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Dynamometer Basics Dr.

Horizon Gitano University Science Malaysia Dynamometer Overview Dynamometer Operation Dynamometer Controllers Testing: Power Curve Drive Cycle Simulation Power Testing: !urt"er e#planation an$ $ata Drive Cycle Testing: %urt"er e#planation DYNAMOMETER OVERVIEW dynamometer is a loa$ $evice w"ic" is generally use$ !or measuring t"e power output o! an engine. Several &in$s o! $ynamometers are common' some o! t"em (eing re!erre$ to as )(rea&s* or )(rea& $ynamometers*: $ry !riction (rea& $ynamometers' "y$raulic or water (rea& $ynamometers an$ e$$y current $ynamometers. Dry friction dynamometers are t"e ol$est &in$' an$ consist o! some sort o! mec"anical (rea&ing $evice' o!ten a (elt or !rictional )s"oe* w"ic" ru(s a rotating "u( or s"a!t. T"e "u( or s"a!t is spun (y t"e engine. +ncreasing tension in t"e (elt' or !orce o! t"e s"oe against t"e "u( increases t"e loa$ on t"e engine. Hydraulic dynamometers are (asically "y$raulic pumps w"ere t"e impeller is spun (y t"e engine. ,oa$ on t"e engine is varie$ (y opening or closing a valve' w"ic" c"anges (ac& pressure on t"e "y$raulic pump. Eddy current dynamometers are electromagnetic loa$ $evices. T"e engine (eing teste$ spins a $is& in t"e $ynamometer. -lectrical current passes t"roug" coils surroun$ing t"e $is&' an$ in$uce a magnetic resistance to t"e motion o! t"e $is&. .arying t"e current varies t"e loa$ on t"e engine. T"e $ynamometer applies a resistance to t"e rotation o! t"e engine. +! t"e $ynamometer is connecte$ to t"e engine/s output s"a!t it is re!erre$ to as an Engine Dynamometer . 0"en t"e $ynamometer is connecte$ to t"e ve"icles $rive w"eels it is calle$ a !assis Dynamometer. T"e !orce e#erte$ on t"e $ynamometer "ousing is resiste$ (y a strain measuring $evice 1!or e#ample a strain gage2.

DYNAMOMETER O"ERATION Several components are typically pac&age$ toget"er in a $ynamometer: t"e s"a!t wit" (earings' t"e resistance sur!ace' t"e resistance mec"anism in a )!ree* rotating "ousing' a strain gage' an$ a spee$ sensor 1see !igure 3 !or a sc"ematic o! an -$$y Current Dynamometer2. Generally some met"o$ o! cooling is also re4uire$' an$ t"is may re4uire eit"er a "eat e#c"anger or air or water circulation' t"is is not s"own in !igure 3. T"e entire assem(ly is typically mounte$ on a stout !rame' w"ic" is mec"anically lin&e$ to t"e !rame o! t"e engine (eing teste$.

%igure 3.

-$$y Current Dynamometer

T"e !orce signal 1%2 !rom t"e strain gage may (e converte$ into a tor4ue 1T2 (y multiplying (y t"e $istance !rom t"e center o! t"e s"a!t to t"e pivot point o! t"e strain gage 152: T65#% +! t"e units are in 7ewton8meters an$ s"a!t spee$ 1S2 is measure$ in ra$ians per secon$' t"en t"e s"a!t power or #rea$ %o&er 1P2 o! t"e engine can (e calculate$ (y multiplying t"e spee$ an$ t"e tor4ue: P6T#S O(viously i! you are using $i!!erent units t"an you will nee$ to use t"e appropriate conversion !actors. Electric Dynamometer a $evice t"at is $esigne$ to measure t"e tor4ue o! electric motors. -lectric $ynamometers are use$ in (enc" tests o! motors to $etermine mec"anical or electromec"anical c"aracteristics o! t"e motors. Suc" a $ynamometer is an electric mac"ine t"at operates as a generator an$ is mec"anically couple$ to a motor to (e teste$. DC generators are most o!ten use$ as electric $ynamometers. T"e tor4ue $evelope$ (y an electric motor is given (y t"e e4uation

w"ere U is t"e voltage across t"e generator terminals in volts' I is t"e current in t"e !iel$ win$ing in amperes' n is t"e rotation rate in rpm' an$ 9 is t"e e!!iciency o! t"e generator. T"e tor4ue is varie$ (y a$:usting t"e loa$ resistance an$ t"e current in t"e generator/s !iel$ win$ing.

-lectric $ynamometers are use$ to test "ig"8power traction mac"ines. T"e tor4ue o! low8power electric motors is sometimes measure$ (y means o! a very simple $ynamometer t"at consists o! a !erromagnetic $is& mounte$ on t"e s"a!t o! an electric motor an$ a DC electromagnet wit" a counterweig"t. s t"e $is& rotates' a (ra&ing tor4ue is pro$uce$ as a result o! t"e interaction o! e$$y currents in t"e $is& an$ t"e magnetic !iel$ o! t"e electromagnet. T"e angle t"roug" w"ic" t"e electromagnet an$ counterweig"t swing is proportional to t"e tor4ue to (e measure$. HYDRA'(I BRA)E T"e "y$raulic (ra&e system consists o! a "y$raulic pump 1usually a gear type pump2' a !lui$ reservoir an$ piping (etween t"e two parts. inserte$ in t"e piping is an a$:usta(le valve an$ (etween t"e pump an$ t"e valve is a gauge or ot"er means o! measuring "y$raulic pressure. usually' t"e !lui$ use$ was "y$raulic oil' (ut recent synt"etic multi8gra$e oils may (e a (etter c"oice. in simplest terms' t"e engine is (roug"t up to t"e $esire$ rpm an$ t"e valve is incrementally close$ an$ as t"e pumps outlet is restricte$' t"e loa$ increases an$ t"e t"rottle is simply opene$ until at t"e $esire$ t"rottle opening. unli&e most ot"er systems' power is calculate$ (y !actoring !low volume 1calculate$ !rom pump $esign specs2' "y$raulic pressure an$ rpm. (ra&e "p' w"et"er !igure$ wit" pressure' volume an$ rpm or wit" a $i!!erent loa$ cell type (ra&e $yno' s"oul$ pro$uce essentially i$entical power !igures. "y$raulic $ynos are renowne$ !or "aving t"e a(solutely 4uic&est loa$ c"ange a(ility' :ust slig"tly surpassing t"e e$$y current a(sor(ers. t"e $ownsi$e is t"at t"ey re4uire large 4uantities o! "ot oil un$er "ig" pressure an$ t"e re4uirement !or an oil reservoir.
Mec!anical Dynamometer or "rony Bra$e Dynamometer T"e de "rony Bra$e is a simple $evice invente$ (y Gaspar$ $e Prony to measure t"e tor4ue pro$uce$ (y an engine. T"e term ;(ra&e "orsepower; is one measurement o! power $erive$ !rom t"is met"o$ o! measuring tor4ue. 1Power is calculate$ (y multiplying tor4ue (y rotational spee$.2 -ssentially t"e measurement is ma$e (y wrapping a cor$ or (elt aroun$ t"e output s"a!t o! t"e engine an$ measuring t"e !orce trans!erre$ to t"e (elt t"roug" !riction. T"e !riction is increase$ (y tig"tening t"e (elt until t"e !re4uency o! rotation o! t"e s"a!t is re$uce$. +n practice more engine power can t"en (e applie$ until t"e limit o! t"e engine is reac"e$. +n its simplest !orm an engine is connecte$ to a rotating $rum (y means o! an output s"a!t. !riction (an$ is wrappe$ aroun$ "al! t"e $rum<s circum!erence an$ eac" en$ attac"e$ to a separate spring (alance. su(stantial pre8loa$ is t"en applie$ to t"e en$s o! t"e (an$' so t"at eac" spring (alance "as an initial an$ i$entical rea$ing. 0"en t"e engine is running' t"e !rictional !orce (etween t"e $rum an$ t"e (an$ will increase t"e !orce rea$ing on one (alance an$ $ecrease it on t"e ot"er. T"e $i!!erence (etween t"e two rea$ings multiplie$ (y t"e ra$ius o! t"e $riven $rum is e4ual to t"e tor4ue. +! t"e engine spee$ is measure$ wit" a tac"ometer' t"e (ra&e "orsepower is easily calculate$. n alternate mec"anism is to clamp a lever to t"e s"a!t an$ measure using a single (alance. T"e tor4ue is t"en relate$ to t"e lever lengt"' s"a!t $iameter an$ measure$ !orce. T"e $evice is generally use$ over a range o! engine spee$s to o(tain power an$ tor4ue curves !or t"e engine' since t"ere is a non8linear relations"ip (etween tor4ue an$ engine spee$ !or most engine types.