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Tigo Bolivia Training of Asset and Capesso by Ishan Marwah

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2012 AIRCOM International Ltd

Introductions
Welcome

About me Ishan Marwah graduated in Electronics and Communication majors of


Telecommunications

With Aircom for over 3+ years, working as Senior Consultant for Pre Sales ,
Training and Technologies.

Overall 5 + years in the industry having worked in LTE , UMTS / HSPA and
Transmission.

Previously been with Vodafone. Now about you Name Job you do. How long you have been working in Telecoms

What you expect from this training and whether you have worked with Asset
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2012 AIRCOM International Ltd

Introduction
Welcome, this course is specifically designed for the
Engineers who wish to learn LTE Network planning & designing of using ASSET V8.0 and optimizing the network using CAPESSO V5.11..
The day wise schedule is :

This course is classroom based being covered in 5 days.


Day Day Day Day Day
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1 2 3 4 5

Monday - Asset LTE Tuesday - Asset LTE Wednesday - Asset LTE Thursday - Capesso Friday - Capesso Case studies
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Course Objectives
At the end of this course youll be able to: Have a basic understanding of the ENTERPRISE database Define new projects or use existing projects Understand how to use the Geographic Information System (GIS) Create and use vectors and polygons Set up an LTE Network Use fields, filters and visualisers Perform coverage planning Model and spread traffic Perform neighbour planning Create and view an Interference Table Perform static frequency planning Plan the Physical Cell IDs Use the Simulator Generate reports

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Course Structure
Day 1 (AM)
Introduction to Enterprise Setting up a new project Using the GIS, Visual

Day 1 (PM)
Using the GIS, Visual Tools Vectors and Polygons

Setting up a LTE Network

Tools

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Course Structure
Day 2 (AM)
Setting up a LTE Network Fields, Filters &

Day 2 (PM)
Displaying Coverage Model and spread traffic Planning Neighbours

Visualisers
Creating Predictions

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Course Structure
Day 3 (AM)
Plan Frequencies Plan Physical Cell IDs

Day 3 (PM)
Use the Simulator Generating Reports

Use the Simulator

Course evaluation and

feedback

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Session 02
Introduction to Enterprise

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Session Objectives
During this session you will learn about:

The ENTERPRISE tools suite The ENTERPRISE database and its contents The two-stage commit concept

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Introduction to Enterprise
The ENTERPRISE Tools Suite

Administrator ADVANTAGE ARRAYWIZARD ASSET For configuring the database, projects & users For automatic cell planning and optimisation Automated coverage prediction tool Radio network planning for cellular networks

CONNECT - Transmission and microwave link planning DATASAFE - Configuration management solution DIRECT Transmission planning and dimensioning

OPTIMA RANOPT WEBWIZARD -

Network performance monitoring


Drive Test Analysis Web-based GIS and report distribution

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The Enterprise Database


Integrated solution: 1 Platform, 1 GIS Oracle 10g/11g Database

Database contents

Project definition settings Network Elements : Properties, eNodeBs, Cells Frequency Bands, Frame Structures, Carriers Propagation Models Neighbours, Antenna radiation patterns etc.
MSC BSC

Database Organisation
Configuration Data Site Data Link Data

Site

Cell

LAC

Prop Model

Antenna Slot

Antenna

SubCell

Chan-to-Car Map

Interference Wgts

ReUse Groups

System Carriers

Carrier-layer

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2012 AIRCOM International Ltd

The Enterprise Database


Two-stage commit:
Difference Tables: Contain provisional applied changes relevant to
each user. If a change has been applied it can be restored. Commit Tables: Contain the master set of committed data accessible to all users.

The Wastebasket
Two stage delete. Deletions go to wastebasket.

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Session 03 Setting up the Project

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Session Objectives
In this session you will learn how to:

Start the ENTERPRISE suite application Login to the ENTERPRISE database Understand Project Settings Set up the project with the appropriate co-ordinates
and map data directories

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Launching Enterprise
Starting ENTERPRISE

Logging into a database

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Project Settings
Creating a New Project
Coordinate System Map and User data directories Map Data extents Region Load Starting the project The Message Log

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Session 04 Using the GIS and Other Visual Tools

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Session Objectives
During this session you will learn about:

Opening a new GIS window Displaying different map data categories Using the Zoom and Panning functions Adding tooltips Saving and editing favourites Searching the Map View window with the Quick Finder Using the Map Information window to view map data

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Using the GIS Map View


Opening the 2D View window

Map View toolbar


Displaying Map data Key/Legend

Selecting items on the Map & Zooming

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Distance (Dimensioning) Tool Box with MAP Grid & Scale

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Using the GIS Map View



Printing Maps 2D View Context menu Screentips,

Favourites, Quick Finder


Map View Gadgets

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Setting Display characteristics


Display of Sceentips

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WEB MAP

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WEB MAP Configuration


WMS Services are configured in ENTERPRISE Administrator:

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GIS Export

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Session 05 Vectors and Polygons

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Session Objectives
In this session you will learn about:

Creating user vector Adding features to a vector Adding attributes to a polygon Viewing attributes

Importing vector/polygon data

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Vectors And Polygons


Use of Polygons and Vectors Vector Manager Creating a User Vectors 1. Create Vector Structure 2. Draw the Vector 3. Assign Attributes values

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Vectors And Polygons


Adding attributes to a Polygon

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Vectors And Polygons


Draw the Vector

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Vectors And Polygons


Draw a Vector
Append Existing polygon

Delete a point

Select a shape

Add Text

Move a shape

Insert a point

Draw a polygon
Draw a point

Move a point
Insert a Point

Delete a Shape

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Vectors And Polygons


Assign Attribute Values

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Vectors And Polygons


Creating Holes or Islands for Polygons

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LTE Air Interface Overview

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E-UTRAN Architecture
The E-UTRAN has a new element, the eNB, which provides the EUTRA user plane and control plane terminations toward the UE. A new interface called X2 connects the eNodeBs, eliminating the need for RNCs. The E-UTRAN is connected to the EPC through the S1 interface, which connects the eNBs to the Mobility Management Entity (MME) and Serving Gateway (S-GW) elements through a many-tomany relationship.

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LTE Functional Elements - eNodeB


Scheduling
Dynamic resource allocation to UEs Transmission of Pages & broadcast information

Network Access Security (PDCP)


IP header compression Ciphering of user data stream

Radio Resource Management


Bearer & Admission control RF Measurement Reporting

EPC Network Selection


MME Selection at UE attachment User Plane routing to SAE-GW

eNB
eNodeB

Combines the functionality of the UMTS NodeB & RNC

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2012 AIRCOM International Ltd

LTE Functional Elements - MME


Mobility
MME Selection for Intra-LTE handovers SGSN Selection for 3GPP I-RAT Handover

UE Tracking and Reach-ability


Tracking Area List Management (idle or active)

EPC Access
Attachment & Service Request Security & Authentication

Bearer management

MME
Mobility Management Entity

Dedicated bearer establishment PDN GW & SAE-GW selection

Equivalent to the SGSN for the Control Plane

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LTE Functional Elements S-GW


Local Mobility Anchor for Inter eNB handover I-RAT Mobility Anchor Function
3GPP 2G/3G Handover Optimized Handover Procedures (e.g. in LTE-CDMA)

Packet routing & forwarding between EPC & eUTRAN

Lawful Interception

S-GW
SAE Gateway

Equivalent to the SGSN for the User Plane

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LTE Functional Elements P-GW


Charging support Policy enforcement (QoS) Lawful Interception

UE IP address allocation

P-GW
PDN Gateway

Mobility Anchor between 3GPP & non-3GPP access systems

Equivalent to the GGSN

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LTE Radio Key Performance Targets


Peak data rates 20 MHz bandwidth R9 (R10 100MHz?) DL: 100 Mbps, UL: 50 Mbps (without using MIMO ) Uniformity of provision of services Increased Cell-Edge bit rate (sustain interference) Mobility Support Up to 50 kmph, Optimised for low speeds (0-15 kmph)

Reduced latency with quick response time


< 100 ms control plane, < 5 ms user plane Coverage (Cell Size)

5 to 100 km with slight degradation after 30 km


Multipath Resilience , OFDMA based Air interface Simplified network architecture (eNB = NB + RRM)

Reasonable UE power consumption


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E-UTRA Bands and E-ARFCN


E-UTRA Band 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 ... 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 Bandwidth UL (MHz) 1920-1980 1850-1910 1710-1785 1710-1755 824-849 830-840 2500-2570 880-915 1749.9-1784.9 1710-1770 1427.9-1452.9 698-716 777-787 788-798 1900-1920 2010-2025 1850-1910 1930-1990 1910-1930 2570-2620 1880-1920 2300-2400 E-ARFCN UL 13000 13599 13600 14199 14200 14949 14950 15399 15400 15649 15650 15749 15750 16449 16450 16799 16800 17149 17150 17749 17750 17999 18000 18179 18180 18279 18280 18379 26000 26199 26200 26349 26350 26949 26950 27549 27550 27749 27750 28249 28250 28649 28650 29649 Bandwidth DL (MHz) 2110-2170 1930-1990 1805-1880 2110-2155 869-894 875-885 2620-2690 925-960 1844.9-1879.9 2110-2170 1475.9-1500.9 728-746 746-756 758-768 1900-1920 2010-2025 1850-1910 1930-1990 1910-1930 2570-2620 1880-1920 2300-2400 E-ARFCN DL 0 599 600 - 1199 1200 1949 1950 2399 2400 2649 2650 2749 2750 3449 3450 3799 3800 4149 4150 4749 4750 4999 5000 5179 5180 5279 5280 5379 26000 26199 26200 26349 26350 26949 26950 27549 27550 27749 27750 28249 28250 28649 28650 29649 Duplex Mode FDD FDD FDD FDD FDD FDD FDD FDD FDD FDD FDD FDD FDD FDD TDD TDD TDD TDD TDD TDD TDD TDD

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E-UTRA Bands and Channel Bandwidths


Supported Channels (non-overlapping) E-UTRA Band Downlink Bandwidth Channel Bandwidth (MHZ) 1.4 42 53 32 17 25 12 7 7 3 20 23 15 8 11 6 3 3 5 12 12 15 9 5 2 14 7 7 12 5 3* 2* 2* 4 3 12 12 4 10 8 10 6 6 7 4 2* 1* 7 3* 3 6 2* 1* 1* 1* 2 1 6 6 2 5 4 10 15 4 4* 5* 3 X 4 2* 4 1* X X 1 1 4 4 1 3 6 20 3 3* 3* 2 X 3* 1* 3 1* X X X 1 X 3 3 1 2 5 1 60 2 60 3 75 4 45 5 25 6 10 7 70 8 35 9 35 10 60 11 25 12 18 13 10 14 10 ... 33 20 34 15 35 60 42 20 36 60 42 20 37 20 38 50 39 40 40 100 UE receiver sensitivity can be relaxed Channel bandwidth too wide for the band Not supported

E-UTRA bands are regulated to allow operations in only certain set of Channel Bandwidths which are defined as The RF bandwidth supporting a single E-UTRA RF carrier with the transmission bandwidth configured in the UL or DL

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RB UL N SC symb

Channel and Transmission Bandwidths


Channel Bandwidth (MHz) Transmission Bandwidth configuration (NRB) Transmission Bandwidth (MHz) Bandwidth Efficiency (%) 1.4 6 3 15 5 25 10 50 15 75 20 100

Transmission Bandwidth is defined as the bandwidth of an instantaneous transmission from a UE or BS, measured in Resource Blocks (RBs = 180KHz) Any transmission bandwidth ranging from 1 -20 MHz is allowed in steps of 180 kHz (Resource block Configuration)

1.08 77

2.7 90

4.5 90

9 90

13.5 90

18 90

Channel Bandwidth [MHz] Transmission Bandwidth Configuration [RB] Transmission Bandwidth [RB]

Channel edge

Channel edge

Resource block

Active Resource Blocks


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DC carrier (downlink only)

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Multiple Access DL
LTE employs OFDM as the basic modulation scheme and multiple access is achieved through: OFDMA in the LTE Downlink A multi-carrier signal with one data symbol per subcarrier Scalable to wider bandwidths, multipath resilient and better suited for MIMO architecture Drawback: Parallel transmission of multiple symbols creates undesirable high PAPR

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Why SC-FDMA
One of the major problems with OFDMA is, that the transformation of a complex symbol (e.g. BPSK, QPSK, etc.) onto a small set of subcarriers produces a quite big ratio between the maximum power and the averaged power (PAPR = Peak-toAverage Power Ratio). This results in requirements for expensive transmission amplifiers especially on mobile side. It is thus a major design goal to limit this effect. Another variant of OFDMA is used to reduce the PAPR for lower RF hardware requirements. It is called SC-FDMA (Single Carrier Frequency Division Multiple Access). This mechanism can reduce the PAPR of 6..9 dB compared to normal OFDMA. SC-FDMA is one option in 802.16d and it is the method selected for EUTRAN in the uplink direction.

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Multiple Access UL
SC-OFDMA in the LTE Uplink SC-FDMA transmits the four QPSK data symbols from a user in series at four times the rate, with each data symbol occupying N x 15 kHz bandwidth. Signal more like single carrier with each data symbol being represented by one wide symbol Occupied bandwidth same as OFDMA but crucially, the PAPR is the same as that used for original data symbol

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Slot Structure and Physical Resources


Resource Grid (RG)
Consisting of subcarriers and symbols in frequency and time domain, respectively. One subcarrier =15 kHz

Resource Element (RE)


1 subcarrier X 1 modulated symbol

Resource Block (RB\PRB)


12 subcarriers over a slot duration of 0.5 ms. One subcarrier =15 kHz, thus 180 kHz per RB.
Cyclic Prefix Normal Extended Extended Subcarrier Spacing 15 15 7.5 Link Direction DL DL DL # of Subcarrier s 12 12 24 # of Symbols 7 6 3
Bandwidth (MHz) # of RBs Subcarriers 1.4 6 72 3 15 180 5 25 300 10 50 600 15 75 900 20 100 1200

Normal Extended

15 15

UL UL

12 12

7 6

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Reuse of the Guard Period


There is the possibility to use the lost transmission time during the
Guard Period by repeating part of the symbol during this period.
It simply consists of the last part of the following symbol.

Cyclic Prefix (CP): The cyclic prefix is filling the final part of the guard period.

To each OFDM symbol, a cyclic prefix (CP) is appended as guard time

depending on whether extended or normal cyclic prefix is configured. The extended cyclic prefix is able to cover larger cell sizes with higher delay spread of the radio channel.
Tcp Ts Tg Tcp Ts Tg

CP

symbolT

CS

CP

symbolT

CS

time

T
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OFDMA and Throughputs


To symbol rate of 1/15KHz = 66.7us Therefore 15 Kilosymbols per second
15kHz

For 20Mhz bandwidth (1200 carriers) symbol rate = 1200 x 15= 18Msps
Each symbol using 64 QAM (6 bits) Total peak rate = 18 Msps x 6 bits = 108Mbps Subtract overhead and coding and add gains (MIMO)

66.7us

Each symbol 2 bits(QPSK), 4 Bits (16 QAM) and 6 bits 64 QAM

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Physical Channels
Physical Broadcast Channel (PBCH): Carries cell-specific information Physical Multicast Channel (PMCH): Carries the MCH transport channel Physical Downlink Control Channel (PDCCH): For scheduling, ACK/NACK

Physical Downlink Shared Channel (PDSCH): Payload


Physical Control Format Indicator Channel (PCFICH): Defines # of OFDMA symbols/frame Physical Hybrid ARQ Indicator Channel (PHICH): Carries HARQ ACK/NACK Physical Random Access Channel (PRACH): For Call setup Physical Uplink Control Channel (PUCCH): For scheduling, ACK/NACK Physical Uplink Shared Channel (PUSCH): Payload

DL

UL

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Physical Signals
Physical signals handle synchronization, cell identification and channel estimation Downlink
Primary Synchronization Channel (P-SCH): for cell search and identification by the UE Carries part of the cell ID (one of 3 orthogonal sequences)

Secondary Synchronization Channel (S-SCH): for cell search and identification by the UE Carries the remainder of the cell ID (one of 170 binary sequences)

Reference Signal\Pilot (RS): for DL channel estimation.

Exact sequence derived for cell ID (one of 3 x 168 = 504 pseudo random sequences)

Uplink
Demodulation Reference Signal (DM-RS): for synchronization to the UE and UL channel estimation Sounding Reference Signal (S-RS): to monitor propagation conditions with UE

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Logical

Transport

Physical DL synch. DL reference

BCCH PCCH DCCH CCCH DTCH MTCH

BCH PCH DL-SCH

PBCH PDSCH PDCCH PCFICH

MCH UL TrCH

PMCH

MCCH

UL-SCH

PUSCH
PUCCH Demod. Ref.

RACH

PRACH Sounding Ref.

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Frame Structures
LTE supports three frame structures
Type 1-FDD Type 2-TDD MBMS\MBSFN

FDD F -DL F -UL

Type1-FDD (for both Half and full duplex )


Frame Duration =20 slots, 10 msec Subframes= 2 consecutive slots, 1msec

10 ms

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One Subframe = 1 mS
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FDD Frame Structures DL


Type1-FDD- Downlink
DL Reference Signal (DLRS) DLRS symbols exist within the 1st and the 3rd last OFDM symbols of each slot and with a frequency-domain spacing of six subcarriers There is a frequency-domain staggering of three subcarriers between the 1st and 2nd RS symbols DL Control Channels (PDCCH, PCFICH, PHICH) PHICH carries the Hybrid ARQ ACK/NAKs where as PCFICH carriers the information about the number of OFDM symbols allocated for PDCCH in each subframe PDCCH is transmitted in the first n OFDM symbols of each subframe, where n 3 REs reserved for DLRS cannot be used by PDCCH

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Configuration of Carrier- 1 antenna

R0

R0

R0

R0

R0

R0

R0

R0

Specific pre-defined resource elements (indicated by R0-3 in in the timefrequency domain are carrying the cell-specific reference signal sequence.

Downlink reference signal structure The downlink reference signal structure is important for channel estimation. The principle of the downlink reference signal structure for 1 antenna. Ref Signal TX1 = 8 for 15Khz spacing

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Configuration of Carrier- 2 antenna

R1

R0

R1

R0

R0 R1

R1

R0 R1

R1

R0

R0

R0

R1

R0

R1

Specific pre-defined resource elements (indicated by R0-3 in in the timefrequency domain are carrying the cell-specific reference signal sequence.

Downlink reference signal structure The downlink reference signal structure is important for channel estimation. The principle of the downlink reference signal structure for 2 antenna. Ref Signal TX2= 16 for 15Khz spacing

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Configuration of Carrier- 3 antenna

R1

R0

R1

R2

R0

R0 R1

R2

R1

R0 R1 R2

R1

R0

R0

R0

R2

R1

R0

R1

Specific pre-defined resource elements (indicated by R0-3 in in the timefrequency domain are carrying the cell-specific reference signal sequence.

Downlink reference signal structure The downlink reference signal structure is important for channel estimation. The principle of the downlink reference signal structure for 2 antenna. Ref Signal TX3= 20 for 15Khz spacing

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Configuration of Carrier- 4 antenna

R1

R3

R0

R1

R2

R0

R0

R2

R1

R0 R1

R3 R2

R1

R1 R3 R0

R0

R0

R2

R1

R0

R3

R1

Specific pre-defined resource elements (indicated by R0-3 in in the timefrequency domain are carrying the cell-specific reference signal sequence.

Downlink reference signal structure The downlink reference signal structure is important for channel estimation. The principle of the downlink reference signal structure for 2 antenna. Ref Signal TX3= 20 for 15Khz spacing

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FDD Frame Structures DL...


Type1-FDD-Downlink
DL Broadcast & Synchronization Channels PBCH is transmitted on 4 OFDM symbols in the 1st downlink subframe spanning over the central 6 RBs REs reserved for DLRS cannot be used by PBCH P-SCH and S-SCH are transmitted using a single OFDM symbol each, in the 1st and 6th downlink subframe spanning over the central 6 RBs P-SCH and S-SCH REs do not overlap with the REs reserved for DLRS Transmission over central 6 RBs ensures detectability without the UE\Terminal having the prior knowledge of the whole system bandwidth

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Type1-DL Frame

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FDD Frame Structures UL


Type1-FDD- Uplink
UL Control Channel PUCCH transmission in one subframe is compromised of single PRB at or near one edge of the system bandwidth followed by a second PRB at or near the opposite edge of the bandwidth PUCCH regions depends on the system bandwidth. Typical values are 1, 2, 4, 8 and 16 for 1.4, 3, 5, 10 and 20 MHz UL Signals(S-RS & DM RS) S-RS estimates the channel quality required for the UL frequency-selective scheduling and transmitted on 1 symbol in each subframe DM-RS is associated with the transmission of UL data on the PUSCH and\or control signalling on the PUCCH mainly used for channel estimation for coherent demodulation transmitted on 2 symbols in each subframe
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Type1- UL Frame

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Session 06 Setting up a LTE Network

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Session Objectives
In this session you will learn about: Importing and committing antennas into the database Setting up an appropriate propagation model Using XML exports and imports Frame Structures Frequency Bands Defining carriers AAS support How to define a site/node template Setting the cell parameters in the Site Database Editing antenna configurations

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Project Defaults
In order to make an ASSET project easy to use right from the start, the following default objects, with preset parameters, are provided:

Antenna default Propagation model defaults (450, 900, 1800 and


2100MHz)

Template defaults (for each technology) Terminal type default (for each technology)

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Starting to plan Coverage


Overview of Coverage Prediction requirements
Antennas Propagation Models Site templates eNodeBs and cells Predicting Coverage

Importing Antennas: PlaNet/EET format and XML


Import provided XML file and do a Global Commit All

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Antenna Database
Antenna Information and Mask

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Enhanced Advanced Search


Better antenna inventory organization by making use of: 1. Find All Empty Devices

2. Delete All
3. More Advanced Search options, - Include / Exclude patterns - Include patterns for all devices

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Grouping antenna patterns under device


User can group antenna patterns from different devices under one device by making use of Advanced Search rules and Group by Antenna Device functionality (data cleanup / organization)

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Setting up a Propagation Model


Propagation models are mathematical attempts to model the real radio environment as closely as possible. Most propagation models need to be tuned (calibrated) by being compared to measured propagation data, otherwise you will not be able to obtain accurate coverage predictions.

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Std. Macrocell Propagation Model


Asset Standard Macrocell model

PL K1 K 2log (d ) K 3H ms

K 4logH ms

K 5logH eff

K 6log ( H eff )log (d ) K 7(diffraction loss) Clutter loss

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Recommended Starting Parameters


K values k1 for LOS k2 for LOS k1 (near) for LOS k2 (near) for LOS d < for LOS k1 for NLOS k2 for NLOS k1 (near) for NLOS k2 (near) for NLOS d < for NLOS k3 k4 k5 450 MHz 142.3 44.9 129.00 31.00 0.00 142.3 44.9 129.00 31.00 900 MHz 150.6 44.9 0.00 0.00 0.00 150.6 44.9 0.00 0.00 1800 MHz 160.9 44.9 0.00 0.00 0.00 160.9 44.9 0.00 0.00 2000 MHz 162.5 44.9 0.00 0.00 0.00 162.5 44.9 0.00 0.00 2500 MHz 164.1 44.9 0.00 0.00 0.00 164.1 44.9 0.00 0.00 3500 MHz 167 44.9 0.00 0.00 0.00 167 44.9 0.00 0.00

0.00
-2.22 -0.8 -11.70

0.00
-2.55 0.00 -13.82

0.00
-2.88 0.00 -13.82

0.00
-2.93 0.00 -13.82

0.00
-3.04 0.00 -13.82

0.00
-3.20 0.00 -13.82

k6
k7
72

-4.30
0.4

-6.55
0.7

-6.55
0.8

-6.55
0.8

-6.55
0.8

-6.55
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XML Exports and Imports


XML import/export is a powerful way of importing a wide variety of project elements, configuration settings and templates. It is especially useful for exporting/importing between projects.

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MME and SAE-GW Support


Asset support for hieratically higher LTE network elements

Mobility Management Entity (MME)


System Architecture Evolution Gate Way (SAE-GW) Support for Logical/Cellular Connections that allow

for the mesh-type parent-child relationships of the LTE Core.


eNodeB can be parented to both an SAEGW and

MME and can be parented to multiple SAEGWs and/or MMEs

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MME and SAE-GW Support

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LTE Frame Structures

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LTE Frequency Bands

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LTE Carriers

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LTE Carriers

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Interference Co-ordination Schemes


To minimize Intercell Interference following frequency reuse schemes are being considered Frequency Reuse-1 with Prioritization
Each sector divides the available bandwidth into prioritized (one third) and nonprioritized (two third) sections disregard of CE or CC. Prioritized spectrum is used more often than non-prioritized by each sector in order to concentrate the interference that it causes to other sectors

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Interference Co-ordination Schemes


Soft Frequency Reuse
Power difference between the prioritized and non-prioritized spectrum which divides the sector into an inner and an outer region User in the inner region can be reached with reduced power, i.e. Cell Centre Users (CCU) than the users in the outer region i.e. Cell Edge Users (CEU) CCU are assigned frequency Reuse-1 while CEU employ Reuse-3 with soft reuse

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Interference Coordination Schemes


Reuse Partitioning
Similar to Soft Frequency Reuse High-power part is divided between sectors so that each sector gets one third of the highpower spectrum Low-power part employs frequency Reuse-1 while high-power part is configured with a frequency Reuse-3 with hard reuse.

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Interference Coordination Schemes

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MIMO - Transmit Diversity


Instead of increasing data rate or capacity, MIMO can be used to exploit diversity and increase the robustness of data transmission. Each transmit antenna transmits essentially the same stream of data, so the receiver gets replicas of the same signal.

010100

010100

T X
010100

R X

SU-MIMO

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MIMO - Spatial Multiplexing


Spatial multiplexing allows an increase in the peak rates by a factor of 2 or 4, depending on the eNodeB and the UE antenna configuration. Spatial multiplexing allows to transmit different streams of data, different reference symbols simultaneously on the same resource blocks

010 T X 100 R X

010100

SU-MIMO

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LTE Downlink Transmission Modes


LTE Rel 8 supports DLtransmission on 1, 2, or 4 antenna ports:
1, 2, or 4 cell-specific reference signals each reference signal corresponds to one antenna port

DL transmission modes are defined for PDSCH (Data\Traffic)


Single antenna (No MIMO)

Transmit diversity
Open loop Spatial multiplexing Closed loop spatial multiplexing Multi user MIMO SU-MIMO

Closed-loop precoding for Rank=1 (No spatial Mux, But precode)


Conventional beamforming UL MIMO Modes Transmit diversity

Receive Diversity
MU-MIMO
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SU-MIMO
This includes conventional techniques such as Cyclic Delay Diversity Transmit\Receive diversity (Space frequency block codes)

Spatial Multiplexing\ Precoded Spatial Multiplexing


Can be implemented as Open and Closed loop Diversity techniques improves the signal to interference ratio by transmitting same stream of single user data. Spatial multiplexing increases the per user data rate\throughput by transmitting multiple streams of data dedicated for a single user

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MU-MIMO
Multiple users (separated in the spatial domain in both UL and DL) sharing the same time-frequency resources Uses multiple narrow beams to separate users in the spatial domain and can be considered as a hybrid of beamforming and spatial multiplexing. Serves more terminals by scheduling multiple terminals using the same resources this increases the cell capacity and number of served terminals Suitable for highly loaded cells and for scenarios where number of served terminals is more important than peak user data rates

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How AAS Support Affects Simulations


Cell in Site Database (AAS Settings tab) SU-MIMO - Diversity (downlink) SU-MIMO - Diversity (uplink) SU-MIMO - Multiplexing (downlink) Look-Up Table (Tab Name) DL SD SINR Adjustment UL SD SINR Adjustment DL SM Rate Gain SU-MIMO - Multiplexing (uplink) UL SM Rate Gain Clutter MIMO SINR How a Simulation of Network Parameters Delta Performance is Affected (Column name) Offset on Bearer DL SD SINR Required DL SINR is divided by the Adjustment corresponding table value.* UL SD SINR Required UL SINR is divided by the Adjustment corresponding table value.* DL SM Rate Gain Achievable User Data Rate is multiplied Adjustment by the corresponding table value.* DL SM SINR Offsets UL SM Rate Gain Adjustment SINR Delta for SUMIMO Required SINR is adjusted by the specified delta value.* Achievable User Data Rate is multiplied by the corresponding table value.*

SU-MIMO - Adaptive Switching (uplink and/or downlink)** MU-MIMO (uplink and/or downlink)**

UL SM SINR SINR Delta for SURequired SINR is adjusted by the Offsets MIMO specified delta value.* All or any of the above, depending on channel conditions, and/or the cell-specific thresholds, if enabled. DL MU-MIMO SINR Offsets and UL MU-MIMO SINR Offsets SINR Delta for MU-MIMO The number of served terminals is increased by the factor specified in the Average Co-scheduled Terminals. Also, Required SINR is adjusted by the specified delta value on the bearer.*

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Order of AAS Modes in the Simulator


AAS Modes Enabled SU-MIMO Adaptive Switching Sequence Attempted by Simulator 1. SU-MIMO Multiplexing 2. SU-MIMO Diversity Sequence Attempted by Simulator if Cell-specific MIMO Threshold(s) are Enabled If Adaptive SU-MIMO RS SNR threshold is enabled: SU-MIMO Multiplexing is employed above the threshold, and then SU-MIMO Diversity below the threshold.

SU-MIMO Diversity and MU-MIMO

1. MU-MIMO 2. SU-MIMO Diversity 1. SU-MIMO Multiplexing 2. MU-MIMO 1. SU-MIMO Multiplexing 2. MU-MIMO 3. SU-MIMO Diversity

If MU-MIMO RS SNR threshold is enabled: MU-MIMO is employed above the threshold, and then SU-MIMO Diversity below the threshold. If MU-MIMO RS SNR threshold is enabled: SU-MIMO Multiplexing is employed above the threshold, and then MU-MIMO below the threshold. If Adaptive SU-MIMO RS SNR and MU-MIMO RS SNR thresholds are enabled: Initially, SU-MIMO Multiplexing is employed above the Adaptive SU-MIMO RS SNR threshold, then MU-MIMO is employed above the MU-MIMO RS SNR threshold, and finally SU-MIMO Diversity is employed.

SU-MIMO Multiplexing and MU-MIMO

SU-MIMO Adaptive Switching and MU-MIMO

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Lookup Table for AAS

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Templates for Sites


When planning a network, Instead of setting the parameter values on each node individually, you can define templates, then select one of these templates as a basis for adding new nodes. The new nodes will then contain the default characteristics of the template.

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Adding Sites/Cells
You can add network elements by using the site
design toolbar in the Map View window and also by using the Site Database window. and modify network elements. Contact your administrator if you do not have the correct permissions

You need the correct privileges to be able to add

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AAS Settings in Site DB

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LTE Parameters

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Scheduler
Scheduler Round Robin Description The aim of this Scheduler is to share the available/unused resources equally among the terminals (that are requesting RT services) in order to satisfy their RT-MBR demand. This is a recursive algorithm and continues to share resources equally among terminals, until all RTMBR demands have been met or there are no more resources left to allocate. The aim of this Scheduler is to allocate the available/unused resources as fairly as possible in such a way that, on average, each terminal gets the highest possible throughput achievable under the channel conditions. This is a recursive algorithm. The available/unused resources are shared between the RT terminals in proportion to the bearer data rates of the terminals. Terminals with higher data rates get a larger share of the available resources. Each terminal gets either the resources it needs to satisfy its RTMBR demand, or its weighted portion of the available/unused resources, whichever is smaller. This recursive allocation process continues until all RT-MBR demands have been met or there are no more resources left to allocate. The aim of this Scheduler is to allocate the available/unused resources in proportion to the RT-MBR demand, which means that terminals with higher RT-MBR demand achieve higher throughputs than terminals with lower RT-MBR demand. This is a non-recursive resource allocation process and results in either satisfying the RT-MBR demands of all terminals or the consumption of all of the available/unused resources. The aim of this Scheduler is to maximise the terminal throughput and in turn the average cell throughput. This is a non-recursive resource allocation process where terminals with higher bearer rates (and consequently higher SINR) are preferred over terminals with low bearer rates (and consequently lower SINR). This means that resources are allocated first to those terminals with better SINR/channel conditions than others, thereby maximising the throughput.
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Proportional Fair

Proportional Demand

Max SINR

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LTE Parameters
Load (%) 35 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Interference Margin (dB) 1 1.3 1.8 2.4 2.9 3.3 3.7 4.2

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Instance IDs of Antennas

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Carried Traffic Analysis

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Editing Antenna Configuration

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Session 07 Fields, Filters and Visualisers

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Session Objectives
In this session you will learn about:


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The purpose and uses of fields


How to assign field options to network elements The purpose and uses of filters How to create and define dynamic filters How to create and define static filters

How to use the selection expert


The purpose of visualisers How to create visualisers

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Status Fields in ENTERPRISE


Enables Project Managers to manage and oversee the
progression of the network Can set up any number of fields to be associated with objects Can be used when creating filters

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Status Fields in ENTERPRISE

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Filters in Enterprise
Filters provide a logical grouping of network elements according to their characteristics or functions. They enable you to sub-divide the network into more manageable sections for analysis, diagnosis and display.

Static Filters

Static lists of objects specified by the user The included objects will constantly update as he Network
evolves.

Dynamic Filters

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Use of Filters
Limit the list of network elements displayed in the Site Database Determine which network elements appear in the Map View Allow customised appearance of different filters in the Map View Control which items are to be included in the various wizards Selects items to be included in any global edits in the Site DB Limit which items to include in the various reports

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Creating Filters

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Selection Filter and Selection Expert


Selection Filter

Is a static filter that exists only in memory. It is not stored in the


database and therefore cannot be Applied or Committed.

Can be renamed and saved as a normal static filter.


Selection Expert

Allow populate selection filter by choosing elements individually in


the Site Database or Map View, or by creating in the Map View a polygonal, circular or rectangular area that contains the sites you want. network elements between different parents cells between sites and so on. filters, and edit the static and Selection filters.

Acts as a handy clipboard - to easily allow you to cut and paste

Acts as a viewing window for all filters - you can quickly review all
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Exporting Filters using XML Export

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Dynamic Filters and Efficiency

Eliminate the largest number of unwanted objects


first
Fastest
Element Hierarchy

Use as few rules as possible Run the fastest rule first

Field Attribute

Slowest
Polygon

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Using Visualisers
A visualiser is a way of creating multiple display
settings for the same filter.

They are never saved to the Database and

therefore have no impact on processing speed

They do not affect other users

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Display Properties

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Customising Visualisers

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Customising Visualisers

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Customising Visualisers

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Customising Visualisers

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Session 08 Predicting and Displaying Coverage

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Session Objectives
In this session you will learn about:

Predicting coverage (pathloss)

Creating coverage arrays


Displaying coverage

Analysing coverage with statistical reports


Managing arrays

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Predicting Coverage
You can predict the pathloss of the signal from any cell to any point and use this information as the basis of coverage and interference predictions for your planned network. The arrays can be used to produce statistical reports.The coverage predictions are created or loaded automatically whenever you create a coverage/interference array, or the Simulator. You do not need to explicitly create coverage predictions.

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Predicting Coverage

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Primary and Secondary predictions


Dual prediction option, enables us to specify two 'sets' of resolution and radius for the cells in your network. Array Settings dialog box have a crucial impact on how dual predictions are used

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Best RSRP Coverage Example

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Array Display Properties


To customise the arrays displayed in the Map View window, Use the Show Data Types button.

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Coverage Reports/Statistics
Once coverage arrays have been created, you can generate coverage statistics.

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Coverage Reports/Statistics

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Array Manager
Array manager enable memory management on arrays and simulations. In addition, the Array Manager provides the ability to retrieve archived arrays, allowing for the benchmarking of statistical changes over time.

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Session 09 Traffic Planning on a LTE Network

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Session Objectives
In this session you will learn about:

Configuring bearers Configuring services Configuring terminal types Setting clutter parameters Creating traffic rasters

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Traffic Parameters for LTE


When you are satisfied with your network's coverage performance, you are in a position to consider traffic modelling in your network.

In modern cellular networks, there are different types of subscribers with different profiles, and different types of mobile terminals with different properties. In addition, multiple services can be offered to the subscriber. These may include voice, data and multimedia services. When planning such a network, you must account for the different properties of these services, such as different costs, data rates and other requirements such as quality of service.
In ASSET, you can account for this by defining bearers, services, and terminal types

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Default LTE Bearers


Bearers represent the air interface connections, performing the task of transporting voice and data information between cells and terminal types.

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Channel Quality Indicator Tables


64 QAM 16 QAM QPSK
UE4 eNB UE5 UE2 UE1 UE3

Indicates a combination of modulation and coding scheme that the NodeB should use to ensure that the BLER experienced by the UE remains < 10%
CQI Modulation Efficiency Actual coding rate Required SINR

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15

QPSK QPSK QPSK QPSK QPSK QPSK 16QAM 16QAM 16QAM 64QAM 64QAM 64QAM 64QAM 64QAM 64QAM

0.1523 0.2344 0.3770 0.6016 0.8770 1.1758 1.4766 1.9141 2.4063 2.7305 3.3223 3.9023 4.5234 5.1152 5.5547

0.07618 0.11719 0.18848 308/1024 449/1024 602/1024 378/1024 490/1024 616/1024 466/1024 567/1024 666/1024 772/1024 873/1024 948/1024

-4.46 -3.75 -2.55 -1.15 1.75 3.65 5.2 6.1 7.55 10.85 11.55 12.75 14.55 18.15 19.25

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LTE Services
The parameters that you specify will influence how the simulation behaves and will enable you to examine coverage and service quality for individual types of service.

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LTE Services and QoS Parameters


Name VoIP Video Call Gaming Streaming Signalling E-mail Web browsing P2P File Sharing Chat QCI 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Resourc e Type GBR GBR GBR GBR Non-GBR Non-GBR Non-GBR Non-GBR Non-GBR Priorit y 2 4 3 5 1 6 6 8 9 Packet Delay Budget 100 ms 150 ms 50 ms 300 ms 100 ms 300 ms 100 ms 300 ms 300 ms Packet Error Loss Rate 10-2 10-3 10-3 10-6 10-6 10-6 10-3 10-6 10-6 Example Services Conversational Voice Conversational Video (Live Streaming) Real Time Gaming Non-Convers.Video (Buff. Streaming) IMS Signalling Video (Buffered Streaming), TCP-based (www, e-mail, chat, ftp, p2p sharing, Progressive video, etc.) Voice, Video (Live Streaming) Interactive Gaming

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Clutter Parameters
You can define different shadow fading standard deviations for outdoor terminals and indoor terminals per clutter type. If a building is in urban, it will encounter greater fading than in parkland. You can also specify different indoor losses for each clutter type.

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Terminal Types
ASSET models traffic demand by generating traffic density maps for the different types of terminal. These density maps define the amount of traffic offered to the network by each type of terminal on a pixel-bypixel basis, corresponding to the available clutter map data resolutions. A Terminal Type in ASSET defines these key characteristics:

How much traffic will the terminal type generate in total? How will the traffic be spread geographically? What is the expected mobile speed distribution for this terminal
type?

Which service will the terminal type provide?* What are the mobile equipment characteristics?

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LTE Terminal Types

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LTE User Equipment Categories


Parameters Peak Data Rate (DL) Peak Data Rate (UL) Block Size (DL) Block Size (UL) Category 1 10 Mbps 5 Mbps 10296 5160 Category 2 50 Mbps 25 Mbps 51024 25456 Category 3 100 Mbps 50 Mbps 102048 51024 Category 4 150 Mbps 50 Mbps 149776 51024 Category 5 300 Mbps 75 Mbps 299552 75376

Max. Modulation (DL) Max. Modulation (UL) RF Bandwidth Transmit Diversity Receive Diversity Spatial Multiplexing (DL) Spatial Multiplexing (UL) MU-MIMO (DL) MU-MIMO (UL)

64QAM 16QAM 20 MHz 1-4 Tx Yes Optional No Optional Optional

64QAM 16QAM 20 MHz 1-4 Tx Yes 2X2 No Optional Optional

64QAM 16QAM 20 MHz 1-4 Tx Yes 2X2 No Optional Optional

64QAM 16QAM 20 MHz 1-4 Tx Yes 2X2 No Optional Optional

64QAM 64QAM 20 MHz 1-4 Tx Yes 4X4 No Optional Optional

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Traffic Rasters
Traffic Rasters are arrays that store the distribution of traffic over an area. They can be created either from the information in the Terminal Types or from imported Live Traffic values. The name of the created traffic raster will be the same as the name of the terminal type. The Traffic Rasters enables you to:

Obtain initial estimates of the equipment and configuration needed

for a nominal network. By visualising the array, you can then gain a good idea of where to locate your sites. mature network. Can verify site configuration is sufficient to match the traffic spread over the network.

Can assess how your network performs in terms of capacity for a

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Creating Traffic Rasters

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Traffic Rasters

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Session 10 Planning Neighbours

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Session Objectives
In this session you will learn about:

Creating neighbours manually Using simple file lists to add or remove neighbours Creating neighbours using the Neighbour Planning
Wizard

Amending the neighbour-related parameters Using the Neighbour Analysis Displaying neighbours in the Map View

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Neighbours
A handover relationship from one cell to a neighbour cell, can be directional or mutual
Create Neighbours by :

Manually, in the Site Database or in the Map View


Using a Comma Separated Value (*.csv) file Using automatic neighbour planning wizards Import/exporting of neighbours via XML files

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Creating Neighbors in the MAP View

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Creating Neighbors in the Site Database

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Creating Neighbors in the Site Database

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Add/Remove Neighbours with a File List


You can set up neighbours in ASSET by means of an XML import. Another way is use of a Comma Separated Value (*.csv) file. All neighbour relationships specified in the file must be outward. Neighbour relationships which have been set to a protection state of 'Y' will be prevented from being removed.

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Auto Neighbour Planning Wizards


ASSETs automatic Neighbour Planning Wizards enable you to generate neighbour relations between cells of the same (or different) technologies and carriers according to a wide range of user-specified parameters. There are two neighbour wizards available:

Prediction-based Measurement-based (license based) Event Based

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Auto Wizard Algorithm


The algorithm takes place in two discrete stages:

A 'search area' is established for each source cell, identifying the


pixels to be included.

The prediction-based wizard bases this on a combination of


hysteresis margin and signal and/or quality thresholds. measurement thresholds file information and signal

The measurement-based wizard bases this on a combination of


and/or quality

The calculation of potential target neighbour cells takes place,


according to user-defined criteria. Within the search area, on a pixel-by-pixel basis, the neighbour wizards calculate a list of valid neighbours.

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Prediction-based Wizard Options

Allowing the use of inputs from Traffic Rasters that can be used as additional input to the Neighbour Wizard to bias towards high-traffic-density areas.

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Neighbour Planning based on Performance Management (PM) Data

Allowing the use of inputs from Performance Management data such as Handover Counts for the creation and validation of neighbour plans.

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Prediction-based Wizard Options

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Neighbour Analysis

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Displaying Neighbors of a Cell

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Rendering of Neighbours on 2D View

Static Mode if you want to show a static display of all the neighbour relationships that match your criteria Hot Track Mode if you want to hover the mouse over each cell's azimuth to display its specific neighbours that match your criteria.

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Displaying Proposed Neighbors

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Session 11 Planning Frequencies in LTE

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Session Objectives
In this session you will learn about:

Creating an Interference Table


Running the LTE Frequency Planner Using the Frequency Planner report dialog box Applying Planned Carrier Assignments

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Interference Table
An interference table contains interference for any cell-pair combination for which there are overlapping predictions, if that pair of cells were to be allocated the same or adjacent carriers.

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Interference Table

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Frequency Planning for LTE


The LTE Frequency Planner helps to assign multiple transmission bandwidths (multiple carriers) in an optimal manner to reduce the overall interference.

It supports the allocation of:


1. Multiple carriers per site (Per Sector mode) 2. A single carrier per site (Per Site mode)

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View Frequency Plan

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Session 12 Planning the Physical Cell IDs

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Session Objectives
In this session you will learn about:

Setting Up Physical Cell ID Schemas


Running the Physical Cell ID Planner Using the Physical Cell ID report dialog box Applying Physical Cell IDs to the database

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Physical Cell ID Planner


504 unique Physical Cell Ids are grouped into 168 unique groups, each group containing three unique identity codes.

The LTE Physical Cell ID Planner in ASSET is designed to assign these Physical Cell IDs automatically to each sector.

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Physical Cell ID Planner

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Session 13 Simulating Network Performance

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Session Objectives
In this session you will learn about:

How the Simulator assess network performance


Setting up and running the Simulator Viewing the Arrays and Reports Saving and Loading Simulation Data Using the Pixel Analyser

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Monte Carlo-based Simulation


When simulating network performance, ASSET uses Monte Carlo algorithms, which can provide a good balance between accuracy and usability.

The Simulator can be used as Full simulation, with randomised snapshots or Simulation without snapshots.
With the full simulation, the performance of the network can be analysed over a series of randomised snapshots, in which specified densities of user terminals are positioned in statistically determined locations. The ability of each terminal to make its connection to the network is calculated through an iterative process. The performance of the network is then analysed from the averaged results.

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Simulation with Snapshots


Takes a large number of randomised snapshots of network performance for different terminals over time In these snapshots, the UEs are in statistically determined positions and generated independently for each snapshot

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Simulation with Snapshots


Terminal count in a pixel is determined using a Poisson distribution with a mean given by the number of terminals in the traffic array At the start of the snapshot the mobile and cell powers are initialised to zero to initialise the noise on the uplink and downlink Other parameters such as power control error are set randomly on UE The first terminal in the list is tested for failure conditions. If it does not fail, then its Tx power, and the Tx power of the cells to which it is connected, are modified. The next terminal in the list is then tested for failure conditions and so on When the entire list has been tested, the simulator returns to the first terminal and repeats the process until convergence is reached

When convergence is reached, the results of the snapshot are appended to the results of the overall simulation. The simulation moves on to the next snapshot
When the simulation has completed all the specified snapshots, you can view your results using the arrays or view a summary of the data or reports
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UMTS Simulator Wizard

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Simulation without Snapshots


If you run a simulation without running snapshots (static analysis) you must ensure that the cell loading parameters for the cells/sectors have been specified in the Site Database. The parameters are set on the Cell Load Levels subtab under LTE Params tab.

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Simulator Outputs
ASSET provides ways of setting your own array definitions, so that you can specify exactly which arrays you want to be output when you use the Simulator. The easiest way is to use the Auto Setup option. This ensures that all the relevant array types and their parameter combinations are included in the simulation outputs for display and analysis.

You can also define your own customised collection of output array types from the Simulator. This enables you to specify array definitions to determine precisely which arrays you want to output and display, in any combination of parameters you choose. This method is probably only beneficial for advanced users.

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Auto Setup Option


Make the required selections for EXCLUSION from the output arrays.

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Customised Output

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Simulation Best RSRP

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Street Coverage prediction analysis using the Vector Restriction feature


Best RSRP is calculated for whole 2D View Best RSRP is calculated to streets only

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Simulation RSRQ

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Simulation Report

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Simulation Cell Centre / Cell Edge

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Simulation Achievable DL Bearer

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Simulation DL RS SINR

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Simulation DL Transmission Mode

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Information about Simulated Terminals


The aim of this feature is to provide the user with a set of

arrays that show the locations of terminals generated by the simulation snapshots, and to show whether the terminals succeeded or failed to make a connection. The following arrays are provided for each terminal type used in the simulation.

Terminal Info: Failure Rate


Terminal Info: Failure Reason Terminal Info: Speed

The arrays are only available in simulations that run snapshots,

and where the user has checked the Allow Terminal Info Arrays box on the 2nd page of the simulation wizard.

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Information about Simulated Terminals


Failure Reason array. 1 snapshot

Failure Reason array. 500 snapshots

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Line-of-Sight array and improved MIMO Modelling

AIRCOM Enhanced Macrocell model (as well as some 3rd party prediction models complete list TBD) have the ability to produce line-of-sight (LOS) information for each predicted location, in addition to the existing pathloss value. Using LOS info in a simulation can be used to improve MIMO modelling. MIMO schemes rely on there being a low correlation between the signal paths to the receive elements of an antenna. Locations that have line-of-sight to an antenna are more likely to have high correlation between signal paths to the antenna. The LTE simulator supports 3 basic MIMO schemes: SU-MIMO Multiplexing, SU-MIMO Diversity, and MU-MIMO. A new page is added to the LTE simulation wizard, providing the user with the option of enabling/disabling these 3 MIMO schemes in LOS regions.

If a prediction model is used that does not generate LOS info, then the sim will treat pathlosses from that model as non-LOS.
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Line-of-Sight array and improved MIMO Modelling

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Pixel Analyser
The Pixel Analyser visualises detailed signal strength information that has been accumulated during a simulation.

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Session 14 Generating Reports

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Session Objectives
In this session you will learn about:

Generating Statistical Reports


Generating Simulation Reports

Generating Site/Node Reports


Generating a Delta Report

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Statistical Reports for Arrays


Statistical reports are percentage statistics for arrays and can be generated after creating the relevant array.

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Simulation Reports
Simulation reports are output as a result of running a simulation, and complement the simulation arrays displayed on the Map View.

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Site/Node Reports
This report summarise Site DB contents to various object levels, such as Properties, GSM Sites, Cells & Neighbours.

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Site/Node Reports

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Reports of Uncommitted Changes


Reports on all the changes you have Applied, but not Committed to the database. These changes are therefore not visible to other users. Also known as the Delta Report.

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Thank You

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