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Special Homework Set on Potential Flow Theory

Problem 8.7:

Solution:

Φ = x 2 xy y

→ =

2

2

∂Φ

∂Φ

x

x

u

v =

= 2

x

2

y

=−2 2

x

y

V

ˆ

ui

= +

vj ˆ

=

(2

x

2

ˆ

)

y i

(2

x

Hence,

∇• V =

u =

∂Φ

=

x

2

y

(2

2

x

x

2

y

y

=

)

+

∂Ψ

x

y

(2

→ Ψ = xy y + f ( x

v =

=− − =−

2

2

)

∂Ψ

∂Φ

y

x

2

x

2

y

2

So, Ψ = 2 xy y + x

Ψ = xy x + g ( y

2

2

2

)

ˆ

Axj

Problem 8.11:

Solution:

Ψ= A x y

(

u =

2

∂Ψ

2

)

y

=−2 Ay

v =

∂Ψ

=−2 Ax

=

ui ˆ

+

x

vj ˆ

=

2

ˆ

Ayi

V

2

+

2

ˆ

y j

)

x

2

y

) = 0

(Incompressible)

If it can be used for a potential flow, then it should satisfy the irrigational condition,

(2

Ay

)

∂− Ax

(

2

)

∇× = −

V

u =

∂Φ

x

(

y

=−2 Ay

x

+

) k = 0

ˆ

v =

Φ = −2 Axy + f ( y ) ∂Φ

=−2 Ax

y

Hence, Φ = −2 Axy

2

1

0

-1

-2 -2
-1
0
1
2

Figure1. Plot of streamline Problem 8.12:
Solution:
π
πθ
Ψ = Ar
α
sin(
)
α
1 ∂Ψ
π −
1
π
πθ
=
=−
Ar
α
cos(
)
u r
α
r ∂
θ
α
π
∂Ψ
− 1
π
u
θ = −
=−
Ar
α
πθ
sin(
)
α
∂ r
α
at
r = 0 ,
Ψ
= 0 ,
u
= 0
and
u
θ = 0
r
at θ = 0 ,
Ψ = 0 ,
u
θ = 0

So it represents flow in a corner.

 π (a) α= 2 Ψ= Ar 2 sin(2 ) θ = 2 A( r sin ∂Ψ → = u = 2 Ax ∂ y ∂Ψ v = =−2 Ay ∂ x It is stagnation flow.

(b) α = π

θ

)( r cos

θ =

)

2 Axy

Ψ = Ar sinθ = Ay ∂Ψ

→ =

y

u

= A

v =

∂Ψ

x

= 0

It is uniform flow.

(c) α = 2π

Ψ= 1 − cos
θ
A
A
θ
Ar
sin(
2 ) =
A r
(
)
2
=
r −
r cos
θ
=
2
2

u

r

=

1

=−

r

r

θ

2

1 ∂Ψ

A

2 cos( θ
)
2

u =−

θ

1

=−

r

r

2

∂Ψ

A

2 sin( θ
)
2

when r 0 , → ∞

u

r A
at θ = 0 , r ≠ 0 , =
u
,
u
= 0
r
θ
2 r
It is flow around a semi-infinite flat place. 1
2
2
(
x
+
y
)
2
x

Problem 8.13:

Solution: 40 x
Φ=
10 x
+
2
2
(
x
+ y
)
2
2
∂Φ ∂Φ ∂
2
40 x
40 x
So,
∇Φ=
= [10 x +
]
+ ∂ [10 x
+
2 +
2
2
2
∂ x
∂ y
∂ x
(
x
+ y
)
∂ y
(
x

2

+

y

2

 = − 160 ( x x 2 + y 2 ) 2 + 320 2 ( xy x 2 + y 2 ) − 160 ( x y 2 − x 2 )( x 2 + y 2 ) ( x 2 + y 2 ) 4 (b) = ∂Φ = 10 + 40( 2 y − x 2 ) ∂Ψ = u ∂ x ( x 2 + y 2 ) 2 ∂ y

= 0

)

]

 →Ψ= 10 y − x 40 y 2 + f x + y 2 ( ) = ∂Φ = − 80 xy =− ∂Ψ v ∂ y ( 2 x + 2 y 40 ) y 2 ∂ x →Ψ= 10 y − 2 2 ( + g y ) x + y We get, Ψ= 10 y − 40 y = 10 sin θ − 40sin θ = Ur sin θ − μ sin θ 2 x + 2 y r r r μ = 40
μ
→ r =
0
U

= 2

3

2

1

0

-1

-2

-3 -3
-2
-1
0
1
2
3

Figure 2. Plot of the streamline (at Ψ = 0 , it is the outer line)

 (c) Ψ = 10 sin θ − 40sin θ = Ur sin θ − μ sin θ r r r 1 ∂Ψ 40 = = − ) cos θ → u r r ∂ θ (10 r 2 ∂Ψ 40 ) sin θ =− u θ =− (10 + 2 r Along x-axis, θ = 0 or θ = π So, ∂ r 40 + 0 , − 40 θ=± − 40 u =− θ (10 r 2 ) sin θ= u r = (10 r 2 ) cos (10 r 2 ) ρ V x 2 From Bernoulli’s equations, P x + 2 = P (where 0 0 At x → −∞ , V = U = 10 x P = P + ρ V −∞ 2 = 10 + 1000 × 10 2 × 1 × 16 = 13.61 psi 0 −∞ 2 2 12 1.6019 So, 40 P x = P 0 − ρ V x 2 = 13.61 − ρ (10 − x 2 ) = 13.61 − 20 − ) 2 2 ρ (5 x 2

P at stagnation point)

40

2

) cos

By setting

where,

(10

Hence, The point is A (-2,0) and B (2,0).

r = r =

0

+

40

r

2

) sin

2

u

r

θ=

=

(10

θ=

0 , so the stagnation point located at the point

r

0 , That is θ = 0 and θ = π ,

u =−

θ

Problem 8.14:

Solution:

(a) For a plane vortex, 2
2
Ψ=−
Γ ln
r = A
ln
x + y
2
π
∂Ψ
Ay
u =
=
2
2
y
x
+
y
∂Ψ
Ax
v =−
=−
2
2
x
x
+
y
∂Φ
Ay
From,
u =
=
2
2
∂ x
x
+ y
y
− 1
→Φ=− A
tan
(
)
+ f y
(
)
x
∂Φ
Ax
From,
v =
=−
2
2
∂ y
x
+ y
y
→Φ=− A
tan
1 (
)
+ g x
(
)
x
Hence,
y
1
Φ=− A tan ( )

x

(b)

For a plane doublet,

Ψ= A tan

→ =

u

v

=−

From,

u

 − 1 y − A tan − 1 y μ y ( x + ε ) ( x − ε ) =− x 2 + y 2 ∂Ψ ( μ x 2 − y 2 ) ∂ y ( x 2 + y 2 ) 2 ∂Ψ 2 μ xy

=−

=−

 x ( x 2 2 + y ) 2 ∂Φ =− ( μ x 2 − y 2 ) ∂ x ( x 2 + 2 y ) 2

=

(where μ = 2εA )

 →Φ= x 2 μ x + y 2 + f y ( ) From, v = ∂Φ =− 2 μ xy ∂ y ( x 2 + 2 y ) 2 μ x →Φ= 2 2 + ( g x ) x + y Hence, →Φ= μ x x 2 + y 2

Problem 8.16: Solution:
2
2
Ψ=−
Γ ln
r = A
ln
x + y
2
π
∂Ψ
Ay
→ =
u
=
2
2
∂ y
x
+ y
∂Ψ
Ax
v =−
=−
2
2
x
x
+
y
Ay
Ax
ˆ
V
=
ui ˆ
+
vj ˆ
=
i ˆ −
j
2
2
2
2
x
+
y
x
+
y
ξ
= ∇ × V = (Except x = 0, y = 0 )
0
When
x = 0, y = 0 ,
Ψ→∞
0
lim
ξ
= lim
→∞
2
2
2
x , y
0
x y
,
0 (
x + y
)

So, the vorticity of irrotational vortex is everywhere zero except at the origin, where it is infinite.

Problem 8.17:

Solution:

Ψ= +

Uy

=

10 y

= 10

r

 q tan − 1 ( y ) − q tan − 1 ( y ) 2 π x − 2 2 π x + 2 4 tan − 1 y − 4 tan − 1 y ) π ( x − 2 ) π ( x + 2 θ − 16sin θ = Ur sin θ − μ sin θ π r r

+

sin

(where q = 8, U = 10 )

Yes, this represents flow around a cylinder.

u

θ

=−

∂Ψ

16

r

π

r

2

=− (10 +

)

sin

θ

u

r

=

 1 ∂Ψ = 1 − 16 θ = − μ r ∂ θ r (10 π r ) cos (10 r 2

) cos

θ

Bt setting

u

r

= 0

, the radius of the cylinder is, μ
2 q
=
r 0 =
U 10
π
Problem 8.18:

= 0.71

Solution:

The stream function of source at the (0,0) is,

Ψ= A tan ( )

1

y

x

So, place source at y = −ε and sink at y = ε , the stream function is,

1

Ψ= A tan (

Recall,

y

ε

)

1

(

y

+ε

A

tan

x x

) ∂ f
f ( x , y
+
ε
)
f ( x , y
ε
)
= lim
∂ y
ε →
0 2
ε
y
→Ψ= 2
ε A
[tan
1 (
)]
∂ y
x
1
x
x
= 2 A
ε
= 2 A
ε
2
2
2
x
+
y
1
+ (
y )
x
μ
x
=
(Where μ = 2εA )
2
2
x
+ y

Problem 8.19:

Solution:

 Ψ= Ux − μ x = 20 x − 80 x x ∂Ψ 2 = + 2 y 160 xy 2 x + 2 y → = u ∂ y ( 2 x + 2 y ) 2 ∂Ψ 160 x 2 80 v =− = 20 − + ∂ x ( x 2 + y 2 ) 2 x 2 + y 2

(a) The velocity along the y-axis, x = 0

u

v =

= 0

20

+

80

2

y 500000
400000
300000
200000
100000
-1
-0.5
0.5
1

Figure 3 Plot of the Velocity along the y-axis

(b) At (-4,0)

u

v =

= 0

20

80

2

x

= 15

v

2

15

×

15

a = =

r 4

= 56.25

(c)

So,

P

c

=

P

0

2

U

ρ

2

sin

L =− 2

π 2
π

2

sin

P r θdθ

c

0

2

θ

(where P 0 =

5 psi

= −2 (5 2 U sin ) r sin d

ρ

0

2

2

θ

θ θ

=213313.3

)

Problem 8.23:

Solution:

(1) This problem can be treated as flow U = 20 , around a cylinder circulation,

Ψ=

Ur

sin

θ

r 0

2

U sin

θ

Γ

ln r

=

20 sin

r

θ

20sin

r

θ

Γ

2

π

ln r

u

r

=

r 2

(20

20

π

1 ∂Ψ

r

θ

r

2

=

) cos

θ

∂Ψ

20

Γ

u =−

θ

r

2

2

r

π

=− (20 +

) sin

θ

+

r To find the stagnation points, we should have u

r

=

0, u

θ

=

0 ,

r 0

=

1

, with

At

r = r =

0

1

,

u

r

= 0

,

Setting u

θ

=−

∂Ψ

20

Γ

r

r

2

2

r

π

=− +

(20

) sin

θ

+

sin

θ

=

Γ

80

π

(*)

= 0

(at

r =

0

1

)

For the flow has one stagnation point, the θ only have one value to satisfy (*),

So, π
θ =
or
θ=
2 2
From,
π
Γ=
V
• =−
d s
∫ 2
u r d
θ
θ
0
0
u θ
Ω=
r 0
2
→Γ=−
2πr
Ω
0
So,
π
Γ
(1) When
θ
=
, Γ = 80π ,
→Ω=
=− 40
2
2
− 2
πr
0
20sin
θ
Γ
20 y
Ψ=
20
r
sin
θ
ln
r
=
20
y
40ln(
)
2
2
r 2
π
xy
+
2
1
0
-1
-2
-2
-1
0
1
2
Figure 1. Plot of Streamline pattern ( Γ = −80π )
Γ
(2) When
θ
=
, Γ = −80π ,
→Ω=
=
40
2
2
− 2
πr
0
20sin
θ
Γ
20 y
Ψ=
20
r
sin
θ
ln
r
=
20
y
+
40ln(
)
2
2
r 2
π
xy
+ 2
1
0
-1
-2
-2
-1
0
1
2
Figure 2. Plot of Streamline pattern ( Γ = −80π )