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2R-97

(Reapproved 2002)

**Embedment Design Examples
**

Reported by ACI Committee 349

Charles A. Zalesiak Chairman Hans G. Ashar Ranjit Bandyopadhyay * Ronald A. Cook* Jack M. Daly Arobindo Dutt Branko Galunic Dwaine A. Godfrey Herman L. Graves III

* Major contributor to the report † Deceased

Gunnar A. Harstead Christopher Heinz Charles J. Hookham Richard E. Klingner Timothy J. Lynch Frederick L. Moreadith Dragos A. Nuta

Richard S. Orr* Robert B. Pan Julius V. Rotz † Robert W. Talmadge Chen P. Tan Richard E. Toland Donald T. Ward Albert Y. C. Wong

Appendix B of ACI 349 was developed to better define the design requirements for steel embedmnts revisions are periodically made to the code as a result of on-going research and testing. As with other concretebuilding codes, the design of embedments attempts to assure a ductile failure mode so that the reinforcement yields before the concrete fails. In embedments designed for direct loading, the concrete pullout strength must be greater than the tensile strength of the steel. This report presents a series of design examples of ductile steel embedments. These examples have been updated to include the revision incorparated in Appendix B of ACI 349-97. Keywords: Anchorage (structural); anchor bolts; anchors (fasteners); embedment; inserts; loads (forces); load transfer; moments; reinforced concrete; reinforcing steels; shear strength; structural design; studs; tension.

PART A—Examples: Ductile single embedded element in semi-in nite concrete. . . .p. 349.2R-3 Example A1 Single stud, tension only Example A2 Single stud, shear only Example A3 Single stud, combined tension and shear Example A4 Anchor bolt, combined tension and shear Example A5 Single rebar, combined tension and shear PART B—Examples: Ductile multiple embedded elements in semi-in nite concrete. .p. 349.2R-10 Example B1 Four-stud rigid embedded plate, tension only Example B2(a) Four-stud rigid embedded plate, combined shear and uniaxial moment Example B2(b) Four-stud flexible embedded plate, combined shear and uniaxial moment Example B2(c) Four-bolt rigid surface-mounted plate, combined shear and uniaxial moment Example B3(a) Four-stud rigid embedded plate, combined tension, shear, and uniaxial moment Example B3(b) Four-stud flexible embedded plate, combined tension, shear, and uniaxial moment Example B4 Four-stud rigid embedded plate in thin slab, tension only APPENDIX A—Projected area (Acp) for four studs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p. 349.2R-26

ACI 349.2R-97 became effective October 16, 1997. Copyright © 2002, American Concrete Institute. All rights reserved including rights of reproduction and use in any form or by any means, including the making of copies by any photo process, or by electronic or mechanical device, printed, written, or oral, or recording for sound or visual reproduction or for use in any knowledge or retrieval system or device, unless permission in writing is obtained from the copyright proprietors.

CONTENTS Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 349.2R-2 Notation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p. 349.2R-2

ACI Committee Reports, Guides, Standard Practices, and Commentaries are intended for guidance in planning, designing, executing, and inspecting construction. This document is intended for the use of individuals who are competent to evaluate the significance and limitations of its content and recommendations and who will accept responsibility for the application of the material it contains. The American Concrete Institute disclaims any and all responsibility for the stated principles. The Institute shall not be liable for any loss or damage arising therefrom. Reference to this document shall not be made in contract documents. If items found in this document are desired by the Architect/Engineer to be a part of the contract documents, they shall be restated in mandatory language for incorporation by the Architect/ Engineer.

349.2R-1

349.2R-2

MANUAL OF CONCRETE PRACTICE

INTRODUCTION This report has been prepared by members of the ACI 349 Sub-Committee on Steel Embedments to provide examples of the application of the ACI 349 Code to the design of steel embedments. The ACI 349 Committee was charged in 1973 with preparation of the code covering concrete structures in nuclear power plants. At that time, it was recognized that design requirements for steel embedments were not well defined and a special working group was established to develop code requirements. After much discussion and many drafts, Appendix B was approved and issued in the 1978 Supplement of ACI 349 covering the design of steel embedments. Subsequently, the Sub-Committee has continued to monitor on-going research and testing and to incorporate experience of applying the Code. Periodic revisions have been made to the Code and Appendix B. The underlying philosophy in the design of embedments is to attempt to assure a ductile failure mode. This is similar to the philosophy of the rest of the concrete building codes wherein, for example, flexural steel for a beam is limited to assure that the reinforcement steel yields before the concrete crushes. In the design of an embedment for direct loading, the philosophy leads to the requirement that the concrete pull-out strength must be greater than the tensile strength of the steel. This report includes a series of design examples starting with simple cases and extending to more complex cases for ductile embedments. The format for each example follows the format of the Strength Design Handbook, SP-17, and provides a reference back to the code paragraph for each calculation procedure. NOTATION depth of equivalent stress block, in. effective stress area deﬁned by the projected area of the 45 degree stress cone radiating towards the attachment from the bearing edge of the anchor, sq. in. effective stress area of anchor, sq. in. area of anchor head, sq. in. area of steel, sq. in. area of steel required to resist tension, sq. in. area of steel required to resist shear, sq. in.

Ar = A vf = b =

B c C db dh ds Fy fc ′ f ut fy h k tr ld Ld Mn Mu My n Pd Pn Pu R S t T Th Vn Vu α β γ µ φ

= = = = = = = = = = = = = =

a = Acp =

Ac = Ah = As = Ast = Asv =

= = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = =

reduction in effective stress area to account for limited depth of concrete beyond the bearing surface of the embedment, sq. in. area of shear friction reinforcement, sq. in. width of embedded or surface mounted plate, or width of an anchor group, measured out to out of bearing edges of the outermost anchor heads, in. overlapping stress cone factor (see Appendix A) spacing or cover dimension, in. compressive reaction nominal diameter of reinforcing bar, in. diameter of anchor head or reinforcing bar, in. diameter of tensile stress component, in. speciﬁed yield strength of steel plate, psi speciﬁed compressive strength of concrete, psi speciﬁed tensile strength of steel, psi speciﬁed yield strength of steel, psi overall thickness of concrete member, in. transverse reinforcement index development length, in. embedment depth of anchor head measured from attachment of anchor head to tensile stress component, to the concrete surface, in. nominal moment strength factored moment load on embedment elastic moment capacity of steel plate number of threads per inch design pullout strength of concrete in tension nominal axial strength factored external axial load on the anchorage radius of 45 degree stress cone, in. (see A cp ) spacing between anchors, in. thickness of plate, in. tension force thickness of anchor head, in. nominal shear strength factored shear load on embedments reinforcement location factor coating factor reinforcement size factor coefﬁcient of friction strength reduction factor

shear only Single stud. combined tension and shear Single rebar. combined tension and shear Anchor bolt.EMBEDMENT DESIGN EXAMPLES 349. tension only Single stud.2R-3 PART A EXAMPLES: Ductile single embedded element in semi-inﬁnite concrete Example A1 Example A2 Example A3 Example A4 Example A5 Single stud. combined tension and shear .

× 3 in.4.18 in.2 a) Area of the anchor head (Ah) (including the area of the tensile stress component) is at least 2.6.349.87 + 0.196 = 4 > 2. Pd .196 × 60 = 11. × 3/8 in. Pu = φ P n = φ Asfy As = 8/ [(0.1 Equate the external (required strength) and internal (design strength) forces and solve for the required steel area for the stud. diameter stud 1-5/16 in.8 Pd = φ 4 f c ′ Acp Acp = π [(Ld + dh /2)2 – ( dh /2) 2] Compute Ld from the equation: π [Ld + dh /2)2 – ( dh /2) 2]φ4 f c ′ ≥ As fut L d + Ld – 22.8 kips φ4 f c ′ = 0.196 in.4. diameter stud. has been established by requirements of the attachment.0 times the greatest dimension from the outer most bearing edge of the anchor head to the face of the tensile stress component.312 > 0.38 = 5. which has an effective length of 4.79 / 0.2 of the Code.65 × 4 × ( 4000 ) = 165 psi (see Note 2) π [(Ld + 0. dh Th Ld Given: fc ′ = 4000 psi f y = 50.5.) Ah / As = 0. OK STEP 3: Determine required embedment length for the stud to prevent concrete cone failure B.25 OK Head and tensile stress component are concentric. d h = 1 in. Use 1/2 in.2 OK STEP 2: Check anchor head bearing B.2 (per manufacturer’s data. 2 .1. CALCULATION B.2 Use one 1/2 in.5. Th = 0. Pd > Asfut As fut = 0. Ah = π (d h /2 )2 = 0. (per manufacturer’s data) (dh – ds )/2 = 0.2 The design pullout strength of the concrete.000 psi Pu = 8 kips where Pu is the required factored external load as defined in Section 9.5 2]0.2 > 0. c) Bearing area of head is approximately evenly distributed around the perimeter of the tensile stress component. long.5 times the area of the tensile stress component.30 in. As = 0.9)(50)] = 0. tension only Design an embedment using a stud welded to an embedded plate. giving Ld = 4.8 Ld (Ld + 1.79 in.87 in.5. CODE SECTION P u = 8 kips DESIGN PROCEDURE STEP 1: Determine required steel area of the stud Assume that the load is applied directly over the stud and that a plate size of 3 in.18 in.0) ≥ 22.1(a) B.25 in.000 psi f ut = 60.5 OK Th = 0.1. b) Thickness of the anchor heat (Th) is at least 1. must exceed the minimum speciﬁed tensile strength (As fut ) of the tensile stress component.5)2 – 0.25 in.165 ≥ 11.312 in.8 ≥ 0 Ld ≥ 4.1 B.5.2R-4 MANUAL OF CONCRETE PRACTICE Example A1—Single stud.

65 per Category (d) of Section B. diameter studs is acceptable on 3/8 in. the strength reduction factor φ for concrete pullout is taken as 0.EMBEDMENT DESIGN EXAMPLES 349. the only requirement on plate thickness is that it satisfy the minimum thickness required for stud welding.2R-5 Example A1. NOTE: Stud welding of 1/2 in. then the embedment length would exclude the thickness of the embedded plate. If the plate were larger than the stress cone. the embedment length Ld is taken to the face of the concrete. continued CODE SECTION DESIGN PROCEDURE STEP 4: Check plate thickness Since the load is applied directly over the stud. . 2) In all design examples.2. OK CALCULATION 1) In the above example. thick plate per manufacturer.4.

2 Use one 1/2 in.: .2 a) Procedure is identical to that in Example A1 b) Procedure is identical to that in Example A1 Ah / As = 0.000 psi f ut = 60.2.85. Shear loads at this interface are carried by local bearing and wedge action as described in commentary Section B. * Ref.5.7 = 0.9 × 50) = 0. diameter stud.3. shear only Design an embedment using a stud welded to an embedded plate. G.6.85 × 0.5 on shear strength are not applicable at the surface between the steel plate and the concrete.5.79 / 0.16 in.185 3/8 in.2 Use the shear friction provision of Section 11.196 = 4 > 2. NOTE: The provisions of Section 11.2 > 0. STEP 2: Check anchor head bearing Vu = φVn = φµ A vf f y A vf = Vu /(φµ f y ) A vf = 6/(0. As = 0. “Shear Strength of Thin Flange Composite Sections.4. Given: fc ′ = 4000 psi f y = 50. STEP 4: Check plate thickness Select plate thickness such that ds / t < 2.7.25 in. (per manufacturer’s data) (d h – ds )/2 = 0.5 OK Th = 0.25 OK Head and tensile stress component are concentric.1 Procedure is identical to that in Example A1 since tensile capacity of the stud must be developed. diameter stud 5-3/16 in. thick plate is OK.2 B.16 in.4. long (see calculation in Example A1) t > 0.312 in. Goble.7 with φ = 0. April.1.196 in.349.5.7* Use 1/2 in. AISC Engineering Journal. Th Ld dh V u = 6 kips CODE SECTION DESIGN PROCEDURE STEP 1: Determine required steel area of the stud CALCULATION B.312 > 0.5.2R-6 MANUAL OF CONCRETE PRACTICE Example A2—Single stud.000 psi Vu = 6 kips where Vu is the required factored external load as defined in Section 9. 1968. Th = 0.9.” G.4.2 of the Code. Equate the external (required strength) and internal (design strength) forces and solve for the required steel area for the stud.5/2. µ = 0.2 OK B. OK c) Procedure is identical to that in Example A1 STEP 3: Determine required embedment length for the stud to prevent concrete cone failure B.

5.79 / 0.7* NOTE: * Ref.4. combined tension and shear Design an embedment using a stud welded to an embedded plate.7 with φ = 0. AISC Engineering Journal. Th = 0. .” G.4.05 = 0. April. Th Ld dh P u = 4 kips V u = 2 kips CODE SECTION DESIGN PROCEDURE STEP 1: Determine required steel area of the stud CALCULATION B.: t > 0.2 Vu = φVn = φµ Asv fy Asv = Vu /(φµ f y ) Asv = 2/(0.5. As = 0.2 a) Procedure is identical to that in Example A1 b) Procedure is identical to that in Example A1 Ah / As = 0. (per manufacturer’s data) (dh – ds )/2 = 0.6. Goble.9 × 50) = 0.2 B.2 Use one 1/2 in. Sum the area of steel required for tension with the area of steel required for shear. Equate the external (required strength) and internal (design strength) forces and solve for the required steel area for shear. (11-26) B. Shear loads at this interface are carried by local bearing and wedge action as described in commentary Section B. diameter stud.5 OK Th = 0.1.000 psi Pu = 4 kips Vu = 2 kips where Pu and Vu are the required factored external loads as defined in Section 9.5.5. µ = 0.185 3/ in.5/2.85 × 0.3.000 psi f ut = 60.2 of the Code.3.2.6.2 B.2 > 0.7 = 0. OK c) Procedure is identical to that in Example A1 STEP 3: Determine required embedment length for the stud to prevent concrete cone failure B.7 Eq.5.09 in.25 OK Head and tensile stress component are concentric. thick plate is OK 8 The provisions of Section 11.05 in.14 in.5 on shear strength are not applicable at the surface between the steel plate and the concrete.9. “Shear Strength of Thin Flange Composite Sections.2 As = 0.25 in. Total Area As = Ast + Asv STEP 2: Check anchor head bearing Pu = φ Pn = φ A st f y A st = 4/(0.85. G.196 in. 1968.2R-7 Example A3—Single stud.1 Procedure is identical to that in Example A1 Use 1/2 in.09 + 0.6. Given: fc ′ = 4000 psi f y = 50. Use the shear friction provision of Section 11.196 = 4 > 2.14 in. long (see calculation in Example A1) STEP 4: Calculate minimum plate thickness Select plate thickness such that ds / t < 2.9 × 50) = 0.EMBEDMENT DESIGN EXAMPLES 349.2 OK B.312 in.312 > 0.1 Equate the external (required strength) and internal (design strength) tension forces and solve for the required steel area for tension. diameter stud 5-3/16 in.2 11.7.4.

1 Procedure is identical to that in Example A1 A s fut = 0.349.46 in.1 Equate the external (required strength) and internal (design strength) tension forces and solve for the required steel area for tension.6.9 × 81) = 0.000 psi Pu = 40 kips Vu = 20 kips where Pu and Vu are the required factored external loads as defined in Section 9.96 in. Use provision for contact surface of the base plate ﬂush with the surface of the concrete.78 in.2 of the Code.41= 0.4.5.97 in.55 in.85 × 81) = 0. Given: fc ′ = 4000 psi f y = 81.5.0 in.95 in.55 + 0.2 Sum the area of steel required for tension with the area of steel required for shear.2 Use one 1-1/4 in.2 a) Procedure is identical to that in Example A1 A 325 Heavy Hex Head for 1-1/4 in.97 in.2. 2 .97 = 3.000 psi f ut = 105. diameter bolt.57 > 2. Th = 0.5.8 Ld ≥ –1.46 / 0.2 As = 0.125 + 196.7 × 0.0)2 × 2 × 3 = 3.2 B. P u = 40 kips CODE SECTION DESIGN PROCEDURE STEP 1: Determine required steel area of the stud CALCULATION B.2 Ah / As = 3.25)/2 = 0. thickness = 0.25) ≥ 196.6.3.4.2 OK STEP 2: Check anchor head bearing B.125 + ( 1.125 2 ]0. diameter bolt width across ﬂats = 2.1.5. OK OK OK c) Procedure is identical to that in Example A1 STEP 3: Determine required embedment length for the bolt to prevent concrete cone failure B. combined tension and shear Design an embedment using a high strength bolt (A 325).7 f y A sv ) A sv = Vu / [(0.1 B.125) 2 – 1.41 in.85.2 > 0.165 ≥ 102 Ld (Ld + 2. Equate the external (required strength) and internal (design strength) forces and solve for the required steel area for shear.53 in.5.6.. Pu = φ Pn = φ A st f y A st = 40/(0.97 × 105 = 102 kips φ 4 f c′ = 0. 7 threads per inch. Total Area As = Ast + Asv As = 0.78 > 0. Ah = (1.2R-8 MANUAL OF CONCRETE PRACTICE Example A4—Single bolt.53 Head and tensile stress component are concentric. Tensile stress area = 0. φ = 0.7)(φ f y )] A sv = 20/(0.8 ) = 12.96 in.65 × 4 × ( 4000 ) = 165 psi [(Ld + 1.2 B.2 Vu = φ Vn = φ (0.5 b) Procedure is identical to that in Example A1 (dh – ds )/2 = (2 × 2 3 – 1.

000 OK per Code Section 3.3.2 OK B. Sum the area of steel required for tension with the area of steel required for shear.2.9 × 60) = 0.2 B.2 Vu = φVn = φ µ A sv f y Asv = Vu /(φµ f y ) Asv = 5/(0.---------.75 = 22.6.).5 ) ] × 0.3 × 1.3. of fresh concrete to be cast below the anchor (α = 1.1.5.6. Equate the external (required strength) and internal (design strength) forces and solve for the required steel area for shear.44 in.39 in.11 in.5. thick plate 12. 6 Grade 60 reinforcing bar.EMBEDMENT DESIGN EXAMPLES 349.1(b) 12. Use 5/16 in.6.9.0).0 × 0.85.28 in. max. uncoated anchor (β = 1.4 .5.2R-9 Example A5—Single rebar.8).8 ) ⁄ ( 2.2 of the Code.7 with φ = 0. Total Area As = Ast + Asv STEP 2: Calculate required embedment length Pu = φ Pn = φ A st f y Ast = 15/(0. no adjacent anchors or edges ([c + k tr ]/db = 2. combined tension and shear Design an embedment using a straight reinforcing bar welded to an embedment plate.5.000 psi (based on typical test results) Pu = 15 kips Vu = 5 kips where Pu and Vu are the required factored external loads as defined in Section 9.7 Eq.14. based on attachment conﬁguration and welding requirements.-----------------------------------db 40 f ′ [ ( c + k tr ) ⁄ d b ] c Assume no transverse reinforcement (k tr = 0). 6 bar (γ = 0.= ----.3). STEP 3: Calculate minimum plate thickness Select the plate thickness as shown for Example A2.2 11.3) f ut = 90.2 Use No.5. (11-26) B. Use ld = 24 inches t ≥ 0.3 12. CODE SECTION P u = 15 kips V u = 5 kips DESIGN PROCEDURE STEP 1: Determine required steel area of the stud CALCULATION B. Given: fc ′ = 4000 psi f y = 60.2. more than 12 in.5. No.1 Equate the external (required strength) and internal (design strength) forces and solve for the required steel area for tension.2 in. Use the shear friction provision of Section 11. As = 0.2 As = 0.2 > 0.39 in.9 × 60) = 0.000 psi ( ≤ 60. µ = 0.2.2 Provide full penetration weld between bar and plate per AWS D1.3.4 ld 3 fy αβγ ----.75/2.28 in.85 × 0.7 = 0.28 + 0.11 = 0. STEP 4: Connection of reinforcing bar to plate l d = [ ( 3 ⁄ 40 ) ] × [ ( 60000 ⁄ 4000 ) ] × [ ( 1.

combined tension. and uniaxial moment Four-stud rigid embedded plate in thin slab.2R-10 MANUAL OF CONCRETE PRACTICE PART B EXAMPLES: Ductile multiple embedded element in semi-inﬁnite concrete Example B1 Example B2(a) Example B2(b) Example B2(c) Example B3(a) Example B3(b) Example B4 Four-stud rigid embedded plate. shear. shear.349. combined shear and uniaxial moment Four-stud rigid embedded plate. combined tension. tension only Four-stud rigid embedded plate. tension only . combined shear and uniaxial moment Four-stud ﬂexible embedded plate. and uniaxial moment Four-stud ﬂexible embedded plate. combined shear and uniaxial moment Four-bolt rigid surface-mounted plate.

4.196 = 4 > 2.2 .2 of the Code.1 Equate the external (required strength) and internal (design strength) forces and solve for the required steel area for the stud.5.1 The design pullout strength of the concrete.1.5 OK Th = 0.6. OK c) Procedure is identical to that in Example A1 STEP 3: Determine required stud spacing and embedment length to prevent concrete pullout B.25 OK Head and tensile stress component are concentric.40 in.2 Use four 3/8 in. Given: fc ′ = 4000 psi f y = 50.2 OK STEP 2: Check anchor head bearing B. (per manufacturer’s data) (dh – ds )/2 = 0.110 × 60 = 26. Pu = φ Pn = φµ A s f y As = 18 /45 = 0.2 > 0.5.2R-11 Example B1—Four-stud rigid embedded plate.442 in.65 × 4 × ( 4000 ) = 165 psi Pd = φ 4 f c′ Acp Where Acp = the projected area of the 45 deg stress cones radiating toward the attachment from the bearing edge of the anchors.40 in.79 / 0. This area must be limited by overlapping stress cones and by the bearing area of the anchor heads.000 psi (studs) f ut = 60.25 in.EMBEDMENT DESIGN EXAMPLES 349. As = 0.312 > 0. tension only Design an embedment with four welded studs and a rigid embedded plate for a 3 × 3 × 3/16 in. Pd ≥ As fut As fut = 4 × 0.6 in.2 a) Procedure is identical to that in Example A1 b) Procedure is identical to that in Example A1 Ah / As = 0. Pd .000 psi Fy = 36. P u = 18 kips CODE SECTION DESIGN PROCEDURE STEP 1: Determine required steel area of the stud CALCULATION B.400 /165 = 160. diameter studs. A cp min = As fut /( φ 4 f c′ ) = 26.5.000 psi (plate) Pu = 18 kips where Pu is the required factored external load as defined in Section 9. must exceed the minimum speciﬁed tensile strength of the tensile stress components.312 in. A 501 structural tube attachment.4 kips φ4 f c′ = 0. Th = 0.

2 5 in. NOTE: The above calculation utilizes an exact calculation of the projected area. inches 4. inches 3. 175.0 in.4 in. and Ld + dh /2 + t at the outer surface of the concrete and plate. 195. the approximate method would give: R 6′′ Acp = 6 × 6 + 4 × 6 × 4.2 4 in. continued CODE SECTION DESIGN PROCEDURE STEP 3: (continued) For a four-stud plate with studs at spacing S and radius R of the projected stress cone. an approximate calculation is sufﬁcient.09 2 = 4 × π × 0.2 6. 152.09 in. 129.2R-12 MANUAL OF CONCRETE PRACTICE Example B1.349.71 in.).09 in. × 4-1/8 in. the projected area is (see Appendix A) The projected area of the stress cones may be calculated for each standard stud length (Ld) and a range of stud spacings.9 in.71 5.09 ′′ R 6′′ R Table B1-1—Projected areas (Acp ) for varying Ld and S Development length Ld.4 in.0 in.2 This compares with the exact value of 175.2 258.4 in.8 in.2 6 in.2 7 in. spacing. The radius of the projected stress cone is Ld + dh /2 at the underside of the embedded plate. All values greater than: CALCULATION Acp = (4π – 2B )R 2 – 4 Ah Acp = (3π – B)R 2 + S 2 – 4 Ah (2R > S > 2 R) ( 2 R > S) Acp min = As fut /(φ 4 f c′ ) are then satisfactory. S (see Table B1-1).. Such a method is used in Example B2.5 in.2 .2 calculated in Table B1-1 R 4.375 2 = 184. at 6 in.2 290.09 + π × 4. In many cases.2 226. Conservatively neglect the thickness of the plate t. S = 6 in. For the stud conﬁguration selected above (R = 4.2 324.2 in.71 Spacing S Radius R.09 in. Select 3/8 in.4 in. stud with effective length of 3.

5′′ 1.EMBEDMENT DESIGN EXAMPLES 349.-kips 0.3.9 × 36 = 43.5′′ b Calculate the bending strength of the plate based on the yield moment capacity using yield stress.56 in.9 × My = 1/6 × 8 × t 2 × 0.5 in.2R-13 Example B1.5 ⁄ 43.2 t 2 t min = ( 13. Evaluate plate sections to determine minimum load capacity. At face of tube (a-a): M = 9 × 1.1 B.2t 2 t min = ( 9.2 b a 1.5 = 13. continued CODE SECTION DESIGN PROCEDURE STEP 4: Calculate required plate thickness Try an 8 in. a CALCULATION B. × 8 in.-kips My = 1/6 × 5 2 × t 2 × 0. Use 8 in.50 in. embedded plate .6.9 × 36 = 38. plate The plate must transmit to the studs all loads used in the design of the attachment.2 ) = 0. On diagonal (b-b): M = 4. × 8 in.5 ⁄ 38. × 5/8 in.5 × 1.2 ) = 0.5 2 = 9.5 in. The design strength for embedments shall be based on a maximum steel stress of φf y .

85f c′ ab = Ae f y a = Ae f y /(0.4 kips OK B.9 kips) φV n = 19.2 Shear-friction coefﬁcient Nominal shear strength B.0 = 0. combined shear and uniaxial moment Design an embedment using welded studs and a rigid embedded plate for a 3 × 3 × 1/4 in. Given: fc ′ = 4000 psi f y = 50.2 B.1 Equate the internal forces and solve for a : 0.508 in.90Av f f y V n = 0.508)(50) V n = 22.275 in. plate with 5 in.6.85 φV n = 0. Ae per stud is: Try 1/2 in.90 (0.2 9.10Ae /2) Ae = 0.196 in. Section B.5 > 12.349. CODE SECTION 7 ′′ V u = 12.-kips Vu = 12.2 Ae /stud = 0.85 f c′ b ) a = Ae 50 / [ 0.2 9. stud spacing CALCULATION T = Aefy 10.9 kips φ = 0.90 V n = 0.000 psi (plate) Mu = 70 in.2 0. × 7 in.3 Capacity reduction factor for shear Design shear strength must be greater than the required strength .196 – 0.85 (22.7 Assume a uniform stress block for concrete compression zone and the two top studs as the tension components.000 psi Fy = 36.10Ae Equate the external (required strength) and internal moment (design strength) and solve the resulting quadratic equation for Ae : For 2 studs in tension.138 in.3.196) A sv = 0.4 kips where Mu and Vu are the required factored external loads as defined in Section 9.2.2 9. × 5 in.2 Ae /stud = 0. The stud area not used for moment is available for shear transfer by shear friction.85 f c′ a M u = 70 9.5.9 Ae (50)(6 – 2.85 (4)(7)] a = 2. 6 ′′ C 0.000 psi (studs) f ut = 60.5.2 is applicable.4 kips 7 ′′ 5 ′′ M u = 70 in.2 Since this is an embedded base plate.2 of the Code.-kips 3 × 3 × 1/4 ′′ Tube 5 ′′ DESIGN PROCEDURE STEP 1: Design for moment Try a 7 in.6.2R-14 MANUAL OF CONCRETE PRACTICE Example B2(a)—Four-stud rigid embedded plate. A 501 structural tube attachment.2.2.5.138) + 2 (0.6. A sv = 2 (0.2. diameter studs STEP 2: Design for shear Mu = φ Mn 70.6.

it is essential that the base plate not yield on either the compression or tension side of the connection. use 3/4 in.275)/2 ] M = 23.0) M = 13.275)(50)(1.5 in. The larger of the moment on the tension side or the compression side will control the design of the base plate. a middle row of anchors). A φ factor of 0.1(0. both the moment on the tension side and the moment on the compression side need to be determined.EMBEDMENT DESIGN EXAMPLES 349.9 is used in calculating the required area of the anchor in Step 1 . This general procedure is shown in this example.2R-15 Example B2(a).-kips M = Cd c M = A e f y dc M = (0. Moment on tension side a /2 M = Tdt or M = Cd c whichever is greater M = Tdt M = Ae fy dt M = (0. it is only necessary to show that d c is greater than d t . Note that the plate thickness is calculated using the nominal strength of the anchors.275 (50)[ 2 – 2.g. and then calculate the moment as M = (d c)(C ).-kips ← controls Moment on compression side Note that C = T .5 t = 0. continued CODE SECTION DESIGN PROCEDURE STEP 3: Design for rigid base plate In order to ensure rigid base plate behavior. NOTE: For this example. CALCULATION T = Aefy dt No Yield dc c t Determine minimum base plate thickness to prevent base plate yielding. The moment in the plate at the edge of the attached member is used for sizing the base plate thickness.275)(50)(6 – 4 – a /2) M = 0. The φ factor is not included since the calculation of plate thickness should be based on the maximum nominal tensile force in the anchor rather than the design force. plate Determine minimum base plate thickness to prevent yielding of plate. With multiple rows of anchors in tension (e. Nominal moment capacity of base plate Mn = F y S Mn = F y ( bt 2/6) = (36)(7)t 2 /6 Mn = 42t 2 42 t 2 = 23.75 in..75 in.

continued CODE SECTION DESIGN PROCEDURE STEP 4: Embedment length B. particularly those in the “rigid” plate category.349.94) + (6.2 Calculate capacity of concrete CALCULATION Put = As f ut = 4(0.3 kips > 47.69 + 0.0 kips .1.5 = 6.65)* ( 4000 ) (312. Assume the outer boundaries of the stress cones are connected by tangents.4.0) = 51. For most embedments. Acp = 5 (5) + 4 (5)(6.5.79) = 312.0 kips See Example A1 Pd = φ 4 ( f c′ ) Acp where: φ = 0. Check bearing requirements of stud head B.0 in. diameter stud 6-1/8 in. If the designer can assure that such a tensile condition cannot occur. This assumption of all four studs in tension assures ductility even in the event of a pure tension load.300 lb Pd = 51.69 in.1 Calculate design load assuming all studs may resist concurrent tensile loads. R = Ld stud + plate thickness + stud head radius = 5.2R-16 MANUAL OF CONCRETE PRACTICE Example B2(a). the assumption above is reasonable for embedments where the embedment radius (R ) exceeds the spacing between individual anchors. Pd = 4(0. NOTE: Although slightly unconservative. it is sufﬁcient only to develop two of the studs at a time since the other two studs are in compression.196)(60) = 47.65 Acp = projected area of concrete R = radius of projected cones Try 1/2 in. the embedment radius will usually exceed the anchor spacing.94) 2 π – 4(0.75 + 0. long having an effective length. Ld = 5.2 Therefore.94 in.

. Given: fc ′ = 4000 psi f y = 50. Mn = F y S Mn = (36)(7)(0.4/ Ae (50) c = 0.-kips Vu = 12. it may also be assumed that the compressive reaction is located at the edge of the attached member.2 of the Code.4 kips where Mu and Vu are the required factored external oads as defined in Section 9. R. 1992. R. CODE SECTION 7 ′′ V u = 12. NOTE: For simplicity. a hinge will form on the compression side of the base plate at the edge of the attached member. the nearest the compressive reaction can be to the edge of the attached member is a distance “c ” equal to the yield moment of the plate divided by the compressive reaction.7 Determine the amount of tensile steel required for the applied moment.EMBEDMENT DESIGN EXAMPLES 349. This will cause the compressive resultant to move inward toward the attached member. NOTE: From summation of forces T = C = Ae f y . stud spacing CALCULATION T = Aefy 10. 6.-kips c = Mn / C c = F y S / Ae f y c = 16. Assume a 5/8 in. pp.. V.” Journal of Structural Engineering.625)2 /6 Mn = 16. A 501 structural tube attachment.2R-17 Example B2(b)—Four-stud ﬂexible embedded plate.2.000 psi Fy = 36. × 7 in. thick base plate and determine yield capacity Mn of plate. American Society of Civil Engineers. 118. E. A.328 / Ae Determine c. “Ductile Multiple-Anchor Steel-to-Concrete Connections.000 psi (studs) f ut = 60. June. No. 4 ′′ If the base plate is not stiff enough to obtain rigid base plate behavior.000 psi (plate) Mu = 70 in.-kips 3 × 3 × 1/4 ′′ Tube 5 ′′ DESIGN PROCEDURE STEP 1: Design for moment Try a 7 in.4 kips 7 ′′ 5 ′′ M u = 70 in.4 in. C c M u = 70 Reference: Cook. and Klingner. × 5 in. plate with 5 in. Physically. 1645-1665. combined shear and uniaxial moment Design an embedment using welded studs and a flexible embedded plate for a 3 × 3 × 1/4 in.

0 = 45 (4 Ae + 0. Ae per stud is: Try 1/2 in.0) M = 15.196 – 0.5. .328/Ae ) 70.90 Asv f y Vn = 0.5.625) 2/6 Mn = 16.35 in.153 in.2 0.2 is applicable.90 (0.196) Asv = 0.4 kips OK B.2 Ae /stud = 0.85(21.2 9. M = Td t M = Ae f y d t M = (0. Shear-friction coefﬁcient Nominal shear strength Asv = 2 (0.4 in.2R-18 MANUAL OF CONCRETE PRACTICE Example B2(b).9 Ae (50)(4 + 0.307)(50)(1.6.85 φ Vn = 0.-kips > 15.5 kips φ = 0.5. The stud area not used for moment is available for shear transfer by shear friction.2 B.5 kips) φ Vn = 18. Note that a φ = 0.5.153) + 2 (0.0 = 0. T = Aefy dt No Yield Yield OK C t Determine minimum base plate thickness to prevent base plate yielding and possible prying action on tension side. Section B.328) Ae = 0.3.478) (50) Vn = 21.2. plate is OK 8 Nominal moment capacity of base plate.3 kips > 12.2 Ae /stud .6.2 For 2 studs in tension.6.307 in.3 B.196 in.2.90 Vn = 0.6. diameter studs STEP 2: Design for shear B.2 9.2 Since this is an embedded base plate.1 Equate the external (required strength) and internal (design strength) moment and solve the resulting linear equation for Ae : CALCULATION Mu = φ Mn 70. continued CODE SECTION DESIGN PROCEDURE STEP 1: continued 9.478 in.0.0 = 0.2 9.3 Capacity reduction factor for shear Design shear strength must be greater than the required strength STEP 3: Design for ﬂexible base plate In order to ensure that prying action does not occur on the tension side of the base plate.9 Ae (50)(4 + c ) 70. it is essential that the base plate not yield on the tension side of the connection.6.-kips Mn = F y S Mn = F y ( bt 2 /6) Mn = (36)(7)(0.2.90 is already included.-kips 5/ in.35 in.349.

the compressive reaction becomes so large that the assumption of rigid base plate behavior results in excessively thick plates. CALCULATION . base plate).2R-19 Example B2(b). there is very little difference between the two analyses for a typical two row connection. the flexible base plate procedure will result in more reasonable base plate thicknesses. In the case of multiple rows of anchors.EMBEDMENT DESIGN EXAMPLES 349. The real advantages of flexible base plate analysis become apparent with multiple rows of anchors. For multiple row connections. base plate) and Example B2(a) with a rigid base plate (3/4 in. continued CODE SECTION DESIGN PROCEDURE STEP 4: Embedment length See Example B2(a) NOTE: As can be seen from this flexible base plate example (5/8 in.

× 7 in. diameter bolts (for 3/8 in. 7 ′′ V u = 12.6.70 A vs f y + 0.2 ) STEP 2: Design for shear B. combined shear and uniaxial moment Design an embedment using cast-in-place bolts and a rigid surface-mounted plate for a 3 × 3 × 1/4 in.2 Since this is a surface mounted plate. plate with 5 in.41A e 9. A e per bolt is: Try 3/8 in.000 psi (bolts) f ut = 125.85 f c′ b ) a = A e 105 / [0. Mu = φ Mn 70.7 Try a 7 in. threaded bolts A e = 0.1 Equate the external (required strength) and internal (design strength) moments and solve the resulting quadratic equation for A e : For 2 bolts in tension.2R-20 MANUAL OF CONCRETE PRACTICE Example B2(c)—Four-bolt rigid surface-mounted plate.3.2.1 Vn = 0.2 of the Code.5.130 in.85 f c′ ab = A e f y a = A e f y /(0.0 = 0.5.4 kips 7 ′′ 5 ′′ M u = 70 in.40 C . Given: fc ′ = 4000 psi f y = 105.6.6.349.41A e /2 ) A e = 0.-kips 3 × 3 × 1/4 ′′ Tube 5 ′′ CODE SECTION DESIGN PROCEDURE STEP 1: Design for moment CALCULATION 10.000 psi (plate) Mu = 70 in.2 A e / bolt = 0.2.078 in.2 A e / bolt = 0.4 in this example.000 psi (bolts) Fy = 36.2 9. T = Aefy 6 ′′ a C 0.065 in.4 kips where Mu and Vu are the required factored external loads as defined in Section 9. The nominal shear strength is the sum of the shear strength provided by the anchors and the friction force between the base plate and concrete due to the compressive reaction.1 is applicable.078 in. Assume standard concrete beam compression block. × 5 in.5.2. A 501 structural tube attachment. bolt spacing Determine the amount of tensile steel required for the applied moment.85 (4)(7) ] a = 4.9 A e (105)(6 – 4. taken as 0.-kips Vu = 12.2 B. Section B.85 f c′ M u = 70 Equate the internal forces and solve for a : 0.

40 C = 5.078 – 0. The larger of the moment on the tension side or the compression side will control the design of the base plate.2 9. both the moment on the tension side and the moment on the compression side need to be determined. NOTE: This step in the example is for information only.5.-kips M = Cd c M = A e f y dc M = (0. Determine minimum base plate thickness to prevent base plate yielding.0) M = 13.130)(105)(6 – 4 – a /2) M = 0. it is essential that the base plate not yield on either the compression or tension side of the connection. This general procedure is shown in this example.182 in. the actual design values used should be based on the appropriate structural steel code. .41(0.70(0.182)(105) + (5.46 kips CALCULATION Vn = 0.40 T = 0. STEP 3: Design for rigid base plate In order to ensure rigid base plate behavior.130)/2 ] M = 23.40 C Vn = 0. and then calculate the moment as M = (dc )(C).46) Vn = 18.065) + 2(0. Assume threads in shear plane. Moment on tension side T = Aefy dt No Yield dc C a /2 M = Tdt or M = Cd c whichever is greater M = Td t M = Ae fy dt M = (0.7 in. Although the design procedure shown is appropriate for base plate design. Nominal shear strength from anchors and friction between the base plate and concrete 0.6.40(0.3 The anchor area not used for moment is available A vs = 2(0.85(18. With multiple rows of anchors in tension (e. Actual design of the base plate is not covered by ACI 349 Appendix B.078) for shear transfer.40( A e f y ) = 0.g.130)(105)(1. The moment in the plate at the edge of the attached member is used for sizing the base plate thickness.2. continued CODE SECTION DESIGN PROCEDURE STEP 2: continued B. NOTE: For this example.130)(105) 0.0 kips > 12.130 (105)[ 2 – 4.85 φVn = 0..8 kips) φ Vn = 16.4 kips OK B. it is only necessary to show that d c is greater than dt .6.2 9. A vs = 0.70 A vs f y + 0.-kips ← controls Moment on compression side: Note that C = T.40 C = 0.8 kips φ = 0.EMBEDMENT DESIGN EXAMPLES 349.3 Capacity reduction factor for shear Design shear strength must be greater than the required strength.2R-21 Example B2(c).4 in. a middle row of anchors).2 Shear contribution from friction between the base plate and concrete due to the compressive reaction.

plate Determine minimum base plate thickness to prevent yielding of plate.9 is used in calculating the required area of the anchor in Step 1. continued CODE SECTION DESIGN PROCEDURE STEP 3: continued Nominal moment capacity of base plate CALCULATION Mn = F y S Mn = F y ( bt 2 /6) = (36)(7)t 2 /6 Mn = 42 t 2 42 t 2 = 23.349. A φ factor of 0. use 3/4 in.74 in. STEP 4: Embedment length The calculation of the required embedment length is similar to that in Example B2(a). .4 t = 0.2R-22 MANUAL OF CONCRETE PRACTICE Example B2(c). It is not necessary to include a φ factor in this calculation of plate thickness. Note that the plate thickness is calculated using the nominal strength of the anchors.

46/2 = 0.2 A sv = 2(0.1 Sum external (required strength) and internal (design strength) forces.30 – 0.85(4)(a )(7) = 11.23) + 2(0.5) + 0. and Vu are the required factored external loads as defined in Section 9.3 kips > 12.0 = 0.85(33.85 f c′ See Example B2(a). the attachment plate is assumed rigid.000 psi Fy = 36. CODE SECTION 7 ′′ V u = 12. OK .1 7 ′′ 5 ′′ M u = 70 in. shear.74 in.-kips 3 × 3 × 1/4 ′′ Tube 5 ′′ DESIGN PROCEDURE STEP 1: Design for moment and tension Try a 7 in.30) = 0.4 kips.5(2. stud spacing CALCULATION T = Aefy P u = 11. combined tension.2.5 – 0.2R-23 Example B3(a)—Four-stud rigid embedded plate.3 kips φ V n = 0.2 A e = 0.23 in.3 Shear capacity φ = 0.4 kips P u = 11.4 kips Pu = 11.2 of the Code.5 –a /2)] 77.7 Assume a uniform stress block for concrete compression zone and the top two studs as the tension components.1A e – 0.30 in.466) × (7)[6 – 2.3) = 28.85 f c′ ab ( d – 2.46 in.9 9. and uniaxial moment Design an embedment using welded studs and a rigid embedded plate for a 3 × 3 × 1/4 in. φ = 0.1 kips where Mu . plate with 5 in.9 for ﬂexure M u = 70 50A e – 0.1 6 ′′ 10.EMBEDMENT DESIGN EXAMPLES 349.85 STEP 3 and STEP 4 See Example B2(a) A e = 0.466)] Solving the quadratic equation: Steel / Stud Provide 5/8 in.2 V n = 50(0.78 = 50 A e (2.-kips Vu = 12. C a 0.9[50A e (2.000 psi (plate) Mu = 70 in.9) = 33. × 5 in. Given: fc ′ = 4000 psi f y = 50.2 0.1 A e – 0.1 a = 2.2 9. A 501 structural tube attachment.3. diameter studs STEP 2: Design for shear Assume the total stud area not used for moment and tension is available for shear transfer by shear friction.466 70. Sum moments about the center line of base plate (line of axial load). 9. Pu .000 psi (studs) f ut = 60.2 9.74)(0.5) + 0. × 7 in.85(4)(2.1 A e – 0. Nominal shear capacity µ = 0.

0 kips 24.2 A v f = 2 (0. it is assumed that the compressive reaction is located at the edge of the attached member.2.0 / 50 = 0.2.-kips 3 × 3 × 1/4 ′′ Tube 5 ′′ CODE SECTION DESIGN PROCEDURE STEP 1: Tension in top studs Try a 7 in.24) + 2 (0. × 7 in. 7 ′′ V u = 12. stud spacing CALCULATION T = Aefy 6 ′′ P u = 11.. STEP 3 and STEP 4 See Example B2(b) A e = 12.4 kips. Nominal shear strength µ = 0.5)/4 φ T = 21.6. diameter stud STEP 2: Design for shear B.7 kips T = 24.30 in. area for each stud Try 5/8 in.5.9 Tension in each stud φ T = 70/4 + 11. Lever arm for moment = 4 in.85(32.30) = 0. Pu .72)(50) = 32. × 5 in.0 kips A e . A 501 structural tube attachment.2 A e provided = 0.85 φ V n = 0.1 C 0. OK .2R-24 MANUAL OF CONCRETE PRACTICE Example B3(b)—Four-stud ﬂexible embedded plate.4) = 27.4 kips Pu = 11. Given: fc ′ = 4000 psi f y = 50.0 / 2 = 12.72 in.30 – 0.-kips Vu = 12.9(0. plate with 5 in. φ = 0.000 psi (studs) f ut = 60. combined tension.000 psi (plate) Mu = 70 in.24 in. and uniaxial moment Design an embedment using welded studs and a flexible embedded plate for a 3 × 3 × 1/4 in.6.85 f c′ a M u = 70 For simplicity. shear.349.9 Capacity reduction factor for shear Design shear strength must be equal to or greater than the required strength.40 kips φ = 0.5 kips > 12.2 9.5.2 V n = 0. and Vu are the required factored external loads as defined in Section 9.4 kips P u = 11.2 B.1 7 ′′ 5 ′′ M u = 70 in.1(1.3 9.000 psi Fy = 36.6.3 B.2 9.1 kips where Mu .2 of the Code.3 The stud area not used for moment and tension is available for shear transfer by shear friction.

tension only Determine the reduction of projected stress area due to limited concrete thickness for the embedment of Example B1.6 in. in. rather than the length of 4.5)] 2 = 5.86 in.4. .625) – 2(6.33 in. all sides of the rectangular stress reduction area are equal and. this leaves approximately 14.000 psi (studs) 60. when there was a minimum required area of 160. L d = 3. P u = 18 kips Given: fc ′ = fy = f ut = 4000 psi 50. to the face of concrete.71 in. conservatively neglects the thickness of the plate and uses L d = 3.EMBEDMENT DESIGN EXAMPLES 349. COMMENT: Example B1 describes an embedment assembly with a projected area of 175.2 Total stress reduction area = (b + 2 L d + 2 t – 2 h ) 2 = [ 6. therefore. OK Ductility requirements met.8 in.4 sq.8 sq. Note that the projected area calculated in Example B1.71) + 2 (0. only one side needs to be found.71 ′′ 3.000 psi h = 6 ′′ 5/ ′′ 8 thick plate Thickness of concrete slab = 6 in. available for reduction in projected area before the minimum requirements for concrete strength are no longer met.75 + 2 ( 3.2 < 14.2.42 ′′ b + 2 (L d + t – h ) b = 6. in. Due to biaxial symmetry of the assembly in Example B1.75 ′′ CODE SECTION DESIGN PROCEDURE STEP 1: Determine area available for stress reduction CALCULATION B.2R-25 Example B4—Four-stud rigid embedded plate in thin slab.2 area still available for stress reduction.

In Case I.2R-26 MANUAL OF CONCRETE PRACTICE APPENDIX A—Projected area (Acp ) for four studs This appendix develops the projected area of four stress cones at the surface of the concrete. R A cp1 = 4πR 2 – 2(αx – sinαx )R 2 – 2(α y – sin α y)R 2 – 4 A h Sx Sy CASE II The projected area is equal to the area of the central rectangle plus the area of the four three quarter cones minus the area of the four overlapping portions outside the rectangle minus the area of the four heads. The radius of the projected stress cones (45 deg cone angle) is R = L d + d h / 2 . There are two cases of overlapping stress cones. all four stress cones overlap. For two overlapping stress cones of radius R and spacing S. In Case II. CASE I A cp2 = S x S y + (4)( 3/4 ) π R 2 – (α x – sin α x) R 2 – (α y – sin α y ) R 2 – 4 A h SUMMARY R Sx A cp1 = (4 π – 2 B ) R 2 – 4 A h A cp2 = (3 π – B ) R 2 + S x S y – 4 A h where B = (α x – sin α x ) + (α y – sin α y ) αx = 2cos –1 (S x Sy / 2R) α y = 2cos –1 (S y /2 R ) CASE II . the angle α of the common segment is given by: cos(1/2 α) = S /(2 R ) α = 2cos –1 [ S /(2 R )] The area of the common segment A seg equals the area of the two sectors minus the area of the triangles: R α A seg = 2 [ α R 2 /2 – R 2 sin(α /2) cos(α /2)] = (α – sin α ) R 2 S /2 CASE I The projected area is equal to the area of four full cones minus the area of the four overlapping portions minus the area of the four heads. The studs are located at the corners of a rectangle with spacing S x and S y in each direction. there is no overlap at the center of the rectangle since R < 1 / 2 ( S x 2 + S y 2 ) 1/2 . The projected area for the two cases is formulated below.349.

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