the ta##est boy in the c#ass.

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%u$$#ementary materia# The books and other materia#s which teachers can use in addition to a coursebook, e.g. $ronunciation $ractice materia#s.

%urvey %tudents find out information from others by asking 'uestions or using 'uestionnaires in order to $ractise.

%y##ab#e A $art of a word that usua##y contains a sing#e vowe# sound, e.g. $en ; one sy##ab#e; teacher ;

two sy##ab#es 7 teach/er; umbre##a ; three sy##ab#es 7 um/bre/##a.

%y##abus This describes the #anguage and ski##s to be covered on a course, and the order in which they wi## be taught.

%ynonym A word which has the same or near#y the same meaning as another word, e.g. nice is a synonym of $#easant.

T Ta$escri$t, audio scri$t, transcri$t The written version of the words students hear when doing a #istening activity. These can often be found in a teacher-s book.

Target #anguage The #anguage which is the focus of the #esson or a $art of the #esson. It cou#d be grammar, #e(is, functions or $ronunciation. The #anguage being studied, )F.

Target #anguage cu#ture The traditions and cu#ture of the country whose #anguage is being studied.

Task An activity which students com$#ete which has a definite resu#t. .or e(am$#e, $rob#em-so#ving activities or information-ga$ activities are tasks.

Task-based )earning T0)! A way of teaching in which the teacher gives students meaningfu# tasks to do. The teacher may ask students to think about the #anguage they have used to do the tasks, but the main focus for students is on the task itse#f. 8roject work is task-based.

Task-ty$e A set of 'uestions that are a## of one kind which are used to assess students, e.g. mu#ti$#e choice, ga$-fi##, matching.

Teacher ro#e

The way a teacher chooses to manage the c#assroom, e.g. a teacher can choose to take a contro##ing ro#e, giving directions or instructions at the front of the c#ass or to take a #ess contro##ing ro#e, monitoring students as they work.

Teacher ta#king time The tota# time in a #esson that a teacher s$eaks, com$ared with the tota# time the students s$eak.

Teacher-centred &hen the teacher is at the centre of most stages of the #esson, contro##ing the #esson from the front of the c#assroom. %ee student-centred.

Teacher-s book A teacher-s book accom$anies the coursebook, and contains teaching ideas, ta$escri$ts and answers to coursebook activities.

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Teaching aids Any materia#s or resources a teacher uses in the c#assroom, e.g. 5/8, charts. %ee rea#ia and #earning resources.

Teaching s$ace The areas in the c#assroom that can be used for teaching, e.g. the board, the wa##s, the desks, the o$en f#oor.

Teaching strategy The $rocedure or a$$roach used by a teacher in the c#assroom, e.g. a teacher may choose to give thinking time to students before they s$eak.

Tense A form of the verb that shows whether something ha$$ens in the $ast, $resent or future, e.g. 8ast $erfect sim$#e and continuous $rogressive! After I had $honed >ary, I went out. $ast $erfect sim$#e!I had been studying for three hours, so I fe#t 'uite tired. $ast $erfect continuous, $rogressive 8ast sim$#e and $ast continuous $rogressive! I was ta#king $ast continuous, $rogressive! to my friend when the ta(i came. $ast sim$#e! 8resent continuous $rogressive! for future &hat are you doing at the weekend, 8resent $erfect sim$#e and continuous $rogressive! I have known him for a #ong time $resent $erfect sim$#e!. I have been studying for three years $resent $erfect continuous, $rogressive!. 8resent sim$#e and continuous $rogressive! I work at a schoo# $resent sim$#e! and I am working in )ondon now $resent continuous, $rogressive!.

Test A forma# assessment of a student-s #anguage.

Test-teach-test A way of teaching new #anguage. The teacher asks students to do a task without giving them any he#$, to see how we## they know a certain $iece of #anguage this is the first test!. The teacher then $resents the new #anguage to the students teach!, then asks the students to do another task using the new #anguage correct#y this is the second test!.

Te(t structure The way a te(t is organised. .or e(am$#e, an essay ty$ica##y has an introduction, main section and conc#usion.

Third $erson A verb or a $ronoun which shows that somebody or something is being s$oken about, e.g. /e, she, it, they.

Time e($ression A word or $hrase that indicates a time $eriod, such as after, by, e.g. I wi## meet you after the #esson.

Time #ine A diagram that shows #earners the re#ationshi$ between tense and time. It is often used in #anguage teaching to $resent the use of a new tense or to correct #earners when they use tenses wrong#y. %ee tenses.

Timing The #ike#y time which different activities or stages in a #esson $#an shou#d take. &hen teachers $#an #essons, they think about how #ong each activity wi## take and they usua##y write this on their $#an.

To$ic The subject of a te(t or #esson.

To$ic sentence A sentence that gives the main $oint or subject of a $aragra$h. This is usua##y the o$ening sentence in a $aragra$h.

Tota# 8hysica# ?es$onse T8?!

A way of teaching in which the teacher $resents #anguage items as instructions and the students have to do e(act#y what the teacher te##s them, e.g. 5$en the window@ %tand u$@ This method is very meaningfu# and good for beginners when they start to #earn a new #anguage, as they have a si#ent $eriod and can make fast $rogress.

Transformation dri## In a transformation dri## the teacher says a word or a sentence and the student answers by changing the sentence into a new grammatica# structure, e.g. Teacher" I bought a $en. %tudent" I didn-t buy a $en. Teacher" I went to the cinema. %tudent" I didn-t go to the cinema.

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True/fa#se 'uestions A ty$e of task in which students read or #isten to a te(t and decide whether statements are correct true! or not correct fa#se!.

Tutoria# &hen a teacher ta#ks to a student individua##y or a sma## grou$ of students to give feedback on their $rogress in the c#ass.

H Hncountab#e noun An uncountab#e noun does not have a $#ura# form, e.g. information.

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Hnmotivated adj &ithout motivation; having no motivation.

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Hsed to A structure that shows something ha$$ened in the $ast but does not ha$$en now, e.g. I used to #ive in )ondon, but now I #ive in 8aris.

= =ariety noun, vary verb To introduce different things such as different ty$es of activities or tasks, #anguage ski##s, interaction $atterns, $acing or timing into a #esson. 6ood teachers try to inc#ude variety in their #esson, so that students stay interested.

=erb The word which fo##ows the subject of a sentence, and is sometimes described as the 1actionword, e.g. I #ike cheese; /e s$eaks Ita#ian.

=erb $attern The form of the words fo##owing the verb, e.g. /e advised me to get there ear#y. advise 2 object $ronoun 2 to 2 base form!

=ideo c#i$ 8art of a video that can be used in c#ass.

=isua# aid! A $icture or a diagram that can he#$ teachers i##ustrate meaning.

=isua# #earner A #earner who finds it easier to #earn when they can see things written down or in a $icture. This ty$e of #earner #ikes the teacher to write a new word on the board as we## as saying it a#oud.

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=isua#ise, visua#isation To form a menta# $icture of something. =isua#isation can he#$ students to remember new words or can be used for creative story-te##ing.

=oiced sound/unvoiced sound A voiced sound is a way of $ronouncing sounds with vibration voiced! or without vibration unvoiced! in the throat. In :ng#ish, vowe#s are usua##y voiced. >any sounds differ on#y because they are either voiced, e.g. /b/ or unvoiced, e.g. /$/.

=owe# 5ne of the sounds shown by the #etters a, e, i, o, u and sometimes y. %ee consonant.

& &armer noun, warm u$ verb An activity that a teacher uses at the beginning of a #esson to give the c#ass more energy. %ee energy #eve#s.

&ord ma$ A way of recording vocabu#ary on the same to$ic in a diagram. This is a#so known as a mind ma$.

&ord $rom$t &hen a teacher suggests a word that the student hasn-t remembered, e.g. %tudent" I want to ++ in an office Teacher" &ork, %tudent" Aes, I want to work in an office. A teacher can a#so use a word $rom$t to correct a student, e.g. %tudent" /e don-t #ike that. Teacher" 6rammar. %tudent" %orry 7 he doesn-t #ike that. %ee $rom$t.

&ord stress is the $ronunciation of a sy##ab#e with more force than the surrounding sy##ab#es which are said to be unstressed, e.g. umbre##a.

&ork #anguage out &hen students try to understand how and why $articu#ar #anguage is used. %ee inductive

#earning.

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