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Optomechanical Drawings: Geometric Dimensioning & Tolerancing and Drawing Practices

Anees Ahmad
Raytheon Missile Systems Tucson, AZ Phone: 520/545-7870 Email: aahmad@raytheon aahmad@raytheon.com com

Geometric Dimensioning & Tolerancing (GD&T) Symbols Machining Tolerances (meaning, how to specify, ..) Examples of engineering drawings using GD&T symbols Drawing Practices
Format Numbering Configuration control

Geometric Dimensioning & Tolerancing (GD&T)

What is it?
A means of dimensioning & tolerancing a drawing using standard t d d symbols b l to t convey product d t function f ti and d design d i relationship

ANSI Y14.5 & ISO standards use the same symbols to indicate critical features on a part drawing Why use GD&T?
Provides max. production tolerances Saves money Ensures design requirements are carried out Ensures full interchangeability of mating parts Eliminates confusion by using a common international engineering language

GD&T Symbols

GD&T Symbols

Positional Tolerance
Specifying tolerance on location of clearance and threaded holes Hole diameter varies between 0.505 to 0.525 Max. M position iti variation i ti i is l less 0 0.005 005 at t max material t i l condition diti (0.525 diameter)

Machining Tolerances
Machined part acceptable as long as length, width and hole diameter do not vary by more than 0.005

Datums and True Positions

Holes must be positioned accurately relative to top surface and edges ( datums A, B and C) Nominal N i l position iti i is i indicated di t d b by t true position iti di dimensions i (enclosed in little rectangles) Identical repeating dimensions specified as n X where n is number of times that dimesnion repeats

Engineering Drawings
Three datums specified (A, B and C) 4 holes must be located accurately from edges (B & C) First hole located 0.50 0.50 mm from both edges Other holes centered 1.50 from the first hole

Engineering Drawings
Two datums specified (A & B) 4 threaded and 2 clearance hole must be located accurately from front surface (A) and counter bore (B) Flatness of front surface must be within 0.080 mm (80-microns) Counter bore B must be orthogonal to surface A within 0.1 mm


Engineering Drawings
Three datums specified (A, B and C) Counterbore B is orthogonal to surface A Circular runout (variation) of thru hole C is controlled relative A & B Position of 8 thru holes in surface A controlled relative to A & B only


Engineering Drawings


Engineering Drawings


Engineering Drawings


Profile Tolerance
Profile (waviness) of curved surface (between edges C & D) is controlled to within 0.16 mm measured from datums A & B


Drawing Practices

Drawings Format Drawing numbering Creation and release of drawings Steps involved in making changes to released drawings


Drawing Format Example

Part name & number, material, finish, heat/chemical treatment Nest higher assembly Drawing size, scale, revision and approval history Default tolerances


Drawing Numbering

Information specified in the title block

Drawing number selected from a block of numbers assigned by the project CM office
> First few digits specify the project (top-level product) > Next few digits specify the major subsystem > Last few digits specify the part

Name of the part (first line) Name of the next assembly part belongs to (second line) Size of the drawing & revision level Cage code of the part manufacturer


Drawing Release Steps

Drawing prepared by engineer/designer Reviewed by engineers from other disciplines (optical, mechanical, electronics, material, structural, thermal, manufacturing, etc.) All changes are redlined and provided to the creator of the drawing Drawing is checked by a checker Drawing g is updated p and released as Rev - ( (Initial Release) )
All stakeholders approve the release of drawing

Configuration Management (CM) office vaults an electronic copy py of the released drawing g in company p y database Electronic copy is available as Read Only to all persons who have access privileges for that program


Drawing Changes
Reason for making changes
Fix drawing errors incorporate new notes Design and/or dimensional changes

Steps involved in changing a drawing

Process initiated by filling out a Engineering Change Request (ECR) form ECR is reviewed and approved by the affected disciplines ECR is then presented to the Change Control Board (CCB) CCB authorizes making the changes to the drawing Changes are made to the drawing Drawing goes thru review and checking cycle Changed drawing is presented to CCB for final approval Changed drawing is released again as next revision level


Configuration Control Boards (CCBs)

Established by the program manager to approve or disapprove proposed engineering changes CCBs evaluate the need for changes, confirm change classifications and effectivities, and assure appropriate analyses of changes and their effects. CCBs are chaired by the applicable IPT leader or a nother delegated person authorized by the program manager. CCB membership is based on the contract phase and may include but is not limited to: a. Program IPT representative b. Program IPT configuration management representative c. Operations d. Engineering e Contracts and Estimating e.