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Modal Time History Analysis for structural engineering

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MODAL TIME HISTORY ANALYSIS OF NON-CLASSICALLY DAMPED STRUCTURES FOR SEISMIC MOTIONS

M. P. SINGH*

Departmenf of Engineering Science and Mechanics, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State Unioersity, Blacksburg, Virginia, U.S.A.

AND

M. GHAFORY-ASHTIANY?

Department of Cioil Engineering, Unioersify of Gilan, Rasht, Gilan, Islamic Republic of Iran

SUMMARY

The step-by-step modal time history integration methods are developed for dynamic analysis of non-classically damped linear structures subjected to earthquake-induced ground motions. Both the mode displacement and mode accelerationbased algorithms are presented for the calculation of member and acceleration responses. The complex-valued eigenvectors are used to effect the modal decoupling of the equations of motion. However, the recursive step-by-step algorithms are still in terms of real quantities. The numerical results for the acceleration response and floor response spectra, obtained with these approaches, are presented. The mode acceleration approach is observed to be decidedly better than the mode displacement approach in as much as it alleviates the socalled missing mass effect, caused by the truncation of modes, very effectively. The utilization of the mode acceleration-based algorithms is, thus, recommended in all dynamic analyses for earthquake-induced ground motions.

INTRODUCTION

In seismic analysis of structures it is quite common to model structures as classically damped. For linear structures, it permits the application of the normal mode approach with uncoupled dynamical equations, either in the spectral analysis for a given earthquake spectrum or the time history analysis for a given acceleration time history. However, there are situations where it may be inappropriate to consider a structure as classically damped. This inhibits the application of the normal mode approach. On the other hand the complex mode superposition approach with complex eigenvectors can always be used. To develop response spectrum methods for the calculation of seismic design response, this modal superposition approach has been effectively utilized by Singh,3 Singh and Ghafory-Ashtiany4 and Igusa et d 5 To solve the equations of motion of a structure for a given acceleration time history, the step-by-step integration procedures6 can always be used with any type of damping matrix. The most commonly used method is based on the assumption of linear variation of the acceleration response between any two consecutive time steps of integration. The algorithms based on this method may, however, cause problems unless the time increments are sufficiently small to avoid instability in the high frequency modes. For structures with very high frequencies, this may sometimes be a problem. To alleviate this problem, the unconditionally stable procedures like the Wilson4 method are most appropriate. Such procedures tend to damp out the higher modes which may be desirable in some situations and undesirable in others. In most cases, these methods can be successfully implemented. Yet, however, since these methods assume the linear variation of

* Professor.

t Assistant Professor.

134

acceleration response, they are approximate; the error due to this approximation decreases with decreasing time step. Such methods are most suitable for non-linear structures. For the classically damped linear structures, another commonly used procedure for time history analysis is the mode superposition approach. This approach is often preferred over the direct integration approach because in this an analyst has more flexibility anda better control over the step-by-step time integration of each modal equation. If the higher modes are known to contribute little to the calculated response, then their modal equations need not be integrated at all. On the other hand, if it is desired to include the higher modes, then only their own equations need to be solved with small time steps6 whereas the other modal equations can still be integrated with large time steps. An analytically exact and efficient algorithm was developed by Nigam and Jennings' to solve a linear single degree of freedom oscillator equation. This algorithm can be conveniently used with the classically damped structures in their mode superposition analyses. For the non-classically damped structures, Itoh' proposed a Fourier transform solution of the decoupled complex modal equations. This approach employs the Fast Fourier Transform algorithms where the algebraic computations are performed in the complex domain. It is essentiallya frequency domain approach. In this paper, a step-by-step time domain recursive approach, similar to Nigam and Jennings' approach,' is presented. The main motivation behind the development of this approach was for the numerical verification of the response spectrum approaches developed for non-classically damped structures. It has been used in several numerical simulation concerning the calculation of the member response as well as the development of floor response spectra. Here the formulations and algorithms, for the calculation of response both by the mode displacement and mode acceleration approaches, as applied to the non-classically damped structures, are presented. Although the solution of the non-classically damped structures involves complex-valued modes, the proposed recursive algorithms involve only real algebra. ANALYSIS In seismic structural analysis, we are interested in the solution of the equations of motion of an n-degree-offreedom structural system, written in the standard form, as follows:

(1) [ M I W + [ C I W + C K I { u } = -[MI WX&) where [MI, [C] and [ K ] are, respectively, the mass, damping and stiffness matrices of the structure; { . ! ) = relative displacement response vector; { r} = ground displacement influence coefficient; and X , ( t ) = ground acceleration time history. When the viscous damping matrix [C] is not classical, a 2ndimension state vector formulation,* employing the complex-valued eigenvectors, is used to effect the decoupling of the equations of motion. Such a decoupling procedure was originally proposed independently by Traill-Na~h'~ and Foss.I4 In this formulation, equation (1) is rewritten with the help of an identity equation' as follows:

CAI { Y } +CB1 { Y } = - { W , ( t ) where the 2n x 2n matrices [A] and [B] are defined as

(2)

To decouple equation (2), the eigenvectors of the eigenvalue problem associated with the equation are used. The associated eigenvalue problem is

pj[A]

{$j}

+[B]

{$j}

lo}, j

= 1,.

. . ,2n

(4)

135

where pi and { & j } are the jth eigenvalue and eigenvectors of equation (4). These are in general complex quantities. The eigenvectors of equation (4) form the basis of the 2n-dimensional vector space in which the state vector { y ) or any other vector can be expressed as a linear combination of the base vectors. That is,

where the Zjs are the complex-valued principal coordinates. By substitution of equation ( 5 ) into equation (2), premultiplying by { 4j}T and invoking the orthogonal properties of the eigenvectors, the following equation is obtained for the jth principal coordinate:

i j-pjzj = . F ~ X (,t ) , j = I , . . . , 2 n

where F j is the complex-valued jth participation factor, defined as

F j = -{4j}T[M] {r}/Af, j = 1,. . . , 2n

(6) (7)

(8)

In equation (7), { + j } is the lower half of the jth eigenvector and Af is defined as

Af = { ~ j > ( 2 ~ j C M l + C C l ) { ~ j }

Equation (6) is a modal equation involving complex quantities. The solution of this equation along with equation ( 5 ) defines the complete solution of the problem. For example, the nodal velocity and displacement responses are directly given by equation (5). Also, a response quantity linearly related to the nodal displacements and velocities can also be obtained. For example, a force quantity can be written as

where gj is the modal response of quantity S(l) in the j t h mode. This can be obtained in terms of { 4j} and a vector { T} which transforms the relative displacement response into S ( t ) as gj = {TIT {4jl TIME HISTORIES OF PRINCIPAL COORDINATES

(10)

To obtain the time history of a response quantity from equations ( 5 ) or (9),we need to know the time history of the complex-valued principal coordinates, Zj ( t ) , as a solution of equation (6). The complete solution of this equation consists of the homogeneous and particular solutions as

zj = z j h + zjp

(1 1)

where Zjh and ZJP are the homogeneous and particular solutions, respectively. The homogeneous solution of equation (6) can be written as z. = c.ePJt (12) Jh J where Cj = the constant of integration. The particular solution, Zjp, can be obtained by any standard integration technique. For example, the general form of the particular solution, using the variation of parameter technique, can be written as Zjp = Fj

Here, however, for a digitized time history as shown in Figure 1, with linear variation between any two consecutive time steps, the undetermined coefficient approach has been found to be algebraically more convenient than the variation of parameter approach. For the time history in Figure 1, the acceleration X g ( t ) at time t between the ith and (i 1)th discrete points of the time history can be written as

s:

X g(t)epj( -?) dr

(13)

136

\ I

where t is measured from t i and h is the size of the time step. Substituting equation (14) into equation (6),the modal equation becomes zj - p j z j = F j ( a bt) (1 5 ) where a = X&) (16)

b = [Xg(ti+ l ) - X g ( t J ] / h

(1 7)

The particular solution corresponding to the right hand side of equation (15) can be obtained by the method of undetermined coefficients as zjp = -Fj{b+pj(a+bt)}/pf (18) And, thus, the complete solution of equation (6) can be written as

z. J = C.ePi-F. J { b + p j (a + bt))/pf

j

(19)

To obtain C j ,the initial condition on Z j at the beginning of the time step is used. Thus at t = 0, equation (19) gives (20) Cj = Z j (t = 0)+ F j (b + p j ~ ) / p ; where Z j ( t = 0) is the same as Z j at the time step t i , i.e. Z j ( t i ) .Using equation (20) into equation (19), the solution, Z ( t i + at the end of the time step t = h, is obtained as

Z j (ti+

= { Z j (ti)

+ Fj (b+pja)/pf}epjh - F j { b+ p j ( a+ b h ) } / p ;

(21)

Thus, knowing the solution Z j ( t i ) at the beginning of a time step, the solution at Z j ( t i + I ) at the end of the step can be obtained from equation (21). Thus, the complete solution of equation (15) at all discrete time points can be obtained for a digitized acceleration time history if the initial value for Z j in the first step is known. To obtain the initial value of Z j in terms of the initial responses { u } and {ti} of the system, equation (5) is used. For example, if the system was in motion with certain initial velocity and displacement at the start, i.e.

{Y>t=o=

j = 1

zj<I=o){qj)

137

Premultiplying equation (23) by [4j]r [A], and using the orthogonality of the complex modes with respect to [A], we obtain the initial value of Z j as follows:

Z j ( t = 0) = {4jIT [A] {y>t=~/Af

(24)

Equation (21) contains complex quantities. From this equation, a recursive scheme to obtain the real and imaginary parts of Z j at any time step can also be devised. For this, we express the complex quantities in equation (21) in terms of their real and imaginary parts as

p J. = -Bjoj+ioj J(1

-sf)= -Bjwj+iwdj

(26)

where the wjs are the natural frequencies, Wd, = damped j R frequency and the B j s are the equivalent modal damping ratios. See Reference 3. Substituting equations (25) and (26) into equation (21), we obtain zRj(ti+ l)+i~,(ti+ 1 ) =e-kojh {cos(w,jh)+i sin(w,jh)} [ z R j ( t i ) + i z , ( t i ) + ( e j + ~ ){Xg(ri+l)-Xg(ti)}/h

+ + idj)Xg

(cj

(ti)]

(27)

By comparing the real and imaginary parts in equation (27), we obtain two simultaneous equations for ZRj and Z,, at t = ti+ as follows:

Equation (28) provides the recursive solution of equation (6). The solution marches from t = 0 to the last time step. MEMBER RESPONSE TIME HISTORY Equation (9)defines the member response in terms of the principal coordinates. There are two formulations for calculation of S ( t ) from equation (9): mode displacement formulation and mode acceleration formulation. Currently, the mode displacement formulation is more commonly used than the mode acceleration formulation in seismic structural analyses. However, if a response is significantly affected by the higher modes and at the same time input motion is devoid of very high frequencies, then mode acceleration approach can be used with significant computational advantage. Such an approach was originally proposed by Williams.' Later it was also used by Traill-Nash' for non-classically damped structures. Recently, mode-accelerationbased response spectrum approaches have also been proposed", 1 2 * l 7 for seismic analysis of both the classically and non-classically damped structures. Here both types of formulations are presented for time history response calculations of the non-classically damped structures.

138

Mode displacement formulation Equation (9) can also be written as a sum of the complex and conjugate terms as

S(t) =

j= 1

c

n

(BjZj + g f Z f )

where an asterisk over a quantity denotes its complex conjugate. Substituting for gj and Z j and their complex conjugates in terms of their real and imaginary parts, we obtain

where gRjand gljare the real and imaginary parts of g j Equation (32)defines the response time history in terms of only the real quantities. It is seen that although there are 2n modes, only n values of Z j ( t ) need to be calculated.

Mode acceleration formulation In this formulation, the response defined by equation (9)is written in terms of Z j ( f ) with the help of equation (6)as follows:

s(t)=

j = 1

2n

9, { - F , X , ( t ) Zj}/pj

(33)

It can be shown' that the first summation term in equation (34)can be obtained by a simple static approach as a solution of the following equation: (35) CKI {us} = [MI { r } The summation in the first term of equation (34) is then the static component, S,, obtained from the nodal displacements { u s ) ,as follows:

It represents the response induced by the inertial forces, corresponding to a unit acceleration, applied statically with no regard to their dynamic effects. This needs to be calculated only once for its repeated use at every time step in equation (34). The second summation term in equation (34)can be obtained in terms of the real and imaginary components of gj and i j / p j The term W$ = Z j / p j is obtained by differentiating equation (19) as

Substituting for C j from equation (20), 4 at t' = h or t = ti + is obtained as

(37)

(38) Further substituting for a and b from equations (16)and (17) and replacing the complex quantities in terms of their real and imaginary parts from equations (25)and (26)we obtain the expression for the real and imaginary components of W, (ti + as

yJ(ti+l) = e-fljwjh{ c o s ( ~ ~ , h ) + i s i n ( ~ ~ [zRI(ti)+izlJ(ti)+(ej+ifj) jh)} {X,(Z~+~) wR1(ti+1)+i - X , ( t i ) } / h (cj i d j ) X g( t i ) ] - (ej+ ijj) { X , ( t i + 1) -X, ( t i ) } / h (39)

+ +

139

By comparing the real and imaginary parts in equation (39),two simultaneous equations are obtained for WRj and W , as follows:

Czl = e-BfWjh [cj sin (a&) d j cos (mdh) - (ej sin (mdh) +fi cos (w,,h))/h]+jj/h CZ2= [e-BjwJh {ejsin (adh) +h cos (wdh)}-h]/h

(41)

I

ACCELERATION RESPONSE TIME HISTORY AND FLOOR SPECTRA Often we are also interested in the absolute acceleration response of a point on the structure to develop floor response spectra. Such floor motion spectra are used as seismic inputs for the design of light secondary structures.To obtain the floor acceleration time histories, both the mode displacement and mode acceleration approaches can be used. Herein, the formulations for the two approaches are presented. Mode displacement approach The absolute acceleration, X,, of a point m on the structure can be written as

X,

= ii,

+ r,Xg ( t )

(43)

where u, = relative acceleration of point m and r, = the mth element of { r }. Substituting for ii, from equation ( 5 ) we obtain 2n X, = 4hj Z j + r m X g( t ) (44)

j = 1

where now 4hj = mth element of the upper half of rearranging terms, we obtain

It can be shown that the term within the parenthesis is zero. The simplified expression for the absolute acceleration is then 2n x, = Pj+kjZj (46)

j = 1

which in terms of the real and imaginary parts of these quantities can be obtained as

x m

-2

j = 1

{ ~ j w j ( ~ ~ j z R j - ~ ~ j z ~ j ) + o ~ j ( + ~ j z ~ j + + ~ j z R j ) )

(47)

140

in which the time dependent ZRj and ZIjare defined by equation (28), and 4Kjand 4ij,respectively, are the real and imaginary parts of 4hj.

Mode acceleration approach In this approach equation (44) is directly used to define absolute acceleration without any further changes. Substituting for 4; and Z j in terms of their real and imaginary parts, we obtain the acceleration time history as

X , = r,Xg (t) 2

+ C

j = 1

(4kjZRj -4ijZIj)

(48)

where the real and imaginary components of Z j at any time ti can be obtained from the following equation:

In equation (49), F , and F , are the real and imaginary parts of Fj. It is noted that $kJ and $iJ in equations (47) and (48) pertain to the mth element of the upper half of and 2, as in equation eigenvector { $}.Z,, and Z , in equations (48) and (49) which are defined in terms of ZRf (28), on the other hand, involve the lower half of eigenvector {$}. However, it is also possible to obtain the absolute acceleration expression in the mode acceleration formulation which employs only the lower half of the eigenvectors in all the calculations. For this, equation (43) is written in terms of the second order derivative ijfrom equation (51, as

X m = r,,,Xg(c)+

j =

C1 4 m j i j

2n

(50)

in which, now, 4mj is the mth element of { 4 j } , i.e. the lower half of { $ j } . The second derivative Z j at any time step ti can be obtained from equation (19) by differentiating and then substituting t = 0 as follows: z j ( t i ) = Cjpf (51) Substituting for C j and other complex quantities in terms of their real and imaginary parts, we obtain the following equation for the real and imaginary parts of Z j (ti):

where

X m

=rmXg(l)+2

j = 1

(+R,ZR,-+i,Zi,)

(54)

where 4R, and c#+l are the real and imaginary parts of 4 , which is the mth element of the lower half of {qjj>. Thus, in this approach, we first obtain Z,, and Z,, at any time f, from the recursive equation (28).These in turn are used in equation (52) to obtain Z,, and Z I l ,which are then used in equation (54) to obtain the absolute acceleration time history.

141

As mentioned earlier, this formulation will again include the effects of the high frequency modes without and Z,j for them. As such, this formulation is computationally more efficient than the explicitly evaluating ZRj mode displacement formulation, especially for the structures and responses which are significantly affected by the high frequency modes. This is demonstrated by numerical results presented later. Numerical results of the floor acceleration spectra have been obtained for X , defined by the mode displacement and mode acceleration approaches, and compared in the next section. For this, X , obtained from equations (47), (48) or (54), is used as the input to the oscillator equation as follows:

~ o + 2 8 o ~ o y o + ~= ~ y- X o m.

(55)

The maximum response value defines the response spectrum value at oscillator frequency ooand damping ratio Po. NUMERICAL RESULTS The time integration algorithms developed in the preceding sections were utilized in several numerical simulation studies which were implemented for the verification of the response spectrum methods developed for the calculation of member response"." and for generation of floor response spectra" for the nonclassically damped structural systems. To verify the correctness of the analytical expressions used in these algorithms, a classically damped structure was analysed by the well-established normal mode approach* and the approaches developed here. The numerical results obtained by the two approaches were identical, thus verifying the correctness of the proposed algorithms. After establishing the correctness, the proposed approaches were used for the time history analysis of the non-classically damped structures. Some sample results obtained for an acceleration time history applied to the structures shown in Figure 2 are presented now. Figure 2 represents a h t o r e y , 15-degrees-of-freedom structure. The combined stiffnesses of the columns in the x and y-directions in the five storeys are k , = 6k, k2 = 5k, k3 = 4k, k4 = 3k, k , = 2k. All floor masses are taken equal tom. The mass and stiffnesscentresare slighIlyeccentric,with theeccentricityratio e/r = 005 in both

Axis of Moss Center

Axis of Resistance

Ground Excitation

142

x and y-directions; r is the radius of gyration of the floor slabs. The equations of motion were developed

in non-dimensional form. The stiffness of the structure is characterized by the frequency parameter o,= J ( k / m ) . In this study o,= 188.49 is used. In a storey, the damper constant c1 and cz in the x and y-directions, respectively, are expressed in terms of the damping ratios as cl/m = 2Bws,c z / m = 2r, Box where B and rs are the damping ratio parameters. In this study j = 008. The ratio rs is arbitrarily chosen to be different for different storeys, being equal to 5,4,4,3,3 for the first to the last storey in this study. The nonclassicality in damping matrix is easily introduced by providing dampers of different magnitudes in the x and ydirections; this can be achieved by assigning values other than 1 to ratio rs. Also, by changing the value of the eccentricity ratio parameter, e / r , different degrees of coupling in the modes can be introduced. The stronger the modal coupling, the larger the effect of non-classicality in damping. The equivalent modal damping ratios and frequencies related to the complex eigenvalues, as in equation (26), are shown in Table I. The time history used in the analysis was devoid of frequencies higher than 33 H z as it was synthetically generated from a spectral density function with no frequency content beyond 33 Hz. It is noted that only the first two frequencies of the structure are within this frequency range of the input. For this time history, the numerical results of the maximum value of the floor accelerations and acceleration floor response spectra obtained by the mode displacement and mode acceleration-based algorithms are presented. To show the effect of the mode truncation in these two approaches, the results have been obtained with the first three modes as well as with all fifteen modes. Table11 shows the floor acceleration results for the structure. The maximum values of the absolute acceleration obtained by the mode displacement method are given in Columns (2) and (3)and those obtained by the mode acceleration method are in Columns (4) and (5). The values in Columns (2) and (4) are obtained with the complete set of modes used in the analyses, whereas those in Columns (3) and ( 5 ) are obtained only with first three modes. The slight difference between the values obtained with the complete set of modes by the two approaches is entirely due to the numerical round-off errors. The comparison of the values in Columns (2) and (3) obtained by the mode displacement approach, and Columns (4) and (5) obtained by the mode acceleration approach, shows the effect of the mode truncation or the missing mass effect. This effect is significant for the mode displacement results, especially for the lower floors which are more affected by the high frequency modes. On the other hand, this effect is quite effectively eliminated by the mode acceleration approach as shown by the comparison of the results in Columns (4) and (5). The accelerations of the higher floors of the structure are primarily governed by the first few modes and thus the effect of the mode truncation is seen to be reduced. However, even for the higher floors, the mode acceleration approach is seen to provide better results than the mode displacement approach. Similar mode truncation effects are evident in the spectral characteristics of the floor motion, depicted by the

Table I. Modal properties of structure in Figure 1

~

~ ~ _ _ _ _

Mode no.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14

15

18.02 18.02 35.48 45.38

45.50

70.57 70.61 78.72 93.88 93.91 1 19.64 11981 12666 18614 267.76

0.0121 00456 00215 00429 01400 02201 00654 007 18 007 12 02482 02758 00676 00805 0078 1 00735

143

Table 11. Maximum floor accelerations obtained by mode displacement and mode acceleration based time integrations Maximum accelerations (G-units) By mode displacement approach with

Floor no.

(1) 1 2

15 modes

(4) 3 modes (5)

0.1 10 0.115 0.137 0.1 59 0.177

15 modes

(2) 0112 0.117 0-137 0157 0.174

3 modes (3)

0.036 0.077 0.121 0.166 0.202

3 4

5

floor response spectra shown in Figures 3 to 6. In all these figures, the floor spectra obtained with the complete set of modes in the mode displacement and mode acceleration approaches are essentially identical. These are represented by the heavy lines. Also, the difference between the spectra obtained with all the modes and the one obtained by the mode acceleration approach with only the first three modes is indiscernible on the plots, Thus in the mode acceleration approach, the effect of the truncation of modes is eliminated if the modes within the frequency range of the input are included in the analysis. On the other hand, the floor spectra obtained by the mode displacement approach with the first three modes used in the analysis, as shown by the thin line curves, can have significant errors, especially for the floors close to the base (Figures 3 and 4) as these floors are strongly affected by the higher modes. However, as seen in Figures 5 and 6, this error is seen to become less for

3.0

2.0

.u

1 .O

0.7

0. s

0.Y

v)

0.3

? f: t

oc w

u

0.2

0.1

0.07

0.05 0.04

0.03

0.02

0.01

.o

PERIOD, SEC.

Figure 3. Floor spectra for floor 1 obtained by the mode displacement (M.D.) and mode acceleration (M.A.) approaches with all fifteen and first three modes

144

3.0

2.0

I .Y I

.o

0.7

v , I-

0.5 0.u

z 0.3

z

4

w I

0.2

I -

0.1

0.07

4:

0.01

0.01

0.02

0.010.06

0.1

0.2 0.3

0.50.7 1.0

2.0

PERIOD, SEC.

Figure 4. Floor spectra for floor 2 obtained by the mode displacement (M.D.)and mode acceleration (M.A.) approaches with all fifteen and first three modes

3.0

2.0

1.9 1.0

ILI

I 1 1II

I I 1

0.03

0.02

0.01

.o

PERIOD, SEC.

Figure' 5. Floor spectraI for floor 4 obtained by the mode displacement (M.D.)and mode acceleration (M.A.)approaches with allI fifteen and first three modes

3.0

2.0

1-11

145

1.0

0.7

0.5 0.u

cn

I I

0.3

0.2

s

I W

d V

0.1

0.07

0.05 0. ou 0.03

0.02

0.01

.o

PERIOD,SEC.

Figure 6. Floor spectra for floor 5 obtained by the mode displace*ent (M.D.)and mode acceleration (M.A.) approaches with all fifteen and first three modes

the higher floors, the acceleration responses of which are, apparently, not much affected by the higher modes. Here again, the superiority of the mode acceleration approach over the mode displacement approach is clearly evident. CONCLUSIONS Although the non-classically damped structures do not have normal modes, modal time history analysis schemes can still be devised. This paper describes such schemes for the calculation of member as well as the acceleration responses. The complex-valued modes are used in the development of the approaches, but the final algorithms still employ only the real quantities. The two time history analysis approaches based on the methods of the mode displacement and mode acceleration of structural dynamics are developed. The mode acceleration approach is very effective in reducing the missing mass effect caused by the truncation of modes in the dynamic analyses. The numerical results of the accelerations and floor acceleration spectra of a non-classically damped structure are presented to establish this claim. For structures and responses which are likely to be affected by the high frequency modes, the use of the mode acceleration-based algorithms for their time history analysis is recommended.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

This work has been supported by the National Science Foundation through Grant Nos. CEE-8109100 and CEE-8214070. This support is gratefully acknowledged. Any opinions, findings and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this report are those of the writers and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation. Also, the assistance provided by Ricardo A. Burdisso in getting the numerical results of the paper is very much appreciated.

146

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