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G.R. No.

L-19190

November 29, 1922

President of the Philippine National Bank, a "loan" within the meaning of section 35 of Act No. 2747? Counsel argue that the documents of record do not prove that authority to make a loan was given, but only show the concession of a credit. In this statement of fact, counsel is correct, for the exhibits in question speak of a " credito" (credit) and not of a " prestamo" (loan). The "credit" of an individual means his ability to borrow money by virtue of the confidence or trust reposed by a lender that he will pay what he may promise. (Donnell vs. Jones [1848], 13 Ala., 490; Bouvier's Law Dictionary.) A "loan" means the delivery by one party and the receipt by the other party of a given sum of money, upon an agreement, express or implied, to repay the sum loaned, with or without interest. (Payne vs. Gardiner [1864], 29 N. Y., 146, 167.) The concession of a "credit" necessarily involves the granting of "loans" up to the limit of the amount fixed in the "credit," II. Was the granting of a credit of P300,000 to the copartnership "Puno y Concepcion, S. en C.," by Venancio Concepcion, President of the Philippine National Bank, a "loan" or a "discount"? Counsel argue that while section 35 of Act No. 2747 prohibits the granting of a "loan," it does not prohibit what is commonly known as a "discount." In a letter dated August 7, 1916, H. Parker Willis, then President of the National Bank, inquired of the Insular Auditor whether section 37 of Act No. 2612 was intended to apply to discounts as well as to loans. The ruling of the Acting Insular Auditor, dated August 11, 1916, was to the effect that said section referred to loans alone, and placed no restriction upon discount transactions. It becomes material, therefore, to discover the distinction between a "loan" and a "discount," and to ascertain if the instant transaction comes under the first or the latter denomination. Discounts are favored by bankers because of their liquid nature, growing, as they do, out of an actual, live, transaction. But in its last analysis, to discount a paper is only a mode of loaning money, with, however, these distinctions: (1) In a discount, interest is deducted in advance, while in a loan, interest is taken at the expiration of a credit; (2) a discount is always on double-name paper; a loan is generally on single-name paper. Conceding, without deciding, that, as ruled by the Insular Auditor, the law covers loans and not discounts, yet the conclusion is inevitable that the demand notes signed by the firm "Puno y Concepcion, S. en C." were not discount paper but were mere evidences of indebtedness, because (1) interest was not deducted from the face of the notes, but was paid when the notes fell due; and (2) they were single-name and not double-name paper. The facts of the instant case having relation to this phase of the argument are not essentially different from the facts in the Binalbagan Estate case. Just as there it was declared that the operations constituted a loan and not a discount, so should we here lay down the same ruling. III. Was the granting of a credit of P300,000 to the copartnership, "Puno y Concepcion, S. en C." by Venancio Concepcion, President of the Philippine National Bank, an "indirect loan" within the meaning of section 35 of Act No. 2747?

THE PEOPLE OF THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS, plaintiffappellee, vs. VENANCIO CONCEPCION, defendant-appellant. MALCOLM, J.: By telegrams and a letter of confirmation to the manager of the Aparri branch of the Philippine National Bank, Venancio Concepcion, President of the Philippine National Bank, between April 10, 1919, and May 7, 1919, authorized an extension of credit in favor of "Puno y Concepcion, S. en C." in the amount of P300,000. This special authorization was essential in view of the memorandum order of President Concepcion dated May 17, 1918, limiting the discretional power of the local manager at Aparri, Cagayan, to grant loans and discount negotiable documents to P5,000, which, in certain cases, could be increased to P10,000. Pursuant to this authorization, credit aggregating P300,000, was granted the firm of "Puno y Concepcion, S. en C.," the only security required consisting of six demand notes. The notes, together with the interest, were taken up and paid by July 17, 1919. "Puno y Concepcion, S. en C." was a copartnership capitalized at P100,000. Anacleto Concepcion contributed P5,000; Clara Vda. de Concepcion, P5,000; Miguel S. Concepcion, P20,000; Clemente Puno, P20,000; and Rosario San Agustin, "casada con Gral. Venancio Concepcion," P50,000. Member Miguel S. Concepcion was the administrator of the company. On the facts recounted, Venancio Concepcion, as President of the Philippine National Bank and as member of the board of directors of this bank, was charged in the Court of First Instance of Cagayan with a violation of section 35 of Act No. 2747. He was found guilty by the Honorable Enrique V. Filamor, Judge of First Instance, and was sentenced to imprisonment for one year and six months, to pay a fine of P3,000, with subsidiary imprisonment in case of insolvency, and the costs. Section 35 of Act No. 2747, effective on February 20, 1918, just mentioned, to which reference must hereafter repeatedly be made, reads as follows: "The National Bank shall not, directly or indirectly, grant loans to any of the members of the board of directors of the bank nor to agents of the branch banks." Section 49 of the same Act provides: "Any person who shall violate any of the provisions of this Act shall be punished by a fine not to exceed ten thousand pesos, or by imprisonment not to exceed five years, or by both such fine and imprisonment." These two sections were in effect in 1919 when the alleged unlawful acts took place, but were repealed by Act No. 2938, approved on January 30, 1921. Counsel for the defense assign ten errors as having been committed by the trial court. These errors they have argued adroitly and exhaustively in their printed brief, and again in oral argument. Attorney-General Villa-Real, in an exceptionally accurate and comprehensive brief, answers the proposition of appellant one by one. The question presented are reduced to their simplest elements in the opinion which follows: I. Was the granting of a credit of P300,000 to the copartnership "Puno y Concepcion, S. en C." by Venancio Concepcion,

Counsel argue that a loan to the partnership "Puno y Concepcion, S. en C." was not an "indirect loan." In this connection, it should be recalled that the wife of the defendant held one-half of the capital of this partnership. In the interpretation and construction of statutes, the primary rule is to ascertain and give effect to the intention of the Legislature. In this instance, the purpose of the Legislature is plainly to erect a wall of safety against temptation for a director of the bank. The prohibition against indirect loans is a recognition of the familiar maxim that no man may serve two masters that where personal interest clashes with fidelity to duty the latter almost always suffers. If, therefore, it is shown that the husband is financially interested in the success or failure of his wife's business venture, a loan to partnership of which the wife of a director is a member, falls within the prohibition. Various provisions of the Civil serve to establish the familiar relationship called a conjugal partnership. (Articles 1315, 1393, 1401, 1407, 1408, and 1412 can be specially noted.) A loan, therefore, to a partnership of which the wife of a director of a bank is a member, is an indirect loan to such director. That it was the intention of the Legislature to prohibit exactly such an occurrence is shown by the acknowledged fact that in this instance the defendant was tempted to mingle his personal and family affairs with his official duties, and to permit the loan P300,000 to a partnership of no established reputation and without asking for collateral security. In the case of Lester and Wife vs. Howard Bank ([1870], 33 Md., 558; 3 Am. Rep., 211), the Supreme Court of Maryland said: What then was the purpose of the law when it declared that no director or officer should borrow of the bank, and "if any director," etc., "shall be convicted," etc., "of directly or indirectly violating this section he shall be punished by fine and imprisonment?" We say to protect the stockholders, depositors and creditors of the bank, against the temptation to which the directors and officers might be exposed, and the power which as such they must necessarily possess in the control and management of the bank, and the legislature unwilling to rely upon the implied understanding that in assuming this relation they would not acquire any interest hostile or adverse to the most exact and faithful discharge of duty, declared in express terms that they should not borrow, etc., of the bank. In the case of People vs. Knapp ([1912], 206 N. Y., 373), relied upon in the Binalbagan Estate decision, it was said: We are of opinion the statute forbade the loan to his copartnership firm as well as to himself directly. The loan was made indirectly to him through his firm. IV. Could Venancio Concepcion, President of the Philippine National Bank, be convicted of a violation of section 35 of Act No. 2747 in relation with section 49 of the same Act, when these portions of Act No. 2747 were repealed by Act No. 2938, prior to the finding of the information and the rendition of the judgment? As noted along toward the beginning of this opinion, section 49 of Act No. 2747, in relation to section 35 of the same Act, provides a punishment for any person who shall violate any of the provisions of the Act. It is contended, however, by the appellant, that the repeal of these sections of Act No. 2747 by Act

No. 2938 has served to take away the basis for criminal prosecution. This same question has been previously submitted and has received an answer adverse to such contention in the cases of United Stated vs. Cuna ([1908], 12 Phil., 241); People vs. Concepcion ([1922], 43 Phil., 653); and Ong Chang Wing and Kwong Fok vs. United States ([1910], 218 U. S., 272; 40 Phil., 1046). In other words, it has been the holding, and it must again be the holding, that where an Act of the Legislature which penalizes an offense, such repeals a former Act which penalized the same offense, such repeal does not have the effect of thereafter depriving the courts of jurisdiction to try, convict, and sentenced offenders charged with violations of the old law. V. Was the granting of a credit of P300,000 to the copartnership "Puno y Concepcion, S. en C." by Venancio Concepcion, President of the Philippine National Bank, in violation of section 35 of Act No. 2747, penalized by this law? Counsel argue that since the prohibition contained in section 35 of Act No. 2747 is on the bank, and since section 49 of said Act provides a punishment not on the bank when it violates any provisions of the law, but on aperson violating any provisions of the same, and imposing imprisonment as a part of the penalty, the prohibition contained in said section 35 is without penal sanction.
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The answer is that when the corporation itself is forbidden to do an act, the prohibition extends to the board of directors, and to each director separately and individually. (People vs. Concepcion, supra.) VI. Does the alleged good faith of Venancio Concepcion, President of the Philippine National Bank, in extending the credit of P300,000 to the copartnership "Puno y Concepcion, S. en C." constitute a legal defense? Counsel argue that if defendant committed the acts of which he was convicted, it was because he was misled by rulings coming from the Insular Auditor. It is furthermore stated that since the loans made to the copartnership "Puno y Concepcion, S. en C." have been paid, no loss has been suffered by the Philippine National Bank. Neither argument, even if conceded to be true, is conclusive. Under the statute which the defendant has violated, criminal intent is not necessarily material. The doing of the inhibited act, inhibited on account of public policy and public interest, constitutes the crime. And, in this instance, as previously demonstrated, the acts of the President of the Philippine National Bank do not fall within the purview of the rulings of the Insular Auditor, even conceding that such rulings have controlling effect. Morse, in his work, Banks and Banking, section 125, says: It is fraud for directors to secure by means of their trust, and advantage not common to the other stockholders. The law will not allow private profit from a trust, and will not listen to any proof of honest intent. JUDGMENT On a review of the evidence of record, with reference to the decision of the trial court, and the errors assigned by the

appellant, and with reference to previous decisions of this court on the same subject, we are irresistibly led to the conclusion that no reversible error was committed in the trial of this case, and that the defendant has been proved guilty beyond a reasonable doubt of the crime charged in the information. The penalty imposed by the trial judge falls within the limits of the punitive provisions of the law. Judgment is affirmed, with the costs of this instance against the appellant. So ordered. G.R. No. 97412 July 12, 1994 EASTERN SHIPPING LINES, INC., petitioner, vs. HON. COURT OF APPEALS AND MERCANTILE INSURANCE COMPANY, INC., respondents. VITUG, J.: The issues, albeit not completely novel, are: (a) whether or not a claim for damage sustained on a shipment of goods can be a solidary, or joint and several, liability of the common carrier, the arrastre operator and the customs broker; (b) whether the payment of legal interest on an award for loss or damage is to be computed from the time the complaint is filed or from the date the decision appealed from is rendered; and (c) whether the applicable rate of interest, referred to above, is twelve percent (12%) or six percent (6%). The findings of the court a quo, adopted by the Court of Appeals, on the antecedent and undisputed facts that have led to the controversy are hereunder reproduced: This is an action against defendants shipping company, arrastre operator and brokerforwarder for damages sustained by a shipment while in defendants' custody, filed by the insurer-subrogee who paid the consignee the value of such losses/damages. On December 4, 1981, two fiber drums of riboflavin were shipped from Yokohama, Japan for delivery vessel "SS EASTERN COMET" owned by defendant Eastern Shipping Lines under Bill of Lading No. YMA-8 (Exh. B). The shipment was insured under plaintiff's Marine Insurance Policy No. 81/01177 for P36,382,466.38. Upon arrival of the shipment in Manila on December 12, 1981, it was discharged unto the custody of defendant Metro Port Service, Inc. The latter excepted to one drum, said to be in bad order, which damage was unknown to plaintiff. On January 7, 1982 defendant Allied Brokerage Corporation received the shipment from defendant Metro Port Service, Inc., one drum opened and without seal (per "Request for Bad Order Survey." Exh. D). On January 8 and 14, 1982, defendant Allied Brokerage Corporation made deliveries of the shipment to the consignee's warehouse. The latter excepted to one drum which contained

spillages, while the rest of the contents was adulterated/fake (per "Bad Order Waybill" No. 10649, Exh. E). Plaintiff contended that due to the losses/damage sustained by said drum, the consignee suffered losses totaling P19,032.95, due to the fault and negligence of defendants. Claims were presented against defendants who failed and refused to pay the same (Exhs. H, I, J, K, L). As a consequence of the losses sustained, plaintiff was compelled to pay the consignee P19,032.95 under the aforestated marine insurance policy, so that it became subrogated to all the rights of action of said consignee against defendants (per "Form of Subrogation", "Release" and Philbanking check, Exhs. M, N, and O). (pp. 85-86, Rollo.) There were, to be sure, other factual issues that confronted both courts. Here, the appellate court said: Defendants filed their respective answers, traversing the material allegations of the complaint contending that: As for defendant Eastern Shipping it alleged that the shipment was discharged in good order from the vessel unto the custody of Metro Port Service so that any damage/losses incurred after the shipment was incurred after the shipment was turned over to the latter, is no longer its liability (p. 17, Record); Metroport averred that although subject shipment was discharged unto its custody, portion of the same was already in bad order (p. 11, Record); Allied Brokerage alleged that plaintiff has no cause of action against it, not having negligent or at fault for the shipment was already in damage and bad order condition when received by it, but nonetheless, it still exercised extra ordinary care and diligence in the handling/delivery of the cargo to consignee in the same condition shipment was received by it. From the evidence the court found the following: The issues are: 1. Whether or not the shipment sustained losses/damages; 2. Whether or not these losses/damages were sustained while in the custody of defendants (in whose respective custody, if determinable); 3. Whether or not defendant(s) should be held liable for the losses/damages (see plaintiff's pre-Trial Brief, Records, p. 34; Allied's

pre-Trial Brief, adopting plaintiff's Records, p. 38). As to the first issue, there can be no doubt that the shipment sustained losses/damages. The two drums were shipped in good order and condition, as clearly shown by the Bill of Lading and Commercial Invoice which do not indicate any damages drum that was shipped (Exhs. B and C). But when on December 12, 1981 the shipment was delivered to defendant Metro Port Service, Inc., it excepted to one drum in bad order. Correspondingly, as to the second issue, it follows that the losses/damages were sustained while in the respective and/or successive custody and possession of defendants carrier (Eastern), arrastre operator (Metro Port) and broker (Allied Brokerage). This becomes evident when the Marine Cargo Survey Report (Exh. G), with its "Additional Survey Notes", are considered. In the latter notes, it is stated that when the shipment was "landed on vessel" to dock of Pier # 15, South Harbor, Manila on December 12, 1981, it was observed that "one (1) fiber drum (was) in damaged condition, covered by the vessel's Agent's Bad Order Tally Sheet No. 86427." The report further states that when defendant Allied Brokerage withdrew the shipment from defendant arrastre operator's custody on January 7, 1982, one drum was found opened without seal, cello bag partly torn but contents intact. Net unrecovered spillages was 15 kgs. The report went on to state that when the drums reached the consignee, one drum was found with adulterated/faked contents. It is obvious, therefore, that these losses/damages occurred before the shipment reached the consignee while under the successive custodies of defendants. Under Art. 1737 of the New Civil Code, the and thus held:

common carrier's duty to observe extraordinary diligence in the vigilance of goods remains in full force and effect even if the goods are temporarily unloaded and stored in transit in the warehouse of the carrier at the place of destination, until the consignee has been advised and has had reasonable opportunity to remove or dispose of the goods (Art. 1738, NCC). Defendant Eastern Shipping's own exhibit, the "Turn-Over Survey of Bad Order Cargoes" (Exhs. 3Eastern) states that on December 12, 1981 one drum was found "open".

WHEREFORE, PREMISES CONSIDERED, judgment is hereby rendered: A. Ordering defendants to pay plaintiff, jointly and severally: 1. The amount of P19,032.95, with the present legal interest of 12% per annum from October 1, 1982, the date of filing of this complaints, until fully paid (the liability of defendant Eastern Shipping, Inc. shall not exceed US$500 per case or the CIF value of the loss, whichever is lesser, while the liability of defendant Metro Port Service, Inc. shall be to the extent of the actual invoice value of each package, crate box or container in no case to exceed P5,000.00 each, pursuant to Section 6.01 of the Management Contract); 2. P3,000.00 as attorney's fees, and 3. Costs. B. Dismissin g the countercla ims and crossclaim of defendant /crossclaimant

Allied Brokerage Corporatio n. SO ORDERED. (p. 207, Record). Dissatisfied, defendant's recourse to US. The appeal is devoid of merit. After a careful scrutiny of the evidence on record. We find that the conclusion drawn therefrom is correct. As there is sufficient evidence that the shipment sustained damage while in the successive possession of appellants, and therefore they are liable to the appellee, as subrogee for the amount it paid to the consignee. (pp. 87-89, Rollo.) The Court of Appeals thus affirmed in toto the judgment of the court a quo. In this petition, Eastern Shipping Lines, Inc., the common carrier, attributes error and grave abuse of discretion on the part of the appellate court when I. IT HELD PETITIONER CARRIER JOINTLY AND SEVERALLY LIABLE WITH THE ARRASTRE OPERATOR AND CUSTOMS BROKER FOR THE CLAIM OF PRIVATE RESPONDENT AS GRANTED IN THE QUESTIONED DECISION; II. IT HELD THAT THE GRANT OF INTEREST ON THE CLAIM OF PRIVATE RESPONDENT SHOULD COMMENCE FROM THE DATE OF THE FILING OF THE COMPLAINT AT THE RATE OF TWELVE PERCENT PER ANNUM INSTEAD OF FROM THE DATE OF THE DECISION OF THE TRIAL COURT AND ONLY AT THE RATE OF SIX PERCENT PER ANNUM, PRIVATE RESPONDENT'S CLAIM BEING INDISPUTABLY UNLIQUIDATED. The petition is, in part, granted. In this decision, we have begun by saying that the questions raised by petitioner carrier are not all that novel. Indeed, we do have a fairly good number of previous decisions this Court can merely tack to. The common carrier's duty to observe the requisite diligence in the shipment of goods lasts from the time the articles are surrendered to or unconditionally placed in the possession of, and received by, the carrier for transportation until delivered to, or until the lapse of a reasonable time for their acceptance by, the person entitled to receive them (Arts. 1736-1738, Civil Code; Ganzon vs. Court of Appeals, 161 SCRA 646; Kui Bai vs. Dollar Steamship Lines, 52 Phil. 863). When the goods shipped either are lost or arrive in damaged condition, a presumption arises against the carrier of its failure to observe that diligence, and there need not be an express finding of negligence to hold it liable (Art. 1735, Civil Code; Philippine National Railways vs.

Court of Appeals, 139 SCRA 87; Metro Port Service vs. Court of Appeals, 131 SCRA 365). There are, of course, exceptional cases when such presumption of fault is not observed but these cases, enumerated in Article 1734 1 of the Civil Code, are exclusive, not one of which can be applied to this case. The question of charging both the carrier and the arrastre operator with the obligation of properly delivering the goods to the consignee has, too, been passed upon by the Court. In Fireman's Fund Insurance vs. Metro Port Services (182 SCRA 455), we have explained, in holding the carrier and the arrastre operator liable in solidum,thus: The legal relationship between the consignee and the arrastre operator is akin to that of a depositor and warehouseman (Lua Kian v. Manila Railroad Co., 19 SCRA 5 [1967]. The relationship between the consignee and the common carrier is similar to that of the consignee and the arrastre operator (Northern Motors, Inc. v. Prince Line, et al., 107 Phil. 253 [1960]). Since it is the duty of the ARRASTRE to take good care of the goods that are in its custody and to deliver them in good condition to the consignee, such responsibility also devolves upon the CARRIER. Both the ARRASTRE and the CARRIER are therefore charged with the obligation to deliver the goods in good condition to the consignee. We do not, of course, imply by the above pronouncement that the arrastre operator and the customs broker are themselves always and necessarily liable solidarily with the carrier, or viceversa, nor that attendant facts in a given case may not vary the rule. The instant petition has been brought solely by Eastern Shipping Lines, which, being the carrier and not having been able to rebut the presumption of fault, is, in any event, to be held liable in this particular case. A factual finding of both the court a quo and the appellate court, we take note, is that "there is sufficient evidence that the shipment sustained damage while in the successive possession of appellants" (the herein petitioner among them). Accordingly, the liability imposed on Eastern Shipping Lines, Inc., the sole petitioner in this case, is inevitable regardless of whether there are others solidarily liable with it. It is over the issue of legal interest adjudged by the appellate court that deserves more than just a passing remark. Let us first see a chronological recitation of the major rulings of this Court: The early case of Malayan Insurance Co., Inc., vs. Manila Port Service, 2 decided 3 on 15 May 1969, involved a suit for recovery of money arising out of short deliveries and pilferage of goods. In this case, appellee Malayan Insurance (the plaintiff in the lower court) averred in its complaint that the total amount of its claim for the value of the undelivered goods amounted to P3,947.20. This demand, however, was neither established in its totality nor definitely ascertained. In the stipulation of facts later entered into by the parties, in lieu of proof, the amount of P1,447.51 was agreed upon. The trial court rendered judgment ordering the appellants (defendants) Manila Port Service and Manila Railroad Company to pay appellee Malayan Insurance the sum of P1,447.51 with legal interest thereon from the date the complaint was filed on 28 December 1962 until full payment thereof. The appellants then assailed, inter alia, the award of legal interest. In sustaining the appellants, this Court ruled:

Interest upon an obligation which calls for the payment of money, absent a stipulation, is the legal rate. Such interest normally is allowable from the date of demand, judicial or extrajudicial. The trial court opted for judicial demand as the starting point.

petitioners contended that Central Bank Circular No. 416, providing thus By virtue of the authority granted to it under Section 1 of Act 2655, as amended, Monetary Board in its Resolution No. 1622 dated July 29, 1974, has prescribed that the rate of interest for the loan, or forbearance of any money, goods, or credits and the rate allowed in judgments, in the absence of express contract as to such rate of interest, shall be twelve (12%) percent per annum. This Circular shall take effect immediately. (Emphasis found in the text) should have, instead, been applied. This Court 6 ruled: The judgments spoken of and referred to are judgments in litigations involving loans or forbearance of any money, goods or credits. Any other kind of monetary judgment which has nothing to do with, nor involving loans or forbearance of any money, goods or credits does not fall within the coverage of the said law for it is not within the ambit of the authority granted to the Central Bank. xxx xxx xxx Coming to the case at bar, the decision herein sought to be executed is one rendered in an Action for Damages for injury to persons and loss of property and does not involve any loan, much less forbearances of any money, goods or credits. As correctly argued by the private respondents, the law applicable to the said case is Article 2209 of the New Civil Code which reads Art. 2209. If the obligation consists in the payment of a sum of money, and the debtor incurs in delay, the indemnity for damages, there being no stipulation to the contrary, shall be the payment of interest agreed upon, and in the absence of stipulation, the legal interest which is six percent per annum. The above rule was reiterated in Philippine Rabbit Bus Lines, Inc., v. Cruz, 7 promulgated on 28 July 1986. The case was for damages occasioned by an injury to person and loss of property. The trial court awarded private respondent Pedro Manabat actual and compensatory damages in the amount of P72,500.00 with legal interest thereon from the filing of the complaint until fully paid. Relying on the Reformina v. Tomol case, this Court 8modified the interest award from 12% to 6% interest per annum but sustained the time computation thereof, i.e., from the filing of the complaint until fully paid. In Nakpil and Sons vs. Court of Appeals, 9 the trial court, in an action for the recovery of damages arising from the collapse of a building, ordered, inter alia, the "defendant United Construction Co., Inc. (one of

But then upon the provisions of Article 2213 of the Civil Code, interest "cannot be recovered upon unliquidated claims or damages, except when the demand can be established with reasonable certainty." And as was held by this Court in Rivera vs. Perez, 4 L-6998, February 29, 1956, if the suit were for damages, "unliquidated and not known until definitely ascertained, assessed and determined by the courts after proof (Montilla c.Corporacion de P.P. Agustinos, 25 Phil. 447; Lichauco v. Guzman, 38 Phil. 302)," then, interest "should be from the date of the decision." (Emphasis supplied)
The case of Reformina vs. Tomol, 5 rendered on 11 October 1985, was for "Recovery of Damages for Injury to Person and Loss of Property." After trial, the lower court decreed: WHEREFORE, judgment is hereby rendered in favor of the plaintiffs and third party defendants and against the defendants and third party plaintiffs as follows: Ordering defendants and third party plaintiffs Shell and Michael, Incorporated to pay jointly and severally the following persons: xxx xxx xxx (g) Plaintiffs Pacita F. Reformina and Francisco Reformina the sum of P131,084.00 which is the value of the boat F B Pacita III together with its accessories, fishing gear and equipment minus P80,000.00 which is the value of the insurance recovered and the amount of P10,000.00 a month as the estimated monthly loss suffered by them as a result of the fire of May 6, 1969 up to the time they are actually paid or already the total sum of P370,000.00 as of June 4, 1972 with legal interest from the filing of the complaint until paid and to pay attorney's fees of P5,000.00 with costs against defendants and third party plaintiffs. (Emphasis supplied.) On appeal to the Court of Appeals, the latter modified the amount of damages awarded but sustained the trial court in adjudging legal interest from the filing of the complaint until fully paid. When the appellate court's decision became final, the case was remanded to the lower court for execution, and this was when the trial court issued its assailed resolution which applied the 6% interest per annum prescribed in Article 2209 of the Civil Code. In their petition for review on certiorari, the

the petitioners) . . . to pay the plaintiff, . . . , the sum of P989,335.68 with interest at the legal rate from November 29, 1968, the date of the filing of the complaint until full payment . . . ." Save from the modification of the amount granted by the lower court, the Court of Appeals sustained the trial court's decision. When taken to this Court for review, the case, on 03 October 1986, was decided, thus: WHEREFORE, the decision appealed from is hereby MODIFIED and considering the special and environmental circumstances of this case, we deem it reasonable to render a decision imposing, as We do hereby impose, upon the defendant and the third-party defendants (with the exception of Roman Ozaeta) a solidary (Art. 1723, Civil Code, Supra. p. 10) indemnity in favor of the Philippine Bar Association of FIVE MILLION (P5,000,000.00) Pesos to cover all damages (with the exception to attorney's fees) occasioned by the loss of the building (including interest charges and lost rentals) and an additional ONE HUNDRED THOUSAND (P100,000.00) Pesos as and for attorney's fees, the total sum being payable upon the finality of this decision. Upon failure to pay on such finality, twelve (12%) per cent interest per annum shall be imposed upon aforementioned amounts from finality until paid. Solidary costs against the defendant and third-party defendants (Except Roman Ozaeta). (Emphasis supplied) A motion for reconsideration was filed by United Construction, contending that "the interest of twelve (12%) per cent per annum imposed on the total amount of the monetary award was in contravention of law." The Court 10 ruled out the applicability of the Reformina and Philippine Rabbit Bus Lines cases and, in its resolution of 15 April 1988, it explained: There should be no dispute that the imposition of 12% interest pursuant to Central Bank Circular No. 416 . . . is applicable only in the following: (1) loans; (2) forbearance of any money, goods or credit; and (3) rate allowed in judgments (judgments spoken of refer to judgments involving loans or forbearance of any money, goods or credits. (Philippine Rabbit Bus Lines Inc. v. Cruz, 143 SCRA 160-161 [1986]; Reformina v. Tomol, Jr., 139 SCRA 260 [1985]). It is true that in the instant case, there is neither a loan or a forbearance, but then no interest is actually imposed provided the sums referred to in the judgment are paid upon the finality of the judgment. It is delay in the payment of such final judgment, that will cause the imposition of the interest. It will be noted that in the cases already adverted to, the rate of interest is imposed on the total sum, from the filing of the complaint until paid; in other words, as part of the judgment for damages. Clearly, they are not applicable to the instant case. (Emphasis supplied.)

The subsequent case of American Express International, Inc., vs. Intermediate Appellate Court 11 was a petition for review on certiorari from the decision, dated 27 February 1985, of the then Intermediate Appellate Court reducing the amount of moral and exemplary damages awarded by the trial court, to P240,000.00 and P100,000.00, respectively, and its resolution, dated 29 April 1985, restoring the amount of damages awarded by the trial court, i.e., P2,000,000.00 as moral damages and P400,000.00 as exemplary damages with interest thereon at 12% per annum from notice of judgment, plus costs of suit. In a decision of 09 November 1988, this Court, while recognizing the right of the private respondent to recover damages, held the award, however, for moral damages by the trial court, later sustained by the IAC, to be inconceivably large. The Court 12 thus set aside the decision of the appellate court and rendered a new one, "ordering the petitioner to pay private respondent the sum of One Hundred Thousand (P100,000.00) Pesos as moral damages, with six (6%) percent interest thereon computed from the finality of this decision until paid. (Emphasis supplied) Reformina came into fore again in the 21 February 1989 case of Florendo v. Ruiz 13 which arose from a breach of employment contract. For having been illegally dismissed, the petitioner was awarded by the trial court moral and exemplary damages without, however, providing any legal interest thereon. When the decision was appealed to the Court of Appeals, the latter held: WHEREFORE, except as modified hereinabove the decision of the CFI of Negros Oriental dated October 31, 1972 is affirmed in all respects, with the modification that defendants-appellants, except defendantappellant Merton Munn, are ordered to pay, jointly and severally, the amounts stated in the dispositive portion of the decision, including the sum of P1,400.00 in concept of compensatory damages, with interest at the legal rate from the date of the filing of the complaint until fully paid(Emphasis supplied.) The petition for review to this Court was denied. The records were thereupon transmitted to the trial court, and an entry of judgment was made. The writ of execution issued by the trial court directed that only compensatory damages should earn interest at 6% per annum from the date of the filing of the complaint. Ascribing grave abuse of discretion on the part of the trial judge, a petition for certiorari assailed the said order. This Court said: . . . , it is to be noted that the Court of Appeals ordered the payment of interest "at the legal rate" from the time of the filing of the complaint. . . Said circular [Central Bank Circular No. 416] does not apply to actions based on a breach of employment contract like the case at bar. (Emphasis supplied) The Court reiterated that the 6% interest per annum on the damages should be computed from the time the complaint was filed until the amount is fully paid. Quite recently, the Court had another occasion to rule on the matter. National Power Corporation vs. Angas, 14decided on 08 May 1992, involved the expropriation of certain parcels of land.

After conducting a hearing on the complaints for eminent domain, the trial court ordered the petitioner to pay the private respondents certain sums of money as just compensation for their lands so expropriated "with legal interest thereon . . . until fully paid." Again, in applying the 6% legal interest per annum under the Civil Code, the Court 15 declared: . . . , (T)he transaction involved is clearly not a loan or forbearance of money, goods or credits but expropriation of certain parcels of land for a public purpose, the payment of which is without stipulation regarding interest, and the interest adjudged by the trial court is in the nature of indemnity for damages. The legal interest required to be paid on the amount of just compensation for the properties expropriated is manifestly in the form of indemnity for damages for the delay in the payment thereof. Therefore, since the kind of interest involved in the joint judgment of the lower court sought to be enforced in this case is interest by way of damages, and not by way of earnings from loans, etc. Art. 2209 of the Civil Code shall apply. Concededly, there have been seeming variances in the above holdings. The cases can perhaps be classified into two groups according to the similarity of the issues involved and the corresponding rulings rendered by the court. The "first group" would consist of the cases of Reformina v. Tomol (1985), Philippine Rabbit Bus Lines v. Cruz(1986), Florendo v. Ruiz (1989) and National Power Corporation v. Angas (1992). In the "second group" would be Malayan Insurance Company v.Manila Port Service (1969), Nakpil and Sons v. Court of Appeals (1988), and American Express International v.Intermediate Appellate Court (1988). In the "first group", the basic issue focuses on the application of either the 6% (under the Civil Code) or 12% (under the Central Bank Circular) interest per annum. It is easily discernible in these cases that there has been a consistent holding that the Central Bank Circular imposing the 12% interest per annum applies only to loans or forbearance 16 of money, goods or credits, as well as to judgments involving such loan or forbearance of money, goods or credits, and that the 6% interest under the Civil Code governs when the transaction involves the payment of indemnities in the concept of damage arising from the breach or a delay in the performance of obligations in general. Observe, too, that in these cases, a common time frame in the computation of the 6% interest per annum has been applied, i.e., from the time the complaint is filed until the adjudged amount is fully paid. The "second group", did not alter the pronounced rule on the application of the 6% or 12% interest per annum, 17depending on whether or not the amount involved is a loan or forbearance, on the one hand, or one of indemnity for damage, on the other hand. Unlike, however, the "first group" which remained consistent in holding that the running of the legal interest should be from the time of the filing of the complaint until fully paid, the "second group" varied on the commencement of the running of the legal interest. Malayan held that the amount awarded should bear legal interest from the date of the decision of the court a quo,explaining that "if the suit were for damages, 'unliquidated and not known until definitely ascertained, assessed and

determined by the courts after proof,' then, interest 'should be from the date of the decision.'" American Express International v. IAC, introduced a different time frame for reckoning the 6% interest by ordering it to be "computed from the finality of (the) decision until paid." The Nakpil and Sons case ruled that 12% interest per annum should be imposed from the finality of the decision until the judgment amount is paid. The ostensible discord is not difficult to explain. The factual circumstances may have called for different applications, guided by the rule that the courts are vested with discretion, depending on the equities of each case, on the award of interest. Nonetheless, it may not be unwise, by way of clarification and reconciliation, to suggest the following rules of thumb for future guidance. I. When an obligation, regardless of its source, i.e., law, contracts, quasi-contracts, delicts or quasi-delicts 18 is breached, the contravenor can be held liable for damages. 19 The provisions under Title XVIII on "Damages" of the Civil Code govern in determining the measure of recoverable damages. 20 II. With regard particularly to an award of interest in the concept of actual and compensatory damages, the rate of interest, as well as the accrual thereof, is imposed, as follows: 1. When the obligation is breached, and it consists in the payment of a sum of money, i.e., a loan or forbearance of money, the interest due should be that which may have been stipulated in writing. 21 Furthermore, the interest due shall itself earn legal interest from the time it is judicially demanded. 22 In the absence of stipulation, the rate of interest shall be 12% per annum to be computed from default, i.e., from judicial or extrajudicial demand under and subject to the provisions of Article 1169 23 of the Civil Code. 2. When an obligation, not constituting a loan or forbearance of money, is breached, an interest on the amount of damages awarded may be imposed at the discretion of the court 24 at the rate of 6% per annum. 25 No interest, however, shall be adjudged on unliquidated claims or damages except when or until the demand can be established with reasonable certainty. 26 Accordingly, where the demand is established with reasonable certainty, the interest shall begin to run from the time the claim is made judicially or extrajudicially (Art. 1169, Civil Code) but when such certainty cannot be so reasonably established at the time the demand is made, the interest shall begin to run only from the date the judgment of the court is made (at which time the quantification of damages may be deemed to have been reasonably ascertained). The actual base for the computation of legal interest shall, in any case, be on the amount finally adjudged. 3. When the judgment of the court awarding a sum of money becomes final and executory, the rate of legal interest, whether the case falls under paragraph 1 or paragraph 2, above, shall be 12% per annum from such finality until its satisfaction, this interim period being deemed to be by then an equivalent to a forbearance of credit. WHEREFORE, the petition is partly GRANTED. The appealed decision is AFFIRMED with the MODIFICATION that the legal interest to be paid is SIX PERCENT (6%) on the amount due computed from the decision, dated 03 February 1988, of the court a quo. A TWELVE PERCENT (12%) interest, in lieu of SIX PERCENT (6%), shall be imposed

on such amount upon finality of this decision until the payment thereof. SO ORDERED. G.R. No. 90676 June 19, 1991 STATE INVESTMENT HOUSE, INC., petitioner, vs. THE HONORABLE COURT OF APPEALS, HON. JUDGE PERLITA J. TRIA TIRONA, Presiding Judge of the Regional Trial Court of Quezon City, Branch CII and SPS. RAFAEL and REFUGIO AQUINO, respondents. FELICIANO, J.:p On 5 April 1982, respondent spouses Rafael and Refugio Aquino pledged certain shares of stock to petitioner State Investment House, Inc. ("State") in order to secure a loan of P120,000.00 designated as Account No. IF-82-0631-AA. Prior to the execution of the pledge, respondent-spouses, as an accommodation to and together with the spouses Jose and Marcelina Aquino, signed an agreement (Account No. IF-82-1379-AA) with petitioner State for the latter's purchase of receivables amounting to P375,000.00. When Account No. IF-82-0631-AA fell due, respondent spouses paid the same partly with their own funds and partly from the proceeds of another loan which they obtained also from petitioner State designated as Account No. IF-82-0904-AA. This new loan was secured by the same pledge agreement executed in relation to Account No. IF-820631-AA. When the new loan matured, State demanded payment. Respondents expressed willingness to pay, requesting that upon payment, the shares of stock pledged be released. Petitioner State denied the request on the ground that the loan which it had extended to the spouses Jose and Marcelina Aquino (Account No. IF-82-1379- AA) had remained unpaid. On 29 June 1984, Atty. Rolando Salonga sent to respondent spouses a Notice of Notarial Sale stating that upon request of State and by virtue of the pledge agreement, he would sell at public auction the shares of stock pledged to State. This prompted respondents to file a case before the Regional Trial Court of Quezon City alleging that the intended foreclosure sale was illegal because from the time the obligation under Account No. IF-82-0904-AA became due, they had been able and willing to pay the same, but petitioner had insisted that respondents pay even the loan account of Jose and Marcelina Aquino which had not been secured by the pledge. It was further alleged that their failure to pay their loan (Account No. IF-82-0904-AA) was excused because the petitioner State itself had prevented the satisfaction of the obligation. The trial court, in a decision dated 14 December 1984 rendered by Judge Willelmo Fortun, initially dismissed the complaint. Respondent spouses filed a motion for reconsideration praying for a new decision ordering petitioner State to release the shares upon payment of respondents' loan "without interest," as the latter had not been in delay in the performance of their obligation. State countered that the pledge executed by respondent spouses also covered the loan extended to Jose and Marcelina Aquino, which too should be paid before the shares may be released. Acting on the motion for reconsideration, Judge Fortun set aside his original decision and rendered a new judgment dated 29 January 1985, ordering State to immediately release the pledge and to deliver to respondents the share of stock "upon payment of the loan under Code No. 82-0904-AA."

On appeal, the Court of Appeals affirmed in toto the new decision of the trial court, holding that the loan extended to Jose and Marcelina Aquino, having been executed prior to the pledge was not covered by the pledge which secured only loans executed subsequently. Thus, upon payment of the loan under Code No. IF-0904-AA, the shares of stock should be released. The decisions of the Court of Appeals and of Judge Fortun became final and executory. Upon remand of the records of the case to the trial court for execution, there developed disagreement over the amount which respondent spouses Rafael and Refugio Aquino should pay to secure the release of the shares of stock petitioner State contending that respondents should also pay interest and respondents arguing they should not. Respondent spouses then filed a motion with the trial court to clarify the Fortun decision praying that an order issue clarifying the phrase "upon payment of plaintiffs' loan" to mean upon payment of plaintiff' loan in the principal amount of P110,000.00 alone, "without interest, penalties and other charges." On 17 February 1989, the trial court, speaking this time through Judge Perlita Tria Tirona, rendered a decision purporting to clarify the decision of Judge Fortun and ruling that petitioner State shall release respondents' shares of stock upon payment by respondents of the principal of the loan as set forth in PN No. 82-0904-AA in the amount of P110,000.00, without interest, penalties and other charges. Petitioner State appealed Judge Tirona's decision to the Court of Appeals; the appeal was dismissed. The Court of Appeals agreed with Judge Tirona that no interest need be paid and added that the clarificatory (Tirona) decision of the trial court merely restated what had been provided for in the earlier (Fortun) decision; that the Tirona decision did not go beyond what had been adjudged in the earlier decision. The motion for reconsideration filed by petitioner was accordingly denied. Hence, this Petition for Review contending that no manifest ambiguity existed in the decision penned by Judge Fortun; that the trial court through Judge Tirona, erred in clarifying the decision of Judge Fortun; and that the amendment sought to be introduced in the Fortun decision by respondents may not be made as the same was substantial in nature and the Fortun decision had become final. We begin by noting that the trial court has asserted authority to issue the clarificatory order in respect of the decision of Judge Fortun, even though that judgment had become final and executory. In Reinsurance Company of the Orient, Inc. v. Court of Appeals, 1 this Court had occasion to deal with the applicable doctrine to some extent: - - - [E]ven a judgment which has become final and executory may be clarified under certain circumstances. The dispositive portion of the judgment may, for instance, contain an error clearly clerical in nature (perhaps best illustrated by an error in arithmetical computation) or an ambiguity arising from inadvertent omission, which error may be rectified or ambiguity clarified and the omission supplied by reference primarily to the body of the decision itself Supplementary reference to the pleadings previously filed in the case may also be resorted to by way of corroboration of the existence of the error or of the ambiguity in the dispositive part of the

judgment. In Locsin, et al. v. Parades, et al., this Court allowed a judgment which had become final and executory to be clarified by supplying a word which had been inadvertently omitted and which, when supplied, in effect changed the literal import of the original phraseology: . . . it clearly appears from the allegations of the complaint, the promissory note reproduced therein and made a part thereof, the prayer and the conclusions of fact and of law contained in the decision of the respondent judge, that the obligation contracted by the petitioners is joint and several and that the parties as well as the trial judge so understood it. Under the juridical rule that the judgment should be in accordance with the allegations, the evidence and the conclusions of fact and law, the dispositive part of the judgment under consideration should have ordered that the debt be paid 'severally' and in omitting the word or adverb 'severally' inadvertently, said judgment became ambiguous. This ambiguity may be clarified at any time after the decision is rendered and even after it had become final (34 Corpus Juris, 235, 326). This respondent judge did not, therefore, exceed his jurisdiction in clarifying the dispositive part of the judgment by supplying the omission. (Emphasis supplied) In Filipino Legion Corporation vs. Court of Appeals, et al., the applicable principle was set out in the following terms: [W]here there is ambiguity caused by an omission or mistake in the dispositive portion of a decision, the court may clarify such ambiguity by an amendment even after the judgment had become final, and for this purpose it may resort to the pleadings filed by the parties, the court's findings of facts and conclusions of law as expressed in the body of the decision. (Emphasis supplied) In Republic Surety and Insurance Company, Inc. v. Intermediate Appellate Court, the Court, in applying the above doctrine, said:

. . . We clarify, in other words, what we did affirm. That is involved here is not what is ordinarily regarded as a clerical error in the dispositive part of the decision of the Court of First Instance, . . . At the same time, what is involved here is not a correction of an erroneous judgment or dispositive portion of a judgment. What we believe is involved here is in the nature of an inadvertent omission on the part of the Court of First Instance (which should have been noticed by private respondents' counsel who had prepared the complaint), of what might be described as a logical follow-through of something set forth both in the body of the decision and in the dispositive portion thereof; the inevitable follow-through, or translation into, operational or behavioral terms, of the annulment of the Deed of Sale with Assumption of Mortgage, from which petitioners' title or claim of title embodied in TCT 133153 flows. (Emphasis supplied) 2 (Underscoring in the original; citations omitted)
The question we must resolve is thus whether or not there is an ambiguity or clerical error or inadvertent omission in the dispositive portion of the decision of Judge Fortun which may be legitimately clarified by referring to the body of the decision and perhaps even the pleadings filed before him. The decision of Judge Fortun disposing of the motion for reconsideration filed by respondent spouses Rafael and Refugio Aquino consisted basically of quoting practically the whole motion for reconsideration. In its dispositive portion, Judge Fortun's decision stated: WHEREFORE, plaintiffs "Motion for Reconsideration" dated January 3, 1985, is granted and the decision of this Court dated December 14, 1984 is hereby revoked and set aside and another judgment is hereby rendered in favor of plaintiffs as follows: (1) Ordering defendants to immediately release the pledge on, and to deliver to plaintiffs, the shares of stocks enumerated and described in paragraph 4 of plaintiffs' complaint dated July 17, 1984, upon payment of plaintiffs loan under Code No. 82-0904-AA to defendants; (2) Ordering defendant State Investment House, Inc. to pay to plaintiffs P10,000.00 as moral damages, P5,000.00 as exemplary damages, P6,000.00 as attorney's fees, plus costs; (3) Dismissing defendants' counterclaim, for lack of merit and making the preliminary injunction permanent.

SO ORDERED. 3

Judge Fortun evidently meant to act favorably on the motion for reconsideration of the respondent Aquino spouses and in effect accepted respondent spouses' argument that they had not incurred mora considering that their failure to pay PN No. IF82-0904-AA on time had been due to petitioner State's unjustified refusal to release the shares pledged to it. It is not, however, clear to what precise extent Judge Fortun meant to grant the motion for reconsideration. The promissory note in Account No. IF-82-0904-AA had three (3) components: (a) principal of the loan in the amount of P110,000.00; (b) regular interest in the amount of seventeen percent (17%) per annum; and (c) additional or penalty interest in case of non-payment at maturity, at the rate of two percent (2%) per month or twentyfour percent (24%) per annum. In the dispositive part of his resolution, Judge Fortun did not specify which of these components of the loan he was ordering respondent spouses to pay and which component or components he was in effect deleting. We cannot assume that Judge Fortun meant to grant the relief prayed for by respondent spouses in all its parts. For one thing, respondent spouses in their motion for reconsideration asked for "at least P50,000.00" for moral damages and "at least P50,000.00" for exemplary damages, as well as P20,000.00 by way of attorney's fees and litigation expenses. Judge Fortun granted respondent spouses only P10,000.00 as moral damages and P5,000.00 as exemplary damages, plus P6,000.00 as attorney's fees and costs. For another, respondent spouses asked Judge Fortun to order the release of the shares pledged "upon payment of [respondent spouses'] loan under Code No. 82-0904-AA without interest, as plaintiffs were not in delay in accordance with Article 69 of the New Civil Code " (Emphasis supplied). In other words, respondent spouses did not themselves become very clear what they were asking Judge Fortun to grant them; they did not apparently distinguish between regular interest or "monetary interest" in the amount of seventeen percent (17%) per annumand penalty charges or "compensatory interest" in the amount of two percent (2%) per month or twenty-four percent (24%) per annum. It thus appears that the Fortun decision was ambiguous in the sense that it was cryptic. We believe that in these circumstances, we must assume that Judge Fortun meant to decide in accordance with law, that we cannot fairly assume that Judge Fortun was grossly ignorant of the law, or that he intended to grant the respondent spouses relief to which they were not entitled under law. Thus, the ultimate question which arises is: if respondent Aquino spouses were not in delay, what should they have been held liable for in accordance with law? We believe and so hold that since respondent Aquino spouses were held not to have been in delay, they were properly liable only for: (a) the principal of the loan or P110,000.00; and (b) regular or monetary interest in the amount of seventeen percent (17%) per annum. They were not liable for penalty or compensatory interest, fixed by the promissory note in Account No. IF-82-0904-AA at two percent (2%) per month or twentyfour (24%) per annum. It must be stressed in this connection that under Article 2209 of the Civil Code which provides that . . . [i]f the obligation consists in the payment of a sum of money, and the debtor incurs in delay. the indemnity for damages, there being no stimulation to the contrary. shall be the payment of the interest agreed upon, and in the absence of stipulation, the legal interest, which is six per cent per annum.

the appropriate measure for damages in case of delay in discharging an obligation consisting of the payment of a sum or money, is the payment of penalty interest at the rate agreed upon; and in the absence of a stipulation of a particular rate of penalty interest, then the payment of additional interest at a rate equal to the regular monetary interest; and if no regular interest had been agreed upon, then payment of legal interest or six percent (6%) per annum. 4 The fact that the respondent Aquino spouses were not in default did not mean that they, as a matter of law, were relieved from the payment not only of penalty or compensatory interest at the rate of twenty-four percent (24%)per annum but also of regular or monetary interest of seventeen percent (17%) per annum. The regular or monetary interest continued to accrue under the terms of the relevant promissory note until actual payment is effected. The payment of regular interest constitutes the price or cost of the use of money and thus, until the principal sum due is returned to the creditor, regular interest continues to accrue since the debtor continues to use such principal amount. The relevant rule is set out in Article 1256 of the Civil Code which provides as follows: Art. 1256. If the creditor to whom tender of payment has been made refuses without just cause to accept it, the debtor shall be released from responsibility by the consignation of the thing or sum due. Consignation alone shall produce the same effect in the following cases: (1) When the creditor is absent or unknown, or does not appear at the place of payment; (2) When he is incapacitated to receive the payment at the time it is due; (3) When, without just cause, he refuses to give a receipt; (4) When two or more persons claim the same right to collect; (5) When the title of the obligation has been lost. (Emphasis supplied) Where the creditor unjustly refuses to accept payment, the debtor desirous of being released from his obligation must comply with two (2) conditions: (a) tender of payment; and (b) consignation of the sum due. Tender of payment must be accompanied or followed by consignation in order that the effects of payment may be produced. Thus, in Llamas v. Abaya, 5 the Supreme Court stressed that a written tender of payment alone, without consignation in court of the sum due, does not suspend the accruing of regular or monetary interest. In the instant case, respondent spouses Aquino, while they are properly regarded as having made a written tender of payment to petitioner State, failed to consign in court the amount due at the time of the maturity of Account No. IF-820904-AA. It follows that their obligation to pay principal-cum-regular or monetary interest under the terms and conditions of Account No. IF-820904-AA was not extinguished by such tender of payment alone.

For the respondent spouses to continue in possession of the principal of the loan amounting to P110,000.00 and to continue to use the same after maturity of the loan without payment of regular or monetary interest, would constitute unjust enrichment on the part of the respondent spouses at the expense of petitioner State even though the spouses had not been guilty of mora. It is precisely this unjust enrichment which Article 1256 of the Civil Code prevents by requiring, in addition to tender of payment, the consignation of the amount due in court which amount would thereafter be deposited by the Clerk of Court in a bank and earn interest to which the creditor would be entitled. WHEREFORE, the Petition for Review is hereby GRANTED DUE COURSE. The Decision of the Court of Appeals dated 30 August 1989 in C.A.-G.R. No. 17954 and the Decision of the Regional Trial Court dated 17 February 1989 in Civil Case No. Q42188 are hereby REVERSED and SET ASIDE. The dispositive portion of the decision of Judge Fortun is hereby clarified so as to read as follows: (1) Ordering defendants to immediately release the pledge and to deliver to the plaintiff spouses Rafael and Refugio Aquino the shares of stock enumerated and described in paragraph 4 of said spouses' complaint dated 17 July 1984, upon full payment of the amount of P110,000.00 plus seventeen percent (17%) per annum regular interest computed from the time of maturity of the plaintiffs' loan (Account No. IF-82-0904-AA) and until full payment of such principal and interest to defendants; (2) Ordering defendant State Investment House, Inc. to pay to the plaintiff spouses Rafael and Refugio Aquino P10,000.00 as moral damages, P5,000.00 as exemplary damages, P6,000.00 as attorney's fees, plus costs; and (3) Dismissing defendants' counterclaim for lack of merit and making the preliminary injunction permanent." G.R. No. L-17474 October 25, 1962

returned or their book value paid not later than 31 October 1950. Jose V. Bagtas failed to pay the book value of the three bulls or to return them. So, on 20 December 1950 in the Court of First Instance of Manila the Republic of the Philippines commenced an action against him praying that he be ordered to return the three bulls loaned to him or to pay their book value in the total sum of P3,241.45 and the unpaid breeding fee in the sum of P199.62, both with interests, and costs; and that other just and equitable relief be granted in (civil No. 12818). On 5 July 1951 Jose V. Bagtas, through counsel Navarro, Rosete and Manalo, answered that because of the bad peace and order situation in Cagayan Valley, particularly in the barrio of Baggao, and of the pending appeal he had taken to the Secretary of Agriculture and Natural Resources and the President of the Philippines from the refusal by the Director of Animal Industry to deduct from the book value of the bulls corresponding yearly depreciation of 8% from the date of acquisition, to which depreciation the Auditor General did not object, he could not return the animals nor pay their value and prayed for the dismissal of the complaint. After hearing, on 30 July 1956 the trial court render judgment . . . sentencing the latter (defendant) to pay the sum of P3,625.09 the total value of the three bulls plus the breeding fees in the amount of P626.17 with interest on both sums of (at) the legal rate from the filing of this complaint and costs. On 9 October 1958 the plaintiff moved ex parte for a writ of execution which the court granted on 18 October and issued on 11 November 1958. On 2 December 1958 granted an ex-parte motion filed by the plaintiff on November 1958 for the appointment of a special sheriff to serve the writ outside Manila. Of this order appointing a special sheriff, on 6 December 1958, Felicidad M. Bagtas, the surviving spouse of the defendant Jose Bagtas who died on 23 October 1951 and as administratrix of his estate, was notified. On 7 January 1959 she file a motion alleging that on 26 June 1952 the two bull Sindhi and Bhagnari were returned to the Bureau Animal of Industry and that sometime in November 1958 the third bull, the Sahiniwal, died from gunshot wound inflicted during a Huk raid on Hacienda Felicidad Intal, and praying that the writ of execution be quashed and that a writ of preliminary injunction be issued. On 31 January 1959 the plaintiff objected to her motion. On 6 February 1959 she filed a reply thereto. On the same day, 6 February, the Court denied her motion. Hence, this appeal certified by the Court of Appeals to this Court as stated at the beginning of this opinion. It is true that on 26 June 1952 Jose M. Bagtas, Jr., son of the appellant by the late defendant, returned the Sindhi and Bhagnari bulls to Roman Remorin, Superintendent of the NVB Station, Bureau of Animal Industry, Bayombong, Nueva Vizcaya, as evidenced by a memorandum receipt signed by the latter (Exhibit 2). That is why in its objection of 31 January 1959 to the appellant's motion to quash the writ of execution the appellee prays "that another writ of execution in the sum of P859.53 be issued against the estate of defendant deceased Jose V. Bagtas." She cannot be held liable for the two bulls which already had been returned to and received by the appellee. The appellant contends that the Sahiniwal bull was accidentally killed during a raid by the Huk in November 1953 upon the surrounding barrios of Hacienda Felicidad Intal, Baggao, Cagayan, where the animal was kept, and that as such death was due to force majeure she is relieved from the duty of returning the bull or paying its value to the appellee. The contention is

REPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES, plaintiff-appellee, vs. JOSE V. BAGTAS, defendant, FELICIDAD M. BAGTAS, Administratrix of the Intestate Estate left by the late Jose V. Bagtas, petitioner-appellant. PADILLA, J.: The Court of Appeals certified this case to this Court because only questions of law are raised. On 8 May 1948 Jose V. Bagtas borrowed from the Republic of the Philippines through the Bureau of Animal Industry three bulls: a Red Sindhi with a book value of P1,176.46, a Bhagnari, of P1,320.56 and a Sahiniwal, of P744.46, for a period of one year from 8 May 1948 to 7 May 1949 for breeding purposes subject to a government charge of breeding fee of 10% of the book value of the bulls. Upon the expiration on 7 May 1949 of the contract, the borrower asked for a renewal for another period of one year. However, the Secretary of Agriculture and Natural Resources approved a renewal thereof of only one bull for another year from 8 May 1949 to 7 May 1950 and requested the return of the other two. On 25 March 1950 Jose V. Bagtas wrote to the Director of Animal Industry that he would pay the value of the three bulls. On 17 October 1950 he reiterated his desire to buy them at a value with a deduction of yearly depreciation to be approved by the Auditor General. On 19 October 1950 the Director of Animal Industry advised him that the book value of the three bulls could not be reduced and that they either be

without merit. The loan by the appellee to the late defendant Jose V. Bagtas of the three bulls for breeding purposes for a period of one year from 8 May 1948 to 7 May 1949, later on renewed for another year as regards one bull, was subject to the payment by the borrower of breeding fee of 10% of the book value of the bulls. The appellant contends that the contract was commodatum and that, for that reason, as the appellee retained ownership or title to the bull it should suffer its loss due to force majeure. A contract ofcommodatum is essentially gratuitous.1 If the breeding fee be considered a compensation, then the contract would be a lease of the bull. Under article 1671 of the Civil Code the lessee would be subject to the responsibilities of a possessor in bad faith, because she had continued possession of the bull after the expiry of the contract. And even if the contract be commodatum, still the appellant is liable, because article 1942 of the Civil Code provides that a bailee in a contract of commodatum . . . is liable for loss of the things, even if it should be through a fortuitous event: (2) If he keeps it longer than the period stipulated . . . (3) If the thing loaned has been delivered with appraisal of its value, unless there is a stipulation exempting the bailee from responsibility in case of a fortuitous event; The original period of the loan was from 8 May 1948 to 7 May 1949. The loan of one bull was renewed for another period of one year to end on 8 May 1950. But the appellant kept and used the bull until November 1953 when during a Huk raid it was killed by stray bullets. Furthermore, when lent and delivered to the deceased husband of the appellant the bulls had each an appraised book value, to with: the Sindhi, at P1,176.46, the Bhagnari at P1,320.56 and the Sahiniwal at P744.46. It was not stipulated that in case of loss of the bull due to fortuitous event the late husband of the appellant would be exempt from liability. The appellant's contention that the demand or prayer by the appellee for the return of the bull or the payment of its value being a money claim should be presented or filed in the intestate proceedings of the defendant who died on 23 October 1951, is not altogether without merit. However, the claim that his civil personality having ceased to exist the trial court lost jurisdiction over the case against him, is untenable, because section 17 of Rule 3 of the Rules of Court provides that After a party dies and the claim is not thereby extinguished, the court shall order, upon proper notice, the legal representative of the deceased to appear and to be substituted for the deceased, within a period of thirty (30) days, or within such time as may be granted. . . . and after the defendant's death on 23 October 1951 his counsel failed to comply with section 16 of Rule 3 which provides that Whenever a party to a pending case dies . . . it shall be the duty of his attorney to inform the court promptly of such death . . . and to give the name and residence of the executory administrator, guardian, or other legal representative of the deceased . . . . The notice by the probate court and its publication in the Voz de Manila that Felicidad M. Bagtas had been issue letters of administration of the estate of the late Jose Bagtas and that "all persons having claims for monopoly against the deceased Jose V. Bagtas, arising from contract express or implied, whether the

same be due, not due, or contingent, for funeral expenses and expenses of the last sickness of the said decedent, and judgment for monopoly against him, to file said claims with the Clerk of this Court at the City Hall Bldg., Highway 54, Quezon City, within six (6) months from the date of the first publication of this order, serving a copy thereof upon the aforementioned Felicidad M. Bagtas, the appointed administratrix of the estate of the said deceased," is not a notice to the court and the appellee who were to be notified of the defendant's death in accordance with the above-quoted rule, and there was no reason for such failure to notify, because the attorney who appeared for the defendant was the same who represented the administratrix in the special proceedings instituted for the administration and settlement of his estate. The appellee or its attorney or representative could not be expected to know of the death of the defendant or of the administration proceedings of his estate instituted in another court that if the attorney for the deceased defendant did not notify the plaintiff or its attorney of such death as required by the rule. As the appellant already had returned the two bulls to the appellee, the estate of the late defendant is only liable for the sum of P859.63, the value of the bull which has not been returned to the appellee, because it was killed while in the custody of the administratrix of his estate. This is the amount prayed for by the appellee in its objection on 31 January 1959 to the motion filed on 7 January 1959 by the appellant for the quashing of the writ of execution. Special proceedings for the administration and settlement of the estate of the deceased Jose V. Bagtas having been instituted in the Court of First Instance of Rizal (Q-200), the money judgment rendered in favor of the appellee cannot be enforced by means of a writ of execution but must be presented to the probate court for payment by the appellant, the administratrix appointed by the court. ACCORDINGLY, the writ of execution appealed from is set aside, without pronouncement as to costs.