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Our video presentation is about concept attainment and concept formation. What is Concept Attainment?

Concept Attainment is an indirect instructional strategy that uses a structured inquiry process. It is based on the work of Jerome Bruner. Is the search for and identification of attributes that can be used to distinguish examples of a given group or category from non-examples. What is its purpose? Designed to clarify ideas and to introduce aspects of content. It engages students into formulating a concept through the use of illustrations, word cards or specimens called examples. Advantages:

helps make connections between what students know and what they will be learning learn how to examine a concept from a number of perspectives learn how to sort out relevant information extends their knowledge of a concept by classifying more than one example of that concept students go beyond merely associating a key term with a definition concept is learned more thoroughly and retention is improved

How do I do it? Steps of Concept Attainment: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Select and define a concept Select the attributes Develop positive and negative examples Introduce the process to the students Present the examples and list the attributes Develop a concept definition Give additional examples Discuss the process with the class Evaluate

In our video, concept attainment is present when the teacher gives a topic then she let the students give their idea about the topic. Unfortunately, in our video the steps of concept attainment is not presented.

What is concept formation?

It is a classification activity that leads the students to use item characteristics for classification. It develops their abilities to observe items thoroughly and to make useful observations. It also helps them to discover methods of classification It is how people organize and classify events, usually to solve problems Purpose : It is to have the students examine carefully some objects/actions/processes, and to think about a method for classifying them. Aim : Concept formation helps us to disregard what is inessential by creating idealized structures that focus on what is essential. Advantages: Encourages certain of the Common Essential Learnings like critical and creative thinking, communication, and independent learning. Inculcates personal and social values and skills amongst the students if they work in a positive way with their peers.

Instructional Strategies for concept formation I. INDEPENDENT STUDY Independent learning involves "planned independent study by students under the guidance or supervision of a classroom teacher". It may involve one or more of the following strategies: * Assigned questions * Computer assisted instruction * Correspondence lessons * Essays * Homework * Learning activity packages * Learning centres * Learning contracts * Research projects Advantages Students involved in independent learning are often highly motivated by the opportunity to explore topics that are of interest to them. Students can capitalize on their strengths while improving areas of weakness. Disadvantages Students require a degree of maturity and the ability to work with a minimum of supervision. II. DIRECT INSTRUCTION

Direct instruction is a teacher-centred approach. While often overused, it is an effective instructional strategy when the teacher's goal is to: * Provide information * Teach standard procedures * Develop step-by-step skills Direct instruction involves the following strategies: * Demonstrations * Didactic * Drill and practice * Explicit teaching * Mastery Lecture * Guides for reading, listening, and viewing * Structured overview." Advantages 1. Enables the teacher to communicate complex knowledge/information at the students' level. 2. Allows the teacher to present information that is not readily available to the students from other sources or by other means. 3. It may also be an excellent way for a teacher to communicate enthusiasm for the subject and arouse the students' interest. 4. A teacher may use direct instruction to focus the students' attention on relevant content and to assist the students in connecting new information to current knowledge and past experiences. Disadvantages 1. Perhaps the greatest disadvantage of direct instruction is the inappropriate use of the methods: teachers fail to appreciate that there are limitations to the methods of direct instruction. 2. Direct instruction is limited in its ability to help students to fully develop their abilities to think critically and to work well in a group setting. III. INTERACTIVE INSTRUCTION 1. Brainstorming : Brainstorming is a strategy for generating creative ideas and solutions. It is thinking that is definitely "outside the box. To brainstorm effectively, a number of guidelines should be followed: * Clearly define the topic of the brainstorm. * Make the rules clear i.e. * every idea is welcome, no matter how unusual or improbable, * every idea is recorded, * being inspired by others ideas is desired. * Have a volunteer write down the ideas for all to see. 2. Circle of Knowledge: A circle of knowledge "involves each student in thinking and discussing with a peer before sharing ideas with a large group." 3. Cooperative learning groups: Cooperative learning groups "are heterogeneous with respect to student characteristics and have two to six members sharing the various roles. Group members are interdependent in

achieving the group learning goal." 4. Debate: Debate is an oral exchange of ideas through a specified structure. 5. Discussion: 6. Interviewing: Interviewing, a meeting during which information is obtained by one person from another, is an excellent means for students to gain an insight into another's worldview. 7. Lab groups: Lab groups are "cooperative learning groups in an experimental setting." 8. Panels: Panels are "small groups that individually discuss an issue in front of the rest of the class under the direction of a moderator." 9. Peer Practice: Peer practice "involves each student rehearsing skills or conceptual information with a peer." 10. Problem solving: Problem-solving, or problem-based learning, is a constructivist approach that promotes student involvement and active learning. 11. Role play: 12. Tutorial Groups: "Tutorial groups are set up to help students who need remediation or additional practice, or for students who can benefit from enrichment. Advantages 1. Interactive instruction provides opportunities for students to interact with peers, experts, and their teachers in such a manner as to improve their social skills as well as their abilities to assess information and structure an effective response to the information. 2. The interaction is often highly motivating for students. The opportunity to interact with others broadens the educational experience of the students and takes them beyond the limitations of the traditional classroom and the knowledge, skills, and abilities of the individual teacher. Disadvantages 1. It is heavily dependent upon the expertise of the teacher in structuring and developing the dynamics of the group. IV. INDIRECT INSTRUCTION Indirect instruction is a learning-centred teaching strategy. It promotes student involvement in the learning process and, in doing so, fosters true learning for understanding. It includes the following among its strategies: A. Case study: A case study is a story, told with a wealth of accurate, detailed information, which offers students the opportunity to: * evaluate the information provided for importance and relevance, * identify the problem situation and recognize the particulars relevant in defining the problem, * formulate possible solutions for the problem, * evaluate the possible solutions, selecting one solution, * create a plan of action for implementing the chosen solution, and * anticipate obstacles to the successful implementation of the solution. B. Cloze procedure C. Concept attainment D. Concept Mapping: It is said that a picture is worth a thousand words. A concept map is a graphic representation of a network of concepts with links revealing patterns and relationships between the concepts.

E. Inquiry: Inquiry method is a process of asking and answering some key questions. It is a method in which the students generate their own knowledge. Inquiry is an Indirect Instructional Strategy that promotes active, selfdirected learning. F. Problem Solving: G. Reading for meaning: Reading for meaning is an indirect instructional method in which the reader reads with the intent of understanding the information presented. H. Reflective study: (reflective writing or reflective discussion) , the purpose of the work is for the student to learn more about himself or herself. Advantages 1. Because of its constructivist nature, indirect instruction has the advantage of making the student an active learner. Learning is something that is "done by" the student, not "done to" the student, as the teacher moves from the role of instructor to one of facilitator. 2. Indirect instruction enhances creativity and helps to develop problem-solving skills. 3. Its resource-based nature brings depth and breadth to the learning experience. Disadvantages 1. Because indirect instruction is learning-centred, it may take more class time to accomplish learning goals than when direct instruction is utilized. 2. As facilitator, the teacher must give control of the learning to the students, which may initially be uncomfortable. 3. There is also more of a challenge involved in ensuring that the students do accomplish the required learning objectives. V. EXPERIENTIAL LEARNING Experiential learning is constructivist learning, where students are active learners, constructing their own knowledge, rather than observing the demonstrative behaviour of a teacher. Such learning may involve one or more of the following instructional strategies: a. Experiments: Experiment is a test or procedure carried out under controlled conditions to determine the validity of a hypothesis or make a discovery. b. Field observations: Field observations refer to "observations made of naturally occurring phenomena by students outside the classroom." c. Field trips: A field trip refers to "student activity that is conducted for an educational purpose outside the classroom." d. Focused imaging: Focused imaging "enables students to relax and allow their imaginations to take them on journeys, to "experience" situations first hand, and to respond with their senses to the mental images formed. e. Games: Games are structured learning activities that "include conflict, control, and rules for winning and terminating the activities." f. Model building: Model building "involves the students in the design and construction of a theory, concept, or object." g. Role play: h. Simulation: "Simulations and games are teaching and learning methods in which participants are directly involved in making decisions and learning from the outcomes of these.

i. Surveys: A survey is a research instrument which involves the asking of questions of a group of individuals. Creating and administering a survey, as well as analyzing the data collected are all excellent opportunities for students to be active learners. j. Synectics: Synectics is a problem solving method that involves "the creative thinking of a group of people from different areas of experience and knowledge". What is unique about synectics is that it employs the use of metaphor and analogy to spark creativity. Advantages 1. Because experiential learning is active learning, students more readily understand what they are learning and thus retain the knowledge to a greater degree than when merely having information presented to them by another. 2. The hands-on nature of experiential learning is highly motivating for students. Disadvantages 1.Experiential learning is time and resource intensive and often requires considerable effort on the teacher's part to organize. However, the educational impact of experiential learning makes the strategy an important one for teachers and students alike. In our video presentation, concept formation is presented when the teacher gave an activity in which they will survey or they will gather things in the environment which is good and bad. In the activity it is more consider as instructional strategies for concept attainment which is the experiential learning. Also independent study, indirect instruction and interactive learning is present in our video presentation. The good thing about our video presentation includes the following: 1. Our idea on how to present our topic. 2. The effort of the group to present our idea. 3. The way how we edit our videos. 4. The effort of each and every one of us on how we did our role. 5. Our costume. 6. We believed that our presentation entertained all of you. The weak or bad about our video presentation includes the following: 1. The presentation which is moving. 2. Some scene is boring. Difference between concept attainment and concept formation: A concept formation is, in some ways, the opposite of a concept attainment. Where in a concept attainment, the teacher gives the students examples of objects/actions/processes already classified the way she/he wants them to classify them. In concept formation, the teacher gives the students a lot of objects/actions/processes, and the students choose how to classify them. As with concept attainment, concept formation is best done in small groups.