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Bulletin of the Transilvania University of Braşov • Vol.

2 (51) - 2009
Series II: Forestry • Wood Engineering • Agriculture and Food Engineering

THEORETICAL CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE


CINEMATIC OPTIMIZATION OF INTERMITTENT
MECHANICAL TRANSMISSIONS WHICH EQUIP THE
SEED DRILLS

Florin LOGHIN1

Abstract: In this paper is presented the method of simulation computer-assisted of the


kinematics of the mechanism cam-balance lever used in the transmissions of the seed drill
for cereals, through the application of Animation-Mechanism approach of the software
ProEngineer Wildfire 2.0. The results of research through simulation are presented in the
likeness of diagrams which emphasize the functional peculiarities of the mechanism cam-
balance lever.

Key words: seed drill, transmissions, simulation.

1. Introduction variable intermittent the arbor of exit. To the base


of variator operation, with intermittent motion,
In order to assured the correlation among the stands the principle of summarization impulses of
speed of movement machine and the amount of rotation, generate of the ensemble cam - balance
seeds N which is delivered on surface unit, the wheel – one-way coupling. The motion of
dosage machines and the agitator systems of variable rotation of exit arbor is made through the
seeds from the seeds box of seed drill strawy modification of active race ∆Ψ of the balance
cereals, receive rotation motion from the active wheel (Figure 2), through limitation of this
wheel through transmissions with intermittent return, by dint of plate of limitation [2].
function which have in their component variator During a completely rotations of cam, the
with mechanims cam-balance wheel and one-way balance wheel is acted of these lobes, for each
coupling, which from theoretical point of view, lobes of the cam, executing a motion of
permit realization of increased number of oscillation which represents the active race, with
conduction reports, with more reduced number of an angle which value is determinated of
constitutive elements submissive to detrition minimum and maximum radius of cam profile.
(Figure 1) [1], [ 4]. The race of return of each balance wheel is a
The variator with intermittent operation is passive race, and is achieved below of drive of
composed by a number conditioned of helical bows, pre-tensionated, this beeing limited
mechanisms cam-balance wheel, mounted in- of limiter plate, through their position checking
line, these operating phase-shifted, therethrough up the value of angle of gear the reel with the
following the enlargement of uniformity motion cam. Limiter plate is fixed on an arbor, foreseed
of rotation of secondary arbor ( Figure 2). with a mechanic system of index, the posture
The variator with cam-balance wheel limiter plate beeing adequate on a sector
transforms the contiguous motion, with constant calibrated [3].
angular speed, of input arbor, on the move From functional viewpoint, the balance wheel
1
Dept. of Food Products Engineering, Transilvania University of Braşov.
Bulletin of the Transilvania University of Braşov • Vol. 2 (51) - 2009 • Series II
2

which is mounted on exterior ring of one-way transmits the torque and the motion of rotation
coupling, executes the role of an oscillatory cam between the exterior and the internal ring, just for
follower with reel. The one-way coupling active race of the balance wheel.

Fig. 1. Variator with mechanisms cam – balance lever:


1 - reductor; 2 - cams; 3 - oscilatory cam follower; 4 - reels; 5 – one-way couplings; 6 - helical bows;
7 – stop plate; 8 – lever for stop plate position; 9 – calibrated sector; 10 – intermediate arbor; 11 -
exit arbor; 12 - system of assembling of variator on machine.

2. Material and Method simplified model of a variator with intermittent


motion, neglecting the two one-way couplings of
The computer-assisted simulation of the one-way traffics, wherethrough the balance
mechanisms cam-balance lever operation. As part as wheels are kinematic binded of exit arbor. This
simulation, the race of return of the balance simplification is motivated through the next:
wheel was determined for different values of - the simulation is attained just for the analysis
angle position of plate of limit this race (Figure 2, of rotation angle of the cams and the race of
a). For the determination of extreme positions of balance wheels;
limiter plate of race were considered the In first stage of simulation mechanism
positions of the cam, respectively of balance operation, was accomplished the representation
wheel, which characterizes the minimum of all pieces and modules which compose the
respective maximum race of the balance wheel mechanism, whereafter were put the restrictions
(Figure 2, b). advert to assemblage manner, wherethrough was
For the simulation of mechanism kinematic attain corrected poition of all the component
was used the module Animation-Mechanism of elements of the ensemble. For the representation
ProEngineer Wildfire 2.0 software. The module of component elements of the gearbox were
Animation-Mechanism is used for visualization utilized the drawings of execution of these. For
of a mechanism motion or of a functional the application of assemblage restrictions was
mechanic ensemble [5]. necessary the cognition of the next questions:
In order for Animation-Mechanism module position of the piece in report with the bindery
can operate in optimum conditions, was applied a pieces and the category of specific restriction, for
Fl. Florin.: Theoretical contributions to the cinematic optimization of intermittent mechanical transmissions
which equip the seed drills 3

several of them. To assure the correct operation type restrictions and for the mobile pieces,
of the mechanism, for the fixed pieces, which between is transmited the motion, were put
don't assist to conduction motion, were put Place Connect type restrictions.

a. b.
Fig. 2. The schernatic scheme of cam - balance wheel mechanism, utilized in the simulation.

a. b.
Fig. 3. The scheme of the cam gear : a. with five lobes; b. with four lobes:
1 – balance wheel; 2 - stop plate; 3 - the arbor of stop plate; 4 – helical bows; 5
– cam; 6 – input arbor; 7 – the reel of balance wheel; 8 – exit arbor.

mechanism, depending on time, and the


- the couplings contain a big number of application of input motion to the leading
elements, which requires, on their ensemble, a element.
very big number of restrictions, which First restriction of kinematic order is related
ProEngineer software cannot to generate them. to the fact that during of active race the reels 6 of
The second stage in simulation realization was the balance wheels 1 (Figure 3, a) is displaced on
adverted to application of restrictions of the cam profile and have the possibility of
kinematic order, which are compulsions which detachments from this, at the end of passive race.
generates the motion of leading elements of For this compulsion is utilized command Cam -
Bulletin of the Transilvania University of Braşov • Vol. 2 (51) - 2009 • Series II
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Follower Connections, with the property Enable


Liftoff.
The second restriction of kinematic order is
related to the possibility limitation of the race of
the return of balance wheels, therefor beeing used
the command Cam - Follower Connections, with
the propriety Enable Liftoff, and property Enable
Friction.
The third restriction of kinematic order is
related to the fact that on an area of return race,
up to the contact with the limiter plate, is
necessary the sustentation of balance wheels reels
in contacts with the cam profile, therefor using Fig. 4. The diagram of variation of oscillation
the command Springs, wherethrough is generated angle of cam follower depending on time, for the
helical bows mounted in pre-tension state. To case of maximum race.
adopt the value of tensions from the helical bows,
exists the possibility of modification values of
elastic constant K or diameter of wrap up the
whorls.
For generation the motion of camshaft was
used Motors command, the software permiting
modification of the rev.
After runing through these stages, was
obtained the mechanisms presented in the figure
3.
As part as this works was took under
consideration the possibility of kinematic Fig. 5. The diagram of variation of oscillation
simulation of two types of mechanisms cam - angle of cam follower depending on time, for the
balance wheel: with two cams with five lobes, case of minimum race.
mounted in-line, the lobes beeing phase-shifted
with 36 of degrees (Figure 3, a) and respective
with three cams, with four lobes, mounted in-
line, the lobes beeing phase-shifted with 30
degrees (Figure 3, b).

3. Results and Discussions

Abaft simulation, the result of theoretical


research were visualized through charts, in which
was represented the variation of the balance
wheel race depending on time, and enable an
easy analysis connected with the balance wheels
motion, for different positions of plate of limit Fig. 6. The diagram of variation of oscillation
return race ( Figures 4, 5, 6). angle of cam follower depending on time, for the
case of intermediate race.
Fl. Florin.: Theoretical contributions to the cinematic optimization of intermittent mechanical transmissions
which equip the seed drills 5

The theoretical research through simulation In the charts presented, the point A
was achieved in the next conditions: the rev of characterized the moment of finish the active race
input arbor 0,33 rot/s, the cam with four lobes and the begining of the race retractive, the reel
type, and for the plate limiter were adopted three cam follower beeing on the peak of the lobe of
significant positions: the proper position of the cam; The point B characterizes the moment in
maximum race of cam follower, when the reel of which the cam follower gets in touch with the
balance wheel doesn't detached from the cam plate limiter, what facts represent the end of
profile (Figure 4); the proper position of passive race; the point C characterizes the
minimum race cam follower, when the reel of the moment in which the cam follower gets in touch
balance wheel touches the flank of the lobe just with the profile of the lobe of the cam and begins
in the zone of this peak (Figure 5) and an the active race; the point D characterizes the
intermediate position wherewith is assured the finish of the active race.
gearing of the reel of the cam follower on a half
from his race (Figure 6).

Fig. 7. The diagram of variation of oscillation angle and velocity of cam follower depending on time.

The report of conduction between input arbor duration of 1,4 second, characterizes the period
and the one of exit is defined as the report among in which the cam follower is rested on limiter
the angles of turnings of input arbor and the arbor plate, the angle of oscillation of the balance
of exit, on duration of an operation cycle.For the wheel beeing approximatively 1,2 degrees. The
case in which the cam follower executes the report of conduction between the input arbor and
angular minimum race (Figure 5), sector BC with one of exit is 37,5.
Bulletin of the Transilvania University of Braşov • Vol. 2 (51) - 2009 • Series II
6

For intermediate values of the race of the cam balance wheels on the move of intermittent
follower (Figure 6), sector BC is decreased, the rotation of exit arbor of variator by dint of one-
report of conduction between the input arbor and way coupling.
one of exit taking the values in determinated
The computer-assisted simulation of operation
interval.
of cam - balance wheel – one way coupling box
In the Figure 7 is presented the diagram of
consisted in the representation in 3D of
variation of oscillation angle and of angular
mechanisms and the graphic representation of
speed of the balance wheels, for the mechanism
angular space variation, described by points of
with two cams with five lobes (for maxim race).
balance wheels.
The variation law of angular space goed
The charts were put in evidence the fact that
through by drill arbor of dosage machines is in
the form of impulses is stricken direct of: the
the likeness of a succession of impulses and is
number of cams of gearbox, the number of lobes
explained through the fact that to the base of
of these and of position limiter plate of race to
these gearboxes operation stands the principle of
revert of balance wheel. The method permited
summarization of the impulses obtained from
easy determination of minimum and maximum
cam-balance lever mechanisms.
report of variation, what is attain of the variator.
In the Figure 8 is presented the temporally
variation of angular space goed through by drill
References
arbor of the dosage machines (exit arbor) for the
case in which this receives the motion of rotation
by dint of the mechanism with two cams with
1.Loghin, Fl., Hodîrnău, M, The cinematic
analyze computer - assisted of the gearbox with
five lobes. In order to noticed better the
intermittent function used to the seed drill,
unlevelness of arbor motion was selected a report
Proceeding of BIOATLAS, vol. 2., 2008.
of big conduction of gearbox with operation in
impulses, respectively a minor rev of drill arbor 2.Loghin, Fl., Cutie de viteze cu impulsuri pentru
of the dosage machines. reglarea debitului de seminţe la apratele de
distribuţie ale semănătorii de cereale (Gearbox
with impulses for adjustment of the flow of seeds
to distribution machines of seed drills), The
mechanization of agriculture, No. 1-2, 2007.
3.Marin, E., Mecanisme cu came pentru
transmisia distribuţiei maşinilor de semănat
cereale păioase (Cam gears for transmission of
distribution of the seed drills strawy cereals), Ed.
The terra Nostra, Iaşi, 2007.
4.Rus, Fl., Masini agricole pentru lucrarile
solului, semanat si intretinerea culturilor
(Agricultural machines for the works of soil,
Fig. 8. The diagram of variation of spin angle of
sowing and maintenance the cultures),"
exit arbor depending on time.
Transilvania" University from Brasov, 1987.
4. Conclusions
5.*** Creating Flexible Components in
Pro/ENGINEER Wildfire - a tutorial to create part
flexibility and assembly variation, 2006.
To the base of operation of this variator type
stands the principle of summarization of impulses
generated by several cams lobes and the
transformation of motion oscillation of the