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17 vues11 pagesthis document describes about active filters for harmonic distortion.This paper describes an adaptive algorithm for reactivepower
compensation for shunt APF. The proposed algorithm
compensates the reactive power if the APF inverter current limit
is not reached. The principle is based on calculation of instantaneous
d- and q-axes currents to determine by different means
the average value of reactive current (i.e., q-axis) imposed as
reference.

Jan 19, 2014

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this document describes about active filters for harmonic distortion.This paper describes an adaptive algorithm for reactivepower
compensation for shunt APF. The proposed algorithm
compensates the reactive power if the APF inverter current limit
is not reached. The principle is based on calculation of instantaneous
d- and q-axes currents to determine by different means
the average value of reactive current (i.e., q-axis) imposed as
reference.

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

17 vues

this document describes about active filters for harmonic distortion.This paper describes an adaptive algorithm for reactivepower
compensation for shunt APF. The proposed algorithm
compensates the reactive power if the APF inverter current limit
is not reached. The principle is based on calculation of instantaneous
d- and q-axes currents to determine by different means
the average value of reactive current (i.e., q-axis) imposed as
reference.

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

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Adaptive Compensation of Reactive Power

With Shunt Active Power Filters

Lucian Asiminoaei, Member, IEEE, Frede Blaabjerg, Fellow, IEEE, Steffan Hansen, Member, IEEE,

and Paul Thgersen, Senior Member, IEEE

AbstractThis paper describes an adaptive method for com-

pensating the reactive power with an active power lter (APF),

which is initially rated for mitigation of only the harmonic cur-

rents given by a nonlinear industrial load. It is proven that, if

the harmonic currents do not load the APF at the rated power,

the available power can be used to provide a part of the required

reactive power. Different indicators for designing such application

are given, and it is proven that the proposed adaptive algorithm

represents an added value to the APF. The algorithm is practically

validated on a laboratory setup with a 7-kVA APF.

Index TermsActive lters, harmonics analysis, power-system

harmonic, pulsewidth-modulated inverters, reactive power.

I. INTRODUCTION

S

HUNT active power lters (APFs) are solutions used for

compensation of harmonic currents from nonlinear loads.

They can be connected either as a local harmonic-mitigation

solution, next to a given nonlinear load, or as a global solution

at the point of the common coupling (PCC) [1], as it is shown

in Fig. 1. Usually, the optimum location is selected based

on desired performance, network stability, harmonic-mitigation

efciency, and costs.

The APF detects the harmonic spectrum of the load current

and generates an output current, which ideally is of the same

harmonic spectrum as of the load current but in opposite phase.

In this way, the APF cancels out the harmonic currents and

leaves the fundamental current component to be provided by

the power system [2].

In the last decade, the use of active techniques to mitigate

harmonics has become more attractive due to the technologi-

cal progress in switching power devices, sensors, transducers,

DSPs, and control algorithms [3]. These factors allowed the

implementation of APFs not only in laboratory conditions but

also in real-life applications.

Paper IPCSD-07-101, presented at the 2006 Industry Applications Society

Annual Meeting, Tampa, FL, October 812, and approved for publication in

the IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRY APPLICATIONS by the Industrial

Power Converter Committee of the IEEE Industry Applications Society. Man-

uscript submitted for review December 23, 2006 and released for publication

October 19, 2007.

L. Asiminoaei and S. Hansen are with Danfoss Drives A/S, 6300 Graasten,

Denmark (e-mail: las@danfoss.com; s.hansen@danfoss.com).

F. Blaabjerg is with the Faculty of Engineering, Science and Medicine,

Aalborg University, 9220 Aalborg, Denmark (e-mail: fbl@iet.aau.dk).

P. Thgersen is with KK-Electronic A/S, 7400 Herning, Denmark (e-mail:

pbt@kk-electronic.dk).

Digital Object Identier 10.1109/TIA.2008.921366

The efciency of an APF is higher than as of a shunt

passive lter, because the real power consumed by the APF

is much smaller. Unlike the shunt passive lters, there is no

need of connecting multiple branches for mitigation of several

harmonic orders at once.

One single APF is capable of mitigating up to a practical

30th50th harmonic order, meeting the actual harmonic stan-

dards and regulations.

Furthermore, the APFs can protect themselves against volt-

age imbalance and predistortion and keep the same good quality

of the compensated harmonic current. The harmonic compen-

sation with APF is expected typically 5%7% total harmonic

distortion (THD

i

), while, with a passive lter, the THD

i

is

within 10%15%.

However, the costs involved (i.e., equipment, installation,

maintenance) of an APF are higher as compared to typical

passive lters [4].

To minimize the cost and retrot existing passive-power-

lter installations, various types of hybrid topologies were

introduced and successfully implemented in recent years [17].

The hybrid lters mitigate the harmonic currents relatively well,

and their cost is reduced as compared to a pure active-lter

solution because of lower power-inverter rating. In spite of all

these advantages, the hybrid lter is suitable for applications

where there is a need of reactive-power compensation, just like

in the case of the passive lter. The amount of reactive power

is xed from design stage according to the maximum demand

and difcult to control, because it depends on the installed

capacitors. For adjustable speed drives (ASDs) based on front-

end diode rectier, the current displacement is close to unity;

therefore, the use of hybrid lters is of a little interest because

of the risk of generating leading power factor.

In order to increase the value proposition of an APF with-

out changing its design, one may further develop the control,

including more features in terms of power-quality regula-

tion, such as compensation of voltage unbalance, dips, swells,

ickers, and damping network resonances. Nevertheless, any of

the above increases even more the cost of harmonic mitigation,

because the APFs inverter must carry a higher power. This

means an increase of the inverter-power capability (insulated-

gate bipolar transistors (IGBTs), the size of the boost LCL

lter, heat-sink, ventilation) but also a larger dc-link for energy

storage.

Reactive-power compensation is another solution to increase

the value proposition of an APF [5]. However, in real applica-

tions, the mitigation of the reactive power with an APF is not

a simple task, because the reactive power may be much higher

0093-9994/$25.00 2008 IEEE

868 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRY APPLICATIONS, VOL. 44, NO. 3, MAY/JUNE 2008

Fig. 1. General block diagram of a shunt APF connected at the PCC of an industrial plant.

than the harmonic power, and thus, the APF looses its initial

purpose, again with the same consequence of an increasing cost.

Nevertheless, the mitigation of the reactive power is attractive,

as this can be done without increasing the size of the dc

capacitor. Furthermore, reducing the reactive power together

with a reduction in harmonic currents provides higher power

factor, which consequently lowers the losses and improves

network stability.

This paper describes a new adaptive compensation algorithm

of reactive power to utilize the power inverter at maximum. The

proposed algorithm requires no hardware changes or increase

of the power rating. The APF is rated, according to the initial

design specications, for mitigation of the harmonic currents

at full-loading conditions of a given industrial plant. When the

loading becomes lower and the harmonic currents do not load

the APF inverter at its full capability, then the reactive power is

compensated within the inverter limits [6].

A similar approach to adaptive compensation of reactive

power is described in [7], where the calculation is based on

empirical coefcients determined and readjusted as a result of

experimental results. Further work of [8] and [9] uses neural

networks to nd optimal compensation of harmonic current dis-

tortion and power factor via constrained optimization problem,

based on simulations.

This paper describes an adaptive compensation algorithm

in synchronous dq-frame, thus accommodating an easy im-

plementation that retrots the existing hardware and control

of an APF. This paper proposes three methods of detecting

the available power left for reactive power compensation and

presents the underlying principle. The methods are modeled

with circuit simulators, and the most suitable one is validated

in practice. Several design steps are presented with respect to

the APFs inverter. The proposed algorithms are sustained by

practical measurements on a laboratory setup with a total rated

power of 7 kVA at 400 V.

II. POWER RATING OF SHUNT APF

A common characteristic of ASD applications is the

operation at a loading lower then nominal output power, with

an average between 70%80%. Although it is expected that

Fig. 2. Decomposition of the total apparent power S in three power vectors:

P

1

is the real fundamental power; Q

1

is the reactive fundamental power; and

D

N

is the harmonic-distortion power.

ASD reaches the nominal power, this is not a permanent state.

Otherwise, if the motor needs to operate at full power all the

time, the ASD is not required.

When the ASD loading decreases the harmonic currents are

reduced as well, which leaves the APF operating at a lower

power than it is designed. This opens the possibility of using

the APF for reactive-power compensation, as it is described in

Section I. Typical applications are as follows:

ASD applications (i.e., water pumps, heaters, elevators,

etc.) running at a power lower than nominal;

front-end thyristors-control ASDs, where both harmonic

and reactive currents change with the ring angle;

mixed linear and nonlinear loads, connected together at

the same PCC but operating independently from each

other.

The apparent power S of the plant shown in Fig. 1 is given

by three power vectors, as shown in Fig. 2

S =

_

P

2

1

+ Q

2

1

+ D

2

N

. (1)

An active lter installed at the PCC ideally compensates the

entire amount of harmonic distortion power D

N

. Assuming

ASIMINOAEI et al.: ADAPTIVE COMPENSATION OF REACTIVE POWER WITH SHUNT ACTIVE POWER FILTERS 869

Fig. 3. Simulation of a front-end diode rectier adjustable speed drive as a function of loading and the line impedance L

ac

. (a) Line current THD

i

. (b) Generated

harmonic power.

sinusoidal voltages, the harmonic-distortion power is calcu-

lated as

D

N

= S

ASD

THD

i

(2)

where the S

ASD

and THD

i

are the apparent power respective of

the THD from an ASD.

Variation of the THD

i

with the ASD loading is simulated

in Fig. 3 for a typical three-phase diode-rectier ASD as a

function of the front-line ac inductance L

ac

. The results indicate

that if the ASD loading decreases, then the THD

i

increases,

because the fundamental current becomes smaller. However,

the harmonic-distortion power D

N

is reduced, because the

apparent power drawn by ASD is lower. This indicates that the

APF is not used all the time at the full inverter capacity when

the ASDoperates in a point lower than nominal. Fig. 3(b) shows

how the distorted power decreases almost linear with the ASD

loading.

If the APF is imposed to compensate both reactive and

harmonic powers, the total rated power of the APF inverter

becomes

S

APF

=

_

Q

2

LIN

+ D

2

N

(3)

S

APF

=

_

(S

LIN

sin(

LIN

))

2

+ (S

ASD

THD

i

)

2

(4)

S

APF

S

ASD

=

_

_

S

LIN

S

ASD

sin(

LIN

)

_

2

+ (THD

i

)

2

_

1 + (THD

i

)

2

(5)

where Q

LIN

and

LIN

are the total reactive power, respective

of the displacement angle given by the linear loads, D

N

is the

harmonic-distortion power from the nonlinear load associated

with the existing THD

i

.

One particular case of (5) often quoted in literature [10] is of

a plant consisting of ASDs only but no linear loads, i.e., S

LIN

=

S

ASD

, which gives (6).

Fig. 4. Rating an APF as a function of the existing harmonic current distortion

from the ASD. A possible case is shown with a value of the THD

i

lower than

the designed limit. Thus, the remaining available power of the APF may be used

for reactive power compensation.

Fig. 4 shows a graphical representation of (6) for different

THD

i

values and displacement angles cos(). Fig. 4 shows an

example of an APF which is rated to compensate the maxi-

mum harmonic-distortion power of 50% THD

i

. For a smaller

THD

i

, for instance 30% (caused by reduced ASD loading), the

APF mitigates the entire distorted power without reaching the

inverter limit

S

APF

S

ASD

=

_

(sin())

2

+ (THD

i

)

2

_

1 + (THD

i

)

2

=

_

1 cos()

2

+ (THD

i

)

2

_

1 + (THD

i

)

2

. (6)

As presented in Section I, it is attractive to use the available

power of the APF inverter for reactive-power compensation.

Depending on the amount of the required reactive power, the

APF may provide only partial compensation. In Fig. 4, the

870 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRY APPLICATIONS, VOL. 44, NO. 3, MAY/JUNE 2008

Fig. 5. Calculation of the APF rating based on the existing cos(

LIN

) and total power S

LIN

as in (5). The ratio S

LIN

/S

ASD

is equal to (a) 0.5, (b) 1, and (c) 2.

Fig. 6. Control block diagram of APF in a typical dq-frame implementation. The proposed algorithm of adaptive compensation of reactive power can be easily

integrated into the existing control structure.

active lter is allowed to compensate the reactive power only

up to a cos() of 0.94. For lower values of power factor, the

APF is not capable to compensate the required reactive power.

Taking a more general approach of (5) by assuming that the

plant consists of linear loads generating reactive power and

nonlinear loads (i.e., ASDs), Fig. 5 shows three different cases

showing the effect of an increased ratio S

LIN

/S

ASD

.

If the reactive power is larger than harmonic power (i.e.,

S

LIN

> S

ASD

), the inverter becomes ineffective to cope with

the imposed compensation requirements.

The outcome of this investigation is that mitigation of both,

harmonic distortion and the reactive power, is not a straight-

forward task if the behavior of the plant is not exactly known.

For a plant that requires large reactive-power compensation, the

APF inverter is overrated too much as compared to its initial

purpose of harmonic mitigation. Therefore, an adaptive method

for compensating the reactive power within the inverter limits

is the best choice of keeping the same hardware. This extends

the utilization of the inverter and assures that the design of the

APF is decoupled from the exact knowledge of the plant.

III. CONTROL ALGORITHM

The control algorithm is developed in the synchronous

dq-reference frame [10]. The input signals (i

L

, i

F

, v

S

), which

are initially achieved in abc-coordinates (stationary reference

frame), are transformed into the dq-rotating reference frame by

means of the Park transformation

_

i

d

i

q

_

=

2

3

_

cos cos(2/3) cos(+2/3)

sin sin(2/3) sin(+2/3)

_

_

_

i

a

i

b

i

c

_

_

(7)

where i

d

, i

q

and i

a

, i

b

, i

c

are the currents in the dq-frame,

respective in abc-frame, and is the reference angle.

The frame rotates with the angular speed of fundamental

frequency, which transforms the fundamental current into dc

component. The harmonic currents in dq-frame are still ac

signals but with a shift in frequency, depending on their positive

or negative sequence. The characteristic harmonics 5th and

+7th harmonics are folded on the 6th in dq-frame, 11th,

+13th on 12th, etc. Thus, the harmonic-detection method in

Fig. 6 resumes to remove the dc signal by means of a high-pass

lter (HPF) [2], [11].

The block diagram of the proposed control (Fig. 6) is a typ-

ical implementation of an APF having the current controller in

the inner loop and the voltage controller in the outer loop [12].

The current control is realized in a combined structure with a

classical proportionalintegral (PI) controller for fundamental

ASIMINOAEI et al.: ADAPTIVE COMPENSATION OF REACTIVE POWER WITH SHUNT ACTIVE POWER FILTERS 871

Fig. 7. Proposed principle of adaptive compensation of reactive power. The

APF supplies a variable Q

APF

vector that maximize S

APF

.

current and resonant controllers (Rez sixth in Fig. 6), one for

each harmonic pair k = 6n 1 [6], [13][15] as in

H(s) =H

PI

(s) + H

Rez6

(s)

=

_

K

p

+

K

i

s

_

+

_

_

k=1,2

2K

6k

s

s

2

+

2

6k

_

_

(8)

where K

P

and K

I

are the proportional respective the integral

constants of the PI controllers. K

6k

and

6k

are the integral

constant respective the angular frequency of the considered

resonant controllers.

Resonant controllers are used in this paper for selective

regulation of harmonic currents. They have ideal innite gain,

which gives zero stationary error at the selected frequency.

There is a tradeoff in selecting the right gains. A lower gain

gives higher rejection of disturbances, smaller output ripple,

and slower response to transient conditions. However, they are

suitable for harmonic compensation in ASDs [18][20].

The dc-voltage control loop is a PI controller, its output being

the dc current references in d-axis. This determines a real power

to be drawn by the APF in order to keep the dc-link voltage at

the reference value and to cover the inverter losses.

The proposed algorithmof adaptive compensation of reactive

power is integrated into the existing control structure to provide

the reactive current reference on q-axis current controller. The

principle of the algorithm is shown in Fig. 7, where it is shown

that the APF maintains such a reactive current that maximizes

the inverters output power S

APF

within the inverter limits

S

limit

. If the harmonic-distortion power D

APF

is reduced,

the reactive power Q

APF

can be increased to keep S

APF

at

maximum. However, there is one limitation imposed for the

Q

APF

vector, i.e., it must not be higher than the required Q

LIN

;

otherwise, the APF overcompensates the reactive power.

The algorithm shown in Fig. 7 in terms of power vectors

can be derived in current equations. Fig. 8 shows the current

vectors in the rotating dq-plane. The fundamental current is a

constant dc signal, and the characteristic harmonic currents are

rotating vectors, of which composed effect places the resultant

i

F

current vector on a given trajectory.

Fig. 8(a) shows how the APF generates harmonic currents

without reaching the maximum inverter-current limit. Fig. 8(b)

shows the concept of the proposed adaptive control, which im-

poses a reactive-current component (i

dc

qF

) such that the inverter

reaches its full power capability.

The instantaneous value of the inverter current can be written

as in (9), which, by derivation, gives the maximum allowed

reference of reactive current in (11). As (11) is determined

using instantaneous currents, the nal result (i

dc

qF

) has both dc

and ac components. However, only the dc component is useful

in order to have a steady-state reactive current reference i

dc

qF

.

In order to extract the maximum dc components within a

given period of time, the output of (11) has to be ltered by

a low-pass lter. Fig. 9 shows the following three ltering

methods:

1) rms value of both d- and q-axis [Fig. 9(a)];

2) peak value of both d- and q-axis [Fig. 9(b)];

3) maximum value of the resultant rotating vector

[Fig. 9(c)].

i

F

=

_

(i

dF

)

2

+ (i

qF

)

2

=

_

_

i

dc

dF

+ i

ac

dF

_

2

+

_

i

dc

qF

+ i

ac

qF

_

2

i

F(max)

(9)

i

dc

qF

=

_

_

i

F(max)

_

2

_

i

dc

dF

+ i

ac

dF

_

2

i

ac

qF

(10)

i

dc

qF

=

_

_

i

F(max)

_

2

_

i

V (DC)

+ i

ac

dF

_

2

i

ac

qF

(11)

where

i

V (DC)

reference current given by the dc-voltage

controller;

i

ac

Fd

reference d-axis current given by the HPF from the

load current (ASD);

i

ac

Fq

reference q-axis current given by the HPF from the

load current (ASD);

i

F(max)

current limit imposed for the APF inverter.

Each of the proposed ltering methods is evaluated on a

specic window T

w

over which the reactive current reference

is updated. A sliding window is selected to assure a continuous

evolution of rms or peak outputs. A shorter window interval

determines faster response but also oscillations in the reference,

while a longer window T

w

causes a slower dynamic [16].

The proposed methods are simulated on the system shown

in Fig. 13. The simulated ASD is a 25-kVA three-phase diode

bridge rectier, and the linear load is of an inductive type with

a total power of 20 kVA and a power factor of 0.85. APFs

inverter current limit is set to 24 A. Each of the proposed

methods calculates the output for on a window interval T

w

equal to half of the fundamental period, which gives enough

speed and acceptable ripple rejection.

Fig. 10 shows the capability of the APF to mitigate the

harmonic currents at two loading values. The harmonic currents

are controlled considering the rst ve characteristic pairs, i.e.,

5th, 7th, . . ., 31st. Due to space consideration, the harmonic

872 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRY APPLICATIONS, VOL. 44, NO. 3, MAY/JUNE 2008

Fig. 8. Examples of two possible cases. (a) APF compensates only the harmonic distorted power. (b) APF compensates also a part of the reactive power. For

both cases, the resultant current vector current must be lower than the maximum limit of the inverter current i

F(max)

.

Fig. 9. Generalized representation of the dq-frame currents for an APF current controlled with the algorithm of adaptive compensation of reactive power. Three

methods are proposed here to provide low-pass ltering function. (a) RMS-value case. (b) Peak-value case. (c) Maximum-value case.

compensation is not described, although one can nd more

details in [18]. The transient represents a change of the ASD

loading from 50% to 80%. This simulated case does not include

the compensation of reactive power (i.e., the adaptive algorithm

is disable) and are given as reference for comparison with the

next simulation case. The power factor before and after the

transient is 0.91, respective 0.93. The THD

i

of the sum current

I

S

stays within 4% in both cases, before and after the transient.

The simulation of the active lter employing the adaptive

compensation algorithm is shown in Figs. 11 and 12.

Fig. 11 shows the resultant reactive current references from

each of the proposed methods. As shown, the highest output is

given by the rms-value method, thus creating the highest reac-

tive power (cos() is increased to 0.990.96 in Fig. 12). The

simulation results are in agreement with Fig. 9 that shows that

the rms-value method is the least limiting method, because the

rms is always smaller than the peak values. The most restrictive

method is the third one, i.e., maximum-value method, because

the highest resultant peak occurring during the window interval

imposes the reactive current reference.

Regarding the results obtained in the case of peak-value

method, the reactive current references lies in between.

As shown in Fig. 11, all methods give zero reactive current

reference during the transient. During transients, the APF must

charge the dc capacitor in order to keep the imposed dc-voltage

reference. When the load step goes to higher values, the d-axis

current increases to draw more current from the supply. This

increases the real current reference and, overall, the output APF

current. Consequently, the reactive current reference decreases,

eventually reaching the zero limit.

The ripple seen in all reactive current references (Fig. 11)

can be removed either with supplementary low-pass lter or by

increasing the duration of the window T

w

. This is a tradeoff

between quality and speed. Higher ripple in the reactive current

reference means higher disturbance induced in the harmonic

compensation that affects the overall quality of the harmonic

mitigation.

Regarding the selection of the best proposed method for

practical implementation, it is nally a matter of compliance

with the hardware design and specications. In APF appli-

cations, the ampere requirement of the power switches (e.g.,

IGBTs) is determined by the peak current and not the rms value.

The peak may reach values two to three times higher than the

rms current. Thus, large IGBTs are required depending on the

ASIMINOAEI et al.: ADAPTIVE COMPENSATION OF REACTIVE POWER WITH SHUNT ACTIVE POWER FILTERS 873

Fig. 10. Simulated waveforms showing the APF capability to mitigate harmonic currents during a transient. The APF does not compensate reactive power.

(a) Line current from ASD. (b) Line current from linear load. (c) Compensation current from APF. (d) APF dc voltage. (e) Line current after harmonic

compensation.

Fig. 11. Simulated output from each proposed ltering method, rms-, peak-, and maximum-value cases. Each method gives a different reactive current reference.

load-current behavior. The rms value of the current determines

the inverter rated power, power losses, and consequently, the

size, volume, and cost. However, as a physical unit, the APF

have several hardware limitations (i.e., safe-operation area) due

to the heat dissipation, IP protection classes, ambient temper-

ature, humidity, etc. It is a matter of individual assessment of

each presented method to establish how much the existing APF

stays in the safe-operation area.

As shown in Fig. 9, the rms-value method may overlap the

maximum current limit. If this is in agreement with the hard-

ware specications of the APF inverter (i.e., the output peak

current is lower than the maximum value of allowed repetitive

peaks in a given period), then this is the best method for

implementation. The advantage is that it provides the highest

reactive current magnitude, therefore, the highest reactive cur-

rent compensation.

The maximum-value method is much more restrictive, which

is suitable for inverters operating at the limit of their ther-

mal design or to assure a higher protection. One concern

is the higher risk of discontinuous reactive current injected

by the APF, which may create oscillations of the network

voltage.

The peak-value method gives higher output reactive cur-

rent as compared to maximum-value method, but it has a

lower risk to overload the inverter as compared to the rms-

value method. The simulations conclude that the peak-value

method is a suitable candidate for further validation by labo-

ratory tests.

874 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRY APPLICATIONS, VOL. 44, NO. 3, MAY/JUNE 2008

Fig. 12. Simulated waveforms of the line current after the harmonic current compensation. The reactive power is also compensated according the proposed

methods. (a) At 50% ASD loading. (b) At 80% ASD loading.

Fig. 13. General diagram of the laboratory setup. The APF compensate the harmonics and the reactive power from the ASD and the RL load.

IV. IMPLEMENTATION

The proposed topology and control method are tested on a

laboratory setup (see Fig. 13), where the APF is realized with a

Danfoss inverter VLT 5006 rated 400 V, 7.6 kVA. The original

control card dedicated for motor control was replaced with a

custom-made control card interfacing the IGBT gate commands

and protections.

The value of the inverter boost inductor is L

F

= 7 mH,

and the dc capacitor is C

DC

= 2 mF. The switching fre-

quency is set to 10.2 kHz. The sampling frequency is iden-

tical to the switching frequency, and the sampling is done

synchronous with the pulsewidth-modulation (PWM) interrupt

routine. The control algorithm is implemented by using the

MATLAB/Simulink real-time workshop toolbox. The imple-

mentation is done in a oating-point DSP, although the PWM

ASIMINOAEI et al.: ADAPTIVE COMPENSATION OF REACTIVE POWER WITH SHUNT ACTIVE POWER FILTERS 875

Fig. 14. Measured waveforms during a change in the ASD loading from 50%

to 75%. The APF compensates the harmonic currents and the reactive power

with the proposed peak-value adaptive compensation method.

generation is executed by TMS320F240, embedded xed-point

16-b DSP.

The harmonic currents are given by a three-phase diode dc-

smoothed rectier that replicates the behavior of a typical ASD.

The rectier is loaded with a variable resistor R

Load

in the

range of 50200 , which simulates a variable loading. The

setup is arranged to perform a load step from 50% to 75%.

In parallel with the ASD, there is an RL load with a power

of 3 kVA and cos() of 0.88. The experiment consists of

maintaining the RL constant and changing the ASD loading.

The APF is a typical feed-forward topology with a control

loop as described in Section III. The implementation of adaptive

compensation of the reactive power considers the peak-value

algorithm only. The maximum current limit set to 5 A. This

limitation is lower compared to the maximum capability of the

inverter for protection purpose.

The APF reduces the harmonic current distortion from an

existing THD

i

of 27% down to 2%. The harmonic currents are

controlled as explained in Section III by considering the rst

ve characteristic pairs, i.e., 5th, 7th, . . ., 31st [18]. The reactive

power is also reduced as much as the current limit allows.

Fig. 14 shows the performance of the APF to compensate the

reactive power before, during, and after the transient.

At 50% ASD loading, the APF compensates the entire re-

active power, reaching a displacement angle cos() of 0.99

[see I

S

in Fig. 15(a)]. At 75% ASD loading, the APF cannot

compensate the entire reactive current, because it is prioritized

to provide harmonic compensation at rst.

Higher ASD loading means higher harmonic currents, which

in turn demands higher currents in APF. At 75% ASD loading,

the APF provides a lower displacement angle cos() of only

0.98 [see I

S

in Fig. 15(b)] because of reaching the inverter

current limit.

Fig. 16 shows the evolution of the lter currents in

dq-coordinates (d-axis controls the real current, and q-axis

controls the reactive current). In both cases (50% and 75%

of the ASD loading), the inverter operates within the same

imposed maximum limit of 5 A. However, the center point (i.e.,

reactive current reference) is lower on q-axis for the case of

75% loading, indicating a reduced reactive current reference. It

is interesting to see that the center point on the d-axis is slightly

increased, which is the effect of higher real current drawn by

the APF. This is because the APF is required to produce higher

harmonic content at the output, which determines higher losses,

covered by a higher real current.

V. LIMITATIONS DURING TRANSIENTS

The APFs control calculates two current references, the

harmonic and reactive currents, of which the total value should

stay within the inverter limits. Therefore, whenever reaching

the maximum current limit, the control must decide which of

the current references should take priority. As presented herein,

the harmonic current reference has priority over the reactive

current. Thus, when the total current reference reached the max-

imum limit, the reactive current reference was reduced to zero.

However, the efciency of this algorithm depends on the

duration and magnitude of the transient. Thus, there are three

possibilities that may occur as follows.

1) The APF controls both reactive and harmonic powers

operating within the limits.

2) The maximum limit is reached but the duration of the

transient is smaller than the window T

w

. In this case, the

control is able to set the reactive current reference to zero

in useful time, while keeping a proper harmonic current

mitigation.

3) The control is not able to calculate the required current

references fast enough or the magnitude of the imposed

reference is over the inverter limit. Thus, both reactive

and harmonic currents are limited to protect the inverter.

In this case, the APF is unable to mitigate the harmonic

currents.

VI. CONCLUSION

This paper describes an adaptive algorithm for reactive-

power compensation for shunt APF. The proposed algorithm

compensates the reactive power if the APF inverter current limit

is not reached. The principle is based on calculation of instan-

taneous d- and q-axes currents to determine by different means

the average value of reactive current (i.e., q-axis) imposed as

reference.

This paper proposes three methods of detecting the available

power left for reactive power compensation, referred to as rms-

value, peak-value, and maximum-value method. The methods

are analyzed and simulated. While it is analyzed that the best

implementation depends on APF hardware design and existing

specications, it is concluded that a suitable candidate for

practical implementation is the peak-value method. This is

because the peak-value method gives higher reactive current

as compared to the maximum-value method but lower risk

to overload the APF inverter as compared to the rms-value

method. This method is further tested on an existing laboratory

stand rated as 7 kVA, 400 V, delivering the expected results.

876 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRY APPLICATIONS, VOL. 44, NO. 3, MAY/JUNE 2008

Fig. 15. Snapshots from measured waveforms in Fig. 14 magnifying the time scale. (a) At 50% ASD loading. (b) At 75% ASD loading.

Fig. 16. Filter current trajectory in dq-plane when the APF uses the adap-

tive algorithm for reactive-power compensation. While the ASD loading is

increased from 50% to 75%, the APF keeps the total lter current lower than

the maximum limit.

This paper describes the APF structure and implementation

of the control algorithm in the dq-reference frame. The pro-

posed algorithm extends the utilization of the APF inverter and

assures that its design is decoupled from the exact knowledge

of the plant.

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Lucian Asiminoaei (S03M06) received the

M.Sc.E.E. degree from the Faculty of Shipbuilding

and Electrical Engineering, Section of Power Elec-

tronics and Advanced Control Systems, Dunarea de

Jos University of Galati, Galati, Romania, in 1997,

and the Ph.D. degree from the Institute of Energy

Technology, Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark,

in 2006.

From 1996 to 2003, he was a Maintenance En-

gineer with Iron&Steelworks Sidex S.A., Galati. In

2003, he was with the Institute of Energy Technol-

ogy, Department of Power Electronics and Drives, Aalborg University, where

he was involved in projects sponsored by Danfoss Drives A/S, Graasten,

Denmark, and Power Lynx A/S, Denmark. He was a Visiting Scholar with

Texas A&M University, College Station. He is currently with Danfoss Drives

A/S. His areas of interests include harmonic mitigation, harmonic measure-

ment, and active lters.

Frede Blaabjerg (S86M88SM97F03) re-

ceived the M.Sc.EE. degree from Aalborg Univer-

sity, Aalborg, Denmark, in 1987, where he also

received the Ph.D. degree from the Institute of En-

ergy Technology in 1995.

From 1987 to 1988, he was with ABBScandia,

Randers, Denmark. In 1992, he was an Assistant

Professor, in 1996, an Associate Professor, and in

1998, a Full Professor in power electronics and

drives and, since 2006, he has been the Dean of the

Faculty of Engineering, Science and Medicine with

Aalborg University. His research areas are in power electronics, static power

converters, ac drives, switched reluctance drives, modeling, characterization

of power semiconductor devices and simulation, wind turbines, and green

power inverters. He is the author or coauthor of more than 400 publica-

tions in his research elds including the book Control in Power Electronics

(Eds. M.P. Kazmierkowski, R. Krishnan, F. Blaabjerg, Academic Press, 2002).

He has held a number of chairman positions in research policy and research

funding bodies in Denmark.

Dr. Blaabjerg was appointed to the board of the Danish High Tech-

nolgy Foundation in 2007. He has been an Associate Editor of the IEEE

TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRY APPLICATIONS, IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON

POWER ELECTRONICS, Journal of Power Electronics, and of the Danish

journal Elteknik. Since 2006, he has been the Editor-in-Chief of the IEEE

TRANSACTIONS ON POWER ELECTRONICS. He was the recipient of the 1995

Angelos Award, for his contribution to modulation technique and control of

electric drives, and an Annual Teacher Prize from Aalborg University in 1995.

In 1998, he was the recipient of the Outstanding Young Power Electronics

Engineer Award from the IEEE Power Electronics Society. He was the recipient

of nine IEEE Prize Paper Awards in the last ten years. He was the recipient of

the C. Y. OConnor Fellowship 2002 from Perth, Australia, the Statoil Prize in

2003 for his contributions to power electronics, and the Grundfos Prize in 2004

for his contributions to power electronics and drives. From 2005 to 2007, he

was a Distinguished Lecturer for the IEEE Power Electronics Society.

Steffan Hansen (S95A96M99) was born in

Sonderborg, Denmark, in 1971. He received the

M.Sc.E.E. and Ph.D. degree from Aalborg Uni-

versity, Aalborg, Denmark, in 1996 and 2001, re-

spectively. His Ph.D. degree was supported by

an industrial fellowship from Danfoss Drives A/S,

Graasten, Denmark, and the Danish Academy of

Technical Sciences.

He is currently the Director of Technology with

Danfoss Drives A/S, where he has been since 1996

in various positions. His responsibilities include so-

lutions to reduce line-side harmonics from adjustable-speed drives, control

engineering of adjustable-speed drives, and their applications.

Paul Thgersen (M92SM01) was born in Thy,

Denmark, on June 29, 1959. He received the

M.Sc.E.E. degree in control engineering and the

Ph.D. degree in power electronics and drives from

Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark, in 1984 and

1989, respectively.

From 1988 to 1991, he was an Assistant Professor

with Aalborg University. From 1991 to 2005, he was

with Danfoss Drives A/S, Graasten, Denmark, where

he was, rst, a Research and Development Engineer

and, later, Manager of Technology, mainly responsi-

ble for the drives control technology area. Since 2006, he has been the Manager

of the Modeling and Control Group, which is a part of the R&D Depart-

ment, KK-Electronic A/S, Herning, Denmark. Since 1991, he has had a close

relationship with Aalborg University, resulting in more than 20 coauthored

papers and participation in more than ten Ph.D. student advisory groups.

Dr. Thgersen was the recipient of the Angelos Award in 1999 for his

contributions to the development of industrial drives.

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