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Handout Manchester Feminist Network 11th Jan 2014. The Nordic Model.

l. The Nordic model is a package of laws around prostitution What is the problem with prostitution? Why do we need to change the law? Prostitution is the result of male dominance, structural oppression based on old ideas about men and women - that men are entitled to access to womens bodies myth that women dont have sexual desire, but need something back if have sex (like money, dinner, marriage etc etc). Prostitution affects the most vulnerable and most oppressed people (particularly people who suffer from intersecting oppressions): sex - majority of those who sell sex are women, majority of those who buy sex are men sellers: http://www.businessinsider.com/there-are-42-million-prostitutes-in-the-world-and-hereswhere-they-live-2012-1 buyers: e.g. global research shows that most sex buyers are male, Prostitution, Harm and Gender Inequality: Theory, Research and Policy ed. Dr Maddy Coy http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=zbY7fJIeydgC&printsec=frontcover - v=onepage&q&f=false race e.g. in a 1998 survey, 80% of women in street prostitution in Vancouver, and 70% in Winnipeg were indigenous women (who make up 3% of the population) http://projectrespect.org.au/system/files/Paper+presented+at+Swedish+Seminar.pdf poverty, class e.g. "Women are turning to prostitution to feed their children as welfare reforms hit the poorest and most vulnerable families in Hull." (August 2013, http://www.thisishullandeastriding.co.uk/Mumsselling-sex-feed-children-benefit-cuts-hit/story-19650230-detail/story.html - ixzz2fHJBEerf.) LGBT e.g. "A disproportionately high number of trans women become involved in prostitution due to social stigma and employment discrimination http://www.igh.org/Cochrane/operario_etal.pdf disabled (incl mental health) e.g. a UNICEF study in Taiwan found that the proportion of children being prostituted who had mild developmental disabilities was six times greater than what might be expected from the incidence in the general population. http://www.unicef.org/videoaudio/PDFs/UNICEF_Violence_Against_Disabled_Children_Report_Dis tributed_Version.pdf vulnerabilities (asylum seeking, fleeing or in war/conflict situation, child abuse, domestic violence, homelessness, care system, drugs/alcohol problems)

e.g. "many report poor school attendance and as many as 70% spent time in care" (Home Office, 2004 http://webarchive.nationalarchives.gov.uk/ +/http:/www.homeoffice.gov.uk/documents/paying_the_price.pdf?view=Binary) Women and girls who are / have been homeless 20% of women surveyed said that while homeless they had engaged in prostitution to pay for somewhere to stay (Crisis, 2011 http://www.crisis.org.uk/data/files/publications/HiddenTruthAboutHomelessness_web.pdf) Women and girls seeking asylum "Asylum-seekers 'forced into prostitution' by support system failures" http://www.independent.co.uk/news/uk/politics/asylumseekers-forced-into-prostitution-by-supportsystem-failures-8471717.html Causes a lot of harm to those involved women involved in prostitution is18 times more likely to be murdered than general population Hard Knock Life, New Philanthropy Capital, 2008 http://socialwelfare.bl.uk/subject-areas/servicesclient-groups/families/newphilanthropycapital/142273Hard-knock-life.pdf) physical and sexual violence, primarily from punters (whether indoor or on-street) High incidence of violence - "Reported experience of client violence over the lifetime was high (63%). In the past six months, 37% had experienced some form of client attack." (Barnard et al, 2002 http://www.equation.org.uk/wp-content/uploads/2012/12/Client-Violence-Against-ProstituteWomen.pdf) High incidence of rape - estimates vary between 25% and 80% - e.g. 63% (Farley et al, 2003 http://www.prostitutionresearch.com/pdf/Prostitutionin9Countries.pdf) high incidence of drug and alcohol problems (although not everyone) e.g. 83% (Eaves, 2012 http://i1.cmsfiles.com/eaves/2012/11/Breaking-down-the-barriersa37d80.pdf) Inextricably linked with trafficking (although not the same thing) majority of trafficking is for purpose of prostitution 75% of all victims are trafficked into commercial sexual exploitation CIA World Factbook, Transnational Issues https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/xx.html majority of trafficked are female (adults and children) at least 80% of the victims are female and up to 50% are minors https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/xx.html trafficking makes up the gap between women who are in the sex trade without having to be trafficked, and the amount of demand for prostitution So it causes harm and needs to be addressed in law laws in this country are inconsistent and not fit for purpose.

The law in England & Wales -not illegal to buy or sell sex -illegal to loiter/solicit (offer to sell sex) in public place -illegal to buy sex in a public place -illegal to buy sex from someone being exploited or coerced (whether or not you know this) -illegal to pimp -illegal to traffic for purposes of prostitution -illegal to keep or manage a brothel or let your premises be used as one -illegal to buy sex from or pimp a child (You can read more about this here: http://www.cps.gov.uk/legal/p_to_r/prostitution_and_exploitation_of_prostitution/ - a10) Laws in England and Wales only focused on street prostitution (this makes up only a small fraction of the sex trade) have capability to target buyers/sellers equally but enforced mostly to detriment of women who sell sex - the way they are enforced is a matter of police discretion police can set priorities of how to enforce (they dont HAVE to arrest women for loitering / soliciting if they see them out there, they can prioritise other stuff). Why the Nordic Model? To say why Nordic Model we have to say why not other legal models part of the reason we need it is because other stuff doesnt work. There are five general approaches Legalisation e.g. Germany, Netherlands Regulating prostitution and the sex industry registration, monitoring, taxation etc Full decriminalisation (effectively pretty much the same thing) e.g. New Zealand Eliminating penalties for doing certain things be aware that this is decriminalisation of pimping, brothels, buying sex etc, not just decriminalisation of those who sell sex in practice means same as legalisation, because states have to regulate certain things if not illegal, also pretty much same effect in practice Nordic Model Sweden, Norway, Iceland See below Full criminalisation e.g. Most of the USA (except 11 counties in Nevada) Where both parties (buyer and seller) are criminalised. Dodgy mixture - A lot of countries have a mixture of laws which are poorly considered and

inconsistent (like England and Wales). What is the Nordic model? Decriminalisation of selling sex Criminalisation of buying sex Services to support people who want to exit prostitution Introduced in Sweden in 1999, Norway 2008, Iceland 2009. Must (and does) go hand in hand with exiting and support services for women idea is to give women a full range of options, rather than insisting on preserving (and enshrining in law) only the option of prostitution. Recognises prostitution as result of male dominance something that is harmful to women and the result of our structural oppression women should have right not to get involved in prostitution in order to survive. Introduced after extensive study, researchers spent 3 yrs interviewing people involved in prostitution 800 page report, 140 pages peoples testimonies, published in 1981 laid the foundation for the law. (Borg et al, 1981, Prostitution. Beskrivning. Analys. Frslag till tgrder.) Why lopsided law? reflects unequal power dynamic in society and transaction of prostitution male dominance one person there for money, one there for fun the person who seeks it out causes the transaction to take place. Effects of these solutions Failure of full criminalisation e.g. most of the USA This is a bit obvious but: Criminalisation of seller just plain wrong (vulnerability) affects womens life chances in future (criminal record prostitution classed as a sexual offence so comes up in every criminal records disclosure and never goes away, so would never be able to work with e.g. children or vulnerable adults generally very hard to get a different job with a criminal record) makes women less safe as may try and sell sex in more remote locations where risk may be greater less likely to contact police if something bad happens, for fear of criminalisation, so men feel can abuse women with impunity. Failure of legalisation / full decriminalisation

e.g. Germany, Netherlands / New Zealand People who advocate for legalisation / full decriminalisation often have the best of intentions, & best interests of women at heart they feel that prostitution is not the problem, just things they think are peripheral (working conditions, violence) - although obviously some of the most vigorous campaigners for legalisation etc are sex trade profiteers. Failures: The illegal sex trade continues to flourish alongside the legal trade e.g. For more than two years, the businessman has operated an illegal brothel, staffed exclusively by Thai women, on Parramatta Road, Leichhardt. And, as local government enforcers, such as Leichhardt Council, fail to crack down on the seedy world of underground brothels, the opportunity exists to expand. A Fairfax Media investigation can reveal Mr Perdikaris' latest men's retreat has popped up on the north shore. Business is so good, there are another 33 illegal brothels all thriving within a fivekilometre radius. When approached for comment last week, Mr Perdikaris initially denied involvement at either address, or any others. However, he later confirmed both businesses were his but passed all blame for illegal activities at the premises onto his female workers. http://www.smh.com.au/nsw/brothel-barons-expand-as-councils-fail-to-act-on-illegal-activities20131130-2yi9m.html - ixzz2mRroqWWy, December 2013, Australia. e.g. "Legalising some parts of the industry, while policing and suppressing illegal forms of prostitution has not eliminated the existence of and demand for illegal brothels, escort agencies, and street prostitution. It has been estimated that the current regime only addresses as little as 10% of all forms of prostitution in Queensland. In other words, 90% of prostitution remains unregulated in this state and most sex workers continue to work outside the regulated industry.Illegal forms of prostitution cater for a demand that is not met by the legal industry Licensed brothels also have a competitive disadvantage to their illegal counterparts" (University of Queensland, 2009 http://www.law.uq.edu.au/documents/humantraffic/reports-presentations/UQHTWG-Ten-Years-of-Prostitution-Regulation-in-Qld-Sep-2009.pdf) Organised crime continues to be involved and often runs both illegal and legal brothels side by side e.g. Three men and two women have been charged with illegally living off the profits of around 100 sex workers and dealing with the proceeds of crime. Police say the five are the heads of a major crime syndicate that has made $500,000 in profits in the last six months. Australian Federal Police detective superintendent Ian Bate said the five were accused of employing 100 sex workers at four licensed brothels across Melbourne. http://www.theaustralian.com.au/news/nation/five-arrested-over-brothel-contracts/story-e6frg6nf1226673592794July 2013, Australia. children continue to be prostituted (even in legal brothels) e.g.A Kings Cross brothel owner has been found guilty of prostituting a 14-year-old girl.

Jennifer Ann Weatherstone had pleaded not guilty to two counts of causing a child to participate in an act of child prostitution at her brothel, Sparkling Chandeliers in July 2011It was "impossible" to believe the teen was over 18, Judge Anthony Garling told the District Court in Sydney on Friday. http://www.smh.com.au/nsw/sydney-brothel-owner-guilty-of-prostituting-teen-201307122pv0g.htmlJuly 2013, Australia human trafficking increases (and trafficked women are trafficked to and exploited in legal brothels) "The researchers used a global sample of 116 countries. They found that countries where prostitution is legal tend to experience a higher reported inflow of human trafficking than countries in which prostitution is prohibited...Germany showed a sharp increase in reports of human trafficking upon fully legalising prostitution in 2002. The number of human trafficking victims in 2004 in Denmark, where it is decriminalised, was more than four times that of Sweden, where it is illegal, although the population size of Sweden is about 40 per cent larger." http://www.lse.ac.uk/newsAndMedia/news/archives/2012/12/Legalised-prostitution-increaseshuman-trafficking.aspx(Does Legalized Prostitution Increase Human Tra c king? Cho, Dreyer & Neumayer, 2012) http://www.lse.ac.uk/geographyAndEnvironment/whosWho/profiles/neumayer/pdf/Article-for-WorldDevelopment-_prostitution_-anonymous-REVISED.pdf women continue to experience violence from punters and pimps e.g. A prostitute who had a gun pulled on her for refusing to have unprotected sex plans to sue a suburban brothel for failing to protect her. http://www.theage.com.au/victoria/prostitute-to-sue-brothel-over-gun-20110712-1hc7n.html, July 2011, Victoria, Australia women continue to experience coercion into prostitution & to do things they dont want e.g. Forced prostitution shifts to unsold homes in residential areas http://www.dutchnews.nl/news/archives/2013/06/forced_prostitution_shifts_to.php sthash.2ERhaXpV.dpuf, June 2013, Netherlands. According to a Dutch police study, 50 to 90 percent of women in legalized brothels were working involuntarily. (Schone Schijn: De signalering van mensenhandel in de vergunde prostitutiesector [Keeping Up Appearances: The Signs of Human Trafficking in the Legalized Prostitution Sector] KLPD, Driebergen, 2008). http://www.om.nl/onderwerpen/mensenhandel_en/@148766/de_signalering_van/ efforts to help women exit are reduced In New Zealand, only 2 of 87 local authorities had funded services to assist women to exit. (No central government provision made.) (Report of the Prostitution Law Review Committee on the Operation of the Prostitution Reform Act 2003, New Zealand Government, 2008) http://www.justice.govt.nz/policy/commercial-property-and-regulatory/prostitution/prostitution-lawreview-committee/publications/plrc-report/documents/report.pdf In the Netherlands only 6% of the municipalities indicated, when asked, that attention is being given to the possibilities for prostitutes to get out of the prostitution. (Prostitution in the Netherlands since the lifting of the brothel ban, Daalder, 2007) http://english.wodc.nl/onderzoeksdatabase/1204e-engelse-vertaling-rapport-evaluatie-opheffing-

bordeelverbod.aspx women do not unionise - ver.di membership in Germany only a few (Kajsa Ekis Ekman, 2013) NB: most prostitution unions are actually pro-legalisation lobby groups they dont assist women with collective bargaining, and they let in anyone, including pimps for more info see e.g http://www.scribd.com/doc/163742098/An-Unlikely-Union and http://www.niassembly.gov.uk/Assembly-Business/Official-Report/Committee-Minutes-ofEvidence/January-2014/Human-Trafficking-and-Exploitation-Further-Provisions-and-Support-forVictims-Bill-International-Union-of-Sex-Workers/ women do not take up option of employment contracts In Germany only 1% of women interviewed had an employment contract (many did not wish to go on record as being involved in prostitution) http://www.bmfsfj.de/RedaktionBMFSFJ/Broschuerenstelle/Pdf-Anlagen/bericht-der-br-zum-prostgenglisch,property=pdf,bereich=bmfsfj,sprache=de,rwb=true.pdf stigma is not reduced e.g In Victoria, Australia, one service provider noted that "women constantly tell us that their status as having done prostitution is used against them". In New Zealand, a government report noted that "abuse and harassment of street-based sex workers by drunken members of the public is common". http://www.justice.govt.nz/policy/commercial-property-and-regulatory/prostitution/prostitution-lawreview-committee/publications/plrc-report/documents/report.pdf), Australia (http://www.parliament.vic.gov.au/images/stories/committees/dcpc/Trafficking_Final_full_report_wit h_cover.pdf) (via http://www.huffingtonpost.co.uk/jacqui-hunt/legalising-prostitution-is-a-terribleidea_b_2644337.html) Under a legalised (etc) regime the idea is that if you legalise (etc) buying sex, then men will report trafficking, children being prostituted etc, and it will make them be ethical buyers, use condoms, not commit violence etc. Why the idea of ethical buyers of sex is ludicrous coercion is part of the appeal of prostitution punters want to do what they want men want women who cant enforce boundaries, hence the existence of a flourishing illegal industry alongside every legal / decriminalised one underage girls (and boys) part of the appeal of prostitution (e.g. In my first year in prostitution, when I was fifteen-years-old, I was used by countless hundreds of men men were so obviously aroused by my youth it made them climax very quickly, so I soon learned to tell them how old I was in order to shorten the whole ordeal. I made it a policy; it was one of the first things I said when I got into the car not that I needed to bring up the subject because it was usually one of the first questions asked of me. http://theprostitutionexperience.com/?p=135 written by survivor Rachel Moran) -men generally tend not to report if they come across signs of coercion

(Netherlands) When customers do come across signs of forced prostitution they tend not to take any action. (Summary, Customers of window prostitution, 2009) http://www.dsp-groep.nl/getFile.cfm?dir=rapport&file=11sfijsbeer_Summary_English_dsp-groep.pdf men rarely report trafficking if they do, theyve generally had sex with her anyway Two men said that women in prostitution asked them for help but neither believed the womens request for help. An African woman was trying to get me to be like her brother, said one man. She was frightened and nervous. She told me she had been tricked. Yet this man also stated to the interviewer that he paid her for sex after which he decided that she was probably lying to him about being tricked. Three men suspected that they had encountered trafficked women based on the womens inability to speak the local language or on how young or vulnerable they appeared. For example, I could tell she was new to the country. To be new in a country and be a prostitute it cant be a choice She looked troubled. Several men reported that the women themselves informed them that they had been trafficked. None reported this to the police. One man described going to a location near Heathrow, where She kissed me and gave me a massage, it seemed to last forever. Its called the girlfriend experience. Later I realised she must have been forced into it and there was a criminal element. Despite their awareness of coercion and trafficking, only five of these 103 men reported their suspicions to the police. They feared a loss of anonymity, especially fearing their families discovery of their use of prostitutes. One interviewee said that he did not report his suspicions because he assumed that the authorities are involved in it as well. Another rang Crimestoppers to report a flock of 14-year-old Russians were working in North England but they said it wasnt their patch. Some of the men said that they tried to assist women in prostitution by paying them extra money. Later, some tended to believe that they had been cheated out of their money. Eaves, Men Who Buy Sex http://i1.cmsfiles.com/eaves/2012/04/MenWhoBuySex-89396b.pdf violence is intrinsic to punters attitudes "Twenty-seven per cent of our interviewees explained that once he pays, the customer is entitled to engage in any act he chooses.... Forty-seven per cent of these London men expressed the view to a greater or lesser degree that women did not always have certain rights during prostitution...Twenty-five per cent told us that the very concept of raping a prostitute or call girl was ridiculous." (Eaves, 2009 http://i3.cmsfiles.com/eaves/2012/04/MenWhoBuySex-89396b.pdf) take a look at The Invisible Men project (http://the-invisible-men.tumblr.com/) or have a lovely browse of Punternets reviews yourself (http://www.punternet.com/index.php/reviews) to see if you think legalisation (etc) will turn these men into ethical buyers.



Legalisation / full decriminalisation doesnt change the nature of prostitution it increases size of industry, and gives a state seal of approval. It is not peripheral things that are the problem and that cause the harm to women, its prostitution itself. Based on this realisation, the Nordic Model aims to ensure that as few women as possible become involved in prostitution by reducing the size of the sex trade, and to ensure that women have other options than prostitution. Successes of Nordic Model so far (Sweden) street prostitution reduced by half Evaluation of the ban on purchase of sexual services, 2010 http://www.government.se/sb/d/13358/a/149231 (Sweden) internet prostitution has not disproportionately increased, so this is a real reduction, not a displacement (ibid) overall prostitution has remained stable when increased in neighbouring countries without these laws (ibid) Sweden has become undesirable to traffickers, as its too much hard work to make money off trafficked women, as have to be constantly avoiding the police in order to exploit them The NCID has received signals from Europol and national police forces in other European countries that Sweden no longer is an attractive market for traffickers..." (Ekberg, 2004 http://action.web.ca/home/catw/attach/Ekberg.pdf) (Sweden) number of male sex buyers has reduced from 13.6% to 7.9% (over 40% reduction) Targeting the Sex Buyer, 2010 http://exoduscry.com/site/wpcontent/uploads/2010/07/swedish_model.pdf service providers in Sweden say less violence, rape than before law (personal correspondence re unpublished paper, Ane Mathieson, Fulbright Fellow, 2013) (Sweden) women say easier to report crimes against them and tend to report young girls on street, bad punters, pimps to police (ibid) early to tell but laws appear to have reduced serious violence against women involved in pros in Norway (http://feministcurrent.com/7038/new-research-shows-violence-decreases-undernordic-model-why-the-radio-silence/) law introduced in Norway in 2008 - I think theyre having a 5 year review of their law so well have more data soon Applying the Nordic model in England & Wales What NorMAs wants here: Decriminalisation of those who sell sex Criminalisation of those who buy sex State funded exiting services nationwide, as well as programmes for girls at risk of entering the sex trade

Erasure of loitering/soliciting convictions for those who sell sex, erasure of criminal records for those made to commit offences while trafficked or coerced National education strategy for children and adults, realistic sex education, healthy relationships, realities of prostitution and trafficking we need to break paradigm that creates prostitution ideas of male dominance / sexual insatiability, idea of womens lack of sexual desire that require us to get something in exchange. What we can do Without changing the law right now You can help make women involved in prostitution safer now, without a change in the law: write to your PCC (in Greater Manchester its Tony Lloyd, otherwise look up yours here: http://www.police.uk/search/?next=policing%3Aforce%3Apcc%3Aindex) tell him to stop police in your area from arresting women and focus on punters write to your local council (you can do this here: https://www.writetothem.com/) and tell them the same, and ask them to provide exiting services set up a solidarity campaign to educate your local area about the realities of prostitution, and the harm caused by criminalising women who sell sex LIFT in Tower Hamlets (London) has had some success in doing this you can read about the campaign here: http://liftcampaign.org.uk/about-us/ Changing the law future: campaign for the Nordic Model write to your MP and ask them their stance and their partys stance on this, and tell them why the Nordic Model is the best solution for women. (You can write to your MP here: https://www.writetothem.com/) ***Bear in mind that your local councillors and PCC are the ones to contact about local issues like services, and you should contact your MP about national issues, as MPs dont have much practical influence on a local level*** Changing the world that pushes women into prostitution work to change the conditions that push women into prostitution racism, class inequality and poverty, ableism, discrimination against LGBT people fight the cuts, work to protect the NHS and welfare state workers rights, womens equality in the workplace womens access to education womens access to our legal rights fight against the depiction of women as sexual objects who exist for mens pleasure prostitution is the ultimate form of objectif ication, and is born out of a climate where women are objectif ied in other ways. = fight to end inequality of women

Suggestions for further reading. Survivors blogs / survivor-led campaign groups (If weve missed any off please let us know!) Rachel Moran http://theprostitutionexperience.com/ Rebecca Mott http://rmott62.wordpress.com/ Stella Marr http://stellamarrici.tumblr.com/ The Survivors View http://prostitutionresearch.com/pre_blog/category/the-survivors-view/ Angel K http://www.survivingprostitutionandaddiction.blogspot.co.uk/ SPACE International (Survivors of Prostitution-abuse Calling for Enlightenment) http://spaceinternational.ie/ Sex Trafficking Survivors United http://www.sextraffickingsurvivorsunited.org/ Sextrade101 http://www.sextrade101.com/ EVE: formerly Exploited Voices Now Educating https://www.facebook.com/abolitionEVE Indigenous Women Against the Sex Industry https://www.facebook.com/pages/Indigenous-Women-Against-the-Sex-Industry/402934106468517 Mouvement du Nid http://mouvementdunid.org/ Other useful websites: Speaking of Prostitution (a great FAQ of all those questions like what about disabled men?) http://www.kvinnofronten.nu/eng/speaking-of-prostitution.htm Prostitution Research and Education http://prostitutionresearch.com/ Eaves (they conduct a lot of research on prostitution in England and support women involved in prostitution) http://www.eavesforwomen.org.uk/campaigns-research/our-research/reports LIFT Tower Hamlets (solidarity campaign) http://liftcampaign.org.uk/ Womens Support Project, Glasgow http://womenssupportproject.co.uk/ Stop Porn Culture http://stoppornculture.org/ Article on female sex tourism for those who were interested http://www.newstatesman.com/world-affairs/2013/08/meet-middle-aged-women-who-are-britains-

female-sex-tourists Books: Rachel Moran, Paid For My Journey Through Prostitution http://www.amazon.co.uk/Paid-Rachel-Moran/dp/0717156028 Rachel Lloyd, Girls Like Us: Fighting for a World Where Girls Are Not for Sale: A Memoir http://www.amazon.co.uk/Girls-Like-Us-Fighting-Memoir/dp/0061582069 Kasja Ekis Ekman, Being & Being Bought: Prostitution, Surrogacy & the Split Self http://www.amazon.co.uk/Being-Bought-Prostitution-Surrogacy-Split/dp/1742198767/ Janice Raymond, Not a Choice, Not a Job http://www.amazon.co.uk/Not-Choice-Job-Janice-Raymond/dp/161234626X

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