Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 9

Student:______________________ Date:______________________ Teacher:XXXXXXXXX Marijana Nikolic XXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXX

EOLIAN EROSION
By: TIJANA SEKULIC Source: http://geography.about.com/od/physicalgeography/a/erosion.htm

Vocabulary
Directions: Study the following keywords and definintions.
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. accumulate -(v) - To gather more and more, little by little.* drainage -(n) - the act of removing water from below the surface of an area. extinct -(adj) - No longer exist. heterogeneous -(adj) - Made up of different kinds or types. masterpieces -(n) - A great work of art.* material -(n) - What something is made of.* prominent -(adj) - Noticeable or important. transverse -(adj) - Lying or being across or in a crosswise direction. vegetation -(n) - Plant life. perforated -(v) - To make a hole or holes through. barren -(adj) - Unable to give or support life.* vast -(adj) - Very large. elongated -(v) - Make longer. configuration -(n) - The shape or position of one or more things. clay -(n) - Mud that hardens when cooked and is used to make dishes and pots. accumulations -(n) - The act of gathering and piling up something. precipitation -(n) - The quantity of water fall (rain, snow, etc.) within a period of time. dried out -(pv) - all the water is removed from something fossil -(n) - The remains of dead organisms that have be preserved by natural processes. diameter -(n) - A line that divides a circle into two equal halves.

Which words are the hardest? Focus on the tough ones!

Reading
Directions: Read the following passage carefully.
http://geography.about.com/od/physicalgeography/a/erosion.htm

Fill out the 'K' and the 'W' columns before you read, and then use the 'L' column to take notes while you read. K What do you KNOW about this subject? W What do you WANT to know about this subject? L What did you LEARN about this subject?

1. 2. 3. 4.

Underline important parts of the text. Circle words or phrases in the text that you dont know. Put a question mark (?) next to statements you have a question about. Put a check mark ( ) next to statements that you agree with.

Eolian erosion
Eolian erosion and eolian forms of relief were named after Eol, the god of winds in ancient Greece. Although winds blow in all parts of the world, they can only create both erosive and accumulative forms in the relief in deserts and semi-deserts, where due to scarce precipitation, there are no rivers and river erosion. Deserts are areas where the average annual precipitation is less than 100 mm of rain. A third of the desert regions have even less than 10 mm of rain a year, which is 10 l/m2, i.e. as much as a man in a desert needs to satisfy his need for water. Although we can find deserts in all the continents, we can see certain regularities in them. First, they are conditioned by global division of air pressure, constant winds and land mass, whereas locally it can be conditioned by the relief, cold sea currents and some other factors. Most of the deserts on Earth can be found around the Tropic of Cancer. They are more frequently landlocked than coastal and can be found both in lowlands and on plateaus. They can be hot or cold, but most importantly they are always very dry. The forces that shape the relief of the deserts are the wind, the Sun and frost. Since the air in deserts is dry, there are hardly ever any clouds above them. Without vegetation, the Sun is very intense on the bare rocky surfaces. By constantly being heated during the day and cooling down at night, the rocks crack and crumble, with the parts of rocks further cracking and crumbling until they turn into sand. The wind then picks up even the tiniest particles carrying them and thus contributing to their further weathering. Such landscapes of barren rocks are called rock deserts or hamadas. They cover vast areas and are hardly passable. In deserts, there are almost always winds of various intensity, often blowing in the same direction for months, like in the case of trade winds. The erosive and transportation force of the wind depends mostly on its speed. The strong desert winds lift huge amounts of sand and dust, and are even able to roll parts of rocks of over 1 kg. while the larger material is only rolled by the wind, the finer is lifted and carried to great distances. This is why the sand from the Sahara desert often reaches the Canary Islands in the Atlantic, while the rain can bring the finest desert dust to Belgrade. The particles lifted and carried by the wind further erode the prominent rocky surfaces, thus creating unusual shapes. In this way, polished surfaces, desert honeycomb, mushrooms, windows and deep desert wrinkles in the direction of the most frequent wind are created. Parallel wrinkles, especially prominent in softer rocks and called jardang in China, are the largest eolian erosive formations. The first person to have studied and described them was the Swedish travel writer Sven Hedin in the Taklamakan desert (go in but you will never come out ), in Asia. The satellite shots of the Sahara show that some of the jordans can be over several hundred metres long. Under the influence of eolian erosion smaller rocky surfaces become aerodynamic in shape, and some of the skerries look like mushrooms. In the rocks of heterogeneous mineral composition, many dents of various size are created. Such perforated rocky surfaces look like honeycomb. The wind can create the most unusual formations in rocks, some of them being true natural masterpieces. Where the force of wind becomes weaker the sand and dust accumulate, thus creating various accumulative eolian formations. The dunes are larger sandy elevations, elongated in the direction of the wind. They can be over 100 m high. Barchans or transverse dunes are smaller dunes crescentic in shape and stretch across the direction of the wind. The side turned towards the wind is gentle and elongated, whereas the other side is steep and short. The dunes and barchans move around constantly in the direction of the wind, sometimes at a pace of over 1 m a day. Due to this the desert inhabitants have huge losses. The sand covers and destroys their farming land, gardens and date palm plantations, and often even whole settlements and oases. Ergs are created when a large number of dunes come together and create dune fields, which look like wavy sea of sand. In the Issaouane Erg of Algeria, 400 km in diameter, the dunes are up to 200 m high. Due to constant changes in configuration, the travelers in the deserts have difficulty orienteering and sometimes get lost. Depending on the composition of the grounds, besides rocky and sandy, deserts can also be stony, clay and salt deserts. The stony deserts are huge fossil accumulations of river stones, whereas the clay and salt deserts form in places of dried out lakes. The evidence of a wetter climate are dry river beds or wadies, some of which are over several hundred kilometers long. The desert settlements or oases can most frequently be found next to great wadies, as the water can be obtained underground by digging wells. The accumulative eolian formations can also be found outside real deserts everywhere where there are huge amounts of sand and dust and strong winds. The sand dunes can be found along the coastline, and can also form near bigger plain rivers. By blowing out the river sand accumulated by the Danube on its banks, the wind created multiple dune fields or sands around Kladovo, Golubac, Veliko Gradiste I Rama in South Banat. In Deliblatska sands, which is 60 km long and 15-20 km wide, the dunes are over 40 m high. This is the largest desert in Europe. In younger Pleistocene, the strong winds in the Pannonian plain accumulated huge amounts of fine dust which formed loamy loess soil. The loamy less layers are a few tens of metres thick and in the relief they make vast plateaus: Banat, Tamis, Syrmia, Titel and Backa. The loess layers also accumulated in larger river valleys. The greatest accumulations of loess can be found in China in the drainage basin of the Yellow River (the Huang He), which got its name after the loess as well as the sea that it runs into.

Deserts are areas full of surprises and hidden dangers as well as beauty. All is calm, the silence is disturbed only by the wind and it seems that the time has stopped. When you enter a desert it is like you have taken a step back in time as they are really graveyards of long extinct animals, plants, cultures and states.

1) Identify 3 important supporting details that contribute to the main idea of the passage. 2) 3)

Identify 2 details that are not very important to the main idea of the passage.

1) 2)

Write 1 brief paragraph summarizing the main idea of the passage. Use the important details to support your discussion of the main idea.

Focus on Grammar

Relative Clauses give information about a subject.


Sometimes the information identifies the subject. For example, in the sentence "Canada is the country which is north of the United States," the relative clause "which is north of the United States" identifies Canada. Sometimes a relative clause gives extra information that does not identify the subject. In the sentence "Miguel is from Mexico, which is south of the United States," the subject is "Miguel" and the relative clause "which is south of the United States" tells more about Mexico, NOT about Miguel. It is extra information that does NOT identify Miguel. In the sentence(s) below, are the relative clauses needed to identify the subject?

Directions: Identify how the relative_clauses is used in the sentence(s) below


1. The evidence of a wetter climate are dry river beds or wadies, some of which are over several hundred kilometers long.

2. The evidence of a wetter climate are dry river beds or wadies, some of which are over several hundred kilometers long.

3. Deserts are areas where the average annual precipitation is less than 100 mm of rain.

Word Roots & Stems


Rule: The prefix trans adds "across" to the meaning of a word, so transatlantic means across the Atlantic.

Directions: Identify the word that ends with trans- in each sentence and write it on the line.
1. The erosive and transportation force of the wind depends mostly on its speed.

2. The erosive and transportation force of the wind depends mostly on its speed.

Directions: Fill in the blanks below, just as in the models.


tranplant ____________ ________________________________________________ transcontinental ____________ ________________________________________________ transport trans + port How will we transport all these boxes? transsexual ____________ ________________________________________________ transform trans + form The caterpillar will transform into a butterfly. transact ____________ ________________________________________________

Vocabulary Practice FILL IN THE BLANK


Directions: Use the word bank to identify the word that best completes the sentence.

accumulate prominent elongated fossil

drainage transverse configuration diameter

extinct vegetation clay

heterogeneous perforated accumulations

masterpieces barren precipitation

material vast dried out

1. The _______________ of her dress scratched her skin. 2. The diameter of a pie is the line that will give you and your friend each 1/2 of the pie. 3. place holder 4. Their house had a problem with _______________, often causing their basement to flood. 5. Many people consider "The White Album" to be the greatest masterpiece in rock-and-roll history. 6. Dinosaurs are _______________. 7. He molded the _______________ into a beautiful flower pot. 8. After grapes are _______________ they become raisins. 9. They elongated the train by adding more cars. 10. place holder 11. The ocean is _______________. 12. The accumulation of wisdom takes many years, but an accumulation of ear wax only takes a few days. 13. The _______________ garden had many types and colors of flowers.

14. He only bought one book a week but, over the years, he _______________ many. 15. There is a lot _______________ in the jungle. 16. There are no plants, animals or other living things on the moon, it is a _______________ place. 17. Dinosaur bones _______________ are actually rocks in the form of dinosaur bones. The rocks slowly replaced the bones over millions of years, preserving their shape. 18. The _______________ of chairs allowed everyone to see the show. 19. The _______________ house on the hill can be seen from everywhere in town. 20. The storm brought several inches of precipitation

MATCHING
Directions: Write the letter of word that matches the definition on the line. If it helps, feel free to also draw a line between the definition and the matching word.
21. _______ What something is made of.* 22. _______ A line that divides a circle into two equal halves. 23. _______ Lying or being across or in a crosswise direction. 24. _______ the act of removing water from below the surface of an area. 25. _______ A great work of art.* 26. _______ No longer exist. 27. _______ Mud that hardens when cooked and is used to make dishes and pots. 28. _______ all the water is removed from something 29. _______ Make longer. 30. _______ To make a hole or holes through. 31. _______ Very large. 32. _______ The act of gathering and piling up something. 33. _______ Made up of different kinds or types. 34. _______ To gather more and more, little by little.* 35. _______ Plant life. 36. _______ Unable to give or support life.* 37. _______ The remains of dead organisms that have be preserved by natural processes. 38. _______ The shape or position of one or more things. 39. _______ Noticeable or important. 40. _______ The quantity of water fall (rain, snow, etc.) within a period of time. A. B. C. D. E. F. G. H. I. J. K. L. M. N. O. P. Q. R. S. T. accumulate drainage extinct heterogeneous masterpieces material prominent transverse vegetation perforated barren vast elongated configuration clay accumulations precipitation dried out fossil diameter

WRITE YOUR OWN SENTENCES


Directions: For each of the words in the box, write an original sentence using the word. Circle the vocabulary word in each sentence. Be sure to write a sentence that would help the reader better understand the meaning of the word.

accumulate prominent elongated fossil

drainage transverse configuration diameter

extinct vegetation clay

heterogeneous perforated accumulations

masterpieces barren precipitation

material vast dried out

41.

42.

43.

44.

45.

46.

47.

48.

49.

50.

51.

52.

53.

54.

55.

56.

57.

58.

59.

60.

LESSON:
Aim: Grade: 9 Subject: Prepared by: Marijana Nikolic

Objectives:
Students will be able to understand, pronounce, and use the words in the vocabulary list below. Students will be able to demonstrate comprehension of the passage by answering questions which require basic understanding and interpretation of the content.

Standards addressed: Vocabulary:


1. accumulate 7. prominent 13. elongated 19. fossil 2. drainage 8. transverse 14. configuration 20. diameter 3. extinct 9. vegetation 15. clay 4. heterogeneous 10. perforated 16. accumulations 5. masterpieces 11. barren 17. precipitation 6. material 12. vast 18. dried out

Activity

Description

Differentiation Guide

Assessment

Introduction of vocabulary

Introduce the new words from the vocabulary list in above (see Objectives) by modeling pronunciation, individual and choral repitition. Review defintions Sample Questioning: In your own words, explain the definition. Who can think of a time when this word might be used? Can you use this word in a sentence? Whats the antonym (opposite) of this word?

When appropriate, give different types of learners an opportunity to write down the new words, associate a visual image to cue to understanding of the word, or develop a physical action to increase the students ability to remember the new words.

ALL Students will be able to increase their understanding and awareness of the new words.SOME Students will be asked to orally demonstrate knowledge of new words.

Reading & Comprehension Questions

Students will read the passages of and demonstrate comprehension of the content by question.

Depending on the population: Read the entire passage aloud, to model phrasing and fluency. Pause at key moments and model good reading strategies through a think aloud. Ask students to volunteer to read parts of the passage aloud. Instruct students to read the passage silently and complete the questions independently, while working with students who need more literacy help. Ask students to complete the questions by doing Think, Pair, Share

ALL Students will read the passage or follow along as the passage is read. ALL Students will strive to demonstrate comprehension of the passage by answering the questions. SOME students will be given an opportunity to share their answer aloud.

Grammar

Students will review the usage of and then identify simple_present in sentences from the reading. Students will write 5 original sentences using simple_present.

Give students need time to work on completing their own practice sentences for the grammatical structure. Invite early finishers to put their sentences on the board or challenge them to not only use the grammar structure, but also include the vocabulary from the lesson in their sentences.

ALL Students will be able to demonstrate an increased mastery of the grammar structure by independently writing sentences that correctly employ simple_present.

Word Building: Roots and Stems

Students will be encouraged to take away a word-attack strategy from this lesson by reviewing -y, which was used in the reading.

Students may benefit from having time to complete this portion of the worksheet individually or in pairs.

ALL students will be able to recognize the suffix -y and understand The suffix y changes a noun into an adjective, like dirty..

Practicing New Vocabulary

Students will be given a chance to practice applying new vocabulary by completing cloze sentences.

Students complete this section of worksheet independently prior to group review of the answers. When appropriate, have students work in pairs or small groups.

ALL Students will increase their familiarity with the new vocabulary and their ability to successfully use these new words in context. Students who get more than two of the cloze sentences wrong should be asked do other reinforcement (i.e. flash cards).

Summary

Instructor will review the objectives of the lesson with the class a whole.

The summary can be completed as quick discussion or by asking student to summarize in their notes.

Example quick assess: 3 new pieces of information from text, 2 new words, 1 question about what they learned.

Fill-in-the-blank Answer Key: 1) material 2) diameter 4) drainage 6) extinct 7) clay 8) dried out 9) elongated 11) vast 12) accumulation 13) heterogeneous 14) accumulated 15) vegetation 16) barren 17) fossils 18) configuration 19) prominent 20) precipitation Matching Answer Key: A. -14 B. -4 C. -6 D. -13 E. -5 F. -1 G. -19 H. -3 I. -15 J. -10 K. -16 L. -11 M. -9 N. -18 O. -7 P. -12 Q. -20 R. -8 S. -17 T. -2