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Kajang Sustainable urban planning


Faculty of Engineering & Built Environment


Kajang is a town in the eastern part of Selangor, Malaysia. Kajang is the district capital of Hulu Langat. It is located 21 kilometers (13 mi) from Malaysia's capital, Kuala Lumpur. The current locational gravity of growth in Kajang would beSungai Chua. The total population of Kajang has grown rapidly in the past few years, with estimated population growth of 9% per annum. The soon-to-be-realized Klang Valley MRT station in Bandar Kajang will boost the property value in Sungai Chua. As of 2004, a few townships have been developed in Kajang, such as Taman Prima Saujana (straight from Jalan Cheras), Sungai Chua, Taman Kajang Perdana (Kajang Highlands). Lately, many high-end developments has mushroomed in Kajang such as Twin Palms, Sri Banyan, Country Heights, Jade Hills and Prima Paramount. Areas surrounding these new townships are easily accessible via the SILK Expressway. Kajang is governed by the MajlisPerbandaran Kajang.

What is Sustainability, and what is a Sustainability Plan?

According to the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development, sustainability means meeting the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. Sustainability is not an end goal, but a journey that local governments can take to improve the social equity, environmental, and economic conditions in their jurisdiction. A common framework to guide their efforts is a sustainability plan, which ties together a communitys goals, strategies, implementation plans, and metrics for improving sustainability.

Why Develop a Sustainability Plan?

Todays visionary local leaders face challenges on many fronts: climate change, environmental justice, energy independence, natural resource conservation, unemployment, poverty, and public health. Yet they recognize their opportunity to address these issues in collectively powerful ways, and their duty to act, since the impacts of such problems are often felt first at the local level. Local leaders also recognize that these seemingly disparate issues are inexorably linked because they deal with the same core fact: we, as a society are living beyond our means and will not be able to continue to do so.

Principles of Sustainable Development

12 principles must be respected by all government ministries and agencies as they seek to improve the incorporation of sustainable development in their policies, programs and actions. These principles serve as a guide to action in a sustainable development perspective while furthering the coherence of government action in this area.

Sustainable Development

Principles 1.Equity. 2.Inteyrity. 3.Responsibility. Fields of Action 1.Environment. 2.Economy. 3.Health 4.Values and Social Organization. Conditions

1.Long-term Vision.
2.Coherence. 3.Seting Priorities. 4.Education and Increasing Awareness. 5.Partnership. 6.Quality Instead of Quantity.

In order to reach developed modern shopping center that meets the needs of all residents of the city Kajang reflects the image of a civilized city in addition; the project will support the economic development of the city through the provision of additional employment opportunities and attracting customers from all over Malaysia.


Sustainability is related to the quality of life in a population whether the economic, social and environmental systems that make up the community are providing a healthy, productive, meaningful life for all community residents, present and future:-

1. Economic Growth and Employment.

To deliver a more sustainable economy we need to do more with less by making better use of resources, increase investment, promote stability and competition, develop skills and reward work. Sustainable development requires us to take a long term view of the economy, rather than adopting short term fixes. Everybody has the right to a good standard of living, with better job opportunities. Economic prosperity is required if our country is to prosper and our businesses must therefore offer a high standard of products that consumers throughout the world want, at the prices they are prepared to pay.

2. Social Progress:We need to achieve a sense of social cohesion, cultural inclusion and people empowerment. Building sustainable communities is about improvements to the places where people live and work, and giving them the chance to play their part in shaping change for a preferable future.

3. Environment Protection:Represent our life support system. It includes everything that we rely on during our lifetime such as air, water, metals, soil, rock and other living organisms. It is important to remember that the state of our environment is influenced by our behavior and that we have the opportunity to either nurture or mistreat it.

4. Natural Recourses:Natural Recourses are derived either from the air, soil, water and organisms of the biosphere, or from the subterranean areas of the Earth. Resources of the first type come from more usual parts of ecosystems, and are labeled 'renewable', and include things like wind power and trees. Resources of the second type are labeled 'nonrenewable', for example the fossil fuels coal, oil and gas. Current unsustainable rates of human growth and consumption are threatening to use up all the non-renewable resources, and pollute much of what is renewable.

INTEGRATING TRANSPORT AND DEVELOPMENT:To maintain the standard of transport that is required for society and the economy to function efficiently without placing too much pressure on the environment, it is necessary for governments to devise a policy that will take these factors into account. This can be done through a sustainable and integrated transport policy. "Sustainable" in this context means meeting the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.

1. Maintenance
To maintain the standard of transport that is required for society and the economy to function efficiently without placing too much pressure on the environment, it is necessary for governments to devise a policy that will take these factors into account. This can be done through a sustainable and integrated transport policy. "Sustainable" in this context means meeting the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.

2. Social progress which recognizes the needs of everyone:

All local authorities have a responsibility to ensure that local residents have an acceptable and fair standard of living. Strategic policies in the Unitary Development Plan have been formulated to assist in the work of fulfilling the needs of local communities and to maintain, safeguard and improve existing social facilities and services. Land use planning should promote social progress that reflects everyones needs.

In the Sustainable Development Strategy that it will need to take action to control the rate of traffic growth, improve the performance of vehicles and initiate public awareness about the environmental impacts of polluting emissions from transport. People need to be encouraged to reduce their dependency on cars, but affordable alternatives must be available to allow them to do this.

4. Prudent use of natural resources

Initially, transportations role with respect to natural resources was that it allowed resources to be developed or used. Too much of this occurred, and it has resulted in resources being misused, overused, or exploited as well. Transportation also has made it possible to strip forests of trees, with or without regard for environmental effects on the cleared land or adjacent surface waters. By opening up markets for products, transportation has resulted in lands being converted from a natural state to agriculture. The value of farmland has always been related inversely to the distance to markets. In todays society, the value of home sites in suburbs is inversely related to the travel times and costs associated with reaching offices and stores in the central city.


During the last quarter of a century there has been a significant increase in the proportion of journeys travelled by car and the distance that people travel. Associated with these rising figures has been an increase in the pressures due to transport placed upon the society. These pressures have increased not just in the Kajang but also worldwide.

1. Maintenance of high and stable levels of economic

growth and
If we are to minimize the impacts of transport on society, we need to adopt a more sustainable transport strategy, and one that integrates all modes of transport rather than being over-reliant on the motor car. There exist a number of solutions to today's transport problem, including public transport, cycling and walking, park and ride, cleaner fuels and parking charges.

2. Social Progress Which Recognizes The Needs Of Everyone

During the last quarter of a century there has been a significant increase in the proportion of journeys travelled by car and the distance that people travel. Associated with these rising figures has been an increase in the pressures due to transport placed upon the society. These pressures have increased not just in the Kajang but also worldwide.

3. EffectiveProtection of the Environment

Travel is becoming an increasing source of air pollution. The transport related problems experienced now are likely to worsen according to the projected increase in traffic. Individually, a vehicle engine is not a particularly important source of pollution. Collectively however, vehicles represent a major source of air

pollution in the kajang and throughout the world. Air pollution from travel can be harmful to human health. Common complaints that may be associated with pollution for vehicles include asthma and other bronchial diseases. Congestion due to high levels of road traffic is also a major cause of stress.

Pedestrian:Pedestrians often encounter problems including congestion, gradients, pedestrian/vehicular conflict, barriers, air and noise pollution as well as monotonous streetscape. In many cases, problems for pedestrian movement are a result of numerous competing interests for street space and a lack of overall co-ordination. To improve the pedestrian environment, a comprehensive and integrated approach in pedestrian planning should be adopted throughout the development process from planning, design, implementation, management and maintenance. The comprehensive approach should integrate the land use, transport, land management, economic, social, community and environmental aspects.

DISABLED PEOPLE:The provision of facilities for people with disabilities can raise issues which fall within the area of concern of the Planning Service. The arrangements for access to buildings are a planning matter and the suitability of the arrangements for use by the public, which includes people with disabilities, raises issues of public amenity which are material planning considerations. As a general objective in the provision of accessible buildings developers should seek to ensure that a wheelchair can be erected and easily propelled

from a parked car into the building. The concept of such a "wheelchair standard" providing level or ramped clearways with unobstructed routes of adequate width is conducive to suiting the needs of many people with various forms of impaired mobility.

CYCLISTS:While it is necessary to ensure that existing cycling facilities perform appropriately from a safety standpoint, cycling facility planners and designersalso need to provide additional routes and facilities that encourage new or lessexperienced cyclists. This can only be accomplished if new cyclists feelcomfortable and safe using these facilities. An emerging option that isbecoming increasingly important in this respect is the appropriate deployment ofsegregated cycle facilities. One of the significant challenges designers and road safety evaluators face when dealing with cycling safety issues is the sparseness of collision data. This leads to an inability to develop statistically reliable tools that quantify the specific safety benefits for one facility type relative to another.

PUBLIC TRANSPORT:There is an increasing awareness of the relation between transportation systems, mobility and social progress. Transportation as a form of mobility is part of the options people have to access desired goods, services, spaces and social activities. Considering this, public transportation is an important space for policy, makers to respond with inclusive transportation options based in comprehensive processes and projects that meet the needs of the population to avoid transport related exclusion.


To make a harmonic engagement between train station and the other facilities, we provide a new commuter station beside the mall with advanced metro mall link, to consume more tourist, shoppers and workers.




Busses are the most popular public transportation inside the city. To insure that this system cover the entire city with comfort, safe and smooth conditions.

We provide the following:1. Establish new conditioned bus terminal time. 2. Assign private lane for buses. 3. Reduce waiting terminal time by increasing number of busses. 4. The bus system must include disabled people services such as: Special waiting bus area. Private gate in each bus for disabled people.





To increase level of service for taxies, there are main points we must fallow: Authorize a private company to be responsible for taxi services in Kajang. This company will ensure that all taxi drivers should be educated and knowledge about the tourism places around the city. We have to establish new taxi stations around the city near to the public areas (malls, KTM and residential areas). Also make new routes that connect the city with outside world, by specialize comfort reliable cars, transports people inside Kajang to other far areas such as the Airport and other states in Malaysia. All these taxies must use the meter.





Our goal to establish full bicycles system in Kajang offers bicycles for rent to transport between the stations .These stations will be constructed in the active and crowded areas. Increase the motivation about using bicycles by providing special cyclists lanes beside the road and constructing (park and ride) facilities which rent cheap bicycles. The benefits of these suggestions play significant roles by decreasing the air pollution and traffic jam.

Cyclists Service

Cyclists Parking Meter

Cyclists Cut Walk

PRIVATE TRANSPORT:A survey was carried in Kajang, Malaysia. Chi-squared test showed there are significant (P<0.05) differences in the perception towards parking policies. 76.4%of the respondents were with the usage of parking to benefit the economic vitality of city center and district shopping centers whereas, 23.4 % disagree with it. 90.3% respondents agree with the policy to make sure that parking does not encourage commuter car travel, especially to the city center, and relates to accessibility by other modes. The current study showed that principal components analysis was able to explain 70.82% of the variability of the instrument used in this study

Toll Pricing Entrance:

(Toll Pricing Entrance) is term used to collects money from a private cars from entering the city by Flexibility system Kajang's future road toll collection system. Flexibility system is a free flow tolling system that operates without toll booths, barriers or gates, allowing traffic to move freely through tolling points. The reason for this system is to reduce the use of private cars and switch to a public one. The heart of the system is the car tag which is attached to the vehicle windshield and utilizes the latest radio frequency identification technology (RFID) to positively identify the vehicle as it passes through a tolling point.


One of the most common problems facing the population growth is having more than one private car for each family in Kajang. With this problem the number of private cars will duplicate for the next ten years. To solve this problem the Kajangs streetcar system could significantly reduce residential parking spaces along the Downtown-to-Uptown line as urban dwellers begin relying more on the streetcar than their own cars to get around. The remaining parks will be run under a parking-meter system and we will duplicate parking rate during weekends to encourage people for using the public transportation.

Parking Meter System

Streetcar System

The term compact city is one of the urban design principles .It is very important to accomplish this policy by 2020, to attract more and more people and tourists by smart growth approach. To do such a thing we have to: Mix land uses. Each neighborhood has a mixture of homes, retail, business, and recreational opportunities. Build well-designed compact neighborhoods. Provide a variety of transportation choices which we proposed earlier in this presentation. Protect and enhance agricultural lands that provide us with natural resources Utilize smarter and cheaper infrastructure and green buildings. Green buildings and other systems can save both money and the environment in the long run.



Kajang healthcare city is dedicated to healthcare excellence and patient care. Offer expertise across a wide range of specialties. This healthcares professional have to meet rigorous international quality standards.


Safety and security are the most valuable factor that rise the city to the most sustainable ever. To be sure that this principle run correctly and efficiently, we must establish a fully major CCTV System that cover the hall city with unreachable cameras with (360) degree view. This system works hand by hand with the police force to increase the dispatch of police patrol to the scene.

CCTV System

Powerful CCTV cameras can recognize and track faces from more than half a mile away.


We have to follow these steps to reach highest level of security: Create, implement and monitor a national action plan for violence prevention. Enhance capacity for collecting data on violence. Define priorities for, and support research on, the causes, consequences, costs and prevention of violence. Promote primary prevention responses. Strengthen responses for victims of violence. Integrate violence prevention into social and educational policies, and thereby promote gender and social equality. Increase collaboration and exchange of information on violence prevention. Promote and monitor adherence to international treaties, laws and other mechanisms to protect human rights.

One of the greatest challenges Kajang is facing is that it will need to find food for more than four hundred thousand people by 2020. In practice this means that agricultural production must increase by 70 percent. Yet, there is little increase in available land and water, while agriculture already accounts for about 70 percent of the cities freshwater use. Whereas forests help to maintain the fertility of the soil and protect watersheds, deforestation is often driven by agricultural expansion for food.

We must focus on the entertainment side to increase the attraction of population in Kajang by constructing a huge park, which will include:-

- Stadium
- Aquarium city - Opera house - Zoo - Shopping mall

Kajang Entertainment City

Suggested Location for Kajang Entertainment City

The world is losing biodiversity at an increasing rate due to human activity causing fragmentation of habitat and destruction of ecosystems. These losses are irreversible, and harm the life support systems we depend on. Humans, being part of this biodiversity network, have the power to protect or destroy species, habitats and whole ecosystems. Safeguarding biodiversity by, for example, maintaining a patchwork of green spaces and ponds in gardens and the public domain has a cumulative benefit to wildlife. Preserve the bushland character and image of Kajang through the protection of native flora and fauna. Seek a practical balance between biodiversity and a safe and usable environment, minimizing potential risks to people, buildings and property. Utilize water sensitive urban design techniques to manage rainwater on Kajang and capture for reuse

Apply best practice bush regeneration and landscape maintenance techniques. We can protect the biodiversity of Kajang by distribute many protectors green parks that shelters the living species. These parks will raise the level of people's environmental awareness in Kajang.Also protect the biodiversity by preventing the indiscriminate hunting.

Suggested Green Parks around Kajang


Any sustainable city in the world exploits the resources more than we can imagine, and for that, Renewable energy is required in such cities, and for our case Kajang have a lot of natural resources which can be used to produce renewable energy.


Hydropower is electrical energy derived from falling or running water. The water pressure that is created by water is used to turn the blades of a turbine. The turbine is connected to a generator, which converts the mechanical energy into electricity.

Hydropower is electrical energy derived from falling or running water. The water pressure that is created by water is used to turn the blades of a turbine. The turbine is connected to a generator, which converts the mechanical energy into electricity. Flowing water creates energy that can be captured and turned into electricity. This is called hydroelectric power or hydropower. The most common type of hydroelectric power plant uses a dam on a river to store water in a reservoir. Water released from the reservoir flows through a turbine, spinning it, which in turn activates a generator to produce electricity. But hydroelectric power doesn't necessarily require a large dam. Some hydroelectric power plants just use a small canal to channel the river water through a turbine. Another type of hydroelectric power plant - called a pumped storage plant can even store power. The power is sent from a power grid into the electric generators. The generators then spin the turbines backward, which causes the turbines to pump water from a river or lower reservoir to an upper reservoir, where the power is stored. To use the power, the water is released

from the upper reservoir back down into the river or lower reservoir. This spins the turbines forward, activating the generators to produce electricity.


The wind blows the propeller round, which turns a generator to produce electricity. We tend to build many of these towers together, to make a "wind farm" and produce more electricity. The more towers, the more wind, and the larger the propeller, the more electricity we can make.

Air quality:

When one thinks of the environment and sustainability, air quality is naturally considered. The quality of the air affects many parts of the global ecosystem including soil, water, vegetation, wildlife, and human life. In one way or another, all living things share and depend on the air surrounding us. To be honest Kajang has great air quality in the current time and to maintain this level of air quality in spite of industrial revolution in the city center: We have to put some regularities about car exhausts' emission by conducting rules about the level of each car emission (Co2, O2, No2, Co, O3). Surround the city with green belt. Allocate the industrial areas far from the residential areas. Spread campaigns about all kinds of pollution.

One of the most important problems facing Kajang is waste and drainage and to overcome this problem we have to plan a perfect drainage system with compatibility to consume any floods will occur in future. This system has the benefits of concealing odors and dirt resulting from the flow of sewage.

URBAN DESIGN PRINCIPLES;Urban Design is the practice of shaping the physical features and to make high-quality connections between places and buildings for the enjoyable and safe activity of people. While creating places for people, urban design must respect and enhance the natural environment and use resources efficiently. The Urban Design Charter is a commitment by the Victorian Government to make cities and towns in Victoria more live able through good urban design. The Charter identifies the following principles as essential qualities for the functioning of good public environments, in making places that are valued and significant for those who use them.

Structure: organize places so their parts relate well to each other

Accessibility: provide ease, safety and choice of access for all people Legibility: help people to understand how places work and to find their way around

Animation: stimulate activity and a sense of vitality in public places Fit and function: support the intended uses of spaces while also allowing for their adaptability

Complementary mixed uses: integrate complementary activities to promote synergies between them

Sense of place: recognize and enhance the qualities that give places a valued identity

Consistency and variety: balance order and diversity in the interests of appreciating both

Continuity and change: maintain a sense of place and time by embracing change yet respecting heritage values

Safety: design spaces that minimize risks of personal harm and support safe behavior

Sensory pleasure: create spaces that engage the senses and delight the mind Inclusiveness and interaction: create places where all people are free to encounter each other as equals


For our final concept, we will design the city under the policy of sustainable development principle. To make a full sustainable city 2020 includes all important facilities by putting our ideas in real (entertainment city, healthcare city, Kajangs future malletc.). Diploid on the city according the following maps witch show the location of each project.

Toll Pricing Entrance Connected Green Parks

Entertainment City Healthcare City Future Mall Of Kajang New Train Station Circular Pedestrians Bridge