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NO. 68-73

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A DOUBLET LATTICE METHOD FOR CALCULATING LIFT DISTRIBUTIONS ON OSCILLATING SURFACES IN SUBSONIC FLOWS
bY

E. ALBANO and W. P. RODDEN


Northrop/Noroir Hawthorne, California

AIAA Paper
. ,

No. 68-73

Meeting
NEW YORK, NEW YORK/JANUARY 22-24, 1968
Flirt wblicalion

rights reserved by American Inflitule of Aeron3uiic1 and Ailronoulics. I290 Avenue of the America$. New Yo&, N. Y . 10019.
Member $1.00, Nonmambw $1.501

Ab5lmct1 moy be published without permiision i f credit is airen to author and lo AIAA. [ P r i c e - A I M

A DOUBLET LATTICE METHOD FOR CALCULATING LIFT DISTRIBUTIONS

ON OSCILLATING SURFACES IN SUBSONIC FLOWS

E . Albana, Senior Engineer W. P . Rodden, Consulting Bngineer, Northrop Corporation, Norair Division Hawthorne, California
Summary
Approximate solutions from the lineariied formulation are obtained by simulating the surface by a set of lifting elements which are short linesegments of acceleration potential doublets. The normal velocity induced by an elanent of unit strength is given by an integral of the subsonic kernel function. The load on each element is determined by satisfying normal velocity boundary conditions at a set of points on the surface. It is seen 5 posteriori chat the lifting elements and collocation stations can be located such that the Kutta condition is satisfied approximately. The method obviates the prescription of singularities in lift distribution along lines where normal velocity is discontinuous, and is readily adapted for problems of complex geometries. Results compare closely with those from methods which prescribe lift-mode series, and from pressure measurements. The technique constitutes an extension of a method developed by S . 6. Hedroan for steady flow,* to the pressure difference across the surface P(x,s,t)
=

Re p(w,s)

1-

by a singular integral equation and the Kutta condition at the trailing edge (TE):

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where (x,s) are orthogonal coordinates on the surface S such that the undisturbed stream is directed parallel to the x-axis. R o d e m i c h ' ' ) has given a derivation of the kernel function for a nonplanar surface, and Landahl(2) has presented a relatively concise formula:

Symbols

m
b
c

Aspect ratio Semichord Chord Kernel function Reduced frequency k =Wb/U


Free stream Mach number

K
i

k
M NC NS P . ( k PU2)
wu
t
X.5

Number of boxes on a chord Number of boxes on senispan Complex amplitude of lifting pressure Complex amplitude of normal velocity at surface Time Coordinates on the surface Cartesian coordinates Frequency of oscillation
Free stream density

X,Y,Z

= -312

- iklM

e-ik1U11R2(1 1 2 2
+

u12 )% -iklu1

w
P

4k2)3
Mr u
R
e
I

Introduction The linearized formulation of the oscillatory subsonic lifting surface theory relates the normal velocity at the surface
i6Jtl

du

=x-i,

Yo = Y -7.
z,,
2 % )

= z -

r1 =

CY,

R = (xo

+ p rl

2 %

*At the time of this writing, the authors learned that a similar extension had been developed fndependently by Stark.(19)

u1 = (MR

-x , ) l @

2 rl,

kl =wrl/U, @= (1

- n 2)%
(4)

s y s t e m i s i l l u s t r a t e d i n Fig. 1. t h a t t h e i n t e g r a l i n Eq. (1) is the "finite part"

The

The t r a d i t i o n a l m e t h o d - f o r o b t a i n i n g a p p r o x i m a t e s o l u t i o n s f o r p when w i s g i v e n is t o a s s m e a series a p p r o x i m a t i o n where each i n t e g r a t i o n runs along t h e l i n e segment whose l e n g t h i s C j . If Eq. ( 5 ) is a p p l i e d a t n downwash p o i n t s on t h e s u r f a c e , t h e f j a r e d e t e r mined. The f o r c e on t h e d o u b l e t l i n e i s t a k e n as t h e f o r c e on t h e box and t h e p r e s s u r e d i f f e r e n c e across t h e s u r f a c e i s approximated by
= force/(box a r e a ) = P.L.l(box area)

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and t o d e t e r m i n e t h e c o e f f i c i e n t s aij by s a t i s f y i n g n o r m a l - v e l o c i t y c o n d i t i o n s on t h e surf_ace. Known p r o p e r t i e s o f t h e f o r c e d i s t r i b u t i o n p s u c h as t h e b e h a v i o r n e a r s u r f a c e edges are b u i l t i n t o t h e a p p r o x i m a t i o n by a p p r o p r i a t e c h o i c e o f t h e f u n c t i o n s i n t h e s e r i e s . T h i s t e c h n i q u e h a s been used s u c c e s s f u l l y f o r a t l e a s t t e n y e a r s , a l t h o u g h most a p p l i c a t i o n s have been f o r p l a n a r wings w i t h o u t control surfaces. C o n s i d e r a t i o n o f t h e e f f o r t s needed t o d e v e l o p a single computer program t o h a n d l e a f a i r l y general c l a s s o f n o n p l a n a r problems h a s l e d us t o s e e k a t e c h n i q u e which would o b v i a t e t h e p r e s c r i p t i o n of t h e b e h a v i o r o f along edges and c o m e r s and i n f a c t , would remove a p r i o r i r e s t r i c t i o n s on t h e g l o b a l b e h a v i o r o f t h e f o r c e d i s t r i b u t i o n . The "box methods" f o r t h e s u p e r s o n i c problem p r o v i d e examples of t h e methods s o u g h t . D o u b l e t - L a t t i c e Method

J I

where angle

02

i s t h e box average chord and A. t h e sweep


t h e d o u b l e t line.
J

We n o t e t h a t t h e induced downwash c a l c u l a t e d by Eq. ( 5 ) w i l l b e i n f i n i t e i f t h e downwash p o i n t l i e s on a d o u b l e t l i n e segment or downstream from i t s end p o i n t s r Furthermore, t h e K u t t a c o n d i t i o n has n o t been imposed.
From n u m e r i c a l e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n w i t h t h i s t e c h n i q u e , i t h a s become a p p a r e n t t h a t t h e K u t t a condit i o n w i l l be s a t i s f i e d a p p r o x i m a t e l y if each downwash p o i n t is t h e p o i n t a t midspan and 314-chord o f a box. Eq. ( 5 ) i s w r i t t e n

W e d e s c r i b e a method which i s an e x t e n s i o n of t h e one d e v e l o p e d f o r s t e a d y s u b s o n i c f l a w by H e & ~ a n ( ~i )n 1965. The e l e m e n t s o f t h e t e c h n i q u e a r e t o b e found i n t h e v o r t e x - l a t t i c e method o f F a l k ~ r ( ~ ) Since . i t appears at t h e p r e s e n t time t h a t a r i g o r o u s a n a l y t i c a l b a s i s f o r t h e method i s n o t a v a i l a b l e , we p r e s e n t an o p e r a t i o n a l d e s c r i p tion:
It i s assumed t h a t t h e s u r f a c e can b e a p p r o x i mated by segments of p l a n e s . The s u r f a c e is d i v i d ed i n t o small t r a p e z o i d a l p a n e l s ("boxes") i n a manner s u c h t h a t t h e boxes a r e a r r a n g e d i n columns p a r a l l e l t o t h e f r e e s t r e a m ( F i g . 2), and so t h a t s u r f a c e e d g e s , f o l d l i n e s a n d h i n g e l i n e s l i e on or The 114-chord l i n e o f each near box b o u n d a r i e s . box i s t a k e n t o c o n t a i n a d i s t r i b u t i o n o f accelerat i o n p o t e n t i a l d o u b l e t s o f u n i f o r m b u t unknown s t r e n g t h . In s t e a d y flow, each doublet line-segment w i l l b e e q u i v a l e n t t o a v e l o c i t y - p o t e n t i a l h o r s e s h o e v o r t e x whose "bound" p o r t i o n c o i n c i d e s w i t h t h e d o u b l e t line..

__

(7)

where
1 2 P = i I T P u

If A
is

tka m a t r i x

a r e t h e e l e m e n t s of t h e m a t r i x whose i n v e r s e of D then
ij'

Let n b e t h e n m b e r o f boxes and l e t t h e d o u b l e t s t r e n g t h i n t h e j t h l i n e segment b e

Pi =

" EAij wj j=l

(9)

zj

d/l 1 4 Z P

provides t h e approximate s o l u t i o n f o r t h e f o r c e distribution. G e n e r a l i z e d f o r c e c o e f f i c i e n t s a r e computed a p p r o x i m a t e l y by

where ? j is t h e complex a m p l i t u d e of t h e f o r c e p e r u n i t l e n g t h a l o n g t h e l i n e , and dfl t h e i n c r e m e n t a l length. The normal v e l o c i t y (downwash) induced a t a p o i n t ( x i , s i ) on t h e s u r f a c e is

where
S k = a r e a of box k

IiJ

[(qo2

to2) +~ V

~ B +

c]. J t o / - l t a n
I

i e f l e c t i o n i n mode i of 114 c h o r d , mid$ =d s p a n p o i n t of box k

pkJ = f o r c e d i s t r i b u t i o n in mode j a t box k b = reference length Working F o m s Approximate e v a l u a t i o n of t h e i n t e g r a l i n Eq. ( 8 ) is a c h i e v e d by a p p r o x i m a t i n g t h e i n t e g r a n d by a s i m p l e f u n c t i o n . We c o n s i d e r t h e downwash induced a t a r e c e i v i n g p o i n t R = (XR, y ~ Z , R) by a d o u b l e t l i n e segment whose end p o i n t s a r e S- and S+ and whose m i d p o i n t i s So. Let
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1 +(?

r
VoA)

log

1
1

2T10 e >

e2

2q0 e

+e

2eA

(15)
where

rl = Vo +
For t h e p l a n a r case (t0-0)

to

f = r12K
Denote

(11)

+ (+ B +

Vo

A)

log(=Y+

1 ,+

2
e

eA

D e f i n e t h e c o o r d i n a t e System ( F i g . 3 )

I n o r d e r t o converge t o Hedmans v o r t e x l a t t i c e r e s u l t s f o r s t e a d y f l o w and t o improve t h e a p p r o x i m a t i o n o f Eq. (15), we h a v e found i t c o n v e n i e n t t o s u b t r a c t t h e s t e a d y p a r t ( W = 0 ) from 17 b e f o r e a p p l y i n g t h e above f o r m u l a s , and t h e n t o add t h e e f f e c t of a horseshoe vortex.
Approximate e v a l u a t i o n of t h e i n t e g r a l s $,and 12 i n t h e k e r n e l f u n c t i o n may b e accomplished in many ways. L, Schwarz(6) h a s g i v e n an e x p r e s s i o n f o r 11 i n t e r n s o f i n f i n i t e s e r i e s . However, we choose t o a p p r o x i m a t e t h e i n t e g r a n d s by s i m p l e functions. It is s u f f i c i e n t t o c o n s i d e r nonnegat i v e a r g m e n t s b e c a u s e of symmetry p r o p e r t i e s of t h e integrand. I n t e g r a t i o n b y p a r t s gives

V= y

cosy.
L7

z sin%

(12)

t= -y

sin3

COSY

L7

S i n c e t h e l e n g t h of t h e d o u b l e t segment is small, i t may b e e x p e c t e d t h a t a p a r a b o l i c a p p r o x i m a t i o n for a l o n g t h e segment would b e s u f f i c i e n t i n evaluating the integral.

Il(ul; k l ) =

f
U .

-iklU
( le + u2) 3 1 2 d

where
e = - &
1

~atkins(~ ha ) s g i v e n t h e formula 2 j cosA

Vo = (y,

- yso)
-

J
cosy i ( z ,
0

t
z

to =
A =

-(yR

yso) s i n Y 0 t-)l2e

+
2

(2

so
2

) sin%

- 0.101

exp(4.329t)

(f+

- 2ko -I

So

cos%

- 0.899 exp(-1,4067t) - 0.09480933 exp(-2.90t)

sinnt,

(t>G)

which when s u b s t i t u t e d i n t h e above y i e l d s a s i m p l e e x p r e s s i o n f o r 11 The i n t e g r a l I2 i s a p p r o x i m a t e d in s i m i l a r f a s h i o n .

The r e s u l t of t h e i n t e g r a t i o n is
3

I n view o f t h e lack o f a r i g o r o u s b a s i s f o r t h e f o r e g o i n g a s s m p t i o n s , it i s n e c e s s a r y t o demon-

s t r a t e t h e adequacy of t h e d o u b l e t l a t t i c e method by comparison of r e s u l t s w i t h s o l u t i o n s o b t a i n e d by o t h e r means, a n d w i t h e x p e r i m e n t a l d a t a . R e s u l t s for Two-Dimensional Flow

L = F o r c e o f a i r f o i l and f l a p , p o s i t i v e downward
M = Moment o f wing and f l a p a b o u t midchord,
N
=

For p l a n a r f l o w t h e i n t e g r a l e q u a t i o n (1) becomes t h e one-dimensional i n t e g r a l e q u a t i o n of Possio ( s e e , e . g . , s e c t i o n 6-4 o f Ref. 8 ) and t h e d o u b l e t l i n e segments become d o u b l e t s on t h e c h a r d . The r e s u l t s o f t h e d o u b l e t l a t t i c e method p r e s e n t e d h e r e h a v e been o b t a i n e d by d i v i d i n g t h e a i r f o i l c h o r d i n t o e q u a l i n t e r v a l s and t a k i n g a s e n d i n g and r e c e i v i n g p o i n t a t t h e 114-chord and 3/4-chord, r e s p e c t i v e l y , of each i n t e r v a l .
Exact s o l u t i o n s a r e a v a i l a b l e f o r incompress i b l e flow. S o l u t i o n s for an a i r f o i l w i t h o s c i l l a t i n g f l a p are compared i n Fig. 4, where measurements r e p o r t e d by Bergh(9) a r e i n c l u d e d . The d o u b l e t l a t t i c e method may b e t h o u g h t o f as producing s t e p - f u n c t i o n a p p r o x i m a t i o n s t o t h e p r e s Sure d i s t r i b u t i o n - R a t h e r t h a n p r e s e n t t h e s e i n g r a p h s , we h a v e chosen t o draw c u r v e s t h r o u g h t h e v a l u e s f o r p a t s e n d i n g p o i n t s . Also i n d e s c r i b i n g r e s u l t s , we use t h e t e r m "boxes" t o mean i n t e r v a l s ( i n 2-D f l o w ) or small p a n e l s ( i n 3-0 f l o w ) , and
NC = Number o f boxes p e r wing chord

I -

p o s i t i v e t i i l heavy Moment o f f l a p a b o u t h i n g e a x i s , p o s i t i v e t a i l heavy

Ab = T r a n s l a t i o n a m p l i t u d e , p o s i t i v e downward
B = Amplitude o f a i r f o i l r o t a t i o n a b o u t mid-

c h a r d , p o s i t i v e t r a i l i n g edge down
C = h p l i t u d e of f l a p r o t a t i o n , p o s i t i v e

t r a i l i n g edge down R e s u l t s shown h e r e are f o r t h e case M = 0.8, k = 0.9, T = ( f l a p c h o r d ) / ( a i r f o i l c h o r d ) = 0.3. The t a b u l a t e d r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e d o u b l e t l a t t i c e a p p r o x i m a t i o n would b e v a l i d f o r h i g h s u b sonic Mach numbers and r e d u c e d f r e q u e n c i e s o f o r d e r unity, R e s u l t s f o r Three-Dimensional Flows F i g . 5 compares c a l c u l a t e d l i f t d i s t r i b u t i o n s w i t h measurements r e p o r t e d i n NACA RM A51G31 f o r a swept, t a p e r e d wing a t i n c i d e n c e i n s t e a d y flow. F o r t h i s problem, t h e semi-wing was d i v i d e d i n t o 48 boxes, each c o n t a i n i n g a h o r s e s h o e v o r t e x a s i n H e h a n I s method. R e s u l t s f o r t h e wing s t a t i o n s shown were o b t a i n e d by i n t e r p o l a t i o n , C a l c u l a t i o n s and measurements f o r a wing w i t h p a r t i a l - s p a n f l a p are p r e s e n t e d i n F i g , 6. The curves l a b e l e d "experiment" were o b t a i n e d by reduct i o n o f g r a p h i c a l d a t a o f Ref. 1 2 and f o r t H s reason, are r a t h e r i m p r e c i s e . Calculations were made w i t h e i g h t y h o r s e s h o e v o r t i c e s on t h e semi-wing e i g h t v o r t i c e s b e i n g on t h e f l a p , Landahl(13) h a s shown t h a t b o t h t h e form and s t r e n g t h of t h e p r e s sure s i n g u l a r i t y a t t h e h i n g e line can b e d e t e r m i n e d a n a l y t i c a l l y . The e x p r e s s i o n f o r t h e l i f t d i s t r i b u t i o n f o r u n i t f l a p angle is:

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NS = Number o f boxes p e r semi-span ( p l a n a r


wings) The t a b l e below is a comparison o f g e n e r a l i z e d f o r c e s from t h e p r e s e n t method and from t h e t a b l e s of Ref. 10. The c o e f f i c i e n t s are d e f i n e d by
L =7rpU2 b eikt(Aka M = TpU
2

+ +

Bkb

b e

ikt

(ha

+ Bmb

+ Ckc) + Cmc)

N = TpU2 b e i k t ( h a

Bnb t Cnc)

where b i s t h e semichard, k t h e r e d u c e d f r e q u e n c y based on b and

30 "boxes"

R e f e r e n c e 10
i

-0.0075 -1..571

-1.118 i
-0.09211

-0.0197 -1,574

-1.119

-0.0444 -1.5755

-1.12011 -0.02671

-0.07951

-0.4835 +O.O789i 0.3293 +0.10051 -0.0391 -0.86041

-0,4824 +0.08231
0 3 3 0 3 +O.O924i

-0.4803 +O0O868i 0.3309 +0.07601 -0.0946 -0,86191 -0,4147 +O.O248i 0.06OlZ -0.066091 -0.0798 -0.0931 -0.15041 -0.07391

-0.0572

-0.8623i

-0.407 5 +O. 00211

-0.4105 +0.00581 0.0591 -0.0638i -0.0762 -0.0919 -0.14741

0.0584 -0.0626i -0.0745 -0.0912 -0.14561 -0.06961

"b

-0.07121

where
x
=

coordinate of hinge sweep angle

A= = hingeline

be studied so that its full implications may be brought out. The second kind of approximation is concerned with the evaluation of integrals in the kernel and in the downwash-pressure influence C O efficients, Eq. (8). These procedures may be improved and optimized according to the standard techniques of nmerical quadrature. The advantages of the doublet lattice method arise from being able to disregard the special behavior of the lift distribution where the normalwash is discontinuous. So long as edges do not intersect boxes, a computer program based on this technique does not need to discriminate among side edges, fold lines, hinge lines, etc., and this fact is important when problms of intersecting surfaces are considered. Furthermore, since the influence coefficients Dij are independent of the properties of the normalwash distribution, the same matrix computed for a given wing will yield solutions for a large class of normalwash distributions. For example, generalized forces for many different control surface configurations may be obtained from the same influence coefficient matrix. For applications in aeroelastic analyses, aerodynamic ipfluence coefficients that relate control point forces to deflections have been defined in Ref. 18, The doublet lattice method leads imnediately to this definition of influence coefficients since the control point force is given by the product of lifting pressure and box area, and the dawnwash is the substantial derivative i n the streamwise direction of the deflection. (The substantial derivative requires curve fitting "in-thesmall" along the surface strip; e . g . , a parabola may be passed through the control point and the If a reduced points upstream and downstream of i t . ) number of degrees of freedom is desired for the aeroelastic analysis over the number of boxes employed in the aerodynamic analysis, the number of control point forces and deflections may be reduced by a streamwise curve fit and the method of virtual work as discussed in Ref. 18. References 1 . Vivian, H . T., and Andrew, L . V., ''Unsteady aerodynamics for advanced configurations. Part I - Application of the subsonic kernel function to nanplanar lifting surfaces," Air Force Flight Dynamics Lab. Report FDL-TDR-64152, Part I (May 1965). Landahl, M . T . , IlKernel function for nonplanar oscillating surfaces in a subsonic flow," A I A A J r 2, 1045-1046 (May 1967).

c = local chord

For the wing considered here, hc A 30, M = 0.6; the singular part of Eq- (16) becomes

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The graph of this expression is labeled "local solution" in Fig. 6a. Fig. 6b shows the distribution of lift on the semi-wing calculated by the horseshoe vortex lattice technique. Both kernel function calculations and measurements of lift distribution reported in NASA TND-344 are compared in Fig. 7 with results from the doublet lattice method, The R 3 rectangular wing considered is oscillating in a bending mode described approximately by

6 =0.180431f(

1.702559'-

1.136881y 3

I+

0.253~377~

yhere 6 is the nondimensional deflection amplitude, y the nondimensional spanwise coordinate based on the semispan. Results of computations for an aspect ratio 2 rectangular wing with full span 40% chord oscillating flap are shorn in Fig. 8 . These are compared with kernel function calculations (with built-in hingeline singularity) given in reference 15, and experimental data of reference 16. The doubletlattice calculations were made w4th 99 boxes on the semi-wing and of these, 45 boxes were on the flap. Some preliminary results of computations for a rectangular T-tail are presented in Fig. 9, where measurements by Clevenson and Leadbetter(17) are reproduced. TO account in part for the tunnel waL1, the image system of the fin was included in the c a l culations; the image of the horizontal stabilizer was neglected. Forty boxes were placed on the fin and forty on the horizontal stabilizer semi-wing, The discrepancy between calculations and experimental data for increasing reduced frequency might be due to the relatively small number of boxes used, or to the incomplete modelling of the effect of the tunnel wall. The T-tail results illustrate that nanplanar problms are easily approached by the doublet lattice technique. Conclusions Within the context of the linearized subsonic lifting surface theory, two types of approximations are involved in the doublet lattice method. The assmption that for purposes of calculating lift distributions the surface can be represented by a system of line segments of acceleration potential doublets is seen to be a valid approximation in view of the results obtained. As far as the authors are aware, an analytical basis for this approximation has not been established and certainly deserves to
5

. J

2 .

Mangler, K a W . , '%nproper integrals in theoretical aerodynamics," British A . R . C . R M 2424 (1951). 4 . Hedman, S o G . , IWortex lattice method for calculation of quasisteady-state loadings on thin elastic wings," Aeronautical Research Institute of Sweden Re'port 105 (October 1965).
3,

5 .

Falkner, V . M . , "The calculation of aerodynamic loading on surfaces of any shape," British A.R.C. R&M 1910 (1943). Schwarz, L . , tlInvestigation of some functions related to the cylinder functions of z e r o order," Luftfahrtforshung, V a l r 20, No. 12, 341-372 (1944),

6.

7 .

Watkins, C. E . , Runyan, H. Lo, and Cunningham, H. J., "A systematic kernel function procedure for determining aerodynamic farces on oscillating or steady finite wings at subsonic speeds," NASA Tech. Report R-48 (1959). Bisplinghoff, R. L,, Ashley, H., and Halfman, . , Aeroelasticite (Addison Wesley, New R . L York, 1957) Chap. VI, p . 294, Bergh, H e , "A new method for measuring the pressure distribution on harmonically oscillating wings of arbitrary planform," National Aeronautical and Astronautical Research Institute, Amsterdam, Report MP.224 ( 1 9 6 4 ) .

13.

Landahl, M . T . , "On the pressure loading functions for oscillating wings with control surfaces," Proceedings of the AIAAIASME 8th Structures, Structural Dynamics and Materials Conference, 142-147 (March 1967). Lessing, H. C . , Troutman, So L . , and Menees, Experimental determination of the pressure distribution on 2 rectangular wing oscillating in the first bending mode for Mach numbers from 0.24 to 1 , 3 0 , " NASA TN 0-344 (1960),

i/

8 .

14.

6. P . ,

9.

15.

10.
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Anon., "Tables of aerodynamic coefficients f o r an oscillating wing-flap System in a subsonic compressible flow,,! National Aeronautical 16. and Astronautical Research Institute, Amsterdan, Report F,151 (May 1954). Kolbe, C, D . , and Boltz, F . W . , "The forces and pressure distribution at subsonic speeds on a plane wing having 40 of sweepback, an aspect ratio of 3, and a taper ratio of 0.5," NACA p\M A51G31 (19511, Hmond, A . D o , and Keffer, B o M,, "The effect at high subsonic speeds of a flap-type aileron o n the chordwise pressure distribution near midsemi-span of a tapered 35O sweptback wing of aspect ratio 4 having NACA 65A006 section," NACA RM L53C23 (1953). 17.

. , and H a s s i g , H. J o , Curtis, A . R . , Gikas, X. A "Oscillatory flap aerodynamics comparison between theory and experiment," Paper presented at the Aerospace Flutter and Dynamics Council Meeting, Cocoa Beach, Florida (Novo 1967).

. Po, llcontrol surface Beals, V o and Targoff, W oscillatory coefficients measured on low-aspect ratio wings," Wright Air Development Center Technical Report No, 53-64 (April 1953). Clevenson, S a A . , 2nd Leadbetter, S. A", "Measurements of aerodynamic forces and moments at subsonic speeds on a simplified T-tail oscillating in yaw about the fin mid-chard." NACA Tech, Note 4402 (1958). Itodden, Wo P., and Revell. J. D o , "The s t a t u of unsteady aerodynamic influence coefficients:' I& Fairchild Fund Paper No. FF-33 (1962). Stark, V. J. Eo, Private comunication to W . P. Rodden, 11 Oct. 1967.

1 1 .

12.

18.

19.

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\
DOWNWASH COLLOCATION POINT
Y.

LINE OF DOUBLETS

rl

FIGURE 1.

COORDINATE SYSTEM,

FIGURE 2. WING AND PANEL GEOMETRY

SUR FACE

7
Y

FIGURE 3. COORDINATE SYSTEM OF EQUATION (12).

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FIGURE 4. LIFTING PRESSURE DISTRIBUTION ON WING WITH OSCILLATING FLAP 2D FLOW. M = O K = 1.0

IN

l a PRESENT METHOD;
d

NC = 6, NS = 8 1

0 EXPT, NACA RMA51G31

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,x

FIGURE 5. LIFT DISTRIBUTION ON SWEPT WING IN STEADY FLOW

7.0

6.0

5.0

.o
4. (

75

3. c

2. c

1.C
x

C
L

0.2
(a)

0.4

1 0.6

0 . 8

fb) CALCULATED LIFT DISTRIBUTION ON SEMIWING COMPARISON WITH tXPERlMENT FIGURE 6. LIFT DISTRIBUTION DUE TO DEFLECTED PARTIAL-SPAN FLAP
9

0.2
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0.4
X/C

0.6

0.8

1.0

FIGURE 7.

LIFT DISTRIBUTION ONLR3 RECTANGULAR WING OSCILLATING IN BENDING MODE ( 0 ) $= 0

~~

0.2

0.4
X/C

0.6
(b)
=

0.8
0.9

FIGURE 7. CONTINUED.

10

0.5

0.4

KERNEL FUNCTION (M = 0.2) REF. 15

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- 80

L;i
w

-120

I W Y

-200

I
0.5
k

I
1.0

I
1.5

FIGURE 8. FLAP HINGE MOMENT DUE TO FLAP OSCILLATION, FOR A 40% CHORD, FULL SPAN FLAP ON 2 RECTANGULARWING

11

DEGREES
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EXPT, NACA TN 4402

k
FIGURE 9 SIDE FORCE COEFFICIENT FOR T-TAIL OSCILLATING IN Y A W ABOUT THE FIN MID-CHORD. M = 0.

12