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ME2258 - MANUFACTURING TECHNOLOGY LAB-II ME2258 MANUFACTURING TECHNOLOGY LAB II LTPC 0032 OBJECTIVE To give practical hands on exposure to students in the various metal cutting operations using commonly used machine tools EXERCISES 1) Two or More Measurements in Metal Cutting xperiment ! xample" #hear $ngle% Cutting &orce% Tool 'ear etc() 2) )ne or More xercises in #haper% #lotter% Planner% *rilling% Milling Machines ! xample" +ound to #,uare% *ovetail in shaper% -nternal .eyway cutting in #lotter% +ound to s,uare in Planner% *rilling% reaming and tapping in *rilling machine% /ear Milling and 0eyway milling in Milling machine() 3) Two or More xercises in /rinding 1 $2rasive machining ! xample" #ur3ace /rinding% Cylindrical /rinding() 4) Two or More xercises in $ssem2ly o3 Machined Components 3or di33erent 3its( ! xample" Parts machined using Lathes% #hapers% *rilling% Milling% and /rinding Machines etc() 5) )ne or More xercises in Capstan or Turret Lathes 6) )ne or More xercises in /ear Machining ! xample" /ear Milling% /ear 7o22ing etc() LIST OF EQUIPMENT !&or a 2atch o3 30 students) 1( Centre Lathes 2( Turret and Capstan Lathes 3( 7ori:ontal Milling Machine 4( ;ertical Milling Machine 5( #ur3ace /rinding Machine 6( Cylindrical /rinding Machine <( #haper =( #lotter 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 2 9os( 1 9o( 1 9o( 1 9o( 1 9o( 1 9o( 2 9os( 1 9o(


R.M.K. COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY >( Planner 10( +adial *rilling Machine 11( Tool *ynamometer 12( /ear 7o22ing Machine 13( Tool Ma.ers Microscope 8 8 8 8 8 1 9o( 1 9o( 1 9o( 1 9o( 1 9o( T)T$L" 45 P +-)*#



INDEX S.N E!"#$%&#'()

L*(.# *'/ L*(.# 0 $+)




1. 2. 3.

Lathe Tool *ynamometer Power measure -n Lathe Machine

$ssem2le &its C*")(*' 1 T-$$#( L*(.# M*2.%'#)


Turning% &acing% *rilling% Threading% +eaming ? 0nurling using Capstan

M%33%', M*2.%'#) 4P3*%' 1 V#$(%2*3 M%33%', M*2.%'#5

5. 6. 7.

xternal 0eyway @y ;ertical Milling Machine

+ound to 7exagonal Mill M achine /ear Cutting @y 7ori:ontal Milling Machine

G$%'/%', M*2.%'#) 4S-$6*2# 1 C73%'/$%2*3 G$%'/%',5

8. 9.

#ur3ace /rinding Cylindrical /rinding

S.*"#$ M*2.%'#


+ound To #,uare @y shaper M achine

S3 ((#$ M*2.%'#


-nternal 0eyway @y #lotter M achine

P3*''#$ M*2.%'#


+ound To #,uare @y Planner M achine

D$%33%', M*2.%'# 4P%33*$ 1 R*/%*3 D$%33%', M*2.%'#)5


*rilling% +eaming and Tapping

G#*$ H 88%', O"#$*(% '


7elical /ear @y /ear 7o22ing M achine



R.M.K. COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY INTRODUCTION TO MANUFACTURING PROCESSES The materials% which conic under the am2it !3ield) o3 materials science% are availa2le either 3rom nature or 3rom industry( 'hether 3rom nature or industry% these materials cannot 2e used in their raw 3orms 3or any purpose3ul use( The materials are generally shaped and 3ormed into various use3ul components through di33erent manu3acturing processes in order to 3ul3ill the day8to8day needs o3 the industries( Manu3acturing converts the raw materials into 3inished products to 2e used 3or some purposes( Manu3acturing process is a 3undamental area since it is o3 interest not only to mechanical engineers 2ut also to engineers 3rom other disciplines o3 engineering( There are various manu3acturing processes 2y which a product can 2e made o3 each process% however% has its own limitations% restrictions and owing to this reason% a particular process is adopted to certain speci3ied applications( Thus% while a product can 2e manu3actured 2y two or more processes% the real pro2lem
is to select the most economical one amongst the alternatives(

CLASSIFICATION OF MANUFACTURING PROCESS9 Manu3acturing processes can 2e classi3ied as under" Casting% 3oundry or moulding processes( Aoining and assem2ly processes &orming or Metal wor.ing processes Machining !Metal removal) Processes #ur3ace treatments !3inishing) processes 7eat treatments(

CASTING FOUNDRY OR MOULDING PROCESSES Casting is one the oldest manu3acturing processes( Casting needs molten metal and a cavity o3 a re3ractory material( The metal retains the desired shape o3 the mould cavity a3ter solidi3ication( $n important advantage o3 casting process is that% in a single step% material can 2e converted
3rom a crude 3orm into a desired shape( -n most cases% secondary advantage is that excess or scrap material can 2e recycled( The process is e,ually suita2le 3or the production o3 a very small 2atch and as well as on a very large scale( Casting and moulding processes are converted in the later part o3 this study material( There are two types o3 casting classi3ication namely% permanent mould !3or repeated use) and non B permanent mould !3or single use)(

FORMING OR META L 0ORKING PROCESSES &laming and shearing operations typically utili:e material that has 2een previously cast or moulded( -n a 3orming process% metal may 2e heated to a temperature which is slightly 2elow the solidus temperature and then a large 3orce is applied such that the material 3lows and ta.es the desired shape( The desired shape is controlled 2y means o3 a set o3 tolls called dies which may 2e completely or partially closed during the manu3acture( These processes are used normally 3or large8 scale production( -n case o3 series operations% the 3inal 3orm o3 material is the result o3 all prior operations( Thus% 3orming and shearing modi3y the shape and si:e and improve the mechanical properties too( &orming and shearing operations are done on metal in 2oth ChotC and CcoldC state% ME2258 - MANUFACTURING TECHNOLOGY LAB-II Page 5 of 95

ME2258 - MANUFACTURING TECHNOLOGY LAB-II and temperature o3 the material during process is important with respect to its temperature o3 re8 crystalli:ation( #ome o3 the processes are" rolling% drop 3orging% press 3orging% upset 3orging% extrusion% wire drawing% sheet metal operations% etc((( MACHINING 4OR5 METAL REMOVING PROCESSES Machining and processes are lin.ed with the removal o3 a speci3ic portion to get the desired shape !or 3inish)D the additional unwanted material is removed in the 3orm o3 chips 3rom the 2lan. material
2y a cutting tool so as to o2tain the 3inal desired shape( Chips are 3ormed when material is machined with a cutting tool(

The cutting tools are mounted in machine tools% which provide the movements to the tool with respect to the Eo2 to accomplish the desired process( Material removals are normally the most expensive methods 2ecause more energy is consumed and also a lot o3 waste material is generated in these processes( Machining is widely used 2ecause it delivers very good dimensional accuracy and accurate sur3ace 3inish( -t generates accurate contours too( M#(*3 R#& :%', 4M*2.%'%',5 is the process o3 removing unwanted material 3rom a wor. piece in the 3orm o3
chips( -3 the wor. piece is metal% the process is called metal cutting(

*i33erent materials 2ehave di33erently( The levels o3 strain% strain rate% temperature are high( The process is sensitive to variation in tool geometry% tool material% temperature% the cutting environment !cutting 3luids) and process dynamics( #pecial machines are used to o2tain productivity% accuracy% economy with sur3ace o3 2etter
,uality( -t includes semi8automates% capstan and turrets% planning% milling% sur3ace grinding% 2oring machines etc((%

$ll cutting process re,uire a cutting tool harder than the wor. with re,uired cutting
angles o3 suita2le materials li.e &-##% high car2on steel% tool steel% coated tools !C;*% P;*)% ceramic or diamond( The tool must 2e strong wear resistant and should not change its state and even at high !1000 F C) temperature( !&orm sta2ility)

M*2.%'# -)#/ 6 $ &*2.%'%', *$# (; (7"#)9 C ':#'(% '*3 1 N ' < C ':#'(% '*3 N ' < C ':#'(% '*3 %) EDM= ECM= LBM= USM #(2..= C ':#'(% '*3 &*2.%'#) are Lathe% #haper% Miller% *riller% #lotter% and /rinder" Machining involves
energy to create a sur3ace re,uired 3orm ? 3inish( lectrical energy is converted into mechanical energy and while cutting% energy is lot in the 3orm o3 heat( $lmost all process re,uires machining at some particular stage(

C3*))%6%2*(% ' 6 (

3 &*(#$%*3)9 -

The tool materials may 2e classi3ied into three categories% namely" &errous tool materials% 9on B metallic tool materials ? 9on 3errous tool materials F#$$ -) ( 3 &*(#$%*3) " 8 &errous tool materials have iron as their chie3 constituent( 7igh car2on steel !tool
steel) and high speed steel 2elong to this group(



R.M.K. COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY N ' - 6#$$ -) ( 3 &*(#$%*3) " 8 9on 8 3errous tool materials do not have iron% and cast 2y alloying

elements li.e tungsten% vanadium% moly2denum etc( satellite 2elongs to this group( Car2ide which is also o3 non 3errous tool materials manu3actured 2y powder metallurgy techni,ue car2on and tungsten are the chie3 alloying elements in this process(

P$ "#$(%#) 6 ,

/ 2-((%', (

3 &*(#$%*3) "8( $t the end o3 this lesson you shall 2e a2le to

Gualities o3 good cutting tool materials( The characteristics o3 cold hardness% red hardness and toughness The 3actors to 2e noted when selecting a tool material F%'%).%', "$ 2#))#) &inishing processes are yet another class o3 processes typically employed 3or cleaning% removing o3 2urrs le3t 2y machining or providing protective sur3ace layers on the wor. pieces( S-$6*2#
($#*(&#'( includes plating% galvani:ing% and anodi:ing% mechanical% chemical cleaning( H#*( T$#*(&#'(

7eat treatment involves the heating and cooling o3 a metal 3or speci3ic purpose o3 altering
its mechanical and metallurgical properties and improving the per3ormance o3 the metals(



$ good cra3tsman% having .nowledge o3 various sa3ety precautions% can avoid accident to
himsel3 and to his 3ellow wor.ers and protect the e,uipment 3rom damage( To achieve this% it is essential that every person should 3ollow the sa3ety procedures !&ig l)( #a3ety in a wor.shop can 2e 2roadly classi3ied into 3 categories !a) /eneral #a3ety% !2) Personal #a3ety% and !c) Machine #a3ety(

G#'#$*3 )*6#(79 0eep the 3loor and gangways clean and clear( Move with care in the wor.shop% do not run( *onHt leave the machine which is in motion( *onHt touch or handle any e,uipment 1 machine unless authori:ed to do so( *onHt wal. under suspended loads( *onHt cut practical Eo.es while on wor.ing( Ise the correct tools 3or the Eo2( 0eep the tools at their proper place( 'ipe out split oil immediately( +eplace worn out or damage tools immediately( 9ever direct compressed air at yoursel3 or at your co wor.er nsure ade,uate light in the wor.shop( Clean the machine only when not in motion( #weep away the metal cuttings( 0now everything a2out the machine 2e3ore you start it( PERSONAL SAFETY9 'ear a one piece overall or 2oiler suit( 0eep the overall 2uttons 3astened( *onHt use ties and scarves( +oll up the sleeves tightly a2ove the el2ow( 'ear sa3ety shoes or 2oots and goggles( Cut the hair short( *onHt wear a ring% watch and chain( 9ever lean on the machine( *onHt clean your hands in the coolant 3luid( The wor. area is clear( *onHt use !Aac.ed or chipped too.( *onHt start the machine until" The wor. piece is securely mounted( R.M.K. COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY 8 of 95

The 3eed machinery is in the neutral( *onHt remove the guards when the machine in motion( *onHt adEust damps or holding devices while the machine is in motion( 9ever touch the electrical e,uipment with the wet hands( *onHt use any 3aulty electrical e,uipment( nsure that electrical connections are made 2y an authori:ed electrician only( Concentrate on our wor.( 7ave calm attitude( *o things in a methodical way( *onHt engage yoursel3 in conservation with others while concentrating on your Eo2( *onHt distract the attention o3 others( *onHt try to stop a miming machine with hands( M*2.%'# S*6#(7 #witch o33 the machine immediately i3 something goes wrong( 0eep the machine clean( +eplace any worn out or damaged accessories% holding devices% nuts% 2olts etc as soon as possi2le( *o not attempt operating the machine until you .now how to operate it properly( *o not adEust the stro.e% tool or the wor. piece unless the power is o33 #top the machine 2e3ore changing the speed( *isengage the automatic 3eeds 2e3ore switching o33( Chec. the oil level 2e3ore starting the machine( @e3ore starting the machine% move the ram 2y hand to ensure that the ram or tool8holder does not stri.es
the wor. piece or ta2le(

9ever start the machine unless all the sa3ety guards are in position( Ta.e measurements only a3ter stopping the machine( Ise wooden plan.s over the 2ed while loading and unloading heavy Eo2s( *o not stop the machine 2e3ore the 3inish o3 the cutting stro.e( P %'() T B# N (#/ 0.#' S#3#2(%', * T 3> V%* ($%*3

Con /%(% ' *'/ 6 $& 6 &*(#$%*3 ( 8# &*2.%'#/ M*(#$%*3 ( 8# &*2.%'#/ C '/%(% ' 6 (.# &*2.%'# ( 3 *:*%3*83# ME2258 - MANUFACTURING TECHNOLOGY LAB-II Page 9 of 95

ME2258 - MANUFACTURING TECHNOLOGY LAB-II T.# ( (*3 ?-*3%(7 6 "$ /-2(% ' *'/ $*(# 6 "$ /-2(% ' %': 3:#/. T.# /%&#')% '*3 *22-$*27 $#?-%$#/ *'/ (.# ?-*3%(7 6 )-$6*2# 6%'%).. T.# *& -'( 6 2 3*'( *""3%#/ *'/ (.# &#(. / 6 *""3%2*(% '. T.# )+%33 6 (.# "#$*( $ T))L M$T +-$L#" Metal putting tool materials per3orm the 3unction o3 cutting( These materials must 2e
stronger and harder than the material to 2e cut( They must 2e su33iciently tough to resist shoc. loads that result during cutting operations( They must have good resistance to a2rasion and a reasona2le tool li3e(

The (.$## %&" $(*'( 8*)%2 ?-*3%(%#) that any cutting tool material should possess are C 3/ .*$/'#))= R#/
.*$/'#)) *'/ T -,.'#)).

Cold hardness" -t is the amount o3 hardness possessed 2y a material at normal temperature( 7ardness is the property possessed 2y
which i3 can cut other metals% and has the a2ility to scratch on other metals( 'hen hardness increases% 2rittleness also increases% and a material which is having too much o3 cold hardness is not suita2le 3or the manu3acture o3 cutting tools(

+ed hardness9 -t is the a2ility o3 a tool material to retain most o3 its cold hardness even at very high temperature(
*uring machining% due to 3riction 2etween tool and wor.% tool and chip% heat is generated% and the tool losses its hardness and its e33iciency even when the temperature during cutting increases% then the metal possesses the property o3 red hardness(

Toughness" The property possessed 2y a material to resist sudden load that results during metal cutting is
termed as HtoughnessH( This will avoid the 2rea.age o3 the cutting edge(

THE LATHE AND ITS PRINCIPLE OF 0ORKING $ 2athe is one o3 the oldest and perhaps !possi2ly) most important machine tools ever developed( The Eo2 to 2e machined is rotated !turned) and the cutting tool is moved relative to the
Eo2( That is whyD the lathes are also called as turning machines(

-3 the tool moves parallel to the axis rotation o3 the wor. piece% cylindrical sur3ace R.M.K. COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY 10 of 95

is produced% while% it moved perpendicular to this axis% it produces a 3lat sur3ace( $ lathe was 2asically
developed to machine cylindrical sur3aces(

)n the 2asis o3 their purpose% design% num2er o3 tools accommodated% degree o3 mechani:ation and other 3actors% lathe8type machine tools may 2e classi3ied as" Machining is a process o3 reducing the given wor. piece into the re,uired shape and si:e with the hell) o3 a machine tool( -n simple words% machining is a process o3 removing certain material 3rom the wor. piece( The Lathe can 2e de3ined as a machine tool which holds the wor. 2etween two rigid and strong supports called centers% !or) in a chuc. !or) 3ace plate while the latter revolves( The chuc. or the 3ace plates is mounted on the proEected end o3 the machine spindle( The cutting tool is rigidly held and supported in a tool post and is 3ed against the revolving wor.( 'hile the wor. revolves a2out its own axis the tool is made to move either parallel to !or) at an
inclination with this axis to cut the desired material(

-n doing so it produces a cylindrical sur3ace% i3 it is 3ed parallel to the axis% !or) will produce a tapered sur3ace i3 it is 3ed at an inclination( $ lathe is a 3ather o3 all machine tools( -t is the most important machine used in any wor.shop( The 3unction o3 a lathe is to remove metal 3rom a piece o3 wor. to o2tain the re,uired shape and si:e( $ lathe removes metal 2y rotating the wor. piece against a single point cutting tool( /enerally% lathe is used to machine cylindrical shapes( The parts to 2e machined can 2e held 2etween two rigid supports called live and dead centers( The tool is moved perpendicular to the wor. piece axis to produces a 3lat sur3ace( The tool is moved at an angle to the axis o3 wor. piece to produce tapered sur3ace( The 3ollowing )perations can 2e done 2y using lathe" &acing% Turning% Taper ? #tep Turning% 1( ccentric Turning% Cham3ering% *rilling% @oring% +eaming% Tapping% 0nurling% &orming% /rooving% Polishing% #pinning% Thread Cutting% etc((% Limited or low production machines( The lathes included in this category are" ngine lathe !center lathe)% @ench lathe% Tool room lathe and #peed lathe( 2( Medium8production machines( Capstan end Turret lathes% and duplicating or !tracer controlled) lathes( 3( 7igh 8production machines( #emi automatic and automatic lathes% ME2258 - MANUFACTURING TECHNOLOGY LAB-II Page 11 of 95

ME2258 - MANUFACTURING TECHNOLOGY LAB-II C-((%', S"##/ -t is a peripheral speed o3 the wor. past the cutting tool( -t is the speed at which metal is removed 2y the tool 3rom the wor. piece( -t is expressed in meter 1 minute( C u t t i n g s p e e d J d e p t h o 3 c u t x *iameter x +(P(M 1 1000 F##/ -t is de3ined as the rate o3 tool across a sur3ace cutting it( -t is the distance the tool advances 3or each revolution o3 the wor. piece( -t is expressed in *' / $#: 3-(% '. C-((%', T 3 F $2#)

The de3ormation o3 a wor. material means that enough 3orces have 2een exerted 2y the tool
to permanently reshape o3 the wor. material( The cutting action and the chip 3ormation can 2e more easily analy:ed i3 the edge o3 the motion o3 the material( Cutting tool 3orces are three types( They are 4@5 T*',#'(%*3 6 $2#= 425 L ',%(-/%'*3 6 $2# *'/ !3) R*/%*3 6 $2#.

A. T*',#'(%*3 6 $2# - This T*',#'(%*3 6 $2# acts in a direction tangential 3orce to the revolving wor. piece
and represents the resistance to the rotation o3 the wor. piece(

B. L ',%(-/%'*3 6 $2# - L ',%(-/%'*3 6 $2# acts in the direction parallel to the axis o3 the wor. and
represents the resistance to the longitudinal 3eed o3 the tool(

C. R*/%*3 6 $2#

- R*/%*3 6 $2# acts in a radial direction 3rom the center line o3 the

wor. piece( The radial 3orce is generally the smallest o3 the three% o3 a2out 50 percent as large as longitudinal





ME2258 - MANUFACTURING TECHNOLOGY LAB-II D#"(. 6 C-(9 -t is the perpendicular distance measured 3rom the machined sur3aces to the uncut sur3ace o3 wor.( -t is expressed in mm( *epth o3 Cut
'here" d1 8888 diameter o3 wor. 2e3ore machining ? d2 8888 diameter o3 wor. a3ter machining(

d18d2 1 2

TYPES OF LATHE MACHINE9 B#'2. L*(.#" -t is a very small lathe and is mounted on a separately prepared 2ench !or) ca2inet( -t is used 3or small and
precision wor. since it is very accurate(

S"##/ L*(.#" These lathes may 2e o3 2ench type or they may have the supporting legs cast and 3itted to the 2ed( E',%'# L*(.# " -t is pro2a2ly the most widely used type o3 lathe -t is also .nown as Centre lathe( T 3 R & L*(.#" -t is nothing 2ut the same engine lathe 2ut e,uipped with some extra attachments to ma.e it suita2le

3or a relatively more accurate and precision type o3 wor. carried out in a tool room( -t carries a much wider taper turning attachment% 3ollower rest% collects% chuc.s etc(% the most commonly used lengths are 135 to 1=0cm(

C*")(*' *'/ T-$$#( L*(.#) " These lathes 3orm a very important and use3ul group and are vastly used in mass
production( These machines are actually o3 semi8automatic type and a very wide range o3 operations can 2e per3ormed on them(

A-( &*(%2 L*(.#" These lathes help a long way in enhancing the ,uality o3 production( They are so designed that
all wor.ing and Eo2 handling movement o3 the complete manu3acturing process 3or a Eo2 are done automatically(

S"#2%*3-P-$" )# L*(.#" $ large num2er o3 lathes are 8designed to suit a de3inite class o3 wor. and to per3orm
certain speci3ied operations only( They can 2e 3urther classi3ied according to the type o3 drive they posses and their si:es% etc(% $ccording to the height o3 centers !a2ove the 2ed) lathes can 2e grouped as%



P*$() 6 (.# L*(.# M*2.%'# @. BED The 2ed o3 a lathe acts as the 2ase on which the di33erent 3ixed and operating parts o3 the lathe are mounted(

The head stoc. is that part o3 the lathe which serves as housing 3or the driving pulleys and
2ac. gears% provides 2earing 3or the machine spindle and .eeps latter in alignment with the 2ed(

-) Cone pulley% 7) @ac. gears and 2ac. gear lever% ---) Main spindle !or) head stoc. spindle% -;) Live centre and ;) &eed reverse lever(


The gear mechanism operated 2y means o3 the 3eed reverse lever is called the tum2ler
reversing mechanism( -t will 2e seen that the motion 3rom the spindle to the lead screw or 3eed rod is transmitted through this mechanism(

4( T A I L S T O C K
-t is also sometimes called the loose head8stoc. or puppet head( -t is mounted on the 2ed o3 the
lathe such that it is capa2le o3 sliding along the latter maintaining its alignment with the head stoc.(

-t is a mova2le casting( )n common typeHs medium si:e and small si:e o3 lathes it is moved
along the 2ed 2y hand% where as in heavier type o3 lathes% it is moved 2y means o3 a hand wheel through a pinion which meshes with the rac. provided on the 3ront o3 the lathe 2ed(

#leeve or 2arrel% 2( *ead centre% c( 7and wheel% and d( @earings and #crewed spindle!s) 5. CARRIAGE9 The carriage serves the purpose o3 supporting% guide% and 3eeding the tool against the Eo2 during the operation on the lathe( #addle" 8 -t is part o3 the carriage which slides along the @ed ways and supports the Cross8
#lide% Compound +est and Tool Post( $pron mechanism and #wivel plate(

A. LEGS They are supports which carry the ntire Load o3 the Machine over them( The prevailing
practice is to use cast legs( @oth the legs are 3irmly secured to the 3lour 2y means o3 3oundation 2olts in order to prevent vi2rations in the machine(


ME2258 - MANUFACTURING TECHNOLOGY LAB-II 0ORK HOLDING DEVICES L*(.# A22#)) $%#) $ 0 $+ . 3/%', /#:%2#)9 The common wor. holding devices used 3or a centre lathe are discussed 2elow" -(
1( C#'(#$)9 !Live and *ead Centre)

2. C.-2+)9 Three Eaw universal chuc.% tour Eaw independent chuc.% com2ination chuc.%
Magnetic chuc.% air or hydraulic chuc. and collet chuc.(

B. F*2# "3*(#=

C. A',3# "3*(#=

5. D$%:%', "3*(#= A. M*'/$#3)=

D. S(#*/ $#)() !3ixed steady rest and 3ollower or traveling steady rest)(

8. M%33%', :%)#9 Milling vise is mounted in place o3 the compound rest( The wor. is held in the vise and an end
mill or stu28ar2or mounted cutter is inserted in the lathe spindle( % 'or. movement is limited(

LATHE CENTERS Ised to support wor.( 7ave two categories o3 centers( Live centre 3itted in the headstoc. spindle( *ead centre is one which is 3itted in the tailstoc.( CHUCK *evice used to hold a Eo2( asily 3itted on the thread cut on the end o3 headstoc. spindle( Type o3 Chuc.s are K &our Eaw chuc.( K Collet chuc. K Magnetic chuc.

Two Eaw chuc.( Three Eaw chuc.( FACE PLATE

$ circular plate screwed to lathe spindle( Ised 3or mounting the type o3 Eo2s which cannot 2e held 87 chuc.sL More num2er o3 holes and slots on the 3aces o3 the 3ace plate( $ plain disc o3 steel or cast iron screwed to the nose o3 the headstoc. spindle( To drive the wor. piece through a carrier or dog when it is held 2etween the centers(


LATHE CARRIERS OR DOGS Ised 3or trans3erring the motion 3rom the rotating driving plate to the wor. held 2etween the

Ised 3or connecting end o3 wor. piece to the driving plate(



Types o3 Lathe Carriers or *ogs @ent Tail( Clamp Type(

#traight Tail( STEADY REST To support long wor. piece 2etween the centers or 2y a chuc.( Ised 3or cylindrically long Eo2s( Two types o3 steady rest are &ixed #teady rest(

Traveling #teady rest(

@erg -# Carrier

@ent tail carrier

MANDREL To hold hollow Eo2s( $ hardened piece o3 round 2ar 3or holding 2ored or reamed Eo2s( Contains drill holes at 2oth the ends( 'or. piece is mounted over the mandrel(


FOLLO0ER REST Made o3 cast iron 3or supporting long slender wor. pieces against the cutting tool 3oredo( Clamped to the carriage o3 the lathe to ma.e it travel along the cutting tool( 7ave two adEusta2le Eaws to support the wor. piece( Two #upporting Eaws resist the cutting 3orces(

V#'/#$ C*3%"#$

M*/#$ S*3%/* "3*(#




Three Aaw Chuc. Iniversal

Bod y

Magnetic Chuc.s

&ou r A a w Ch u c.

&our Aaw Chuc. Iniversal

Collet Chuc.

&ace Plate

MARKING AND MEASURING TOOLS The 3ollowing ta2le illustrates various mar.ing and Measuring wo. and their characteristics and uses( Tools Characteristics Ises

-t is made o3 tempered steel a2out 3164 -t is used to ta.e linear measurements up to

#teel rule inch thic.% 314 inch wide and 6 inch hang with accuracy o3 0(5mm( several styles o3 graduation( -t is ;ernier Caliper the 2ar( -t consists o3 an upright steel 2ar 3ixed to a steel 2ase( )n the 2ar% there is a a tool 3or chec.ing -nside and

/raduations are made on 2oth sides o3 )utside measurements( -t is( $lso used as depth

;ernier 7eight

Mova2le Eaw with ;ernier scale The screw

is used to adEust the ;ernier scale to a re,uired position(

-t is used to scri2e lines on a wor. piece

to .nown heights(


$ scri2er is a sharp pointed steel tool( -t -t is used to scri2e or mar. lines on metal
is made o3 car2on tool steel% wor. pieces(

-t is a small% light s,uare that has a

Try #,uare hardened steel 2lade without graduations( -t has two parts namely 2lade% 2eam(

Try s,uare is used to chec. the 3latness

and s,uare ness o3 the wor. piece(

-t is made o3 #teel( The angle o3 the -t is used to ma.e dots along mar.ed
*ot Punch conical point is usually along mar.ed lines and to 60 (

lines and to provide small centre mar. 3or divider point etc(%

#ur3ace Plate

-t is used 3or testing the 3latness o3 wor. -t is made o3 grey cast iron and o3 solid and also used 3or carrying the wor. piece while
design !or) with ri2s( mar.ing(

CUTTING TOOLS ANGLES TOP RAKE ANGLE 4BACK RACK ANGLE5 -3 the slope is given to the 3ace or sur3ace o3 the tool and i3 this slope is along the toolHs length then it is called top ra.e angle( Isual1y15F to 20F( SIDE RAKE ANGLE -3 the slope is given to the 3ace or top o3 the tool along the toolHs width then it is called side ra.e


#ide clearance angle8-t is an angle% the side cutting edge ma.es with the axis o3 the tool( nd
clearance angle(-t is an angle% the nd cutting edge ma.es with the width o3 the tool





Turning is not a single process 2ut class o3 many and di33erent operations per3ormed on a lathe( T-$'%', S-$6*2#)
diameter o3 a part to a desired dimension The


The lathe can 2e used to reduce the resulting machine #ur3ace is cylindrical(

straight turning

plunge turning

T-$'%', 6 F3*( S-$6*2#) $ lathe can 2e used to create a smooth% 3lat 3ace very accurately perpendicular to the axis o3 a cylindrical part( Tool is 3ed radially or axially to create a 3lat machined sur3ace(



tu2e turning

parting tasting8o33M

*i33erent possi2ilities are availa2le to produce a thread on a lathe( Threads are cut using
lathes 2y advancing the cutting tool at a 3eed exactly e,ual to the thread pitch( The single8point cutting tool cuts in a helical 2and% which is actually a thread( The procedure calls 3or correct settings o3 the machine% and also that the helix 2e restarted at the same location each time i3 multiple passes are re,uired to cut the entire depth o3 thread( The tool point must 2e ground so that it has the same pro3ile as the thread to 2e cut( $nother possi2ility is to cut threads 2y

means o3 a thread die !external threads)% or a tap !internal threads)( These operations are generally per3ormed manually 3or small thread diameters(


die threading

tap threading

F $& T-$'%', Cutting tool has a shape that is imparted to the wor. piece 2y plunging the tool into the
wor. piece( -n 3orm turning% cutting tool is complex and expensive 2ut 3eed is linear and does not re,uire special machine tools or devices(

C '( -$ T-$'%', 4P$ 6%3%',5 T


plunge grooving

face grooving

Cutting tool has a simple shape% 2ut the 3eed motion is complexD cutting tool is 3ed along a
contour thus creating a contoured shape on the wor. piece( &or pro3iling% special lathes or devices are re,uired(

Producing tapers on a lathe is a speci3ic tas. and contour turning is Eust one o3 the possi2le
solutions( #ome other methods 3or turning tapers are discussed later(

C '( -$ (-$'%', 4"$ 6%3%',5

Miscellaneous )perations #ome other operations% which do not use the single8point cutting tool% can 2e per3ormed
on a lathe% ma.ing turning one o3 the most versatile machining processes(

K'-$3%', This is not a machining operation at all% 2ecause it does not involve material removal( -nstead% it is a metal 3orming operation and used to produce a regular crosshatched pattern in the wor. sur3ace(

!Le3t ) 0nurling operationD (Right) 0nurling tool and .nurling wheal( 'heels with di33erent patterns are easily availa2le(

SAFETY PRECAUTIONS FOR LATHE MACHINING 0ORK Ao2 should 2e held tightly in the chuc.( -3 the Eo2 is held in 2etween the centers% then apply grease on the nose o3 dead centre%
otherwise it will 2urn out due to excess heat(

*o not measure the Eo2 while the wor. piece is rotating( *o not leave the chuc. .ey in the chuc.( *o not try to stop the lathe chuc. or Eo2 with hands( *o not handle metal chips 2y hand( Tighten the tool in the tool post( *o not #tand close to the rotating wor. piece or 2ring your 3ace to it( *o not reduce or increase the speed during lathe operations( TERMINOLOGIES USED IN THREAD CUTTING OPERATION *escription #ym2ol #( 9o Terminology
1( 2(

*o not give more depth o3 cut while the Eo2 is rotating at high speed(

MaEor *iameter

*istance measured 3rom a point on one thread to the corresponding point on adEacent thread( )utside diameter of the threaded part measuredN
perpendicular to the axis o3 the wor. piece(

P * d


Minor *iameter *epth thread o3

-nner diameter o3 the threaded part measured

perpendicularly to the axis o3 the wor. piece(

*istance measured at right angle to the axis o3 the screwed part% 2etween the crest and root o3 the thread(
T %



-t is a process o3 ma.ing threads on the wor. piece( Thread cutting tool is used 3or this operation( Power 3eed is given to the carriage through lead screw and 3or one rotation o3 the Eo2( -t covers
the distance e,ual to the pitch(

*epth o3 cut is small 3or thread cutting( TYPES OF THREAD RIGHT HAND THREAD9 ;iew the screwed part o3 the thread in a direction normal to its axis% i3 the threads 3ound
sloping downwards 3rom top 3rom le3t to right then it is right hand thread(

LEFT HAND THREAD9 -3 the threads 3ound sloping downwards 3rom top 3rom right to le3t% then it is called le3t
hand thread(



Producing helical groove on a cylindrical or conical sur3ace 2y 3eeding the tool longitudinally 2y

holding the Eo2 2etween the centers or 2y a chuc.(

T))L I# *" Threading tool OPERATION 'hile cutting threads% the wor. is held 2etween centers( Then the Eo2 is turned to the si:e o3 the maEor diameter o3 the thread to 2e cut( Change gears o3 correct si:es are calculated and 3itted 2etween the lathe spindle and the lead
screw( % The

speed o3 the Eo2 is reduced to one8third or one83ourth o3 the Eo2 speed used in turning

operation( The hal3 nut ma.es the carriage to engage or disengage the lead screw and the rotation o3 the lead screw
is used to traverse the tool along the wor. to produce screw threads%

CALCULATION OF CHANGE GEARS Longitudinal 3eed o3 the tool J Pitch o3 the thread to 2e cut per revolution o3 the wor. piece( The de3inite ratio 2etween the longitudinal 3eed and the rotation o3 the head stoc. spindle should 2e 3ound
out so that the relative speeds o3 rotation o3 the wor. and the lead screw will result in the cutting o3 a thread o3 the desired pitch(

This is a33ected 2y the change gears arranged 2etween the spindle and the lead screw( TOOL MATERIALS The single point lathe cutting tools are made o3 high speed steel( !11##()( The main alloying elements are 1=O tungsten% 4O chromium and 1 O vanadium and 5 to 10 percent co2alt( Co2alt to improve
the heat resisting properties o3 the tool( &or general purpose% car2on steel or tool steel used( Car2ide tipped tools 3ixed in tool holders% are mostly used in production #peci3ication o3 Lathe Machine" 8!4(5 3eet Lathe Machine) Precision grade - accuracy lathe 3lame hardened with gap 2ed motori:ed t od el( @elt driven lathe si:e 4(5 3eet standard accessories(


MTT 632

7 -/7T )& C 9T+ #'-9/ ); + @ * #'-9/ ); + C$++$-/ @ * '-*T7 *-#T$9C @ -N WEE !E "#E$
$%& DLE BO#E "'%E# O( $%& DLE BO#E

165 MM 330 MM 1=0 MM 1=0 MM

1000 MM 38 MM M% 5

9)( )& #P-9*L #P *# +$9/ )& #P-9*L #P * TT$TL #T)C0 T$P +

#' *E O( LO *&"+D& 'L (EED

+$9/ )& C+)## & * +$9/ )& M T+-C T7+ $* +$9/ )& -9C7 T7+ $* M)T)+ P)' +

M")3 0.0527)1.2912 MM,#E0.014)0.344 MM,#E-

= 6581=10 +PM

0(48 < MM 4 B 60 TP1(511P13P7$#

xpt( 9o"

L*(.# T

3 D7'*& &#(#$


AIM9 - To measure the principal cutting 3orces in orthogonal machining 2y a lathe tool dynamometer( APPARATUS REQUIRED9 - #eamless tu2e% #train gauge% Lathe tool dynamometer TOOLS REQUIRED9 - Car2ide tip tool with side ra.e angle 20 degrees% ;ernier caliper% $dEusta2le spanner% Tool post .ey% Chuc. .ey%
+evolving center etc

MATERIALS REQUIRED9 - $ cylindrical wor. piece o3 diameterNNNNNNNNmmandlengthNNNNNNNNmm o3 mild steel rod( S"#2%6%2*(% ') 6 A""*$*(-) U)#/ 1 C#'($# L*(.# M*2.%'#9 M)* L MTT 632 7 -/7T)&C 9T+ 165 MM #'-9/); +@ *P 330 MM #'-9/ ); + C$++$-/ 1=0 MM @ *'-*T7 1=0 MM *-#T$9C @ T' 9C 9T+ # 1000 MM #P-9*L @)+ 35 MM T$P +)&#P-9*L @)+ M-8# 9)()&#P-9*L #P *# = +$9/ )&#P-9*L #P * 6581=10 +PM T$-L#T)C0T$P + MT83 +$9/ )&L)9/-TI*-9$L& * 0(052<81(2>12 MM1+ ; +$9/ )&C+)##& * 0(01480(344 MM1+ ; +$9/ )&M T+-CT7+ $* 0(48 < MM +$9/ )&-9C7T7+ $* 4 B 60 T+M)T)+ P)' + 1(57P13P7$# LATHE TOOL DYNAMOMETER9 The lathe tool dynamometer ena2les to measure x% y and : at di33erent cutting conditions( This dynamometer
consists o3 a tool holder held rigidly in the dynamometer 2ody( #ensing is done using sensor which resistance strain gauges are mounted( The dynamometer is mounted on the lathe on tool post(

B$%/,# 8*3*'2# -'%(9 a) The @ridge 2alance unit consists o3 " 2) Power supply unit to supply power to 2oth the 2ridges( c) Two 2ridge circuits 3or vertical and hori:ontal 3orce components with the 2alancing ports

3or initial :ero setting o3 the 2ridge circuits( C*3%8$*(% '9 The dynamometer is precisely cali2rated 3or vertical ? hori:ontal 3orces and the
corresponding output recorded( The cali2ration is done with help o3 proving ring and the output in direct 0g3( 3or all the components(

O"#$*(%', %')($-2(% ') 6 $ 8$%/,# 8*3*'2# -'%(9 a) Place the sensing unit o3 dynamometer in proper position( 2) 'ith the help o3 ca2les provided care3ully connect PI1 and PI2 ca2les on sensing unit to PI- and PI2 soc.ets on 3orce indicator unit( c) Conne ct! 3orce indicator to 230 ;% single phase supply and switch H)9H supply( d) 9ow instrument is ready 3or use( e) )2tain 2alance on each channel 2y operating 2alance pot on 1 indicator 3or 2oth channels under speci3ied conditions( P$ 2#/-$#9 a) Mount the dynamometer on the tool post o3 the lathe and clamp it rigidly as shown in 3ig( 2) Mount wor. piece in the chuc.( c) $dEust the 3eed and speed o3 the lathe machine and start the machine( &eed the tool manually to start cutting and 3eed it automatically( d)'ait to sta2ili:e the output o3 the 2ridges and measure the maximum output 3or vertical and

hori:ontal 3orces( e) The vertical and hori:ontal 3orces on the dynamometer should not exceed the limit o3 500 0g3( !3or sa3ely purpose wor. up to 300 0g3() P$#2*-(% ')9 a) $mphonel soc.et connections must 2e done care3ully( #e that during actual use o3 the instrument
they are not damaged or spoiled in anyway

2) Qero adEustment must 2e done care3ully( c) *o not apply excessive loads on the sensing unit than speci3ied( d) To ensure long li3e% the 2alance pots must also 2e operated very care3ully( T*83#9 @ #pindle #peed 8 ((((((((((((((((((((((((( rpm

Constant 3eed 8 ((((((((((( rpm 1 rev(

#( 9o *epth o3 Cut 0(5 mrn 1(0 mm 1(5 mm Chip Thic.ness &v% !0g3() &7 !0g3() Chip Thic.ness #hear Plane $ngle +atio!r) !R)

-( 2( 3(

S"#2%&#' C*32-3*(% '9 Chip Thic.ness +atio J !r) J !t1t c) S.#*$ "3*'# 6 $2#)4F)= N)59 &s J &7 cosR T &v sinR

#hear Plane $ngle !R) J tan 81!r cos S 1 !1 8 r sin S))


T &


&v cosR 8 &7 sinR &7 cosS U &v sinS

&v &7
&s 9s


Cutting &orce in .g 3( &eed &orce in .g 3(

#hear &orce in .g 3( 9ormal to shear 3orce in .g 3(

3 P3*'# F $2#) 4F= N59 J &v cosS U &7 sinS



&rictional 3orce
9ormal to 3rictional 3orce
+a.e angle o3 the tool(

G$*".9 a) 2) c) D%*,$*&9)rthogonal Cutting R#)-3(9 -

*epth )3 Cut *epth )3 Cut

;s ;s

&eed &orce Cutting &orce

*raw 9eatly the Merchants Circle(

The Principle cutting 3orces in orthogonal machining 2y lathe tool dynamometer is measure success3ully(

x( 9o" A))#&837 F%() *ate" AIM9 - To machine the components 3or inter3erence and inter3erence 3its 2ased on the hole 2asis system( TOOLS REQUIRED9 - 7(#(#( turning tool% ;ernier caliper% $dEusta2le spanner% Tool post .ey% Chuc. .ey%
+evolving center% #ha3t with .ey( @earing% Pulley% Micrometer etc((( MATERIALS REQUIRED9 - $ cylindrical wor. piece o3 diameter (((mm and length (((mm o3 mild steel rod( THEORY9 - $ machine is 2uilt 2y assem2ling all its consisting parts( *uring assem2ling sometimes a parts may 2e re,uired to 2e 3itted into another part( -n such case during the wor.ing o3 the machine they may or may not 2e intended to have a relative motion 2etween them( -3 there should 2e relative motion 2etween two parts% they must 2e 3itted loose or tight 3itting o3 one part into the otherD either loose or tight depends on the relationship existing 2etween their mating sur3aces% which in turn depend on the dimensional di33erences 2etween the parts( The relationship existing 2etween the mating sur3aces o3 the parts% 2ecause o3 the di33erences in their dimensional% is called 3it( &its may 2e classi3ied into three di33erent types vi:"

*5 85 25

Clearance 3it -nter3erence 3it Transition 6%(

C3#*$*'2# 6%(9 - I( %) /#6%'#/ as the 3it esta2lished ;.#' a positive clearance exists 2etween (.# /%&#')% '*3 o3 the
hole and (.# ).*6(. I( %) 8(*%'#/ 2y selecting the maximum and &%'%&-& 3%&%() 6 (.# ).*6( *'/ (.# . 3# ) (.*( (.# 23#*$*'2#= /-# ( (.# /%66#$#'2#) 8#(;##' (.# /%&#')% ' 6 (.# smallest possi2le and largest possi2le sha3t% is always positive(

@asic si:e o3 the hole Minimum clearance Tolerance o3 the sha3t


T 3#$*'2# 6 (.# hole 8 &or hole 2asis system the minimum limit o3 the hole is e,ual to the 2asic si:e o3 the hole( Maximum limit o3 the sha3t J lower limit o3 the hole B minimum clearance Minimum limit o3 the sha3t J maximum limit o3 the sha3t B tolerance on sha3t I'(#$6#$#'2# 6%(9 - -t is de3ined as the 3it esta2lished when a negative clearance exists 2etween the si:e o3 the
hole and the sha3t( -t is o2tained 2y selecting the maximum and minimum limits o3 the sha3t and the hole as (.*( (.#$# %) *' %'(#$6#$#'2# 6 (.# )-$6*2#) *'/ the clearance due to the di33erence 2etween the dimensions o3 the largest possi2le hole and the smallest possi2le sha3t is always negative(

@asic si:e o3 the hole J 9egative clearance Tolerance on sha3t Tolerance on hole J J J

&or hole 2asis system the minimum limit o3 the hole is e,ual to the 2asic si:e o3 the hole( Maximum limit o3 the sha3t J 2asic si:e the holeBmaximum inter3erence Minimum limit o3 the sha3t J maximum limit o3 the sha3t B tolerance on sha3t T$*')%(% '

-t is de3ined as the 3it esta2lished when the dimensions o3 the hole and the sha3t are such that
there exists a positive clearance or a negative clearance when the sha3t is 3itted in to the hole( -t is o2tained 2y selecting the maximum limits 3or the sha3t and the hole such that there exists a positive clearance when the smallest possi2le sha3t is 3itted in to the largest possi2le hole or as negative clearance when the largest possi2le hole or a negative

clearance when the largest possi2le sha3t is 3orced in to the smallest hole(

H 3# 8*)%) )7)(#& 1 ).*6( 8*)%) )7)(#& H 3# 8*)%) )7)(#&9 -n this system% the di33erent types o3 3its are o2tained 2y associating sha3ts o3 various limit dimensions with a single hole% whose lower deviation is :ero( 'hen the lower deviation o3 the hole will 2e e,ual to its 2asic si:e% which is ta.en as the 2ase 3or computing the other entire limit dimensions
the limit 2y selecting suita2le clearances and tolerances ow the sha3t and the hole

S.*6( 8*)%) )7)(#&9 -n this system% the di33erent types o3 3its are o2tained 2y associating holes o3 varying limit dimensions with single sha3t% whose upper deviation is :ero( 'hen the upper deviation o3 the sha3t is
:ero the maximum limit o3 the sha3t will 2e e,ual to its 2asic si:e% which is ta.en as the 2ase 3or computing all other limit dimensions

P$ 2#/-$#9 1)*o the drilling operation on the given wor. piece with a standard si:e drill tool% such the diameter o3
the hole is e,ual to the give 2asic si:e(

2)Calculate the diameter o3 the sha3t 3or inter3erence and clearance 3its 3) Per3orm the turning operations 3or clearance 3it on one side o3 the sha3t 3or a length o3 50mm such
that the diameter is within the minimum and maximum limit(


+esult" 8 Thus the given sha3t is turned 3or clearance 3it and inter3erence 3it(

C A PS TA N A ND TUR R ET LA THE The capstan or turret lathe consists o3 a 2ed% all geared headstoc.% and a saddle on which a 3our station tool post is mounted to hold 3our di33erent tools( $ tool post 3itted at the rear o3 the carriage holds a parting tool in an inverted position( The tool post mounted on the cross8slide is indexed 2y hand( -n a capstan or turret lathe there is no tailstoc.% 2ut in its place a hexagonal turret is mounted on a slide which rests upon the 2ed( $ll the six 3aces o3 the turret can hold six or more num2er o3 di33erent tools( The turret may 2e indexed automatically and each tool may 2e 2rought in line with the lathe
axis in a regular se,uence(

The wor. pieces are held in collets or in chuc.s( The longitudinal and cross 3eed movement
o3 the turret saddle and cross8slide are regulated 2y adEusta2le stops(

These stops ena2le di33erent tools set at di33erent stations to move 2y a predetermined amount 3or per3orming di33erent operations on repetitive wor. pieces without measuring the length or diameter o3 the machined sur3ace in each case( These special characteristics o3 a capstan or turret lathe ena2les it to per3orm a series o3 operations such as turning% drilling% 2oring% thread cutting% reaming% nec.ing% cham3ering% cutting8o33 and many other operations in a regular se,uence to produce a large num2er o3 identical pieces in a minimum time( TYPES OF MACHINEFS The two main types o3 hori:ontal lathes o3 this 3amily are 1( The capstan or ram type lathe( 2( The turret or saddle type lathe( The capstan or rain type lathes the ram type turret lathe or capstan lathe carries the hexagonal
turret on a ram or a short slide(

The ram slides longitudinally on a saddle positioned and clamped on lathe 2ed ways( This type o3 machine is lighter in construction and is suita2le% 3or machining 2ar o3 smaller diameter( The tools are mounted on the s,uare turret and six 3aces o3 the hexagonal turret( The 3eeding
movement is o2tained when the ram moves 3rom le3t to the right% and when the ram is moved 2ac.ward the turret indexes automatically and the tools mounted on the next 3ace comes into operation

Turret lathe parts ruvw4va% ) 9eu3"anal hoot( 4% CeV haer P a'J0114




#pindle speed selecto

#,uare turret


Turret +am

&orward and reverse #top rod

Longitudinal 3eed lever

Carriage handwheel Cross8slide handwheel

Cross8 3eed &eed selectors lever


The standard engine lathe is versatile% 2ut it is not a high production machine( 'hen production re,uirements are high% more automated turning machines must 2e used( The turret lathe represents the 3irst step 3rom the engine lathe toward high production turning machines( The turret lathe is similar to the engine lathe except that tool8holding turrets replace the tailstoc. and the tool post8compound assem2ly( The Hs.ill o3 the wor.erH is 2uilt into these machines% ma.ing it possi2le 3or inexperienced operators to reproduce identical parts( -n contrast% engine lathe re,uires a s.illed operator and re,uires more time to produce parts that are dimensionally the same( The principal characteristic o3 turret lathes is that the tools 3or consecutive operations are set up 3or use in the proper se,uence( $lthough s.ill is re,uired to set and adEust the tools properly% once they are correct% less s.ill is re,uired to operate the turret lathe(

A/:*'(*,#) 6 T-$$#( L*(.#) The di33erence 2etween the engine and turret lathes is that the turret lathe is adapted to
,uantity production wor.% whereas the engine lathe is used primarily 3or miscellaneous Eo22ing% tool room% or single8operation wor.( The 3eatures o3 a turret lathe that ma.e it a ,uantity production machine are"

Tools may 2e set up in the turret in the proper se,uence 3or the operation( ach station is provided with a 3eed stop or 3eed trip so that each cut o3 a tool is the same as its previous cut( Multiple cuts can 2e ta.en 3rom the same station at the same time% such as two or more turning and1or 2oring cuts( Com2ined cuts can 2e madeD tools on the cross slide can 2e used at the same time that tools on
the turret are cutting(

+igidity in holding wor. and tools is 2uilt into the machine to permit multiple and com2ined

Turret lathes can also have attachments 3or pre turning% thread chasing and duplicating% and can 2e made( D%66#$#'2#) 8#(;##' * R*& (7"# $ C*")(*' *'/ S*//3# (7"# $ * T-$$#( 3*(.#

The turret o3 a capstan lathe is mounted on a short slide or ram which slides on the saddle( The saddle is clamped
on 2ed ways a3ter adEusting the length o3 the wor. piece( Thus in a capstan lathe% the travel o3 the turret is dependent upon the length o3 the travel o3 the ram( This limits the maximum length o3 the wor. to 2e machined in one setting(

The turret o3 a turret lathe is mounted on a saddle which slides directly on the 2ed( This
3eature ena2les the turret to 2e moved on the entire length o3 the 2ed and can machine longer wor.(

-n the case o3 turret lathe% the turret is mounted on the saddle which slides directly on the lathe
2ed ways( This type o3 construction provides utmost rigidity to the tool support as the entire cutting load is ta.en up 2y the lathe 2ed directly( -n the case o3 a capstan lathe as the ram 3eeds into the wor.% the overhanging o3 the ram 3rom the stationary saddle presents a non8rigid construction which is su2Eected to 2ending% de3lection or vi2ration under heavy cutting load(((

)n a capstan lathe the hexagonal turret can 2e moved 2ac. and 3orth much more rapidly without

having to move the entire saddle unit( Thus capstan lathes are particularly handy 3or small articles which re,uire light and 3ast cuts( 'hile operating the machine 2y hand% there is less 3atigue to the operator% due to lightness o3 the ram% whereas in the case o3 turret lathe hand 3eeding is a la2orious process due to the movement o3 the ensure saddle unit(

#ome turret lathes are e,uipped with crosswise movement o3 the hexagonal turret( The crosswise

movement may 2e e33ected 2y hand or power( This 3eature ena2les turning o3 large diameters% 3acing% contour turning and many other operation on the lathe(

7eavier turret lathes are e,uipped with power chuc.s li.e air operated chuc.s 3or holding % large wor.8
pieces ,uic.ly(

-n the case o3 a capstan lathe% the cross slide is mounted on a carriage which rests on the 2edways

2etween head stoc. and the ram( The carriages rests on 2oth the 3ront and rear ways on the top o3 the 2ed( #ome turret lathe are e,uips with side hung type carriage( The carriage o3 this type does not re,uire support 3rom the rear 2edways 2ut slides on the top and 2ottom guideways provided at the 3ront o3 the lathe( This construction ena2les larger diameter o3 wor. to 2e swung a2ove the lathe 2edways( There is no rear tool post on this type o3 machine as the carriage does not extend upto rear 2edways(

Turret -ndexing mechanism 1( Hexagonal turret, 2( Index plate, 3( Bevel gear 4. Indexing ratchet, 5.Turret spindle. 6. Bevel inion, !. Indexing a"l, #. $cre"
stop rods, >(%athe&ed. 10( lunger actuating tont, ''. inion sha3t%12 $top, 13( lunger in '4. lunger,'5. lunger $pring

The plunger 14 3itted within the ho using and mounted on the saddle loc.s the index plate 2y spring
pressure 15 and prevents any rotary movement o3 the turret as the tool 3eeds into the wor.(

$ pin 13 3itted on the plunger 14 proEects out o3 the housing( $n actuating cam 10 and indexing pawl < are attached to the lathe 2ed > at the desired position( @oth the cam and the pawl are spring loaded( $s the turret reaches the 2ac.ward position % the actuating cam 10 li3ts the plunger 14 out
o3 the groove in the index plate due to the riding o3 the pin 13 on the 2eveled sur3ace o3 the cam 10 and thus unloc.s the index plate 2(

The spring loaded pawl < which 2y this time engages with a groove on the ratchet plate 4 causes the turret to rotate as the turret head moves 2ac.ward( 'hen the index plate or the turret rotates through one sixth o3 revolution% the pin 13 and plunger 14 drops out o3 cam 10 and the plunger loc.s the index plate at the next groove( The turret is thus index 2y one sixth o3 revolution and again loc.ed into the new position automatically( The turret holding the next tool is now 3ed 3orward and the pawl is released 3rom the ratchet

plate 2y the spring pressure( The synchroni:ed movement o3 the stop rods with the indexing o3 the turret can also 2e understood 3rom the 3igure a2ove( The 2evel pinion 6 meshes with 2evel gear 3 mounted on the turret spindle( The extension o3 the pinion sha3t carries a plate holding six adEusta2le stops rods =( $s the turret rotates through one sixth o3 revolution the 2evel gear 3 caused the plate to rotate(
The ratio o3 the teeth 2etween the pinion and gear are so chosen that when the tool mounted on the 3ace o3 the turret is indexed to 2ring it to the cutting position% the particular stop rod 3or controlling the longitudinal travel o3 the tool is aligned with stop 12

The setting o3 the stop rods = 3or limiting the 3eed o3 each operation may 2e adEusted 2y unscrewing the loc. nuts and rotating the stop rods on the plate(
Thus six stop rods the six 3aces o3 the turret(

may 2e adEusted 3or controlling the longitudinal travel a the tools mounted on

P$%'2%"*3 "*$() 6 2*")(*' *'/ (-$$#( 3*(.#) The turret has essentially the same parts as the engine lathe except the turret and the complex mechanism
incorporated in it 3or ma.ing it suita2le 3or mass production wor.(

*i33erent parts o3 capstan lathe are" 7ead stoc.% #addle 3or cross8slide( Cross8slide tool post% 7exagonal turret% #addle 3or auxiliary slide% $uxiliary slide% Lathe head% &eed rod% Cross8slide tool post% D%66#$#'( "*$() 6 (-$$#( 3*(.# *$#9 7exagonal turret% 7ead stoc.% Cross8slide tool post% &eed rod Turret saddle% #addle 3or cross8slide(( B#/9 The 2ed is a long 2ox li.e casting provided with accurate guide ways upon which are mounted the carriage and turret saddle( The 2ed is designed to ensure strength% rigidity and permanency
o3 alignment under heavy duty services( Li.e engine lathe precision sur3ace 3inishing methods must 2e applied to .eep it resistant to wear during service period(

H#*/)( 2+9 The headstoc. is a large casting located at the le3t hand end o3 the 2ed( The headstoc. o3
capstan and turret lathe may 2e o3 the 3ollowing types"

!i) !i) !ii) !iii)

#tep cone pulley driven headstoc. *irect electric motor driven headstoc. $ll geared headstoc. Pre o2tive or pre selective headstoc.(

S(#" 2 '# "-33#7 /$%:#' .#*/)( 2+9 This is the simplest type o3 headstoc. and is 3itted with small capstan lathes where the lathe is
engaged in machining small and constant diameter wor. pieces( Three or 3our steps o3 pulleys can cater to the needs o3 the machine(

D%$#2( #3#2($%2 & ( $ /$%:#' .#*/)( 2+9 -n this type o3 headstoc. the spindle o3 the machine and the armature sha3t are one and the same(

$ny speed variation or reversal is e33ected 2y simply controlling the motor( The machine is suita2le 3or
smaller diameter o3 wor. pieces rotated at high speeds(

$ll geared headstoc." )n the larger lathes% the headstoc.s are geared and di33erent mechanisms are
employed 3or sped changing 2y actuating levers( The speed changing may 2e a33ected without stopping the machine(

P$# "(%:# $ "$# )#3#2(%:# .#*/)( 2+9 -t is an all geared headstoc. with provisions 3or rapid stopping% starting and speed changing 3or di33erent operations 2y simply pushing a 2utton or pulling a lever( *i33erent speeds are re,uired 3or di33erent operations( These speed variations are o2tained 2y
placing the speed changing lever in the re,uired position(

$3ter the 3irst operation is complete% a 2utton or lever is simply actuated and the spindle starts
rotating at the selected speed re,uired 3or the second operation without stopping the machine(

CROSS-SLIDE 1 SADDLE. -n small si:e capstan lathes% hand operated cross8slide and saddle are used which are
clamped Hon the lathe 2ed at the re,uired position( The larger capstan lathes and heavy duty turret lathes e,uipped with usually two designs o3 carriage


Conventional type carriage


#ide hung type carriage

Conventional type carriage 2ridges the gap 2etween the 3ront and rear 2ed ways and is e,uipped with 3our station type tool post at the 3ront% and one rear tool post at the 2ac. o3 the cross8 slide( The side hung type carriage is generally 3itted with heavy duty turret lathes where the saddle rides on the top and 2ottom guide ways on the 3ront o3 the lathe 2ed The design 3acilitates swinging o3 larger diameter o3 wor. pieces without 2eing inter3ered 2y the cross slide( The saddle and the cross slide may 2e 3ed longitudinally or crosswise 2y hand or power( The tools are mounted on the tool post and correct heights are adEusted 2y using
roc.ing or pac.ing pieces(

THE TURRET SADDLE AND AUXILLARY SLIDE. -n a capstan lathe% the turret saddle 2ridges the gap 2etween two 2ed ways% and the top 3ace is
accurately machined to provide 2earing sur3ace 3or the auxiliary slide(

The saddle may 2e adEusted on the lathe 2ed ways and clamped at re,uired position( -n a turret lathe the turret is directly mounted on the top o3 the saddle and any movement o3 the turret is e33ected 2y the movement o3 the saddle( The turret is the hexagonal tool holder intended 3or holding six or more tools( The centre line o3 the each hole is
per3ectly aligned with the ax is o3 the lathe when aligned with the head stoc. spindle(

-n addition to these holes% there are 3our tapped holes on each 3ace o3 the turret 3or securing di33erent
tool holding attachments( $3ter one operation is completed% as the turret is 2rought 2ac. away 3rom the spindle nose% the turret index automatically 2y a mechanism incorporated on the 2ed and in turret saddle% so that the tool mounted on the next 3ace is aligned

with the wor.(

CAPSTAN AND TURRET LATHE MECHANISM9 The carriage% cross8slide% turret8slide% and the saddle holding the turret may 2e 3ed% in to the wor. 2y hand or power( They are two main mechanisms -(

Turret indexing mechanism


@ar 3eeding mechanism

TURRET INDEXING MECHANISM9 $ simple line s.etch o3 the mechanism is show in 3igure The turret 1 is mounted on the spindle 5% which rests on a 2earing on the turret saddle( 1( The index plate

2% the 2evel gear 3 and an indexing ratchet 4 are .eyed to the spindle 5( The plunger 14 3itted with in the housing and mounted on the saddle loc.s the index plate 2y spring 15 pressure and prevents any rotary movement o3 the turret as the tool 3eeds in to the wor.( $ pin 13 is 3itted on the plunger 14 proEects out o3 the housing( $n actuating cam 10 and the indexing pawl < are attached to the lathe 2ed > at the desired position(
@oth the cam and the pawl are spring loaded( $s the turret reaches the 2ac.ward position% the actuating carn10 li3ts
the plunger 14 out o3 the groove in the index plate due to the riding o3 the pin 13on the 2eveled sur3ace o3 the cam 10 and thus unloc.s the index plate2(

The spring loaded pawl < which 2y this time engages with a groove o3 the ratchet plate 4% causes the ratchet to rotate as
the turret head moves 2ac.ward(

'hen the index plate or the turret rotates through one sixth o3 revolution% the pin 13 and the plunger 14 drops out o3
the cam 10 and the plunger loc.s the index plate at the next groove( The turret is thus indexed 2y one sixth o3 revolution and again loc.ed in to the new position automatically(

BAR FEEDING MECHANISM9 Capstan and turret lathes while wor.ing on 2ar wor. re,uire seine 3eeding mechanism 3or 2ar 3eeding( a simple 2ar 3eeding mechanism is illustrated as show in 3igure( The 2ar 6 is passed through the 2ar chuc. 3% spindle o3 the machine and then through the collet chuc.( The 2ar chuc. 3 rotates in the sliding 2rac.et 2ody 2 which is mounted )n a long slide 2ar( The 2ar chuc.s 3 grips the 2ar centrally 2y two set screws 5 and rotates with the 2ar in the
sliding 2rac.et 2ody 2(

)ne end o3 the chain = is connected to the pin > 3itted on the sliding 2rac.et 10 and
the other end supports a weight 4% the chain running over two 3ixed pulleys < and 11 mounted on the slide 2ar(

The weight 4 constantly exerts end thrust on the 2ar chuc. while it revolves on the sliding
2rac.et and 3orces the 2ar through the spindle% the moment the Collet chuc. is released(

Thus the 3eeding may 2e accomplished without stopping the machine( CAPSTAN AND TURRET LATHE SIGE The si:e o3 a capstan or turret lathe is designated 2y the maximum diameter o3 rod that can
2e passed through the head stoc. spindle and the swing diameter o3 the wor. that can 2e rotated over the lathe 2ed ways( -n order to speci3y the lathe 3ully% other important particulars such as num2er o3 spindle speeds% num2er o3 3eeds availa2le to the carriage and turret saddle% net weight o3 the machine% 3loor space and power re,uired% etc( should

also 2e stated(

0ORK HOLDING DEVICES9 The standard practice o3 holding wor. 2etween two centers in an engine lathe 3inds no
place in a capstan or turret lathe as there is dead centre to support the wor. at the other end( 'or. is% there3ore supported at the spindle end 2y the help o3 chuc.s and 3ixtures( The usual methods o3 holding wor. in a capstan or turret lathe are J*; 2.-2+)%

#el3 centering chuc.% Com2ination chuc.% -ndependent chuc.% $ir operated chuc. C 33#( 2.-2+) P ush out type% *ead length type% *raw in type COLLET CHUCKS9 The collet chuc.s are used 3or gripping 2ars introduced through the head stic. spindle o3 a capstan or turret lathe and is one o3 the most common method o3 holding wor.( *i33erent si:es o3 spring collets having s,uare% hexagonal% round or any other shaped 2ore are 3itted in the
chuc. 2ody 3or holding di33erent si:es o3 2ar having di33erent sections(

PUSH OUT TYPE9 To grip the wor.% the tapped portion o3 the spring collet is pushed in to the mating
taper o3 the chuc.( There is a tendency o3 the 2ar to 2e pushed slightly outward when the collet is pushed in to the chuc. 2ody 3or gripping% lithe 2ar is 3ed against a stop 2ar 3itted on the turret head% this slight outward movement o3 the 2ar ensures accurate setting o3 the length 3or machining(

DRA0 IN TYPE9 To grip the wor.% the tapered portion o3 the spring collet is pulled 2ac. in to the mating
taper o3 the chuc. which causes the split end o3 the collet to close in and grip the 2ar( The machining length o3 the 2ar in this type o3 chuc. cannot 2e accurately set as the collet while closing will draw the 2ar slightly outward towards the spindle(

DEAD LENGTH TYPE9 &or accurate positioning o3 the 2ar% 2oth the push out and draw in type collet present some
error due to the movement o3 the 2ar along with the collet while gripping( This di33iculty is removed 2y using a stationary collet on the 2ar( $ sliding sleeve closes up on the taPeC 4 collet( which is prevented 3rom any end movement8 2y the shoulder stop(

FIXTURE9 $ 3ixture may 2e descri2ed as a special chuc. 2uilt 3or the purpose o3 holding% locating
and machining a large num2er o3 identical pieces which cannot 2e easily held 2y conventional gripping devices( &ixtures also serve the purpose o3 accurately locating the machining sur3ace( The main 3unctions o3 a 3ixture are as 3ollows

They accurately locate the wor.

!ii) !iii)

They grip the wor. properly% preventing it 3rom 2ending or slipping during machining

They permit rapid loading and unloading o3 wor. pieces(

MILLING MACHINE I'($ /-2(% ' Milling machine is the process o3 removing metal 2y a rotating multipoint cutter( The wor. is
3ed past the cutter( The metal is removed in the 3orm o3 small chips( Multipoint cutter is used to removal is very 3ast( -t produces a good sur3aces 3inish and accuracy is also high(

P$%'2%"3# 6 &%33%', 42-((%',59 -n milling the cutter has a rotary movement% the speed o3 which depends upon the cutting
speed re,uired( *riving the Milling ar2or at various rotational speeds ma.es it possi2le to achieve approximately the same cutting speeds Wperipheral cutterX with cutters o3 di33erent diameters(

'hile the milling cutter rotates at a high speed% and 2ecause o3 the multiple points% it removes at
a very 3ast rate% in comparison with other machine tools(

@y milling machine we can produce 3lat !hori:ontal% vertical% angular) and 3ormed sur3aces(
$n milling machine 3inds wide application in production wor. as the machine can hold one or more num2er o3 cutters at a time% and is good in accuracy% sur3ace 3inish etc((%

C3*))%6%2*(% '9 The classi3ication according to the general design o3 the milling machine is" a) Column and 0nee Type% a( c( Plain milling machine )mniversal milling machine 2( Iniversal milling machine d( ;ertical milling machine 2) &ixed @ed Type e) Plano Miller d) #pecial Type a( +otary ta2le milling machine 2( *rum type milling machine c( Planetary milling machine d( Pantograph milling machine
P3*%' M%33%', M*2.%'#9 -

Plain milling machine is also .nown as ho ri :o nt al mi l l in g ma ch i ne % s in ce th e spindle o3 the machine is hori:ontal(

There is a vertical column on the 2ase( ".e colu/ n .ou0e0 1.e /a2n d324e and 1.e 0 p 2 n d l e . " . e c o l u / n a 0 4 e 3 1 2 c a l d o 4 e 1 a 2 l gu2de 5ay0 on 210 f3on1 face. ".e 6nee can /o4e 4e312cally on 1.e0e gu2de 5ay0. ".20 20 done 7y 3o1a12ng 1.e ele4a12ng 0c3e5.

U'%:#$)*3 M%33%', M*2.%'#9 Inivers al mil ling mach ine is similar in

all respects to the hori:ontal plain milling machine except 3or ta2le( The ta2le is mounted on swivel 2ase( The swivel 2ase has not degree graduations(

The .nee at its top has hori:ontal dove 1a2l gu2de 5ay0 pe3pend2cula3 1o 1.e f3on1 face of 1.e colu/n. ".e 0addle can 0l2de on 1.e0e gu2de 5ay0 a5ay f3o/ 1.e colu/n o3 1o5a3d0 1 . e c o l u / n . " . e 1 o p o f 1 . e 0 a d d l e . a 0 .o328on1al gu2de 5ay0 pa3allel 1o 1.e face of 1.e colu/n. ".e 1a7le 13a4el0 long21ud2nally a l o n g 1 . e 0 e g u 2 d e 5 a y 0 . " . e l o n g 2 1 u d 2 n a l 13a4el of 1.e 1a7le 20 pe3pend2cula3 1o 1.e a920 of 1.e 0p2ndle.

The top sur3ace o3 the ta2le iHs

of 1.e 1a7le fo3 .old2ng 1.e 5o36.

accu3a1ely /ac.2ned. ".e3e a3e ")0lo10 along 1.e leng1.






c 3 o 0 0 52 0 e / o 4 e/ e n 1 o f 1 . e 0 a d d l e a n d 1 . e l o n g 2 1 u d 2 n a l / o 4 e/ e n 1 o f 1 . e 1 a 7 l e c a n 7 e o 7 1 a 2 n e d 7 y . a n d o 3 p o 5 e 3 . " . e 6 n e e .ou0e0 feed2ng /ec.an20/.

The spindle o3 the machine is located


2n 1.e

uppe3 pa31 of 1.e colu/n. &1 20 3o1a1ed 7y an elec132c /o1o3 1.3oug. 7el10 and gea3.

The 3ront end o3 the spindle is called



".e no0e :u01 p3o:ec10 f3o/ 1.e colu/n face. &1 .a0 1ape3ed .ole. '37o30 o3 4a32ou0 cu112ng 1ool0 can 7e 2n0e31ed 2n1o 1.20 .ole.

+n24e30al M2ll2ng Mac.2ne

There is an over a 3/

/oun1ed on 1.e 1op of 1.e colu/n. &1 ac10 0uppo31 fo3 1.e a37o3. ".e o4e3 a3/

0uppo310 1.e a37o3 7y /ean0 of yo6e

The ta2le can 2e swivelled a2out a vertical axis( -t can 2e swivelled up to a maximum o3 45 0 on the either
side o3 the normal position(

Thus the universal milling machine ta2le has the 3ollowing movement" 1( ;ertical movement
B through the .nee(

2( Cross wise movement B through the saddle( 3( Longitudinal movement o3 the ta2le( 4( $ngular movement o3 the ta2le
B 2y swivelling the ta2le on the swivel 2ase(

@y swivelling the ta2le% the wor. can 2e 3ed at an angle to spindle axis( This is used in helical milling operations( #pecial attachments li.e dividing *451 need vertical milling attachment% and % rotary ta2le attachment are used in the universal milling machines( Ising these attachments% the machine can produce spur gear% 2evel gear% twist drill and reamers(
V#$(%2*3 M%33%', M*2.%'#9 -

-n a vertical milling machine% the spindle is

vertical( The ta2le may 2e plain type o3 universal type( The vertical column is mounted on the 2ase( The 3ront 3ace o3 the column has vertical guide ways( The .nee moves on these vertical guide ways( The .nee has hori:ontal guide ways on its top sur3ace(

The saddle can move cross wise on these guide ways perpendicular to the spindle axis !i(e() away 3rom the
column or towards the column( The saddle has guides ways on its top(

The ta2le can move longitudinally along these guide ways( This movement is perpendicular to the spindle axis( The spindle is mounted on top of the column. The spindle has swivel base. So the head can be titled at an angle. This
permits machining of angular surfaces. In some machines, the spindle can be adjusted up or down. The vertical movement of the knee, cross wise movement of the saddle, and the

longitudinal movement of the table can be obtained by hand or power. The knee houses the feeding mechanism. This machine is used for machining grooves, slots and flat surfaces. End milling cutters and face milling cutters are generally used in vertical milling machine.

Specification of Milling Machine 1( The ta2le length and width 2( 9um2er o3 spindle speeds and 3eeds 1( &loor space
1( 9et weight

1120 x 2=0 mm 6
6 x 5 3eet

2000 .g 3 7(P 55= x 22> x 406 mm Coloumn and 0nee type

3( Power o3 driving motor 4( Max( longitudinal travel% Cross travel ? ;ertical travel o3 the ta2le <( Type o3 Milling Machine

0 $+ . 3/%', /#:%2#)9 The 3ollowing wor. holding devices are used in milling machine( 1( Plain vice 4( -ndexing head 5( Milling 3ixture 2( Iniversal vice 3( # w ivel vice

3 . 3/%', /#:%2#)9 1( $r2ors a) #tandard ar2or 2( $dapters

2) #tu2 ar2or 3( #pring collets

The di33erent tool holding devices used in milling machine are

M%33%', 2-((#$)9 -

The 3ollowing milling cutters are commonly used in milling 1( Plain milling cutter 6( $ngle milling cutter

#ta2 milling cutter #ide milling cutter nd milling cutter


T8slot milling cutter

&ly cutter

3( #itting saw 4( 5(

>( 10(

&orm cutter 'oodru33 .ey slot milling cutter Milling Processes


U" M%33%',9 -

-t is also called conventional milling( Metal is removed when the cutter teeth move upwards( 7ere the cutter
rotates opposite to the direction o3 3eed o3 wor. piece( -n up milling% the chip thic.ness is minimum o3 the 2eginning o3 the cut( -t reaches the maximum at the end o3 the cut( #o the stress on the teeth is minimum at the end o3 the 2eginning o3 the cut( The stress increases gradually and is maximum at the end o3 the cut(( The cutting action o3 the teeth is upwards( #o it will try to li3t the wor. piece 3orm the vise( The machined sur3ace is not very smooth( $pplying the coolant at the cutting edge is di33icult( The 8chips accumulate in 3ront o3 the cutter at the cutting :one( #o chip removal is di33icult chips inter3ere with the cutting action(

2( D ;' M%33%',9 -t is also called clim2 milling( Metal is removed when the cutter teeth move downwards( 7ere
the cutter rotates same direction as the 3eed 3or wor. piece( -n down milling% the chip thic.ness is maximum o3 the 2eginning o3 the cut( The chip decrease to the minimum at the end o3 the cut 7ere the maximum stress acts on the teeth at the 2eginning o3 the cut( This gives shoc. lot to the teeth% the cutting action o3 the teeth presses the wor. piece downwards( This helps clamping o3 the wor. pieces( *own milling will give 2etter sur3ace 3inish( Coolant can 2e e33ectively applied on the cutting edge( The chips accumulate at the 2ac. o3 the cutter away 3rom the cutting :one( #o chip removal easy( Chips do not inter3ere with the cutting action(

D%:%/%', H#*/)9 The 3ollowing types o3 dividing heads are generally used(

@. Plain simple dividing head(

2( Iniversal dividing head(

'hat is meant 2y indexingL -t is an operation o3 dividing the circum3erence o3 a wor. piece into e,ually spaced /%:%)% ')
3or milling gears% splines% s,uares% cutting o3 3lutes in reamers etc(%

T.# indexing head is also used to rotates the wor. piece at a predetermined ratio to the (*83# 6##/ $*(# (
produce cams% helical grooves etc((%

T.%) "#$*(% ' %) "#$6 $&#/ ' a milling machine 2y means o3 an indexing attachment is 2*33#/ *) indexing
head or the dividing head(

G#*$ M*'-6*2(-$%',9 G#*$) are toothed wheels used 3or transmission o3 power or motion( There are di33erent types o3 gears
used in industry( They are"

*5S"-$ ,#*$) *$# cylindrical discs on which gear teeth are cut on the periphery( The teeth *$# "*$*33#3 ( (.# *!%).
These gears are used to transmit motion along parallel axes(

85H#3%2*3 ,# &.-(.# (##(. *$# 2-( *( *' *',3# ( (.# *!%). This angle is called helix angle% .#3%2*3 gears run
smoothly without noise(

25 R*2+ *'/ "%'% ' ,#*$) *$# used to 2 ':#$( $ (*$7 & (% ' %'( 3%'#*$ & (% ' or vice versa( +otary & (% '
6 (.# "%'% ' is convened into linear motion in the rac.(

/5 0 $& *'/ ; $& ;.##3 are used to get heavy $#/*2(% ' %' )"##/. 7ere the axes are perpendicular to each

#5 B#:#3 ,#*$) are -)#/ ( ($*')&%( & (% ' 6 $& '# ,#*$ ( *' (.#$ ,#*$ ;%(. (.#%$ *!#) %'23%'#/ (
*' (.#$. $ set o3 mitre 2evel gears have e,ual num2er o3 teeth and their axes are at right angles to each other(


M#(. /) 6 I'/#!%',9 T.# 6 33 ;%', are the di33erent methods o3 indexing" 1( *irect or rapid indexing 2( P3*%' $ )%&"3# %'/#!%', P3*%' 4 $5 S%&"3# I'/#!%',9 This indexing method is used 3or wor. divisions that could not 2e indexed 2y direct or rapid
indexing( The universal dividing head is used 3or indexing( The dividing head spindle is rotated 2y turning the index cran.(

3( *i33erential indexing
C. A',-3*$ %'/#!%', Loc.ing pin @ody8 #pi ndl e

)ne complete turn o3 the index cran. will ma.e the spindle Plel3rPiY40Z-glall revolution(
spindle( &or indexing a 3raction o3 turn% an index plates having the suita2le hole circle can 2e used(


This is so 2ecause% the single threaded worm drives the 40 teeth worm wheel which is headed to the

The hole circ16availa2le in standard index plates are given 2elow"

#pur /ear Milling Procedure ? /ear Calculations" 8

-( Calculation o3 gear tooth proportions

2( -ndexing calculations 3( #etting the dividing head ( tail stoc. on machine ta2le% mounting gear 2lan. 4( #election o3 cutter ? centering o3 the gear 2lan. with the cutter 5( #etting suita2le cutting speed ? 3eed and ta.ing the cut 6( -nspection o3 tooth pro3ile

The ;arious lements o3 a #pur /ear are illustrated( #pur gear proportions as per @-# in terms o3 module !m) and num2er o3 teeth !Q) are given 2elow"
pressure angle Hs 20F

#( 9o
%la1e no 1 %la1e no 2

9ame o3 tooth Pitch diameter


/ear tooth Qm
m 1(25 in

#( 9o 2(
4% 6(

9ame o3 tooth )utside diameter Tooth thic.ness


/ear tooth !Q U 2) m 1(5<0= in -T m

3( 5(

; 15< 16< 17< 18< 19 and 20


; 21< 23< 27< 29< 31 and 33

5o3/ .eel 40 1ee1. a37o3 o3 5o36 p2ece 0(25 m 2nde9 %la1e =nde9 c3an6

<( depth 2 in =( Circular pitch 39< 41< 43< 47 and 49 Plate no 3 'or.ing " 37< >( Tooth depth 2(25 m 10( +adius o3 3illet #ome index plate .a4e .ole c23cle0 on 7o1. 02de0 a0 g24en 7elo5;
(2301 02de $econd 02de ;18< 19< 21< 24< 29< 35 and 39 ; 19< 20< 26< 31< 35 and 40

0(4 m to 0(45

01 5o3/

5o3/ 0.af1

0ec1o3 a3/



">&!? E$$

'!#E WOW

& 0'0@O#aE &LOA L&L !&#!LE

E O( '!"&O "'#*E %#E$$+#E

O+" $LOE O# ? D$! O-O !&#!LE" Pam

!&#!LE !&#!LE

B C#OO" -'LLE !&L&'


"O !E "? L&-E

1O""O L 'L&O %&"&!>&!&"+E

%E&"%E D&!"&'#

Pressure angle

!'$E %#OLE !E "#E

P-TC7 C-+CL 7elical gear milling procedure ? gear calculations" 8

-( Calculation o3 2lan. diameter8and gear tooth details 2( 3( 4( 5( $rrangement o3 indexing #election o3 cutter ? centering it over the 2lan. #etting the ta2le #election o3 change gears

6( *etermination o3 speed% 3eed and depth o3 cut( 7elical gear proportions as per @-# in terms o3 normal module !Mn) and num2er o3 teeth !Q) are given 2elow( Pressure angle is 200

#( 9o 1( 2( 3( 4( 5( 6( 'here" 8

9ame o3 tooth element

Pitch diameter $ddendum

/ear tooth proportions

Qm Mn 1(25 Mn 2(25 Mn

Tooth depth

)utside diameter 9ormal Tooth thic.ness 9ormal module !Mn) J <( =(

Q m U 2 Mn 1(5<0= Mn m cos a #traddle Milling /ang Milling

module and a helix angle

M-LL-9/ )P +$T-)9#" 8 -( Plain Milling 2( &orm Milling 3( &ace Milling

4( #ide Milling 5( nd Milling 6( T B H#lot Milling

xpt( 9o"


*ate" 8

$im" 8 To mill a .ey way on the given wor. piece using end mill cutter Tools re,uired" 8 nd milling cutter% H;H 2loc.% strap clamp% height gauge% 2rush% vernier caliper% and scri2er( Materials re,uired" 8 $ cylindrical wor. piece o3 diameter (((min and length (((mm o3 mild steel rod( Procedure" 8

a) The wor. piece on to which .ey way is to 2e cut punch mar.ed 3or the dimension( 2) The wor. is placed and a drill operation say 5810 mm is done to allow end clearance to milling cutter( c) 'or. is li.ed on milling machine ta2le( d) nd milling cutter is used to cut .ey way( e) #tart the machine and run at re,uired speed(
1) *epth o3 cut is given manually 2y raising ta2le through .nee elevating screw(

g) &eed is given manually 2y rotating hand wheel( h) Coolant oil !#$' B 20'140) is applied on the cutting area o3 the wor. piece to lu2ricate and carry away heat( i) +epeat the procedure to the re,uired depth( E) C a u t i o n " & e e d u n i 3 o r m l y (

+esult" 8

Thus a .ey way is milled on given wor. piece(

$ll dimensions are in mm(

S"-$ G#*$ F $&%', U)%', U'%:#$)*3 M%33%', M*2.%'#

xpt 9o" 8 $im" 8 To 3orm a spur gear on the gear 2lan. using universal milling machine Tools re,uired" 8 7(#(# turning tool% *rill 2it% +evolving center% Milling cutter% ;ernier caliper% $dEusta2le spanner% Tool post .ey% Chuc. .ey% Micrometer dot punch% hammer% mandrel% etc((( Materials re,uired" 8 $ cylindrical wor. piece o3 diameter (((mm and length (((mm o3 cast iron rod( )peration se,uence" 8 &acing% Plain turning% %Cham3ering% *rilling are using lathe machine and spur gear 3orming operation 2y milling machine( )2servatiott"H 8 Milling machine" Pitch distance moved 2y the slide 3or one 3ull rotation L(0 3or vertical 3eed slide B Calculation parameter" 8 3or #( 9o spur gear 9ame o3 tooth element Pitch diameter $ddendum *edendum 'or.ing depth Tooth depth )utside diameter Tooth thic.ness Clearance Circular pitch +adius o3 3illet /ear tooth proportions Qm m 1(25m 2m 2(25 m !Q U 2) m 1(5<0= m 0(25 m it M 0(4 m to 0(45 m *ate" 8

9o(o3 graduations on the micrometer

1( 2( 3( 4( 5( 6( <(

>( >(

Calculation 3or simple indexing" 8 -ndexing cran. movement J 9o( o3 holes in index plate 1 9o( o3 divisions re,uired J 40 1 9 'here" xample" 9 -(C(M J

!Q) num2er o3 divisions or sides re,uired

40 1 9 J 401 20J 2

7ence index cran. pin is inserted in every 2C hole o3 the 1=C hole circle

Procedure" 8 -( The dimensions o3 the given wor. piece is measured 2y ;ernier caliper(

2( Correct the length and diameter o3 the wor. piece to the given dimensions 2y 3acing and turning operations 2y using lathe machine( 3( Per3orm the cham3ering operation in order to avoid the shaper edges( 4( &ix the drill 2it in the tailstoc. sleeve and do the drilling operation 3or the entire length o3 the wor. piece( 5( *o the turning operation to 2ring the diameter to888888888888888888mm( 6( +emove the Eo2 3rom the chuc. and it is mounted in the mandrel( The mandrel is held on the chuc. and the other
end is supported 2y the revolving center(

<( *ependingH upon the num2er o3 teeth to 2e cut and the module re,uired on the gear 2lan.% the corresponding gear cutter is selected and 3ixed in the ar2or o3 the milling machine( =( Position the lever to o2tain the re,uired spindle speed depending upon the diameter o3 the wor. piece( >( Position the cutter with respect to the cutter o3 the wor. piece( This is done 2y moving the vertical 3eed lead screw and the cross 3eed lead screw handle( 10( *o the s.ins cut 2y touching the top sur3ace o3 the wor. with the plain milling cutterL This is done 2y placing the wet paper on the top sur3ace o3 the gear 2lan. and the wor. piece is li3ted against the rotating cutter(
The movement when the cutter touches the paper% it ma.es the paper to slide away( This indicates that cutter is having sur3ace contact with the gear 2lan.( 9ow adEust the micrometer dial o3 the vertical 3eed lead screw to :ero(

11( Lower the ta2le and 2y rotating the longitudinal slide hand wheel% the wor. piece is made 3rom the cutter( 12( #et the depth o3 cut 2y raising the ta2le and the tooth spaced is 3ormed 2y moving the wor. piece against the rotating cutter(!9ote" 8 The depth o3 cut is given in several steps) 13( +emaining tooth is 3ormed 2y indexing the wor. piece !981) num2er o3 items( 14( The a2ove two steps are repeated till the re,uired depth o3 8888888888888888888888888 mm is given in the
vertical 3eed slide(

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TWO de

NOWNCIAtURE )* %+I, ''I%%I,- c%I./

M-LL $ 20 T

T7 #PI+ / $+ )& P+)P + P)+)P)+T-)9#

+esult" 8 Thus the spur gear operation is per3ormed in

mm module on the given wor. piece(


/rinding Machines /rinding is a metal cutting operation 2y a rotating a2rasive wheel( @y grinding% verygood sur3ace 3inish is o2tained on the wor. piece( 7igh dimensional accuracy is o2tained in the wor. piece( Mostly grinding is used as a 3inishing operation( ;ery hard sur3aces can 2e 3inished in grinding( /rinding wheel is made o3 small a2rasive particles held together 2y a 2onding

material( The a2rasive particles are very hard( These hard a2rasive particles or grains proEect [ on the sur3ace o3 the wheel( The a2rasive particles 3orm multiple cutting edges( 'hile grinding% the wheel is rotated and the wor. is 3ed against the wheel( The a2rasive particles move with high velocity and shear o3 small metal particles 3rom the wor. piece( 'hile machining% the 2lunt a2rasive grains will 2e released 3rom the wheel sur3aces( -n their place% new a2rasive grains proEect 3rom the sur3ace o3 the wheel( This is called the sel3 sharpening o3 the grinding wheel( Classi3ication o3 grinding machines" 8 The grinding machines are classi3ied as 3ollows" 1( +ough /rinders" &loor stand grinders @ench grinders Porta2le grinders 2( Precision /rinders Cylindrical grinders Centre type plain grinders 3( -nternal /rinders Chuc.ing type grinders Planetary type grinders 4( #ur3ace /rinders +eciprocating ta2le 8 7ori:ontal spindle +otary ta2le 8 7ori:ontal spindle +eciprocating ta2le 8 ;ertical spindle #ur3ace /rinder Machine #ur3ace grinders are mainly used to grind 3iat and plane sur3aces( They arc also used to grind to irregular% curved% tapered and other 3ormed sur3aces( Machine guide ways% piston rings% valves% dies% sur3ace plate etc are some the pads which are 3inished 2y sur3ace grinding( 4P +otary ta2le 8 ;ertical spindle

P $2rasive 2elt grinders P #wing 3rame grinders

P Centre type universal grinders P Centre less grinders P Centre less grinders

#$**L #$**L C+)## & #$**L & * #$**L #P * $*AI#T-9/ L ; + @$# 7ori:ontal #pindle +eciprocating H3i2er #ur3ace /rinder @ase" 8 The 2ase is a rectangular 2oxli.e casting( -t houses the mechanism inside( -t has a vertical column mounted at the 2ac.( The has machined hori:ontal guide ways at the top( The guide ways are perpendicular to the column( > #addle" 8 The saddle is mounted over the 2ase( -t can move along guide ways on the perpendicular to the column( This gives cross 3eed wor.( PlP Ta2le" 8 The ta2le slides on the hori:ontal guides on the This movement is parallel to the 3ace o3 the column( This gives the longitudinal 3eed to the wor.( There are T8slots on the top o3 the 3or clamping wor. piece or 3ixtures( 'heel 7ead" 8 The wheel head is mounted on the column( -t independent motor 3or driving the wheel( The wheel head can slide accommodate the wor. piece o3 di33erent heights and to give depth o3 cut( )peration" 8 The wor. piece clamped on the ta2le reciprocates under the rotating grinding wheel( The wor. piece may 2e held 2y means o3 a magnetic chuc. or 3ixture( Trip dogs at the side o3 the ta2le are adEusted 3or getting the correct stro.e length 3or the ta2le( The periphery o3 the grinding wheel does the grinding( Cross 3eed is given to the wor. piece a3ter every stro.e( $3ter the 3ull width o3 wor. piece is ground% the wheel head is lowered downwards to give depth o3 cut( Cylindrical /rinder" 8 $ plain centre type cylindrical grinder% the main parts o3 grinder are" D9ar. Piece 4 @ase or 2ed Ta2les Tail #toc. 7ead stoc. and tail stoc. 'heel head 7ead
$"O% LE-EL

* 7$9*L C7$9/ #$**L 7Y*+$IL-C #Y#T M #T$+T PI#7 @ITT)9

driving 2ase

with to the

saddle( ta2le O%E#'"&O BO'#D

has up

an and

down along the vertical guide ways o3 the column( This vertical adEustment o3 the wheel head is done manually( This is to

/rinding 'heel


@ase or 2ed"

The 2ase or 2ed rests on the 3loor and supports all the other parts( -t is o3 2ox li.e construction( -t houses ta2le drive mechanism( )n the top o3 the 2ed there are length wise machined guide ways( Ta2les" There are two ta2les B lower and upper ta2le( The lower ta2le slides over the guide ways o3 the 2ed( This sliding movement gives the traverse 3eed or longitudinal 3eed to the wor. piece( This movement can 2e o2tained 2y hand or power( $dEusta2le trip dogs are clamped in the longitudinal slots at the side o3 the lower ta2le( These trip dogs actuate the ta2le reversing lever( Thus the reciprocating movement 3or the ta2le is o2tained( The upper ta2le is pivoted over the lower ta2le( $ maximum angle o3 swivel is 10 0 on either side( The swiveling is used 3or grinding tapers( The upper ta2le has length wise T8slots 3or 3itting the head stoc. and tail stoc.( 4P 7ead stoc. and Tail stoc." The head stoc. and tail stoc. are mounted on the upper ta2le( They have centers( The wor. piece is held 2etween the head stoc. and tail stoc.( The wor. piece is driven 2 y the head stoc. through dog and driving pin( The tail stoc. can 2e adEusted a clamped in various position( This is to hold di33erent lengths o3 the wor. piece( 'or. piece can also 2e held using a chuc. in the head stoc.( 4P 'heel head The wheel head carries a grinding wheel and the wheel driving motor( The wheel head is placed over the 2ed at its 2ac. side( The wheel head is mounted on a slide( -t can 2e moved perpendicular to the ta2le guide ways( This movement is the cross 3eed( This cross 3eed can 2e given either 2y hand or power( Centre type universal grinder"

/rhelhg'he 7eed #toc el'heel 7eed

Toil#toc. eiTa2le c LowerTa2leB

Iniversal /rinder 7as The &ollowing $dditional &eatures" -( The centre o3 the head stoc. spindle can 2e used live or dead( The wor. can 2e held and revolved 2y a chuc.( -t can also 2e held 2etween centers and revolved(

2( The wheel head can 2e swiveled in a hori:ontal plane in any angle The wheel head can 2e 3ed in the inclined
direction also(

3( The head stoc. can 2e swiveled to any angle in the hori:ontal plane( 4( There is an auxiliary wheel head 3or doing internal grinding(
/rinding wheel" 8 /rinding wheels are made up o3 small a2rasive particles held in together 2y 2onding material( $2rasives" 8 $2rasives are held su2stances which are used as cutting edges in the grinding wheel( #mall a2rasive particles are used in grinding wheels( They are called a2rasive grains( There are two typesH a2rasives" !i) 9atural a2rasives and !ii) $rti3icial a2rasives( @onds" 8 @ond is an adhesive used to hold a2rasive grains together in the grinding wheel( The 3ollowing are the various types o3 2onds used( /rinding allowance" 8 Machine parts are processed in di33erent machines such as lathes% milling machines% shaping machines% etc((% in such a way that their 3inal dimensions have some stoc. le3t% which is 3inished during the grinding operation( The amount o3 this stoc. le3t is called the Hgrinding allowanceH( 9o de3inite value o3 the grinding allowance can 2e given as a general rule 2ecause this depends upon too many varia2le 3actors( -n general it varies 3rom 0(2mm to 0(5 mm( The grinding allowance is given in microns( Closely spaced% 3ine a2rasive grinding wheels generally give 2etter 3inishes than coarse ground% widely8spaced a2rasive wheels% and hence less grinding allowance may 2e su33icient( 0eeping more grinding% allowance than necessary ultimately increases the cost o3 the grinding operation(

-denti3ying /rinding 'heels K #tandard Mar.ing #ystem 3or $luminum8)xide and #ilicon8Car2ide @onded $2rasives

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$im" 8 To grind a plane sur3aces !M(# 3iat wor. piece) to the re,uired dimensions using sur3ace grinding machine( Tools re,uired"8 ;ernier caliper% $dEusta2le spanner% Micrometer% dot punch% hammer% diamond wheel dresser% try s,uare% etc((% Materials re,uired" 8 $ +ectangular wor. piece mm% length rum and thic.ness )2servation" 8

L( C 3or vertical 3eed slide Procedure" 8

Pitch distance moved 2y the slide 3or one 3ull rotation

9o(o3 graduations on the micrometer 50


-( The dimension on the given wor. piece is chec.ed with the micrometer and ;ennei( Caliper( The wor. piece is 3ixed rigidly in the 2ench vise and the sides are 3illed with the help o3 3lat 3ile to 2ring the sides o3 the 3lat pieces to >0 F(

2( The 3lat piece is placed on the sur3ace grinding machine magnetic ta2le and t he magnet is activated 2y turning
the lever(

3( The wor. piece is made to touch the grinding wheel( This is done 2y raising the ta2le against the rotating
grinding wheel(

4( The gaduation is set to :ero in the micrometer o3 the vertical slide( 5( $ depth o3 cut is 0(1min is given 2y rotating the hand wheel o3 vertical slide and the wor. piece is 3ed against
the rotating wheel to and 3ro(

6( #imultaneously give the cross wise 3eed movement to the ta2le% to grind the entire width o3 the wor.piece(
Coolant can 2e used to cool the wor. and protect its sur3ace(

+esult" 8 The 3lat sur3ace grinding operation is done 2y sur3ace grinder(

/rinding Hwheel

*oplh ol cul 'oc.placo

88 8


on 'il. 6##/

F ;3 :%#; xpt( 9o" 8 Cylindrical /rinding *ate" 8

$im" 8 To grind the external sur3ace o3 a cylindrical wor. piece on a cylindrical grinding

machine( diamond wheel dresser% try N steel(

Tools re,uired"8 ;ernier caliper% $dEusta2le spanner% Micrometer% dot punch% hammer%

s,uare% 3lat 3ile% centre 2it% 7(#(# cutting tool% etc((%

Materials re,uired" 8 $ cylindrical wor. piece o3 diameter is(((mm% length Nram o3 mild )2servation( 8

Pitch distance moved 2y the slide 3or one 3ull rotation N 0(1 L(0 3or 3eed lead screw B 9o(o3 graduations on the micrometer Procedure"


1( 7old the wor. piece in the three Eaws and do the 3acing operation in order to correct the length to ((8((( mm( 2( *o the centre drilling operation on the end 3ace in order to hold the wor. piece in 2etween the centers( 3( *o the turning operation to reduce the diameter to (((( mm 3or a length is (((( mm( 4( *o the step turning operation to 2ring the diameter to ((( ram 3or a length (((( mm( 5( +emove the wor. piece 3rom the chuc.% apply grease to the center drilled holes and hold the wor. piece in 2etween
centers o3 the cylindrical grinding machine(

6( /ive the depth o3 cut 2y moving the cross 3eed lead screw( The depth o3 cut should not exceed ((( mm( <( #et the trip dogs 3or given grinding length in order to control the longitudinal 3eed movement( =( #witch )9 the machine% grinding wheel% coolant and longitudinal 3eed movement motor( >( The longitudinal 3eed movement motor driver the ta2le and it reverse a3ter 2eing hit 2y the stop dog( 10( The depth o3 cut is given gradually till the re,uired dimension o3 ((((mm is o2tained( 11( &inally chec. the dimensions o3 the wor. piece with the micrometer(

+esult" 8 Thus the grinding operation is per3ormed on the turned wor. piece using cylindrical grinding machine(

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7o22ing is a process o3 generating a gear 2y means o3 a rotating cutter called ho2( The ho2 has helical threads( /rooves are cut in the threads parallel to the axes( This will provide the cutting edges( Proper ra.e and clearance angles are ground on these cutting edges( The rotating ho2 acts li.e a continuously moving rac. as its cuts( The gear 2lan. is mounted on a vertical ar2or( The ho2 is mounted in a 3otating ar2or( The ho2 axis is tilted through the ho2 lead angle HaH so that its teeth parallel to the axis o3 the gear 2lan.(

Then HaH

!>0F B a))

'here a i helix angle o3 the ho2 thread( The ho2 axis cs inclined at HaH with the hori:ontal as shown in 3ig( PCC) !9ote" ho2 lead angle J >00 B ho2 helix angle)

)r M)# The

The ho2 is rotated at suita2le cutting speed( h is 3ed across the 2lan. 3ace( ho2 and 2lan. are made to rotate in correct relation ship to each other i(e(% they rotate li.e a worm and worm gear in mesh( &or one rotation o3 the ho2% the 2lan. rotates 2y one tooth( !hi case o3 single start ho2() &or cutting helical gears% the axis o3 the ho2 is inclined to hori:ontal 2y HaH 'here a

0 U !>0 FB a )) !i3 the helix o3 the ho2 and the helix o3 the gear to 2e cut are 0 8 !>0 F B a 0 !i3 the helix o3 the ho2 and the helix o3 the gear to 2e cut are

di33erent i(e(% one is right handed and another is le3t handed) a

2oth right handed or 2oth le3t handed) 'here" 8

7elix angle o3 the ho2

0B 7elix angle o3 the helical gear to 2e cut $pplication" 8 7o22ing is used 3or generating spur% helical and worm gears( Limitations" 8

!i) -nternal gears cannot 2e generated( !ii) 3o22ing cannot 2e used 3or producing gear teeth( 7ence high rate o3 to shoulders

7o22ing is a process o3 generating a gear 2y means o3 a rotating cutter called ho2(

#(8 The ho2 has helical threads( /rooves are cut in the threads parallel to the axis( This will provide the cutting edges( Proper ra.e and clearance angles are ground on these cutting edges(

The rotating ho2 acts li.e a continuously moving rac. as it cuts(

#chematic representation o3 gear trains in a gear ho22ing mic(


# BL' ? arrangement >OB


O( >OB

!>0 B 7 '

' *LE O( >OBD

$oca 027. W2e3

OM *eno3ded

/eneration o3 involutes pro3ile


$dvantages" 8

1( 2( 3( 4( 5( 6( <(

$ single ho2 with the given modulo can 2e used 3or generating gear with any num2er o3 teeth o3 the same module( The same ho2 can 2e used 3or spur and helical gears )peration is continuous( #o very 3ast o3 production( Per3ect tooth space is o2tained( Process is automatic and so less s.illed operator is su33icient( 'orm gears are generated only ho22ing( Multiple 2lan.s tan 2e cut8at8a time% 7ence high rate o3 production(

#etting the $ngle o3 +o2 #lide 3or Cutting #pur /ear" 8 The slide is rotated the cloc.wise( !The 3ly wheel mover downward through an angle e,ual to the helix angle o3 ho2) 8 &or +ight 7and 7elical /ear" 8 The slide is rotated the rough and e,ual to the di33erence o3 helix angle o3 gear and helix angle o3 ho2 in anti8cloc.wise direction( !The 3ly wheel going upward) &or Le3t 7and 7elical /ear" 8 The slide is rotated through an angle to the sum o3 helix angle o3 gear and helix angle o3 ho2( !The 3ly wheel moving downward) $3ter setting the angle o3 ho2 slide the slide is clamped 2y means o3 3our 2olts provided( &ormula 3or gears" 18Ao22ing is used 3or generating #pur% 7elical and 'orm /ears(

9o( o3 Teeth 9o( o3 Pinion Teeth 9o( o3 /ear Teeth 8

l\r H

*iametrical Pitch


)utside *iameter
ng a a Pitch *iameter Centre *istance

8 C P*

\ $ngle o3 7elix $ddendum &)+ #PI+ / $+# To +ead Circular Pitch Centre *istance *iametrical Pitch Module Pitch *iameter )utside *iameter

nglish #ystem * P 3(1416xP* C* B tip x ng *P J 9 N

Metric #ystem Module cp N 3(1416xP* C* N (np 0 ng) module

1 P* J 9 ,02 3


P* J 9 x Module

P L)* J W &)+ 7 L-C$L / $+# Pitch *iameter 44444444444444444444444444 ' ) B )utside *iameter Centre *istance

P* J #ecent a x 9 x module
a x 9 U 2) module C* 1 gear U P* pinion B


)*JNNNNNNNNNNNNNN9 C* J P-) gear U P* pinion

#peci3ications o3 /ear +o22ing Machine% Capacity" #mm Module 8 500mm !Maximum) #P C-&-C$T-)9#


M$]-MIM '-*T7CIT)&#PI+/ $+ M$]-MIM '-*T7CIT)&7 L-C$L / $+ 7 L-]$9/L 15F 7 L-]$9/L 300 7 L-]$9/L 45F 2** MM *-#T$9C @ T' 97)@#P-9*L ?#I+&$C )&T$@L M-9('-T7@ LL)'# +,) MM M$]('-T7)IT@ LL)'# +)* MM $]-$L *-#T$9C @ T' 9 T$@L ? 7)@ #P-9*L 7)@#P *+$9/ !+PM) +$9/ $]-$L & *# )& 7)@ #L-* M$C7-9 *-M 9#-)9 L]']7 ' -/7T )&32, MM M$C7-9 3)* MM M$-9*+-; M)T)+ * TO +,) MM +$P-*M)T)+ C))L$9TPIMP #T$9*$+* GI-PM 9T" -9* ]-9// $+# T

2#) MODU ! 3)* MM 2)* MM

DI%%!&!'TIA G!A& (!T

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3)")*"6*"-*"++)"+.* *2 MM TO . MM +)** X +*** X +))) MM +)** /G(#0APP-2*X#1 +#+ /W *#36 /W *#++ /W .* PC(# .* PC(#
*+ PC(# *+ PC(#

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$im" 8 To machine on given 2lan. a helical gear pro3ile using gemiho22ing machine( Tools re,uired" 8 ;eri3ier caliper% spanner% dot punch% hammer% centre 2it% 7(#(# cutting tool% dial gauge% etc((% Materials re,uired" 8 $ c yl i nd r i c a l w or . pi ec e o 3 di am et er s (( (i nm % l en gt h cast iron rod( Calculations" 8 9um2er o3 Teeth Module o3 /ear @lan. *iameter Procedure" 8 -( The gear 2lan. is 3ixed on mandrel and tightened 2y 2olted( 2. The gear 2lan. is chec.ed 3or oval shape 2y dial gauge( 3. The ho22ing cutter is made to Eust touch the gear 2lan.( 4. The machine is started and cut is given 2y rotating tool on to the rotating 2lan.( 5. The depth o3 cut is 3ed a3ter - revolution and the operation is repeated until the 3inished gear shape is achieved( 6. $pply coolant oil to carry away heat% and preventing wear on tool and rest on wor.( 7. #top the machine and with draw the wor. and remove 3rom mandrel( 9ow the machine is ready 3or next machining( 8. Chec. the gear 3or pitch and gear teeth pro3ile( E "oo1. Dep1. E Circular Pitch J (o3/ulaF0; ) #efe3 %age o mm o3

+esult" 8 Thus the helical gear is generated on the gear 2lan. using gear ho22ing machine(

S. *" #$ M*2. % ' # #haping among the oldest techni,ues * #haping is where the wor. piece is 3ed at right angles to the cutting motion 2etween successive stro.es o3 the tool( These processes re,uire s.illed operators and 3or the most part have 2een replaced 2y other processes( Classi3ication o3 #hapers Machine #K 7ori:ontal8push cut Plain !Production wor.) Iniversal !Tool room wor.) 7ori:ontal8draw cut #t( ;ertical # l o t t e r 0e y seat er #( #pecial purpose8as 3or gear cutting 7ori : ont al P ush C ut #haper The shaper is a relatively simple machine( -t is used 3airly o3ten in the tool room or 3or machining one or two pieces 3or prototype wor.( Tooling is simple% and shapers do not always re,uire operator attention while cutting( The hori:ontal shaper is the most common type% and its principal components are shown 2elow% and descri2ed as 3ollows"

C( +am" The ram slides 2ac. and 3orth in dovetail or s,uare ways to transmit power to the cutter( The starting point and the length o3 the stro.e can 2e adEusted(
Tool head" The tool head is 3astened to the ram on a circular plate so that it can 2e

rotated 3or ma.ing

angular cuts( The tool 2ead can also 2e moved up or down 2y its hand cran. 3or precise depth adEustments(
Clapper @ox" The clapper 2ox is needed 2ecause the cutter drags over the wor. on the return stro.e( The clapper 2ox is hinged so that the cutting tool will not dig in( )3ten this clapper 2ox is automatically raised 2y mechanical% air% or hydraulic action( C( Ta2le" The ta2le is moved le3t and right% usually 2y hand% to position the wor. under the

curter wlig(n setting

up( Then% either 2y hand or more o3ten automatically% the ta2le moved sideways to 3eed the wor. under the cutter at the end or 2eginning o3 each stro.e(
#addle" The saddle moves up and down !Y axis)% usually manually% to set the rough position o3 the depth o3 cut( &inal depth can 2e set 2y the hand cran. on the tool head( Column" The column supports the ram and the rails 3or the saddle( The mechanism 3or moving the ram and ta2le is housed inside the column( Tool holders" Tool holders are the same as the ones used on at engine lathe% though o3ten larger in si:e( The cutter is sharpened with ra.e and clearance angles similar to lathe tools though the angles are smaller 2ecause the wor. sur3ace is usually 3lat( These cutters are 3astened into the tool holder( Aust as in the lathe% 2ut in a vertical plane( C. 0 $+ . 3/%',...0

$+ holding is 3re,uently done in a vise( The vise is specially designed 3or use %'.

).*"#$) and has long ways which allow the Eaws to open up to 14C or more% there3ore ,uite large wor. pieces can 2e held( The vise may also have a swivel 2ase so that cuts may 2e made at an angle( 'or. that cannot 2e held in the vise !due to si:e or shape) is clamped directly to the shaper ta2le in much the same way as parts are secured on milling machine ta2les(
S.*"#$ S%H#9 T.#

si:e o3 a shaper is the maximum length o3 stro.e which it can ta.e( 7ori:ontal shapers

are most o3ten made with stro.es 3rom 168 to 24C long% though some smaller and larger si:es are availa2le( These shapers use 3rom 28 to 58hp motors to drive the head and the automatic 3eed(
S.*"#$ 0%/(.9 T.# &*!%&-& ;%/(. ;.%2. 2*' 8# 2-( depends on the availa2le movement o3 the ta2le( Most shapers have a width capacity e,ual to or greater than the length o3 the stro.e( The maximum vertical height availa2le is a2out @2I ( @5I.

Types o3 'or." The tool post and the tool slide can 2e angled as seen 2elow( This allows the shaper to 2e used 3or di33erent types o3 wor.(


!i) The tool post has 2een turned at an angle so that side o3 the material can 2e machined( !ii) The tool post is not angled so that the tool can 2e used to level a sur3ace( !iii) The top slide is slowly 3eed into the material so that a Hrac.H can 2e machined 3or a rac. and pinion gear system(
Guic. +eturn Mechanism

T7 #7$P-9/M$C7-9 metal sur3aces especially where a large amount ot metal has to 2e removed( )ther machines such as milling machines are much

!u112ng "ool

"ool (eed

$13o6e $13o6e

Pave arc $ston^

#e1u3n $13o6e
!small ivF distance)

shaping machine is used to machine 3it 8

more expensive and are more suited to removing smaller amounts o3 metal% very accurately(
C(P The reciprocating motion o3 the mechanism inside the shaping machine can 2e seen in the diagram( $s the disc

rotates the top o3 the machine moves 3orwards and 2ac.wards% pushing a cutting tool( The cutting tool removes the metal 3rom wor. which is care3ully 2olted down(

x( 9o"

R -'/ ( S?-*$# U)%', S.*"#$ M*2.%'#

$im" 8 To ma.e the s,uare shape 3rom the cylindrical wor. piece on a shaper machine( Tools re,uired" 8 #ingle Point Tool !7(#(#)% ;ernier caliper% $dEusta2le spanner% .ey% hammer% etc((( Materials re,uired" $ cylindrical wor. piece o3 diameter (((mm and length iron rod( Procedure" o3 cast

1( The single point cutting tool is clamped in the tool post( 2( The sur3ace o3 the material to 2e machined is mar.ed( 3( The wor. piece is 3ixed in the machine vice% ensuring that it is parallel to the stro.e o3 the ram( @y elevating screw it is 2rought to the re,uired height( 4( The ram stro.e is adEusted depending on the length o3 the wor. piece to account 3or speed variation( 5( +am stro.e
J length o3 Eo2 U length o3 approach U length o3 over travel(

6( The ta2le and the clapper 2ox are moved so that the tip o3 the tool Eust touches the wor. piece( <( #tart the machine and the let the ram reciprocates% cutting during the 3orward stro.e( *uring the return stro.e
depth o3 cut is set 2y rotating the handle( &eed is also set simultaneously 2y cran.ing ta2le 3eed screw( &eeding can 2e automated i3 re,uired(

=( $3ter machining a groove on the wor. piece the C;C tool is removed and the parting tool is 3ixed( H >( &inishing cut is given on the #,uare #hape and 4 sides( 10( Procedure is repeated 3or re,uired si:e and shape(


Thus a s,uare shape 3rom the cylindrical wor. piece on a shaper machine

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The planer li.e a shaper is a machine tool primarily intended to produce plane and 3iat

sur3aces 2y a single heavy wor. pieces

point cutting too)(

$ planer is very large and massive compared to a shaper and capa2le o3 machining

which cannot 2e accommodated on a shaper ta2le(

The 3undamental di33erence 2etween a shaper and a planer is that in a planer the wor. which is supported on the ta2le reciprocates past the stationary cutting tool and the 3eed is supplied 2y the lateral movement o3 the tool% whereas in a shaper the tool which is mounted upon the ram reciprocates and the 3eed is given 2y the crosswise movement o3 the ta2le( TYP # )& PL$9-9/ M$C7-9 *i33erent classes o3 wor.8necessitate designing o3 di33erent types o3 planing machine to suit to various re,uirements o3 our present day industry( The di33erent types o3 planer which are most commonly used are" -( *ou2le housing planer( 4( dge or plate planer(

2( )pen side planer( 3( Pit planer

#T$9*$+* )+ *)I@L 7)I#-9/ PL$9 +"

5( *ivided ta2le planer(

The standard or dou2le housing planer is most widely used in wor.shops( $ dou2le housing planer has a long heavy 2ase on which a ta2le reciprocates on accurate guide ways(

housings or uprights are mounted near the middle o3 the 2ase% one on each side o3 the 2ed( )P 9 #-* PL$9 +"
The length o3 the 2ed is little over twice the length o3 the ta2le( Two massive vertical $n open side planer has housing only on one side o3 the 2ase and the cross rail is

suspended 3rom the

housing as a cantilever(
This 3eature o3 the machine allows large and wide Eo2s to 2e clamped on the ta2le and reciprocated past the cutting tool( )ne side o3 the planer 2eing opened% large and wide out o3 the ta2le and reciprocate without 2eing inter3ered 2y the housing( -n a dou2le housing planer% the maximum width o3 the Eo2 which can 2e machined is

limited 2y the distance

2etween the two housings

P-T PL$9 +" $ pit type planer is massive in construction( -t di33ers 3rom an ordinary planer in that the ta2le is stationary and the column carrying the cross rail reciprocates on massive hori:ontal rails mounted on 2oth sides o3 the ta2le(

This type o3 planner is suita2le 3or machining a very large wor. which cannot 2e accommodated on a standard planer and the design saves much o3 3loor space( The length o3 the 2ed re,uired in a pit type planer is little over the length o3 the ta2le% whereas in a standard planer the length o3 the 2ed is nearly twice the length o3 the ta2le( The uprights and the cross rail are made su33iciently rigid to ta.e up the 3orces while cutting( */ )+ PL$T PL$9 +" The design o3 a plate or edge planer is totally unli.e that o3 an ordinary planer( -t is specially intended 3or s,uaring and 2eveling the edges o3 steel plates used 3or di33erent pressore vessels and ship82uilding wor.s( )ne end o3 a long plate which remains stationary is clamped with the machine 3rame 2y a large num2er o3 air operated clamps( The cutting tool is attached to a carriage which is supported on two hori:ontal ways o3 the planer on its 3ront end( The operator can stand on a plat3orm extending 3rom the carriage( The carriage holding the tool reciprocates past the edge o3 the plate( The 3eed and depth o3 cut is adEusted 2y the tool holder which can 2e operated 3rom the plat3orm( *-;-* * T$@L PL$9 +"

This type o3 planner has two ta2les on the 2ed which may 2e reciprocated separately or together( This type o3 design saves much o3 idle time while setting the wor.( The setting up o3 a large num2er o3 identical wor. pieces on the planning machine ta2le ta.es ,uite a long time( -t may re,uire as much time 3or setting up as may 2e necessary 3or machining( To have a continuous production one o3 the ta2les is used 3or setting up the wor.% while the other reciprocates past the cutting tool 3inishing the wor.( 'hen the wor. on the second ta2le is 3inished% it is stopped and 3inished Eo2s are removed( &resh Eo2s are now set up on this ta2le while the 3irst ta2le holding the Eo2s now reciprocates past the tool( 'hen a heavy and large Eo2 has to 2e machined% 2oth the ta2les are clamped together and are given reciprocating movement under the tool( PL$9 + M C7$9-#M# The two important mechanisms o3 a planer are" 1( Ta2le drives mechanism( The di33erent mechanisms used to drive the ta2le are" 1( )pen and cross 2elt drive( 2( +eversi2le motor drive( the ta2le width is less than >00 mm(

2( &eeding mechanism( 3( 7ydraulic drive(

)P 9 $9* C+)## @ LT *+-; " The open and cross 2elt drive o3 the ta2le is used in a planer o3 smaller si:e where

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$im" 8 To ma.e the s,uare shape 3rom the cylindrical wor. piece on a planner machine( Tools re,uired" 8 #ingle Point Tool !7(#(#)( ;ernier caliper% $dEusta2le spanner% .ey% hammer% etc(( Materials re,uired" 8 $ cylindrical wor. piece o3 diameter (((ram and length (((mm o3 cast iron rod( Procedure"

1( The single point cutting tool is clamped in the tool holder( 2( The sur3ace o3 the material to 2e machined is mar.ed( 3( The wor. piece is 3ixed in the machine vice% ensuring that it is parallel to ta2le travel( 4( Ta2le travd1 is set 2y using trip dogs( 5( *istance J $pproach U 0ey Length U )ver Length( 6( Ta2le and clapper 2ox is moved such that tip o3 tool Eust touches maximum height o3 wor.( <( #tart the machine( $s the ta2le reciprocates% tool is 3ed% depth o3 cut set% machining operation starts during
rearward movement o3 ta2le(

=( The over arm is used to set width o3 s,uare shape and is achieved in proper gradual setup per stro.e( >( $3ter machining with C;C tool( Parting o33 tool is set on tool holder a3ter removing C;C tool( 10( 'ith parting tool get re,uired depth and width o3 s,uare shape now enlarging cut made 2y C;C tool(
Chec. the dimension 3or accuracy( +esult" Thus a ,uare shape 3rom the cylindrical wor. piece on a planner machine

DRILLING MACHINE -9T+)*ICT-)9 The drilling machine is one o3 the most important machines -n wor.shop in a drilling machine holes may 2e derived ,uic.ly and at a low cost( The hole is generated 2y the rotating edge o3 a cutting tool .nown as the drill which exerts large 3orce on the wor. clamped on the ta2le( TYP # )& *+-LL-9/ M$C7-9 *rilling machines are made in many di33erent types and si:es% each designed to handle a Hclass o3 wor. or speci3ic Eo2 to the 2est advantage( The di33erent types o3 drilling machines are

1( Porta2le drilling machine( 2( #ensitive drilling machine( !a) @ench mounting% 3( Ipright drilling machine( !a) +ound column section% 4( +adial drilling machine( !a) Plain !c) Iniversal 5( /ang drilling machine( 6( Multiple spindle drilling machine( <( $utomatic drilling machine( =( *eep hole drilling machine(
!a) ;ertical% !2) &lour mounting /$9/ *+-LL-9/ M$C7-9 'hen a num2er o3 single spindle drilling machine columns are placed side 2y side on a common 2ase and have a common wor.ta2le% the machine is .nown as the gang drilling machine( -n a gang drilling machine 3our to six spindles may 2e mounted side 2y side( MILT-PL *+-LL-9/ M$C7-9 The 3unction o3 a multiple spindle drilling machine is to drill a num2er o3 holes in a piece o3 wor. simultaneously and to reproduce the same pattern o3 holes in a num2er o3 identical pieces in a mass production wor.( )nce the wor. is loaded at the 3irst machine% the wor. will move 3rom one machine to the other where di33erent operations can 2e per3ormed and the 3inished wor. comes out 3rom the last unit without any manual handling( This type o3 machine is intended purely 3or production purposes and may 2e used 3or milling% honing and similar operations in addition to drilling and tapping( #P-9*L

P 7)L

*+-LL-9/ M$C7-9

The machine is operated at high speed and low 3eed( #u33icient ,uantity o3 lu2ricant is pumped to the cutting points 3or removal o3 chips and cooling the cutting edges o3 the drill( $ long Eo2 is usually supported at several points to prevent any de3lection( The wor. is usually rotated while the drill is 3ed into the wor.( This helps in 3eeding the drill in a straight path( -n some machines 2oth4he wor. and the drill are rotated 3or accurate location( The machine may 2e hori:ontal or vertical type( -n some machines step 3eed is applied( The drill is withdrawn automatically each time when it penetrates into the wor. to a depth e,ual to its diameter( This process permits the chip to Clear out 3rom the wor.( T7 #-Q )& $ *+-LL-9/ M$C7-9 The si:e o3 a drilling machine varies with the type o3 machine 2eing considered the sensitive and upright drilling machines are speci3ied 2y the diameter o3 the largest piece that can 2e centered under the spindle(( Thus in the case o3 a 600 nun si:e upright drilling machine% the spindle placed at a distance is slightly greater than 300 mm 3rom the 3ront 3ace o3 the column(

IP+-/7T *+-LL-9/ M$C7-9


The di33erent parts o3 an upright drilling machine are as 3ollows" @ase 7eads [ Column #pindle% ,uill and drill head assem2ly @ase" The 2ase is that part o3 the machine on which vertical column is mounted( Column" The column is the vertical mem2er o3 the machine which supports the ta2le and the head containing all the driving mechanism( Ta2le" The ta2le is mounted on the column and is provided with T8slots 3or clamping the wor. directly on its 3ace #pindle drive mechanism" The spindle drive mechanism o3 a drilling machine incorporates an arrangement 3or o2taining multiple speed o3 the spindle similar to lathe to suit to various machining conditions( Multiple speed o3 the spindle may 2e o2tained as 3ollows" 4( @y step cone pulley drive( @y step cone pulley drive with one or more 2ac. gears( 4 @y gearing( P Ta2le P #pindle drive and 3eed mechanism

#tep Cone Pulley *rive -llustrates a spindle driving mechanism incorporating a step cone pulley( The motion is transmitted 3rom an overhead line sha3t to the countersha3t mounted on the 2ase o3 the machine((( #tep cone pulley drive with 2ac. gear -n order to o2tain larger num2er o3 spindle speeds 2ac. gears are incorporated in the machine in addition to the step cone pulley( 'ith 2ac. gears CoutC the speed o3 the spindle is increased and the machine is used 3or drilling smaller 2oles( &or drilling larger diameter holes or 3or tapping% the spindle speed is reduced 2y engaging the 2ac. gears( #pindle drive 2y gearing" Modem heavy duty drilling machines are driven 2y individual motor mounted on the 3rame o3 the machine( The multiple speeds may 2e o2tained 2y sliding gear or sliding clutch mechanism or 2y the com2ination o3 the a2ove two methods( 4( The sliding gear and sliding clutch mechanism in drilling is similar to that descri2ed in $rt( 311( &eed Mechanism" -n a drilling machine% the 3eed is a33ected 2y the vertical movement o3 the drill into the wor.( The 3eed movement o3 the drill may 2e controlled 2y hand or power( The hand 3eed may 2e applied 2y two methods" Guic. traverse hand 3eed +adial *rilling Machine Parts #ensitive hand 3eed

1) The di33erent parts o3 a radial drilling machine have 2een illustrated in &ig(5(3( They are as 3ollows"
1( @ase 2( *rill head 3( Column

4( speed and 3eed mechanism 5( + adi al arm

@ase" The 2ase o3 a radial drilling machine is a large rectangular casting that is 3inished on its top to support a column on its one end and to hold the wor. ta2le at the other end Column" The column is a cylindrical casting that is mounted vertically at one end o3 the 2ase +adial arm" The radial arm that is mounted on the column extends hori:ontally over the 2ase( *rill head" The drill head is mounted on the radial ann and drives the drill spindle( -t encloses all the mechanism 3or driving the drill at multiple speeds and at di33erent 3eed( #pindle dri3t Hand 3eed mechanism" There are two common methods o3 driving the spindle( $ constant speed motor is mounted at the extreme end o3 the radial aim which 2alances partially the weight o3 the overhanging arm( 'or. 7olding *evices @e3ore per3orming any operation in a drilling machine it is a2solutely necessary to secure the wor. 3irmly

on the

7-$ pressure coolant

drilling machine ta2le( The wor. should never 2e held 2y hand% 2ecause the drill while revolving exerts so much o3 tor,ue on the wor. piece that it starts revolving along with the tool and may cause inEuries to the operator( The devices commonly used 3or holding the wor. in a drilling machine are -( T82olt and clamps(

2( *ri l l press vi se( 3( # t e p 2 l o c . y 4( ; 8 2 l o c . ( 5( $ n g l e p l a t e ( 6( * r i l l E i g s

*rilling Machine )perations The di33erent operations that can 2e per3ormed in a drilling machine are"

1( *rilling( 2( +eaming( 3( @ori ng( 4( Counter 2oring( 5( Count ersi n.i ng(

6( <( =( >(

#pot 3acing( Tapping( Lapping( /rinding(

1( Trepanni n g(

*rilling is the operation o3 producing a cylindrical hole 2y removing metal 2y the rotating edge o3 a cutting tool called the drill(

+eaming" +eaming is an accurate way o3 si:ing and 3inishing a hole which has previously drilled( -n order to 3inish a hole and to 2ring it to the accurate si:e% the hole is drilled slightly undersi:e( @oring"

@oring is per3ormed in a drilling machine 3or reasons stated 2elow

1( To enlarge a hole 2y means o3 an adEusta2le cutting tool with only one cutting edge( This is necessary
where suita2le si:ed drill is not availa2le or where hole diameter is so large that it cannot 2e ordinarily drilled(

2( Ao 3inish a hole accurately and to 2ring it to the re,uired si:e( 3( To machine the internal sur3ace o3 a hole already produced in casting( 4( To correct out o3 roundness o3 the hole( 5( To correct the location o3 the hole as the 2oring tool 3ollows an independent path with respect to the

Lapping" Lapping is the operation o3 si:ing and 3inishing a small diameter hole already hardened 2y removing a very small amount o3 material 2y using a lap( There are many .inds o3 lapping tools( !ii)

The copper head laps are commonly used( The lap 3its in the hole and is moved down
while it revolves(

/rinding" /rinding operation may 2e per3ormed in a drilling machine to 3inish a hardened hole(

P reparing" -t is the operation o3 producing a hole 2y removing metal along the circum3erence o3 a hollow cutting tool( 9omenclature o3 *rill Tool The 3ollowing are the twist drill elements( $xis" The longitudinal centre line o3 the drill( extending to the commencement o3 the shan.( @ody clearance" That portico( )3 the 2ody sur3ace which is reduced in diameter to provide diametric clearance( Chisel edge" # The edge 3ormed 2y the intersection o3 the 3lan.s( The chisel edge is also sometimes called8 dead centre( The dead centre or the chisel edge acts as a 3lat drill and cuts its own hole in the wor. piece( #i $ great amount o3 axial thrust is re,uired to cut a hole 2y the chisel edge( -n some drills Chisel edge is made spiral instead o3 a straight one( This reduces the axial thrust and -mproves the hole location( Chances o3 production o3 oversi:e holes are also reduced( Chisel edge corner" The Hcomer 3ormed 2y the intersection o3 a lip and the chisel edge( 8 @ody" That portion o3 the drill extending 3rom its extreme point to the commencement o3 the nec.% i3 present% otherwise

&ace" The portion o3 the 3lute sur3ace adEacent to the upon which the chip impinges as it is cut 3rom the wor.( &lan." That sur3ace on a drill point which extends 2ehind the lip to the 3ollowing 3lute( 7ates" The groove in the 2ody o3 the drill( 'hich provides lip The 3unctions o3 the 3lutes are" -( To 3orm the cutting edges on the point(

2( To allow the chips to escape( 3( To cause the chips to curl( 4( To permit the cutting 3luid to reach the cutting edges(
7eel" The edge 3ormed 2y the intersection o3 the 3lute sur3ace and the 2ody clearance( Lands" The cylindrically ground sur3ace on the leading edges o3 the drill 3lutes( The width o3 the land is measured at right angles to the 3lute helix( The drill is M- si:e only across the lands at the point end( Land .eeps the drill aligned(

Lip !cutting edge)" The edge 3ormed 2y i he intersections o3 the 3lan. and 3ace( The re,uirements o3 the drill lips are"

1( @oth lips should 2e at the same angle o3 inclinatory with the drill axis% 2( @oth lips should 2e o3 e,ual length( 3( @oth lips should 2e provided with the correct clearance(
9ec." The diametrically undercut portion 2etween the 2ody and the shan. o3 the drill( *iameter and other particulars o3 the drill are engraved at the nec.( *+-LL M$T +-$L The materials 3or the manu3acture o3 twist drills are as 3ollows -( )ne piece construction 2( Two piece construction Cutting portion #han. portion " 7igh speed steel or car2on steel(

B 7igh speed steel B Car2on steel with a minimum tensile strength o3 <0 .g per s, mm

7igh speed drills are more widely used due to its greater cutting e33iciency( Cemented car2ide tipped drills is also used in mass production wor.(

x( 9o"

D$ %33%',= R # *&%', *'/ T *""%',

*rill @it !re,uired si:es)% *rill chuc.% Chuc. .ey% Ta2le .ey% *rill sleeve% ;ernier caliper% $dEusta2le

8 To per3orm drilling% reaming and tapping operation on the given wor. piece( Tools re,uired" 8

spanner% 7ammer% Center drill 2it% reaming tool% tapping set% steel rule% )il can% etc((( Materials re,uired" 8 $ rectangular plate wor. piece o3 length thic.ness ((((mm% o3 Mild steel !M#) Plate( Procedure" *rilling" L( The layout o3 the holes to 2e drilled is done 3rom a s.etch(

mm% width (((mm%

2( The sur3ace o3 the material to 2e drilled is 3irst coated layout die( 3( The center lines o3 the holes are then scri2ed on the sur3ace according to dimensions( 4( The intersection o3 the lines is then mar.ed with a center punch( 5( $ com2ined drill and a counter sin. is used to center drill the holes( 6( &ix the re,uired si:e o3 drill 2it in the drill chuc. and drill the component( <( Coolant oil is applied a drill point( Coolant oils are used to carry heat away 3rom the drill point(
*rilling" +eaming is the operation o3 3inishing the drilled hole( $ 3inished hole has the speci3ic diameter si:e% is per3ectly round( The diameter is the same si:e 3rom end to end and it has a smooth C3inished sur3ace( $ drilled hole is seldcim accurate enough in si:e or su33iciently smooth to 2e called a precision hole( 'hen greater accuracy is re,uired the hole must 2e drilled under si:e 2y certain amount and 3inished in the drill chuc.( -( The reamer tool is 3ixed in the drill chuc.(

2( The drilled hole is reamed 2y giving 3eed( 3( +eamer tool removes very small amount o3 material and machine the whole precision( Tapping"
$ tap is a cylindrical 2ar o3 steel with threads 3ormed around it and grooves or 3lutes running length wise in it% intersecting with the threads to 3orm cutting edges( -t is used to cut internal threads( $ set o3 tap consists o3 three taps .nown as taper% plug and 2ottoming taps( The taper tap is used to start the cutting o3 the threads and o3 the hole is 2lind than a plug tap is used to

Complete the cutting o3 the threads near the 2ottom o3 the hole( 'hen it is necessary 3or the threads at the 2ottom o3 a hole to 2e 3ully cut then a 2ottoming tap is used(

1( The taper tap is hold in the tap wrench( !$ tap wrench is a hand tool 3or gripping and holding the tap securely
si:e o3 taps a CTC handle type is used()

2( The location o3 the hole is properly laid out and a hole is drilled( 3( The taper tap is inserted in to the drilled hole( 'hen starting the tap in to the whole care must 2e ta.en to .eep the
tap perpendicular to the wor.(

4( The tap should 2e revolved only one hal3 a rotation at a time a3ter which it should 2e reversed in order to 2rea. the
chips o3 metal 2e3ore revolving 3orward again( Coolant is applied at the hole during operation(

5( The a2ove procedure is repeated until the (3ull length o3 the hole is tapered(

+esult" Thus the drilling% reaming and tapping operation are per3ormed on the given wor.piece(

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#lotting machines can simply 2e considered as verticalH shaping machine where the single point !straight or 3ormed) reciprocates vertically !2ut without ,uic. return e33ect) and the wor.piece% 2eing mounted on the ta2le% is given slow longitudinal and 1 or rotary 3eed as can 2e seen in &ig( 4(4(4( -n this machine also the length and position o3 stro.e can 2e adEusted( )nly light cuts are ta.en due to lac. o3 rigidity o3 the tool holding ram 3or cantilever mode o3 action( Inli.e shaping and planing machines% slotting machines are generally used to machine internal sur3aces H!3lm% 3ormed grooves and cylindrical)( #haping machines and slotting machines% 3or their low productivity% are generally used% instead o3

general production% 3or piece production re,uired 3or repair and maintenance%H Li.e shaping .slotting machines%

planing machines% as such are also 2ecoming o2solete t% and Pgetting replaced 2y piano8millers where instead o3 single point tools a large num2er o3 large si:e and high speed milling cutters are used(

#O"'"& * "'BLE

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M*+# %'(#$'*3 K#7 ;*7 87 -)%', )3 ((#$

$im" 8 To per3orm an internal .eyway operation on the given wor. piece 2y using slotter machine( Tools re,uired" 8 Cutting tool% steel rule% vernier caliper% spanners% center punch% hammer etc((( Materials re,uired" 8 $ cylindrical wor. piece o3 diameter ((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((mm and length (mm o3 cast iron rod( P Procedure"

1( The given Eo2 dimensions are chec.ed( 2( Mar.ing produced on the wor. piece as per re,uired dimensions using centre punch( t, 3( &ix the wor. piece on the slotter machine ta2le( 4( &ix the tool on the vertical tool head o3 the slotter machine( 5( The tool is 3ed against the wor. piece to produce .eyway on the wor. piece( 6( TheH 3inished wor. piece is ta.en out 3rom the machine and again chec.ed 3or its dimensions(

+esult" Thus the re,uired si:e and shape o3 the wor. piece o2tained using stutter machine(

/-; 9 A)@





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