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Distillation Identification 1.

It utilizes vapor and liquid phases at essentially the same temperature and pressure for the coexisting zones. 2. These are used to bring the two phases into intimate contact. 3. It is sent back to the column as the liquid reaching the bottom of the column is partially vaporized in a heated reboiler. 4. It is where the vapor reaching the top of the column is cooled and condensed. 5. It is the remainder of the overhead steam. 6. It is the upper section in which the column is divided into. 7. It is the lower section in which the column is divided into. 8. It is generally consisting of a boiler, fractionating column, and condenser, operating under high vacuum. 9. It is the distillation operated under high vacuum. 10. Distillation where the vapor path is unobstructed and the condenser is separated from the evaporator. Multiple Choice 1. Simple distillation is practiced for a mixture in which the boiling point of the components differs by at least how many degrees Celsius. a. 80 b.70 c.60 d.50 2. It is the process of repeating distillation on the collected liquid in order to enhance the purity of the separated compounds. a. fractional distillation b.simple distillation c. double distillation d. steam distillation 3. Simple distillation is also for mixtures that are nearly pure with less than____% contamination. a. 2 b.5 c.8 10 4. Mixtures with volatility of components differing by ____C, cannot be separated by simple distillation. a. 30 b.25 c.15 20 5. In this distillation, the plates are arranged and the compound with the least boiling point are collected at the top while those with higher boiling point are present at the bottom. a. simple b.double c.steam d. fractional 6.It is used for alcohol purification and gasoline purification a.simple b. double c. steam d. fractional 7. It is used for the purification of mixtures, in which the components are temperature or heat sensitive; a. simple b.double c.fractional d.steam 8. It is used to boil compounds at a lower temperature. a.cool water b.organic compounds c.steam d.alcohol 9.It is practiced for the large-scale separation of essential oils and perfumes. a. vacuum b.steam c.fractional d.simple 10. It is a special method of separating compounds at pressure lower than the standard atmospheric pressure. a. vacuum b.steam c.fractional d.short path 11.It is best suited for separation of compounds with higher boiling points (more than 200C), a. vacuum b.steam c.fractional d. short path 12.It is the distillation type used for thermal sensitive compounds. a. vacuum b.steam c.fractional d. short path 13.It is used for the separation of organic compounds with high molecular weight, especially in the pharmaceutical industries. a. vacuum b.steam c.fractional d. short path 14. Distillation processes depends on this characteristics of liquid mixtures a. boiling point b. concentration c. vapor pressure d.type 15. It is the equilibrium pressure exerted by molecules leaving and entering the liquid surface. a. boiling point b. concentration c. vapor pressure d.type

Matching Type 1. It is the remainder of the overhead steam. 2. It is the equilibrium pressure exerted by molecules leaving and entering the liquid surface. 3. Distillation where the vapor path is unobstructed and the condenser is separated from the evaporator. 4. It utilizes vapor and liquid phases at essentially the same temperature and pressure for the coexisting zones. 5. It is the upper section in which the column is divided into. 6. It is used for the separation of organic compounds with high molecular weight, especially in the pharmaceutical industries. 7. In this distillation, the plates are arranged and the compound with the least boiling point are collected at the top while those with higher boiling point are present at the bottom. 8. It is mounted so that there is a space between riser and cap to allow the passage of vapour. 9. It has riser or chimney fitted over each hole, and a cap that covers the riser. 10. These are simply metal plates with holes in them. 11. This ensures that there is always some liquid (holdup) on the tray and is designed such that the the holdup is at a suitable height 12. It is the area allowed for the passage of vapor on each tray 13. It is due to both passage of vapor from the tray below as well as boiling. 14. It determine the number of stages and the numner of trays 15. It is a graphical one, that uses the VLE plot ot determine the theoretical number of stages. a. molecular b. distillation c. frothing of liquid d. active tray area e. weir f. bottom product g. vapor pressure h.cap i. bubble cap tray j.steam k.short path l.rectifying section m. sieve tray n. vapor-liquid equilibrium o. McCabe-Thiele approach p.stripping section Enumeration 1. Types of distillation (5) 2.Consideration in tray design (2) 3.Kinds of Trays (3)

Absorption Identification 1. It is the removal of one or more selected components from a mixture of gases. 2. It determines the degree to which each gas is absorbed. 3. It is inversely proportional to the temperature of the gas. 4. It is burn to heat water and produce high pressure steam. 5. It is contained by the exhaust gas from burning coal. 6. It is vented to new smokestack after some moisture is removed. 7. It rises in tower, encounters a shower of water containing crushed limestone emitted from spray nozzles. 8. It causes a chemical reaction, breaking apart the sulphur dioxide gas. 9. It binds chemically to droplets and falls into a pool at bottom of scrubber tower. 10. It is pumped into pool, causing gypsum crystals to form. Multiple Choice 1. It absorbed from its mixture with an inert gas by means of a liquid in which the solute gas is more or less soluble. a. soluble vapor b.steam c. liquid inlet d.gas inlet 2. -3. The bed of packing rests on a ___________which should be designed to have at least _______free area for the passage of the gas so as to offer as low a resistance as possible. a. 70% b. support plate c.75% d. column bar 4. The simplest support is a _____with relatively widely spaced bars on which a few layers of large raschig or partition rings are stacked. a. bar b. column c. grid d. packings 5. It is designed to provide separate passageways for gas and liquid so that they need not compete for passage through the same opening. a. gas injection plate b. distributor c. partition rings d.grid 6.It provides for the uniform irrigation of the packing. a. gas injection plate b. distributor c. partition rings d.grid 7. It gives fine distribution through it must be correctly sized for a particular duty and should not be used where there is any risk of the holes plugging. a. simple orifice b. notched chimney c. notched trough distributor d.perforated ring type 8. It is specially designed where pressure losses is minimum. a. simple orifice b. notched chimney c. notched trough distributor d.perforated ring type 9. It has a good range of flexibility for the medium and upper flowrates,and is not prone to blockage. a. simple orifice b. notched chimney c. notched trough distributor d.perforated ring type 10. It is specially suitable for large sizes of tower, and, because of its large free area, it is also suitable for the higher gas rates. a. simple orifice b. notched chimney c. notched trough distributor d.perforated ring type 11. It are usually chosen for very corrosive materials, for liquids that foam badly, for either small or large-diameter towers involving very low pressure drops, and for small-scale operations. a. packed column b.perforators c.scrubbers d. distributor

Fill In the Blanks Equipment for Liquid-Gas System Equipment Designations Mode of Flow 1. Cross-flow, 2. Packed Column 5. 7. Agitated Vessel 11. Cocurrent Countercurrent, 6. 3. , Cocurrent Continuous Phase Liquid and/or gas 4. Liquid and/or gas 8. 10. 12.

Cocurrent, crossflow, countercurrent 9.

Enumeration: 1. Parts of absorber(2) 2. Types of distributor(4) 3. Functions of Packings (4) 4. General Design Considerations(7)

Leaching Identification 1. It is the removal of a soluble fraction, in the form of a solution, from an insoluble, permeable solid phase with which it is associated. 2. It is carried out in batch tanks and in continuous or dump extractors (usually on smaller scale). The solvent is contacted with the solid in a continuous or batch method. 3. These are also leached by percolation in moving-bed equipment, including single-deck and multi-deck rake classifiers, bucket elevator contactors, and horizontal-belt conveyors. 4. These are partially enriched solvent which sprays dry flakes that are pumped from the bottom of the column of ascending buckets. 5. These are the enriched solvent. 6. It permits the use of thin flakes while producing extract of good clarity. 7. These are walled compartments in the form of annular sectors with liquid- permeable floors revolve about a central axis. 8. It requires little headroom, operates substantially as a percolator that moves the bed of solids through the solvent rather than the conventional opposite. 9. A kind of leaching that requires an equipment for fine solids by dispersion and separation includes batch tanks agitated by rotating impellers or by air and a variety of continuous devices. 10. A continuous dispersed-solid leaching equipment. Multiple Choice 1. It is perforated so that solvent can pass through counter-currently. a. Hilderbrant total-immersion extractor b. lderbran partial-immersion extractor c. Hildarbrent total-immersion extractor d. Hilderbrant partial-immersion extractor 2. It is admitted from an open pipe in the bottom of the cone and rises freely through the tank; a. steam b. air c.liquid d.water 3. The Vertical-Plate Extractor usually have a conical bottom of a. 60angle b. 70angle c. 80angle d. 50angle 4. The Vertical-Plate Extractor usually have a conical bottom of a. 8m in diameter b.7m in diameter c.9m in diameter d.10m in diameter 5. The Vertical-Plate Extractor usually have a conical bottom of a. 15m in height b.14m in height c.13m in height d.12m in height 6. It is to supply unexhausted solvent to the particles while they reside in the tank long enough for the diffusive process to be completed. a.agitator b.baffle c.plate d.grid 7. It requiring little headroom, operates substantially as a percolator that moves the bed of solids through the solvent rather than the conventional opposite. a. Kennedy Extractor b. William Extractor c.Ford Extractor d. Moseley Extractor 8. It comprises a nearly horizontal line of chambers through each of which in succession the solids being leached are moved by a slow impeller enclosed in that section. a. Kennedy Extractor b. William Extractor c.Ford Extractor d. Moseley Extractor 9.It has walled compartments in the form of annular sectors with liquid- permeable floors revolve about a central axis. a. Vertical-basket extractor b.Horizontal-basket Extractor c. William Extractor d.Moseley Extractor 10. It s achieved by feeding fresh solvent only to the last compartment before dumping occurs and by washing the solids in each preceding compartment with the effluent from the succeeding one. a. Counter-current extraction b.Cocurrent extraction c. Natural extraction d. Vertical extraction 11. It is simple and inexpensive, and it requires little headroom.

a. Rotacell b. Rotocell c.Rotocel d.Rotacel 12. These are dumped from the buckets at the top of the unit into a paddle conveyor; a. Inlet flakes b.Dry flakes c. Exhausted flakes d. Enriched solvent 13. These are pumped from the bottom of the column of ascending buckets. a. Inlet flakes b. Dry flakes c. Exhausted flakes d. Enriched solvent 14. It uses buckets with perforated bottoms are held on an endless moving belt. a. Ballman-type b. Bollman-type c. Bolman-type d. Balman-type 15. Coarse solids are also leached by percolation in moving-bed equipment, a.Batch Percolators b.Batch Extractors c. Continuous Percolators d. Semi-Continuous Extractors 16. It is carried out in batch tanks and in continuous or dump extractors (usually on smaller scale). a. Percolation b. Extraction c. Leaching d. Exhaustion 17. The solids to be leached are dumped into the tank to a uniform depth. They are sprayed with solvent until their solute content is reduced to an economic minimum and are then excavated. a.Batch Percolators b.Batch Extractors c. Continuous Percolators d. Semi-Continuous Extractors 18. Leaching systems can be operated by the following except: a.operating cycle b. direction of stream c. by staging d. by contracting Enumeration 1.The 5 general design procedures 2. The 2 design requirement for column operation 3. The 7 design requirement for column geometry 4. The 2 design requirement for stage geometry 5. The 6 major parameters that must be identified

Filtration Identification 1. It is the removal of solid particles from a fluid by pressing the fluid through a filtering medium, or septum, on which the solids are deposited. 2.It is a layer of fine particulate material (e.g., perlite) added on to the filter septum before filtration to form a coating cake. 3. It is a light siliceous material derived primarily from sedimented diatoms (minute planktonic unicellular or colonial algae with silicified skeletons). 4. It is a volcanic glass made of siliceous rock having a concentric shelly structure. 5. It is the most important property in a liquid phase filtration. 6. It refers to the use of a filter medium that has openings smaller than the solid particles. 7. These are similar to strainers, but the filer media are disposable synthetic bag. 8. A kind of filtration where the solids concentration is sufficiently large to form a cake on the separation barrier. 9. It operates best handling slurries with particles greater than 30 m and rapid drainage characteristics. 10. These are designed to maximize the filtration area while maintaining a reasonable equipment configuration. Multiple Choice 1. Its typical bulk density: 0.32 g/cm3. a. diatomite b. resulting cake c. perlite d. filter 2. Its typical bulk density: 0.16 g/cm3 a. diatomite b. resulting cake c. perlite d. filter 3. It is is normally accomplished with equipment such as cake filters, filtering centrifuges, or strainers. a. separation step b.filtration c. pretreatment d. post treatment 4. It is necessary whenever the clarity of the effluent stream, the dryness of the solid material, or the presence of solute in the mother liquid does not meet product specifications. a. separation step b.filtration c. pretreatment d. post treatment 5. It includes all separations that involve the use of a porous barrier to remove solid particles from a liquid. a. separation step b.filtration c. pretreatment d. post treatment 6. -7. When screens are used as the filter medium, vibration methods can be used for continuous discharge of the solids. a. screens b. separation methods c.vibration methods d.filter 8. If the total suspended solids in the feed stream exceed _____, either type of filtrate will require frequent solids removal and other types of filtration equipment should be considered. a. 50mg/L b.60mg/L c. 40mg/L d. 70mg/L 9. These are only used for fast filtration of solid liquid mixtures with average cake permeabilities greater than 10-9 m2 and particle sizes greater than 1 mm. a. gravity filter b. vacuum filter c. porous filter d. basket filter 10. It require average cake permeability between 10-9 and 10-11 m2. a. gravity filter b. vacuum filter c. porous filter d. basket filter True or False 1. The most popular continuous types are the axial drum, disk, and perforated-belt filters. 2. The driving force for the pressure filtration is obtained from pump pressure or compressed gas with pressure up to 400KPa. 3. Vacuum tank filters include vertical leaf, horizontal leaf, and candle filters. 4. Vacuum filtration can be divided into microfiltration, ultrafiltration and reverse osmosis. 5. Microfiltration membranes often are rated by the molecular weight of the particles (2 x103 to 106 molecular weight) that can be separated.

6. Since membrane filters are designed to filter very fine particles, the traditional dead end filtration is inefficient and a high cross flow rate across the membrane surface is required to prevent cake formation. 7. There are absolute selection techniques available to arrive in the best choice since there are so many factors involved. 8. A filter press contains a set of plates designed to provide a series of chambers or compartments for solids may collect. 9. After assembly of the press, slurry is admitted from a pump or pressurized tank usually at a pressure 3 to 10 atm. Enumeration 1. Type of Filter (6) 2. Pretreatment before filtration to improve separation (2) 3. Factors that can affect separation process (8) 4. The Driving Forces in Cake Filtration (5)

Crystallization Identification 1. It is another solid- liquid separation process, in which mass transfer of a solute from the liquid solution to a pure solid crystalline phase occurs. 2. It is the formation of a new solid phase either on an inert particle in the solution or in the solution itself. 3. It is the increase in size of this nucleus with a layer-by-layer addition of solute. 4. A phenomena that makes crystallization possible. 5. It is an old method still used in some specialized cases, hot saturated solutions are allowed to cool open tanks. 6. It is the most widely used crystallization method in industry. They create a super-saturated solution by evaporating the solvent of a saturated solution. 7. The temperature increase in a forced-circulation crystallization. 8. It promotes more thorough mixing, which creates a more uniform slurry mixture. 9. It is used to remove fines from the mixture, so that they can be recirculated for further growth. 10. It removes smaller particles from the slurry, except it separates particles based on weight rather than size. It is the process of flowing air over particles. Multiple Choice 1. It is another solid- liquid separation process, in which mass transfer of a solute from the liquid solution to a pure solid crystalline phase occurs. a. crystallization b.supersturation c. evaporation d.cooling 2. It is an important piece of chemical processes because it is capable of generating high purity products with a relatively low energy input. a. crystallization b.supersturation c. evaporation d.cooling 3. This process can occur in the freezing of water to form ice, in the formation of snow particles from a vapor, in the formation of solid particles from a liquid melt, or in the formation of solid crystals from a liquid solution. a. crystallization b.supersturation c. evaporation d.cooling 4. It is desirable to minimize caking in the package, for ease of pouring, for ease in washing and filtering, and for uniform behavior when used. a.Size uniformity b. Purity c. Filtration d. Increasing Size 5. It is the step where the particles or molecules of solute dispersed in the solvent start to gather into clusters, which become stable under the current operating conditions. a. Nucleation b. Crystal growth c. Growth Formation d. Supersaturation 6. The clusters need to reach a critical size in order to become stable nuclei. This type of nucleation is: a. Starting nucleation b.Primary nucleation c. New Nucleation d. Growing Nucleation 7. it is the subsequent growth of the nuclei that succeed in achieving the critical cluster size. a. Nucleation b. Crystal growth c. Growth Formation d. Supersaturation 8. It refers to the quantity of solute present in solution compared with the quantity which would be present if the solution were kept for a very long period of time with solid phase in contact with the solution. a. Saturation b.Supersaturation c.Undersaturation d. Crytal Growth 9. This type of crystallizer has limited application; it is sometimes used to produce certain fine chemicals and pharmaceutical products. a. Batch Crystallizer b. Tank Crystallizer c. Forced-Circulation Crystallizer d. Oslo Crystallizer 10. The key assumption of this crystallizer is that the slurry is perfectly mixed and uniform throughout the system. a. Batch Crystallizer b. Tank Crystallizer c. Forced-Circulation Crystallizer d. Oslo Crystallizer 11. These removed and vaporized solvent is condensed and returned to the crystallizer body. a. slurry b.crystals c. nuclei d. feed 12. It is used to produce sodium sulfate and on agricultural industry

a. Batch Crystallizer b. Tank Crystallizer c. Forced-Circulation Crystallizer d. Oslo Crystallizer 13.It are used to control crystal size and characteristics. It employ excessive nucleation in which small, unwanted crystals, called fines, are removed from larger particles using gravitational settling. a.Draft Tube Baffle Crystallizer b. Tank Crystallizer c. Batch Crystallizer d. Oslo Crystallizer 14. It is an elaborated Mixed Suspension Mixed Product Removal (MSMPR) design, which has proven to be well suited for vacuum cooling. a.Draft Tube Baffle Crystallizer b. Tank Crystallizer c. Batch Crystallizer d. Oslo Crystallizer 15. These are used for the production of ammonium sulfate, boric acid, Glauber salt (Na2SO4 10H2O), melamine and citric acid. a.Draft Tube Baffle Crystallizer b. Tank Crystallizer c. Batch Crystallizer d. Swenson Walker Crystallizer 16. These are used as low energy, low cost means of crystallization for small scale operations. They are used primarily for the crystallization of melts. a.Scraped Surface Crystallizer b.Scraped Crystallizer c. Tank Crystallizer d. Swenson Walker Crystallizer 17. In the double-pipe scraped surface crystallizer, cooling water passes in the wall and provide good heat-transfer coefficients. a.Oslo Crystallizer b.Votator c. Liquid Evaporator Crystallizer d. Swenson Walker Crystallizer 18. The larger crystals settle out and a slurry of crystals and mother liquor is withdrawn as product. This type is also called: a.Oslo Crystallizer b.Votator c. Liquid Evaporator Crystallizer d. Swenson Walker Crystallizer 19. The magma or suspension of crystals is circulated out of the main body through a circulating pipe by a screw pump. a.Circulating-Magma Vacuum Crystallizer b.Votator c. Liquid Evaporator Crystallizer d. Swenson Walker Crystallizer 20. The magma flows through a heater, where its temperature is raised ___ K. a.1-6 b.2-6 c.3-7 d.2-7 True or False 1. The strategy of basic design of industrial crystallizers can be divided into three steps: choice of solvents, basic design and detailed design. 2. The solvent chosen should give the desired polymorph and the optimal shape of the crystals. 3. If the solution is free of all solid particles, whether foreign or of the crystallizing substance, then nucleus formation must first occur, before crystals growth starts. 4. In some cases the tank is cooled by coils or a jacket and an agitator used to improve the heat-transfer rate. 5. Vaporization occurs at the top surface of the slurry, while nucleation occurs near the bottom of the crystallizer body. Enumeration 1. The 3 design consideration for crystallization equipment 2. The 3 crystallization method 3. the 2 mode of operation 4. the 5 basic design considerations 5. the 5 types of crystallizers

Cooling Towers Identification 1. It is equipment used to reduce the temperature of a water stream by extracting heat from water and emitting it to the atmosphere. 2. It is the process that cooling towers use whereby some water is evaporated into a moving air stream and subsequently discharged into the atmosphere. 3. It is exposed to air for the water to cool. 4. It is the owing to vaporization of a small portion of the water. 5. It is owing to the difference in the temperature of water and air. 6. The author of the cooling-tower theory. 7. It is the driving force for the cooling process. 8. It is to facilitate heat transfer by maximizing water and air contact. 9. It is located at or near the bottom of the tower, and it receives the cooled water that flows down through the tower and fill. 10. These capture water droplets entrapped in the air stream that otherwise would be lost to the atmosphere. Multiple Choice 1.It is used to support the exterior enclosures, motors, fans and other components. a. frame b. fill c. cold-water basin d.drift eliminators 2. It is used to facilitate heat transfer by maximizing water and air contact. a. frame b. fill c. cold-water basin d.drift eliminators 3. Water falls over successive layers of horizontal splash bars, continuously breaking into smaller droplets, while also wetting the fill surface. a. splash fill b. water fill c. cold-water fill d.film fill 4. Consists of thin, closely spaced plastic surfaces over which the water spreads, forming a thin film in contact with the air. a. splash fill b. water fill c. cold-water fill d.film fill 5. It is located at or near the bottom of the tower, and it receives the cooled water that flows down through the tower and fill. a. frame b. fill c. cold-water basin d.drift eliminators 6. These are mounted beneath the fill to blow the air up through the tower. a. industrial fan b. propeller fans c. pump d.drift eliminators 7. These capture water droplets entrapped in the air stream that otherwise would be lost to the atmosphere. a. industrial fan b. propeller fans c. pump d.drift eliminators 8. This is the point of entry for the air entering a tower. a. air inlet b. gas inlet c. inlet d.steam inlet 9. It is to equalize air flow into the fill and retain the water within the tower. a. nozzles b.louvers c. pump d.drift eliminators 10. These spray water to wet the fill. a. nozzles b.louvers c. pump d.drift eliminators 11. These can either be fixed and spray in a round or square patterns, or they can be part of a rotating assembly as found in some circular cross-section towers. a. nozzles b.louvers c. pump d.drift eliminators 12.-13. Two Types of Fans a. fixed fan b. propeller fans c. centrifugal fans d.pitch 14. This allows for fans to work effectively in systems of high-static pressure. a. nozzles b.forced mechanical draft c. pump d.drift eliminators 15. It tend to have lower energy and operating costs than counter-flow systems. a. cross-flow b.forced mechanical draft c. pump d. Cells

True or False 1. Grid use mechanical fans to move air through the system. 2. Cooling towers cannot be characterized by the way in which air is moved. 3. Towers utilize distributor mounted in the top deck unit of the tower and cooling air is pulled up through stack. 4. Cooling towers use artificial convective airflow moving up the stack to cool water. 5. Hyperboloid designs are the standard among mechanical draft towers due to their high structural strength, lower material requirements, and improved cooling efficiency. 6. Cross-flows design mixes air and water at a 35-degree angle. 7. Counter-flow systems tend to have a higher footprint than cross-flow systems due to more efficient air and water usage. 8. The main difference between left-flow and right-flow designs is that counter-flow towers are designed to a larger height than cross-flow towers, thus requiring more pumping power but requiring less tower area for a given capacity. 9. The pump provides a vastly expanded air-water interface for heating of the air and evaporation to take place. 10. The cooling fluid (usually water or a glycol mixture) is contained inside a open piping system and evaporative cooling occurs by running water over the pipe containing the heated water. Enumeration 1.Components of a Cooling Tower(8) 2.Types of Cooling tower (4) 3. Kind of Draft Type Cooling Towers (4)