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# Engr210 Fall 2010 Lesson # 18: Truss Introduction and Joint Method Todays Objectives: 1. Define a Truss 2.

2. List all assumptions required to Analyze a truss 3. Analyze a truss using the joint method 4. Identify zero-force members Trusses Structure elements commonly used in covering long spans and railroad bridges. Load carrying capacity will depend on the type of material used [Steel, aluminum, or wood]

Instructor: Ahmed Abdel-Rahim Page 1 of 2 Trusses; general assumptions: a) Two-force members b) Members connected at joints through frictionless pins c) Load are applied at joints ONLY d) Weights of the members are neglected e) Truss members are loaded in either tension or compression. Analyzing Trusses using the method of Joints a) Forces applied at each joints are concurrent forces [in the direction of members and intersects at the joint] b) Each Joint is under equilibrium, thus two equations can be applied: Sum Fx=0 and Sum Fy=0

Solution Plan 1. If the support reactions are not given, draw a FBD of the entire truss and determine all the support reactions using the 3 equations of equilibrium. 2. Draw the free-body diagram of a joint with one or two unknowns. Assume that all unknown member forces act in tension (pulling the pin) unless you can determine by inspection that the forces are compression loads.

3. Apply the scalar equations of equilibrium, ! Fx = 0 and ! Fy = 0, to determine the unknown(s). If the answer is positive, then the assumed direction (tension) is correct, otherwise it is in the opposite direction (compression). 4. Repeat steps 2 and 3 at each joint in succession until all the required forces are determined.

Engr210 Fall 2010 Lesson # 18: Truss Introduction and Joint Method

Instructor: Ahmed Abdel-Rahim Page 2 of 2 Zero-Force Members If a joint has only two non-collinear members and there is no external load or support reaction at that joint, then those two members are zero-force members. In this example members DE, CD, AF, and AB are zero force members. You can easily prove these results by applying the equations of equilibrium to joints D and A. Zero-force members can be removed (as shown in the figure) when analyzing the truss.

## m + r = 2 j [Truss equilibrium equation]

Zrero Force Members If three members form a truss joint for which two of the members are collinear and there is no external load or reaction at that joint, then the third non-collinear member is a zero force member.

Example

Determine the number of Zero Force members Two-Group Activities Why Do we use zero force members? Stability (especially for truss members under compression) Different Loading conditions