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Eurocodes:

Background & Applications


GEOTECHNICAL DESIGN with worked examples 13-14 June 2013, Dublin
Worked examples
HYD d UPL li it HYD and UPL limit
states states
Dr. Bernd Schuppener
German Federal Waterways Engineering and
Research Institute, Karlsruhe
Past Chairman of CEN TC250/SC 7
Eurocodes:
Background & Applications
GEOTECHNICAL DESIGN ith k d l 13 14 J D bli GEOTECHNICAL DESIGN with worked examples 13-14 June, Dublin
Worked example:
Verification of uplift of a base slab Verification of uplift of a base slab
in an excavation
2013 Bernd Schuppener. All rights reserved 2
Eurocodes:
Background & Applications
GEOTECHNICAL DESIGN ith k d l 13 14 J D bli GEOTECHNICAL DESIGN with worked examples 13-14 June, Dublin
Example: verification of failure by uplift UPL
H=10 m H 10 m
L
SPW
=15 m
D = 1 0 m D = 1,0 m
U
k
a = 10 m; b = 5 m

conrete
= 24,0 kN/m

k
= 32,5
conrete

k
= 10 kN/m

Steel
d = 2,34 kN/m
Waterpressure: U = H b a = 5000 kN
2013 Bernd Schuppener. All rights reserved 3
Waterpressure: U
k
= H
w
b a = 5000 kN
Eurocodes:
Background & Applications
GEOTECHNICAL DESIGN ith k d l 13 14 J D bli GEOTECHNICAL DESIGN with worked examples 13-14 June, Dublin
EN 1997-1: 2.4.7.4 Verification of uplift
(1)P Verification for uplift (UPL) shall be carried out by checking
that the design value of the combination of destabilising
t d i bl ti l ti (V ) i l th permanent and variable vertical actions (V
dst;d
) is less than or
equal to the sum of the design value of the stabilising
permanent vertical actions (G
stb;d
) and of the design value of any
stb;d
additional resistance to uplift (R
d
):
V
dst,d
G
stb;d
+ R
d
(2.8)
dst,d stb;d d
where
V = G +Q V
dst,d
= G
dst;d
+Q
dst;d
(2) Additional resistance to uplift may also be treated as a
stabilising permanent vertical action (G )
2013 Bernd Schuppener. All rights reserved 4
stabilising permanent vertical action (G
stb;d
).
Eurocodes:
Background & Applications
GEOTECHNICAL DESIGN ith k d l 13 14 J D bli GEOTECHNICAL DESIGN with worked examples 13-14 June, Dublin
UPL partial factors and model factor
Factor type Factor EN 1997-1 German NA
and DIN
1054
Irish NA
Permanent unfavourable
action

G;dst
1.0 1.0 1.0
Permanent favourable action 0 9 0 9 0 9 Permanent favourable action
G;stb
0.9 0.9 0.9
Variable unfavourable action
Q;dst
1.5 1.5 1.5
Angle of shearing resistance

1.25 1.25 1.25


Pile tensile resistance
s;t
1.4 1.4 2.0
Model factor on wall - 0.8 -
2013 Bernd Schuppener. All rights reserved 5
resistance

Eurocodes:
Background & Applications
GEOTECHNICAL DESIGN ith k d l 13 14 J D bli GEOTECHNICAL DESIGN with worked examples 13-14 June, Dublin
UPL- verification with the weight of the structure only
For the verifications the following quantities are needed:
Self-weight base-slab: g
Base-slab: d = 1,0 m,
concrete
= 24,0 kN/m:
Base-area A = a b = 10,0 5,0 = 50,00 m
G A d G
concrete
= A d
concrete
G
concrete
= 50 1,0 24,0 = 1200 kN.
S lf i ht h t il ll d 0 03 78 0 kN/ Self weight sheet-pile-wall: d
SPW
= 0,03 m,
Steel
= 78,0 kN/m
Weight per unit area: g = 78,0 0,03 = 2,34 kN/m,
G = L 2 (a +b) g = 15 30 2 34 = 1053 kN G
SPW
= L
SPW
2 (a +b) g = 15302,34 = 1053 kN
Total characteristic weight of the structure:
2013 Bernd Schuppener. All rights reserved 6
G
k
= G
concrete
+ G
SPW
= 1200 + 1053 = 2253 kN
Eurocodes:
Background & Applications
GEOTECHNICAL DESIGN ith k d l 13 14 J D bli GEOTECHNICAL DESIGN with worked examples 13-14 June, Dublin
UPL-verification with the weight of the structure only
G
U
Required: V G + R eq (2 8)
U G
V
dst,d
= U
d
G
d
Required: V
dst,d
G
stb;d
+ R
d
eq. (2.8)
U
k

G,dst
G
k

G,stb
But: 5000 1,00 = 5000 kN > 2253 0,90 = 2028 kN
H UPL i t t ti fi d!
2013 Bernd Schuppener. All rights reserved 7
Hence UPL requirement not satisfied!
Eurocodes:
Background & Applications
GEOTECHNICAL DESIGN ith k d l 13 14 J D bli GEOTECHNICAL DESIGN with worked examples 13-14 June, Dublin
UPL-verification including wall frictional resistance R
GG
R
UU
V
dst,d
G
stb;d
+ R
d
U
k

G dst
(G
k
+ R
k
)
G stb
U
d
G
d
+ R
d
2013 Bernd Schuppener. All rights reserved 8
U
k

G,dst
(G
k
R
k
)
G,stb
Eurocodes:
Background & Applications
GEOTECHNICAL DESIGN ith k d l 13 14 J D bli GEOTECHNICAL DESIGN with worked examples 13-14 June, Dublin
Verification of failure by uplift UPL frictional resistance R
The characteristic value of the wall frictional resistance R
k
will be
treated as a stabilising action determined as the vertical
component of the characteristic active earth pressure reduced by component of the characteristic active earth pressure reduced by
a model factor of = 0,80:
R
k
= E
ah,k
tan
a

Th ll f i ti l i d t b 2/3 F The wall friction angle is assumed to be
k
= 2/3
k
. For
horizontal surface area and vertical wall the earth pressure
coefficient is K
ah,k
= 0,25 (from Fig. C 1.1 of EN 1997-1 for
k
=
,
32.5) and tan
a
= 0,397. The earth pressure is assumed to act
only on the outer surface of the sheet pile wall:
E
ah k
= 2 (a + b) 0,5 L
SPW
K
ah k ah,k
( ) ,
SPW

ah,k
E
ah,k
= 30 0,5 15 10 0,25 = 8437 kN
R
k
= E
ah,k
tan
k

2013 Bernd Schuppener. All rights reserved 9
a ,
R
k
= 8437 0,397 0,8 = 2680 kN
Eurocodes:
Background & Applications
GEOTECHNICAL DESIGN ith k d l 13 14 J D bli GEOTECHNICAL DESIGN with worked examples 13-14 June, Dublin
UPL - including wall frictional resistance
G
R
U
U
k

G dst
(G
k
+ R
k
)
G stb
Require: U
d
G
d
+ R
d
U
k

G,dst
(G
k k
)
G,stb
But: 5000 1,00 = 5000 > (2253+2680) 0,90 = 4400 kN
Hence UPL requirement is not satisfied
2013 Bernd Schuppener. All rights reserved 10
Hence UPL requirement is not satisfied
Eurocodes:
Background & Applications
GEOTECHNICAL DESIGN ith k d l 13 14 J D bli GEOTECHNICAL DESIGN with worked examples 13-14 June, Dublin
Example: Irish verification of uplift failure for UPL
Calculation of R
d
Using 32 5
o
i e the inferior characteristic value and applying Using
k,inf
= 32,5
o
, i.e. the inferior characteristic value, and applying
UPL

= 1,25 to the tan(


k,inf
) to obtain to
d
and
d
, gives a design
wall frictional resistance R
d
value that is slightly greater than the
d
characteristic value R
k
, which is not acceptable.
Hence a superior characteristic value
k,sup
is needs to be used. This is
bt i d ft B d d H i (2008) b i l obtained, after Bond and Harris (2008), by assuming a normal
distribution for and a standard deviation of 3
o
so that
k,sup
= 32,5
o
+ 2
1.624 3,0 = 42.4
o
. Then applying the partial factor of 1.25 as a , pp y g p
multiplier to tan(
k,sup
) gives
d,sup
= 48.8
o
and hence an R
d
value of
2580 kN with a margin of safety of 1.33 on the characteristic value.
2013 Bernd Schuppener. All rights reserved 11
Eurocodes:
Background & Applications
GEOTECHNICAL DESIGN ith k d l 13 14 J D bli GEOTECHNICAL DESIGN with worked examples 13-14 June, Dublin
Example: Irish verification of failure by uplift UPL
GG
R
U
U
k

G,dst
G
k

G,stb
+ R
k

G,stb
Require: U
d
G
d
+ R
d
i.e. 5000 1,00 = 5000 > 2253 0,90 + 2580 = 4608 kN
Hence ULP requirement is not satisfied and tensile piles are required
2013 Bernd Schuppener. All rights reserved 12
Hence ULP requirement is not satisfied and tensile piles are required
Eurocodes:
Background & Applications
GEOTECHNICAL DESIGN ith k d l 13 14 J D bli GEOTECHNICAL DESIGN with worked examples 13-14 June, Dublin
GEO partial factors and model factor
Factor type Factor Irish NA Irish NA German NA Factor type Factor Irish NA
DA1.C1
Irish NA
DA1.C2
German NA
DA2 + DIN
1054
P t f bl 1 35 1 0 1 2 Permanent unfavourable
action, transient situation

G;dst
1.35 1.0 1.2
Permanent favourable
G;stb
1.0 1.0 1.0
action
Variable unfavourable
action

Q;dst
1.5 1.3 1.5
action
Angle of shearing
resistance

1.0 1.25 1.0


Pile tensile resistance
s;t
1.25 1.6 1.4
Model factor on wall - - 0.8
2013 Bernd Schuppener. All rights reserved 13
Model factor on wall
resistance
0.8
Eurocodes:
Background & Applications
GEOTECHNICAL DESIGN ith k d l 13 14 J D bli GEOTECHNICAL DESIGN with worked examples 13-14 June, Dublin
Irish design for GEO verification
As explained previously,
R
G
R
d
is obtained using the
superior value so that
for:
U E
d
R
d

= 1,0, R
d
= 3440 kN

= 1,25, R
d
= 2580 kN
E
d
= U
k

G
- G
k

G,inf
= 5000
G
2253
G;inf
DA1 C1 E 5000 1 35 2253 1 0 4497kN > R 3440kN DA1.C1: E
d
= 5000 1,35 2253 1,0=4497kN > R
d
= 3440kN
DA1.C2: E
d
= 5000 1,0 2253 1,0=2747kN < R
d
= 2580kN
Hence GEO ULS is not satisfied
2013 Bernd Schuppener. All rights reserved 14
Eurocodes:
Background & Applications
GEOTECHNICAL DESIGN ith k d l 13 14 J D bli GEOTECHNICAL DESIGN with worked examples 13-14 June, Dublin
Uplift - verification with tension piles
EN 1997-1
p p
7.6.3 Piles - ground tensile resistance
(3)P For tension piles, two failure mechanisms
shall be considered: shall be considered:
pull-out of the piles from the ground mass;
uplift of the structure and the block of ground
containing the piles.
2013 Bernd Schuppener. All rights reserved 15
Eurocodes:
Background & Applications
GEOTECHNICAL DESIGN ith k d l 13 14 J D bli GEOTECHNICAL DESIGN with worked examples 13-14 June, Dublin
GEO - verification with tension piles
R
F
L
U
k
R
t
L
P
Determination of the
t il ti F f
R
t
F
t d
= U
d
(R
d
+ G
d
)
tensile action F from
the structure on the
pile using ultimate
2013 Bernd Schuppener. All rights reserved 16
F
t,d
U
d
(R
d
G
d
)
p g
limit state GEO (DA2)
Eurocodes:
Background & Applications
GEOTECHNICAL DESIGN ith k d l 13 14 J D bli GEOTECHNICAL DESIGN with worked examples 13-14 June, Dublin
Pile design (GEO) for verification of failure by uplift
RR
G
U
F
F
t,d
= U
k

G
- (G
k
+ R
k
)
G,inf
F
t,d
: design value of the action on the piles

G
= 1.20 for unfavourable actions (according to DIN 1054 for
transient situations: construction period)
2013 Bernd Schuppener. All rights reserved 17
transient situations: construction period)

G,inf
= 1.00 for favourable effects of actions
Eurocodes:
Background & Applications
GEOTECHNICAL DESIGN ith k d l 13 14 J D bli GEOTECHNICAL DESIGN with worked examples 13-14 June, Dublin
Pile design (GEO) for verification of failure by uplift
RR
G
U
E
d
= U
k

G
- (G
k
+ R
k
)
G,inf
E
1
F
t,d
= 5000 1,20 - (2253 + 2680) 1,00
F
t,d
= 6000 4933
2013 Bernd Schuppener. All rights reserved 18
F
t,d
= 1067 kN
Eurocodes:
Background & Applications
GEOTECHNICAL DESIGN ith k d l 13 14 J D bli GEOTECHNICAL DESIGN with worked examples 13-14 June, Dublin
Pile design (GEO) for verification of failure by uplift
R
E
d
R
d
U
L
U
R
t,d
Driven piles: L
tot
= n L, D = 0,5 m, q
s k
= 35 kN/m
R
t,d
= L
tot
q
s,k
D /
P
Driven piles: L
tot
n L, D 0,5 m, q
s,k
35 kN/m

P
= 1,40 (DIN 1054)
2013 Bernd Schuppener. All rights reserved 19
R
t,d
= 39,25 L
tot
Eurocodes:
Background & Applications
GEOTECHNICAL DESIGN ith k d l 13 14 J D bli GEOTECHNICAL DESIGN with worked examples 13-14 June, Dublin
Pile design (GEO) for verification of failure by uplift
R
F
t
R
F
t
U
k
L
R
t
F R (7 12) F
t,d
R
t,d
eq. (7.12)
1067 39,25 L
tot
L
tot
27,2 m
2013 Bernd Schuppener. All rights reserved 20
1067 39,25 L
tot
L
tot
27,2 m
Eurocodes:
Background & Applications
GEOTECHNICAL DESIGN ith k d l 13 14 J D bli GEOTECHNICAL DESIGN with worked examples 13-14 June, Dublin
Pile design (GEO) for verification of failure by uplift
l
a
=3,33 m
1,66 m
x
l 3 33
l
a
3,33 m
3,33 m
x
10,0 m
l
a
=3,33 m
3,33 m
x
l
a
=3,33 m
1,66 m
x
2,50 m 2,50 m
5,0 m
Selected:
3 Piles L = 10 m
2013 Bernd Schuppener. All rights reserved 21
Eurocodes:
Background & Applications
GEOTECHNICAL DESIGN ith k d l 13 14 J D bli GEOTECHNICAL DESIGN with worked examples 13-14 June, Dublin
Irish pile design for GEO verification of uplift failure
R
As explained previously,
R
G
R
d
is obtained using the
superior value so that
for:
U
R
E R eq (2 5)

= 1,0, R
d
= 3440 kN

= 1,25, R
d
= 2580 kN
E
d
= U
k

G
- G
k

G,inf
= 5000
G
2253
G;inf
R
t
E
d
R
d
eq. (2.5)
R
t,d
= R
t,k
/
s;t
+ R
d
= L
tot
q
s,k
D /
s;t
+ R
d
= L
tot
35 0.5 /
s;t
+ R
d
= L
tot
54.98 /
s;t
+ R
d
2013 Bernd Schuppener. All rights reserved 22
Hence require: L
tot

s;t
(5000
G
2253
G;inf
R
d
) / 54.98
Eurocodes:
Background & Applications
GEOTECHNICAL DESIGN ith k d l 13 14 J D bli GEOTECHNICAL DESIGN with worked examples 13-14 June, Dublin
Irish pile design for GEO verification of uplift failure
RR
G
DA1 C1
U
DA1.C1
L
tot
1.25(5000 1.35 2253 1.0 3440) / 54.98
R
t
tot
5 (5000 35 53 0 3 0) / 5 98
L
tot
= 24.0
Hence, for 3 piles, each should be 8 m long
2013 Bernd Schuppener. All rights reserved 23
Hence, for 3 piles, each should be 8 m long
Eurocodes:
Background & Applications
GEOTECHNICAL DESIGN ith k d l 13 14 J D bli GEOTECHNICAL DESIGN with worked examples 13-14 June, Dublin
Irish pile design for verification of GEO uplift failure
R
G
U
DA1.C2
R
t
L
tot
1.6(5000 1,0 2253 1.0 2580) / 54,98 = 4.9m,
L
tot
= 4.9m, i.e. for 3 piles, each should be 1.6 m long. Hence design length is 8 m
NOTE: DA1.C1 controls the design not DA1.C2 due to large balancing forces
2013 Bernd Schuppener. All rights reserved 24
O C co t o s t e des g ot C due to a ge ba a c g o ces
Eurocodes:
Background & Applications
GEOTECHNICAL DESIGN ith k d l 13 14 J D bli GEOTECHNICAL DESIGN with worked examples 13-14 June, Dublin
Verification of uplift of structure + ground
bl k t i i th il block containing the piles
G
R
V
dst,d
G
stb;d
+ R
d
(2.8)
U
U
d
G
d
+ G
soil,d
+ R
d
U (G + G + R )
U
G
soil
U
k

G,dst
(G
k
+ G
soil,k
+ R
k
)
G,stb
G
soil
2013 Bernd Schuppener. All rights reserved 25
Eurocodes:
Background & Applications
GEOTECHNICAL DESIGN ith k d l 13 14 J D bli GEOTECHNICAL DESIGN with worked examples 13-14 June, Dublin
( ) [ ]
Determination of G
soil,k
according to DIN 1054, 8.5.4
( ) [ ]

+ = cot l l / L l l n G
b a b a k , soil
2 2
3 1
b f il l h f il N: number of piles, L = length of piles
l
a
= 5,0 m greater grid distance piles,
l = 3 33 m smaller grid distance piles l
b
= 3,33 m smaller grid distance piles,
= 10,0 kN/m submerged weight soil
= 0,80 model factor for the weight. , g
G
soil,k
= 3{5,03,33(10
1/3 cot 32,5)}0,810
G 2740 kN
2 2
33 3 0 5 , , +
G
soil,k
= 2740 kN
Model factor: = 0,80
according to DIN 1054!
2013 Bernd Schuppener. All rights reserved 26
according to DIN 1054!
Eurocodes:
Background & Applications
GEOTECHNICAL DESIGN ith k d l 13 14 J D bli GEOTECHNICAL DESIGN with worked examples 13-14 June, Dublin
Verification of uplift of structure + ground
bl k t i i th il block containing the piles
G
R
U
U
d
G
d
+ R
d
+ G
soil d
U
G
soil
d d d soil,d
U
k

G,dst
(G
k
+ R
k
+ G
soil,k
)
G,stb
soil
5000 6906 kN
2013 Bernd Schuppener. All rights reserved 27
Eurocodes:
Background & Applications
GEOTECHNICAL DESIGN ith k d l 13 14 J D bli GEOTECHNICAL DESIGN with worked examples 13-14 June, Dublin
Worked example:
failure by hydraulic heave HYD failure by hydraulic heave HYD
2013 Bernd Schuppener. All rights reserved 28
Eurocodes:
Background & Applications
GEOTECHNICAL DESIGN ith k d l 13 14 J D bli GEOTECHNICAL DESIGN with worked examples 13-14 June, Dublin
2.4.7.5 Verification of failure by heave 2.4.7.5 Verification of failure by heave
(1)P When considering a limit state of failure due to heave
by seepage of water in the ground (HYD see 10 3) it shall by seepage of water in the ground (HYD, see 10.3), it shall
be verified, for every relevant soil column, that the design
value of the destabilising total pore water pressure (u
dst;d
)
dst;d
at the bottom of the column, or the design value of the
seepage force (S
dst;d
) in the column is less than or equal to
th t bili i t t l ti l t ( ) t th b tt f the stabilising total vertical stress (
stb;d
) at the bottom of
the column, or the submerged weight (G
stb;d
) of the same
column: column:
u
dst;d

stb;d
(2.9a)
S
d t d
G
tb d
(2 9b)
2013 Bernd Schuppener. All rights reserved 29
S
dst;d
G
stb;d
(2.9b)
Eurocodes:
Background & Applications
GEOTECHNICAL DESIGN ith k d l 13 14 J D bli GEOTECHNICAL DESIGN with worked examples 13-14 June, Dublin
NN - 1,0 m
Verification of safety against hydraulic heave
S G
NN - 5,4 m
NN - 4,0 m
S
dst,d
G
stb,d
t
Medium dense
Sand:
NN - 12,0 m
t
= 10 kN/m
2013 Bernd Schuppener. All rights reserved
30
b=t/2
Eurocodes:
Background & Applications
GEOTECHNICAL DESIGN ith k d l 13 14 J D bli GEOTECHNICAL DESIGN with worked examples 13-14 June, Dublin
Verification of safety against hydraulic heave
i f l b EAU
r
h
h =
using formula by EAU
3
r
1
t
h
1 + +
4 4
h = 4,4 m
3
1
4 , 1
1
4 , 4
+ +
=
r
h
= 2,13 m
h= 1,4 m
3
1
60 , 6
1 + +
t = 6,60 m
i = h
r
/ t = 0,32
2013 Bernd Schuppener. All rights reserved 31
u = (t + h
r
)
w
Eurocodes:
Background & Applications
GEOTECHNICAL DESIGN ith k d l 13 14 J D bli GEOTECHNICAL DESIGN with worked examples 13-14 June, Dublin
Verification of safety against hydraulic heave
NN - 1,0 m
Seepage force S
k
:
S
k
= i
W
V
NN - 4,0 m
Effective self weight of
the soil column G
k
:
NN - 5,4 m G
k
= V
HYD Ulimate limit state:
G
HYD Ulimate limit state:
S
k

dst
G
k

G,stb
G
k
NN - 12,0 m
S
k
2013 Bernd Schuppener. All rights reserved 32
Eurocodes:
Background & Applications
GEOTECHNICAL DESIGN ith k d l 13 14 J D bli GEOTECHNICAL DESIGN with worked examples 13-14 June, Dublin
Verification of safety against hydraulic heave
Table A.17 - Partial factors on actions
( ) (
F
)
Action Symbol Value
permanent
unfavourable
a
1 35 unfavourable
a
favourable
b

G;dst

G;stb
1.35
0.90
variable variable
unfavourable
a

G;stb
1.50
a
destabilising;
a
destabilising;
b
stabilising
2013 Bernd Schuppener. All rights reserved 33
Eurocodes:
Background & Applications
GEOTECHNICAL DESIGN ith k d l 13 14 J D bli GEOTECHNICAL DESIGN with worked examples 13-14 June, Dublin
Verification of safety against hydraulic heave
NN - 1,0 m
Seepage force S
k
:
S
k
= i
W
V
NN 5 4
NN - 4,0 m
k

W
Effective self weight of
the soil column G
k
:
NN - 5,4 m
G
k
= V
HYD Ulimate limit state:
G
k
HYD Ulimate limit state:
S
k

dst
G
k

G,stb
G
k
S
NN - 12,0 m
0.32 10 1.35 10 0.90
4.32 9.0
S
k
2013 Bernd Schuppener. All rights reserved 34
Eurocodes:
Background & Applications
GEOTECHNICAL DESIGN ith k d l 13 14 J D bli GEOTECHNICAL DESIGN with worked examples 13-14 June, Dublin
Safety against hydraulic heave: eq. 2.9b
NN - 1,0 m
u
dst;d

stb;d
u
k
= (t + h
r
)
w
NN 5 4
NN - 4,0 m
u
k
(t h
r
)
w
h
r
= 2,13m
u
k
= (6.60+2.13)10
NN - 5,4 m
k
( )
u
k
= 87.3 kN/m

stb;k
= t(+
w
)
h= 1,4 m

stb;k
= 6.60 20

stb;k
= 132 kN/m

t = 6,60 m
NN - 12,0 m
u
k

G,dst

stb;k

G,stb
87.31.35 1320.90
117 9 118 8
u
d t d

stb;d
2013 Bernd Schuppener. All rights reserved 35
117.9 118.8
u
dst;d
Eurocodes:
Background & Applications
GEOTECHNICAL DESIGN with worked examples 13-14 June 2013, Dublin
Geotechnical design
ith k d with worked
examples examples
eurocodes.jrc.ec.europa.eu