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At the start of filter press feed cycles, the feed system must provide high flow at low pressure to ensure
a rapid initial fill of the chambers.

A high initial flow is essential to ensure a uniform cake build-up across the face of the filter cloths in
each chamber and through the length of the filter press plate pack.

A slow initial fill results in no uniform distribution of the feed sludge that promotes uneven cake
formation in the individual filter press chamber.

Uneven cake formation results in unequal pressure distribution within an individual filter press chamber
or from chamber-to-chamber this can impart severe loading on individual plates, causing plate
deformation and damage.

Therefore, it is desirable to design a feed system that completes the initial feed cycle within 5 to 10
minutes under consideration of a system pressure of 50 psig.

After the initial fill period, as the cake is formed, the resistance to filtration increases, resulting in the
need for higher pressure to feed the press. During this period, the filter press feed system should
therefore, provide a relatively constant high sludge feed rate at continually increasing pressure until the
maximum design pressure is reached. n addition, a high sludge feed rate will minimize the filter cycle

When the system pressure reaches the design set point, the sludge feed rate will decrease to maintain
a constant system pressure. A uniform, variable sludge feed pressure flow is required during this stage
of the operation.

The end of the filter cycle sees the sludge feed rate decreasing very slowly with time until a minimum
sludge feed rate is attained. This slowly decreased rate to a minimum flow is extremely important

A low sludge feed rate is essential in achieving a high solids loading in the filter cake.

FiIter Press Feed System

The HEART of any Filter Press dewatering process is firstly the selection of the most reliable filter press
designed for demanding applications and the very close second is the selection of the feed pump. The
feed pumps are sized based on the capacity/filtration area of the filter press with consideration on the
type of slurry and the conditioning schema. When selecting a feed pump we must consider a pump
that would not shear the flock and the effect the particle size.

For feeding a standard recessed chamber (fixed volume) filter press, a Positive Displacement Pump will
produce the best results especially when the sludge is organically conditioned prior to the pump. Other
pumps such as centrifugal can be used if a membrane (variable volume) is utilized.

For liquid-solid separation in filter presses, slurries are fed with forces up to 225 psig. The typical
filtration cycle is characterized by temporal variations in flow rate pressure and solids-loading.

For optimum filtration results, it is of the utmost importance that the feed systems used are capable of
adapting themselves to provide the maximum possible filtration rate.

Feed pressure, as the dominate variable, is continuously monitored and measured via a pressure
transmitter with a 4-20ma output signal to a PLC based, digital controller. Pump speed and
consequently the slurry flow rate is also monitored and controlled on a continuous basis.

The pump speed is controlled via a frequency inverter which receives an inverted 4-20ma signal
from the process controller. f the feed pressure is low, pump speed is high and vice versa. A set
point ramp/soak option allows the programming and storage up to six (6) ramp and soak

This system allows for adjustment to the feed pressure during the filling cycle, which ensures that the
need for high filling rate during initial start-up and maintenance of the porosity of the initial cake build-up
is provided. This is extremely important for organically- conditioned slurries and slurries with
compressible solid particles. f the porosity of the filter cake is not maintained:

- t lowers the filtration rate
- ncreases the cycle time and
- Results in a low filter cake solids content.

Over the duration of the filtration cycle, the slurry flow at a given pressure will decline the formed cake
and undergoes a significant change in porosity that severely restricts the amount of flow discharged as
filtrate. The feed pressure of the system will continue to increase until the filter press design pressure
is reached. With the design pressure at a maximum and the pump speed at a minimum, the feed cycle
is considered complete and will be aborted.

Feeding a FiIter Press with Progressing Cavity Feed Pump

Considering the press capacity and the required pressure and flow to the press, a single pump or dual
system can be selected.

The brake point is where it makes sense to have a low pressure high volume pump used for initial fill
followed by a high pressure pump. t would be more economical to have both pumps start especially
when the ultimate pressure is 225 psig.

f the ultimate feed press is 100 psig, the press must be fed from two ends. t would be more
economical to have two low pressure pumps with independent suction and common discharge to each
end of the press. The discharge must be split at the middle of the plate pack.

Type "IV" Feed System

The type "V system will consist of a pump unit (four stage or two stage), variable frequency drive,
flange pressure sensor with transmitter 4-20mA and pressure gauge.

1. Flange Pressure Sensor OPTONS
2. Pressure Transmitter 4-20mA 10. Printer
3. Pressure Gauge 11. Personal Computer
4. Feed Pump
5. Pump Drive Motor Frequency Controlled
6. Gear box
7. Variable Frequency Controller (VFD)
8. Touch Screen Process Controller
9. Relief Valve

Type "V" Feed System

For larger filter presses (1100 ft
and higher), where the initial flow requirements are higher and the
available turndown of the variable speed pump is too limited to operate from the minimum to maximum
flows, a second constant speed pump is incorporated to operate in parallel with the high pressure pump
to achieve the initial flow requirements. The pre-fill pump is programmed to shut off when the flow
requirements drop within the capacity range of the high pressure pump.

The shut-off point of the pre-fill pump is adjustable with the pressure transmitter installed in the feed

The type "V system will consist of a pump unit (four stage and two stage), variable frequency drive,
flange pressure sensor with transmitter 4-20mA and pressure gauge.

1. Flanged Pressure Sensor
2. Pressure Transmitter 4-20mA
3. Pressure Gauge
4. High Pressure Feed Pump
5. Pre-fill Pump
6. Gear Box
7. Pump Drive Motor Frequency Controlled
8. Pump Drive Motor fixed Speed (VFD Optional)
9. Non-return Flap Valve
10. Relief Valve
11. Variable Frequency Controller
12. Touch Screen Process Controller


13. Printer
14. Personal computer

Feature Benefits

Feed system capable of being programmed to Optimum Filtration results:
provide maximum possible filtration rate in 1.) ncreases filtration rate
addition to providing an adjustment to the 2.) Decreases cycle time
feed pressure during the filling cycle 3.) Providing high filter cake solids content

High initial fill rate 1.) Maintains the porosity for optimum dewatering
and can shorten cycle time by up to 20%, thereby increasing
the number of filtration cycle per day.
2.) Ensures even cake build-up, and, therefore avoids
filter plate damage and deformation.
3.) Highest possible filter cake solids content is
achieved in the shortest possible time interval

Controller allows continued decrease of 1.) Eliminates intermediate operation of feed pump flow rate during
cycle which in turn eliminates fluctuation stresses on the
filter press
2.) Reduces premature wear on the feed pump

1.) When selecting a pump to feed a filter press (especially organically conditioned sludge) you must consider
a pump that would not shear the flock, change the particle sizes and can pump slurry at the end of cycle to
eliminate an egg shell cake.
2.) A flange pressure sensor with a transmitter (4-20mA) should be installed with in the piping manifold of the
filter press.
3.) A safety relief valve (manually adjusted) must be installed on the discharge of the feed pump to protect the
filter press. The function of this valve is to reduce the line pressure before reaching the press, not to stop
the system operation. Under normal conditions, this valve should not open at all. Typically this valve
should be installed that in case it is opened the operator can witness it. ( Kunkle 20)

Prepared by H. Alex Yazdjerd / ANDRTZ Separation nc.