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2013 IEEE 2nd Global Conference on Consumer Electronics (GCCE)

In-line fiber glucose sensor

Tsai-Chen Wu1, Yuan-Chang Jen2, Cheng-Chih Hsu1* and Cheng-Ling Lee 2

Department of Photonics Engineering, Yuan Ze University, 135, Yuan-Tung Road, Chung-Li, 32003 Taiwan 2 Department of Electro-Optical Engineering, National United University, Miaoli, 360, Taiwan * Corresponding author: Tel: 886 3 4638800 Ext. 7520; fax: 886 3 4514281 E-mail address: cchsu@saturn.yzu.edu.tw
peroxide (H2O2) for 10 min. After that, the surface of the fiber core surface was modified by treatment with the amino linkage aldehyde group with 1 % (v/v) 3-(trimethoxysilyl)propyl aldehyde in absolute ethanol for 30 min at room temperature which was utilized to immobilize GOx. The modified fibers were immersed into GOx solutions with the concentration of 10 g/ml and pH of 7 for 1 hour. Then, the unreacted aldehyde groups were quenched by 15 mM of Tris buffer (pH 7) for 10 min at room temperature. [4] The fiber sensor is showed in Fig. 1(a) and the ends of the sensor are fused with connector to connect with broadband light source (BLS) and optical spectrum analyzer (OSA) which showed in Fig. 1(b). (a)

We proposed an In-line fiber glucose sensor which immobilized the GOx on the surface of no-core fiber by analyzing the MMI signal. Based on the measurement results, the sensitivity of proposed method can be reached 50 mg/dl with the OSA of 0.1 nm wavelength resolution. In addition, different tip of the MMI signal has different sensitivity of the wavelength shifting. In this study, the higher sensitivity of wavelength shifting is around of wavelength of 1450 nm. The smallest wavelength shifting is about 0.1 nm which resulted from the glucose concentration variation of 50 mg/dl. Keywords: glucose fiber sensor, multimode interference, glucose oxidase

I. INTRODUCTION Fiber glucose sensors have attracted much attention over the past few decades. Many sensors [1-3] integrate the glucose oxidase (GOx) enzyme to determine the glucose concentration causes GOx selectivity. Therefore, the real-time optical signals, such as the change of the absorption property and the refractive index (RI) of the analytic solution, make it possible to distinguish between the GOx and analytic solution as the chemical reaction progresses. Ganesh et al. [1] developed a fiber oxygen and glucose sensor which measured the fluorescence quenching activity. They obtained a 1.7 sec response time and a measurement range between 18 to 180 mg/dl in the glucose concentration. Rosenzweig et al. [2] developed a glucose fiber sensor analyzed the fluorescent signal by using a photomultiplier and photon counter installed in a fluorescent microscope. Their method obtained a rapid response time of about 1.5 sec and a measurement range between 18 to 180 mg/dl with high linearity. Wang et al. [3] described a glucose fiber sensing apparatus which combined the bifurcated fiber and sensing membrane. Based on analysis of the phase-shift of the fluorescent signal coming from the oxygen consumption in the membrane, the method can obtain the glucose concentration of the testing sample with detection limit of 50 mg/dl. In this paper, we proposed a simple fiber glucose sensor which immobilized the GOx on the no-core fiber. Based on multimode interference (MMI) effect and selectivity of GOx, the glucose concentration in the testing solution can be obtained. II. EXPERIMENTAL The no-core fiber with length of 3 mm was cleaned in 3:1 mixture of sulfuric acid (H2SO4) and hydrogen


Fig. 1 Schematic diagram of the sensor and measurement system. (a) fiber glucose sensor; (b) In-line fiber measurement system.

Based on the previous work [5], the MMI signal will be affected by the refractive index changed around of the fiber sensor. The tip of the MMI signal will be shift as the refractive index changed. When the glucose catalyzes with the GOx, the glucose will be converted into gluconic acid and hydrogen peroxide. The chemical reaction can be formulated as follows:

Glucose solution + O 2 Gluconic acid + H 2 O 2 . That means the refractive index will be changed and


978-1-4799-0892-9/13/$31.00 2013 IEEE


cause the MMI tip shifting.


measurement results, the sensitivity of proposed method can be reached 50 mg/dl with the OSA of 0.1 nm resolution.

The MMI signals of test samples with different glucose concentration are showed in Fig. 2. The glucose concentrations are varied from 1 mg/dl to 400 mg/dl. In this figure, it is clear that two tips of MMI signal can be used to determine the glucose concentration. One is around the wavelength of 1260 nm, another is around wavelength of 1450 nm.

Fig. 2 The MMI signal of the test samples with different glucose concentration.

Hence, we can analyze the wavelength shifting around these two tips and can be shown in Fig. 3. Fig. 3(a) shows that the wavelength shifting around the wavelength of 1450 nm and Fig. 3(b) shows that around the wavelength of 1260 nm. In Fig. 3(a), the behavior of the wavelength shifting is more linear and can be distinguished between the samples with different glucose concentration. In contrast, the results in Fig. 3(b) show that the undistinguishable behavior between the sample with different glucose concentration. The straight line in Fig. 3(a) is linear fitting of the wavelength shifting datum. The R-square is about 0.947 which indicated high reliability and linearity. The slope mg of the fitting curve is about 0.002 ( nm ) . If the dl resolution of the OSA is about 1 nm, the theoretical sensitivity of this sensor can be estimated 0.5 ( g ) . If dl the resolution of the OSA is about 0.1 nm, the sensitivity can be reached 50 mg/dl. In this study, the resolution of the OSA is better than 0.1 nm which indicated the rationality of the measurement results. We believed that the sensitivity of this method can be better than 50 mg/dl. In addition, the MMI signal is strongly related to the length of sensor. The shorter length of the sensor, the higher sensitivity can be obtained. Therefore, to decrease the length of the sensor can increase the sensitivity of the sensor.

Fig. 3 Wavelength shifting result of MMI signal measured by the In-line fiber glucose sensor. (a) tip around of 1450 nm; (b) tip around of 1260 nm.


The authors would like to thank the National Science Council of the Republic of China for financially supporting this research under Contract No NSC 101-2221-E-155-041.
[1] A. B. Ganesh and T. K. Radhakrishnan, Employment of fluorescence quenching for the determination of oxygen and glucose, Sensors and Transducers 60, pp. 439-445, 2005. [2] Z. Rosenzweig and R. Kopelman, Analytical properties of miniaturized oxygen and glucose fiber optics sensor, Sens. Actuator B 35-36, pp. 475-483, 1996. [3] H. Wang, J. Huang, Y. Yuan, L. Ding, and D. Fan, Multifunctional sol-gel sensing membrane for fiber optics glucose sensor, Proc. SPIE 7673, pp. 767310-1- 767310-7, 2010. [4] T.-Q. Lin, Y.-L. Lu, and C.-C. Hsu, Fabrication of glucose fiber sensor based on immobilized GOD technique for rapid measurement, Opt. Express 18, pp. 27560-27566, 2010. [5] C.-L. Lee, K.-H. Lin, Y.-Y. Lin, and J.-M. Hsu, Widely tunable and ultrasensitive leaky-guided multimode fiber interferometer based on refractive index-matched coupling, Optics Letters, 37, pp.302-304, 2012.

In this study, we proposed an In-line fiber glucose sensor which immobilized the GOx on the surface of no-core fiber by analyzing the MMI signal. Based on the