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ZENER DIODE CHARACTERISTICS

Objective: 1. To plot Volt-Ampere characteristics of Zener diode. 2. To find Zener break down voltage in reverse biased condition. 3. To calculate static and d namic resistances of the Zener diode in both forward and reverse biased conditions !before" after break down voltages#. Components: Name Zener &iode %esistor13 &t# 1 1

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Equipment: Name $readboard %egulated &' power suppl Ammeter Voltmeter 'onnecting (ires Speci ications: $reakdown Voltage * +.1V ,ower dissipation * ).-+( Range )-3)V )-2)mA )-2)V

.a/. 0orward 'urrent * 1A T!eo"#: An ideal ,-1 2unction diode does not conduct in reverse biased condition. A $ene" %io%e conducts e/cellentl even in reverse

biased condition. These diodes operate at a precise value of voltage called break down voltage. A $ene" %io%e when forward biased behaves like an ordinar 1 4unction diode. ,-

A $ene" %io%e when reverse biased can either undergo ava'anc!e b"ea( %o)n or $ene" b"ea( %o)n.

Ava'anc!e b"ea( %o)n5-6f both p-side and n-side of the diode are lightl doped" depletion region at the 4unction widens. Application of a ver large electric field at the 4unction ma rupture covalent bonding between electrons. 7uch rupture leads to the generation of a large number of charge carriers resulting in ava'anc!e mu'tip'ication. Zene" b"ea( %o)n5-6f both p-side and n-side of the diode are heavil doped" depletion region at the 4unction reduces. Application of even a small voltage at the 4unction ruptures covalent bonding and generates large number of charge carriers. 7uch sudden increase in the number of charge carriers results in $ene" mec!anism.
Ci"cuit Diag"am: *ig +,- . *o")a"% /ias Con%ition: % 1k )-2)V Vin 15V ) 8 2)mA

*ig +0- . Reve"se /ias Con%ition: % 1k ) 8 2)mA

Vin 15V

)-2)V

1"oce%u"e: *o")a"% biase% con%ition: 1. 'onnect the circuit as shown in fig !1#. 1. Var V9f graduall and note down the corresponding readings of 69 f. 2. 7tep 7i9e is not fi/ed because of non linear curve and var the :-a/is variable !i.e. if output variation is more" decrease input step si9e and vice versa#. 2. Tabulate different forward currents obtained for different forward voltages. Reve"se biase% con%ition: 1. 'onnect the circuit as shown in fig !2#. 2. Var V9r graduall and note down the corresponding readings of 69r . 3. 7tep 7i9e is not fi/ed because of non linear curve and var the :-a/is variable !i.e. if output variation is more" decrease input step si9e and vice versa#. ;. Tabulate different reverse currents obtained for different reverse voltages.

Obse"vations: Zene" %io%e in *o")a"% biase% con%ition: *o")a"% 3o'tage ac"oss t!e %io%e 3$ +vo'ts*o")a"% cu""ent t!"oug! t!e %io%e I$ +mA-

Zene" %io%e in "eve"se biase% con%ition: Reve"se 3o'tage Reve"se Ac"oss %io%e cu""ent 3$" +vo'tst!"oug! t!e %io%e I$" +mA-

2"ap! +Inst"uctions-: 1. Take a graph sheet and divide it into ; e<ual parts. .ark origin at the center of the graph sheet. 2. 1ow mark =ve /-a/is as VZf 6Zf !mA# -ve /-a/is as VZr =ve -a/is as 6Zf -ve -a/is as 6Zr VZr !volts#

V Zf !volts#

6Zr !mA# 3. .ark the readings tabulated for 9ener diode forward biased condition in first >uadrant and 9ener diode reverse biased condition in third >uadrant. Ca'cu'ations "om 2"ap!: 7tatic forward %esistance & namic forward %esistance 7tatic %everse %esistance & namic %everse %esistance 1"ecautions: 1. %dc * Vf?6f rac * Vf?6f %dc * Vr?6r rac * Vr?6r

(hile doing the e/periment do not e/ceed the ratings of the diode. This ma lead to damage the diode. 2. 'onnect voltmeter and Ammeter in correct polarities as shown in the circuit diagram. 3. &o not switch ON the power suppl unless ou have checked the circuit connections as per the circuit diagram. In e"ence: 1. 6n the forward biased mode the 9ener diode operates as a p-n diode. 2. 6n the reverse biased mode 9ener diode has large breakdown voltage and though the current increases the voltage remains constant. Thus it acts as a voltage regulator. Resu't: 1. The 9ener diode characteristics have been studied. 2. The 9ener resistance at the breakdown voltage was found to be * @@@

Reasoning &uestions
1. (hat is a 9ener diodeA Bow it differs from an ordinar diodeA 2. C/plain the concept of 9ener breakdownA 3. (hat is avalanche breakdownA

;. (hat t pe of biasing must be used when a 9ener diode is used as a regulatorA +. 'urrent in a 1( 8 1)V 9ener diode must be limited to a ma/imum of what valueA D. (hat are the advantages of 9ener diodeA -. 7tate reason wh an ordinar rather than 9ener breakdownA diode suffers avalanche breakdown

E. 6f impurities in a 9ener diode increases what happens to the forward voltageA F. 'an 9ener be used as a rectifierA 1). 7pecifications of the 9ener diodeA