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KARPAGAM INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY B.E. / B.TECH.

CONTINUOUS ASSESSMENT INTERNAL TEST-II REGULATIONS 2008 VII SEMESTER : AERONAUTICAL ENGINEERING

08018006 - TOTAL !UALITY MANAGEMENT "ATE:1#/0$/2012 MA'.MARKS : (0 PART A A)*+,- A.. !/,*%0&)* 1( 2 2 3 10 MARKS4 TIME : 10.00 AM %& 11.#0 AM

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Pareto Diagram, Process Flow Diagram, Cause And Effect Diagram, Check Sheets, Histogram, Control Charts, Scatter Diagram

2. ;75% 0* %7, /*, &9 <&)%-&. <75-%= The control chart is used to keep a continuing record of a particular qualit characteristic! "t is a picture of process o#er time! #. H&+ +0.. :&/ >,%,-60), %7, &?%06/6 <&*%= $a% &ake comparison with other organi'ation $(% )ptimi'e the indi#idual categories $c% Anal se the relationship among the cost categories!
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Total Producti#e &aintenance $TP&% is defined as keeping the running plant and equipment at its highest producti#e le#el with the co*operation of all areas of the organi'ation (. ;75% 5-, %7, ),+ *,8,) 65)5@,6,)% %&&.*= $+% ,h , ,h $-% Forced Field Anal sis

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/ominal 0roup Technique Affinit Diagram "nter*3elationship Digraph Tree Diagram &atri6 Diagram Prioriti'ation &atrices Process Decision Program Chart PART B A)*+,- ANY FIVE !/,*%0&)* 1( 2 83 0 65-A*4

6. E2?.50) %7, <&)<,?% &9 S02 S0@65=

S02 S0@65 is a (usiness management strateg , originall de#eloped ( &otorola in +874! Si6 Sigma (ecame well known after 9ack ,elch made it a central focus of his (usiness strateg at 0eneral Electric in +882, and toda it is widel used in man sectors of industr ! Si6 Sigma seeks to impro#e the qualit of process outputs ( identif ing and remo#ing the causes of defects $errors% and minimi'ing #aria(ilit in manufacturing and (usiness processes!:1; "t uses a set of qualit management methods, including statistical methods, and creates a special infrastructure of people within the organi'ation $<=lack =elts<, <0reen =elts<, etc!% who are e6perts in these methods!:1; Each Si6 Sigma pro>ect carried out within an organi'ation follows a defined sequence of steps and has quantified financial targets $cost reduction and?or profit increase%! The term Six Sigma originated from terminolog associated with manufacturing, specificall terms associated with statistical modeling of manufacturing processes! The maturit of a manufacturing process can (e descri(ed ( a sigma rating indicating its ield, or the percentage of defect*free products it creates! A si6 sigma process is one in which 88!88844@ of the products manufactured are statisticall e6pected to (e free of defects $.!1 defects per million%! &otorola set a goal of <si6 sigma< for all of its manufacturing operations, and this goal (ecame a ( word for the management and engineering practices used to achie#e it! M,%7&>* Si6 Sigma pro>ects follow two pro>ect methodologies inspired ( DemingAs Plan*Do*Check*Act C cle! These methodologies, composed of fi#e phases each, (ear the acron ms D&A"C and D&ADB!:+2;

D&A"C is used for pro>ects aimed at impro#ing an e6isting (usiness process!:+2; D&A"C is pronounced as <duh*ma *ick<! D&ADB is used for pro>ects aimed at creating new product or process designs! :+2; D&ADB is pronounced as <duh*mad*#ee<!

"MAIC The D&A"C pro>ect methodolog has fi#e phasesC


"efine the pro(lem, the #oice of the customer, and the pro>ect goals, specificall ! Measure ke aspects of the current process and collect rele#ant data!

Anal 'e the data to in#estigate and #erif cause*and*effect relationships! Determine what the relationships are, and attempt to ensure that all factors ha#e (een considered! Seek out root cause of the defect under in#estigation! Impro#e or optimi'e the current process (ased upon data anal sis using techniques such as design of e6periments, poka oke or mistake proofing, and standard work to create a new, future state process! Set up pilot runs to esta(lish process capa(ilit ! Control the future state process to ensure that an de#iations from target are corrected (efore the result in defects! "mplementcontrol s stems such as statistical process control, production (oards, #isual workplaces, and continuousl monitor the process!

Some organi'ations add a Recogni'e step at the (eginning, which is to recogni'e the right pro(lem to work on, thus ielding an 3D&A"C methodolog ! :+5; "MA"V &- "FSS The D&ADB pro>ect methodolog , also known as DFSS $<"esign For Si6 Sigma<%,:+2; features fi#e phasesC

"efine design goals that are consistent with customer demands and the enterprise strateg ! Measure and identif CTDs $characteristics that are Critical To !ualit %, product capa(ilities, production process capa(ilit , and risks! Anal 'e to de#elop and design alternati#es, create a high*le#el design and e#aluate design capa(ilit to select the (est design! "esign details, optimi'e the design, and plan for design #erification! This phase ma require simulations! Verif the design, set up pilot runs, implement the production process and hand it o#er to the process owner$s%!

B. E2?.50) 7&+ %& C/0.> 7&/*, &9 D/5.0%: 0) >,?.&:0)@ D/5.0%: 9/)<%0&). Dualit Function Deplo ment is a planning tool used to fulfill customer e6pectations! Dualit Function Deplo ment focuses on customer e6pectations or requirements, often referred to as #oice of the customer! !F" TEAM : There are two t pes of teams namel , +! Team for designing a new product and -! Team for impro#ing an e6isting product HOUSE OF !UALITY :

Interrelationship Between Technical Descriptors

Technical Descriptors (Voice of the organization)

ustomer Requirements

(Voice of the customer)

Relationship between Requirements and Descriptors

Prioritized Technical Descriptors

THE STEPS "/ =E"FD"/0 A H)ESE )F DEAF"TG A3E C +! -! .! 1! 2! Fist Customer 3equirements $,HATHs% Fist Technical Descriptors $H),Hs% De#elop a 3elationship &atri6 =etween ,HATHs and H),Hs De#elop an "nter*relationship &atri6 (etween H),Hs Competiti#e Assessments a! Customer Competiti#e Assessments (! Technical Competiti#e Assessments

ustomer Requirements

Prioritized

4! De#elop Prioriti'ed Customer 3equirements 5! De#elop Prioriti'ed Technical Descriptors

8. B-0,9.: ,2?.50) %7, <&)<,?% &9 T&%5. P-&>/<%08, M50)%,)5)<,. Total Producti#e &aintenance $TP&% is an e6tension of the Total Dualit &anagement $TD&% philosoph to the maintenance function! TP& has the following stepsC +! &anagement should learn the new philosoph of TP&! -! &anagement should promote the new philosoph of TP&! .! Training should (e funded and de#eloped for e#er one in the organi'ation! 1! Areas of needed impro#ement should (e identified! Foss measurements to identif impro#ement needs are Down time losses 3educed speed losses Poor qualit losses 2! Performance goals should (e formulated! 4! An implementation plan should (e de#eloped! 5! Autonomous worth groups should (e esta(lished!
$. E2?.50) %7, C,),90%* &9 FMEA=

F&EA is an anal tical technique that com(ines the technolog and e6perience of people in identif ing foreseea(le failure modes of a product or process and planning for its elimination Ha#ing a s stematic re#iew of components failure modes to ensure that an failure produces minimal damage! Determining the effects of an failure on other items! Pro#iding input data for e6change studies! Determining how the high*failure rate components can (e adapted to high*relia(ilit components! Eliminating ? minimi'ing the ad#erse effects that failures could generate! Helping unco#er the mis>udgements, errors etc! 3educe de#elopment time and cost of manufacturing! 10. B-0,9.: ,2?.50) T5@/<70E* !/5.0%: L&** F/)<%0&)
TaguchiHs Dualit Foss Function concept com(ines cost, target and #ariation in one metric with specifications (eing of secondar importance! Taguchi has defined qualit as the loss imparted to societ from the time a product is shipped! Societal losses include failure to meet customer requirements, failure to meet ideal performance and harmful side effects! CUSTOMERS PERCEIVE !UALITY AS MEETING THE TARGET RATHER THAN FUST MEETING THE SPECIFICATIONS.

There are three common qualit loss functions +! /ominal * the * (est! -! Smaller * the * (etter! .! Farger * the * (etter! NOMINAL THE BEST : Although Taguchi de#eloped so man loss functions, man situations are appro6imated ( the quadratic function which is called the N&60)5. %7, C,*% t pe! The quadratic function is shown in figure! "n this situation, the loss occurs as soon as the performance characteristic, , departs from the target I! L

LSL
!oss (Rs)

USL

Y 0

Performance Characteristic

Quadratic Loss Function

At I, the loss is 3s! J! At FSF $or% ESF, the loss is 3s! A! The quadratic loss function is descri(ed ( the equation F K k $ * I% -! ,here, F K cost incurred as qualit de#iates from the target! K Performance characteristic

I K target
k K Dualit loss coefficient! The loss coefficient is determined ( setting L K $ M I%, the de#iation from the target! ,hen L is the ESF $or% FSF, the loss to the customer of repairing $or% discarding the product is 3s! A! Thus, N K A ? $ M I%- K A ? L- !

SMALLER THE BETTER : The following figure shows the smaller M the M (etter concepts! The target #alue for *65..,- %7, C,%%,- is J! There are no negati#e #alues for the performance characteristic! The radiation leakage from a microwa#e appliance, the response time for a computer, pollution from an automo(ile, out of round for a hole etc! are the performance characteristics for this concept! LARGER THE BETTER : The following figure shows the concept of the Farger M the M (etter! L

Loss (Rs)

0 Performance Characteristic

Smaller-the-better

"n the Farger M the M (etter concept, the target #alue is O $infinit %, which gi#es a G,-& .&**! There are no negati#e #alues and the worst case is at K J! Actuall , larger M the M (etter is the reciprocal of smaller M the M (etter! The performance characteristics in Farger M the M (etter are (ond strength of adhesi#es, welding strength etc!

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L

Loss (Rs) A 0 y y Performance Characteristic

Larger-the-better

A process is a unique com(ination of tools, materials, methods, and people engaged in producing a measura(le outputP for e6ample a manufacturing line for machine parts! All processes ha#e inherent statistical #aria(ilit which can (e e#aluated ( statistical methods! The Process Capa(ilit is a measura(le propert of a process to the specification, e6pressed as a process capa(ilit inde6 $e!g!, Cpkor Cpm% or as a process performance inde6 $e!g!,

Ppk or Ppm%! The output of this measurement is usuall illustrated ( a histogram and calculations that predict how man parts will (e produced out of specification $))S%! Process capa(ilit is also defined as the capa(ilit of a process to meet its purpose as managed ( an organi'ationAs management and process definition structures "S) +22J1!Two parts of process capa(ilit areC +% &easure the #aria(ilit of the output of a process, and -% Compare that #aria(ilit with a proposed specification or product tolerance! CAPA="F"TG STEDGC The output of a process is e6pected to meet customer requirements, specifications, or engineering tolerances! Engineers can conduct a process capa(ilit stud to determine the e6tent to which the process can meet these e6pectations! The a(ilit of a process to meet specifications can (e e6pressed as a single num(er using a process capa(ilit inde6 or it can (e assessed using control charts! Either case requires running the process to o(tain enough measura(le output so that engineering is confident that the process is sta(le and so that the process mean and #aria(ilit can (e relia(l estimated! Statistical process controldefines techniques to properl differentiate (etween sta(le processes, processes that are drifting $e6periencing a long*term change in the mean of the output%, and processes that are growing more #aria(le! Process capa(ilit indices are onl meaningful for processes that are sta(le $in a state of statistical control%! 12. E.5C&-5%, B,)<7 M5-A0)@ P-&<,**. The following si6 steps contain the core techniques of =enchmarking 1. ",<0>, +75% %& C,)<765-A =enchmarking can (e applied to an (usiness or production process The strateg is usuall e6pressed in terms of mission and #ision statements =est to (egin with the mission and critical factors Choosing the scope of the =enchmarking stud Pareto anal sis M what process to in#estigate Cause and Effect diagram M for tracing outputs (ack 2. U)>,-*%5)> </--,)% ?,-9&-65)<, Enderstand and document the current process Those working in the process are the most capa(le of identif ing and correcting pro(lems ,hile documenting, it is important to quantif Care should (e taken during accounting information #. P.5) A (enchmarking team should (e chosen )rgani'ations to ser#e as the (enchmark need to (e identified Time frame should (e agreed upon for each of the (enchmarking tasks There are three t pes of (enchmarking a! "nternal (! Competiti#e c! Process

. S%/>: O%7,-* =enchmarking studies look for two t pes of information How (est the processes are practiced &easura(le results of these practices Three techniques for conducting the research are Duestionnaires Site #isits Focus groups (. L,5-) 9-&6 %7, >5%5 Answering a series of questions like "s there a gap (etween the organi'ationHs performance and the performance of the (est* in*class organi'ationsQ ,hat is the gapQ How much is itQ ,h is there a gapQ ,hat does the (est*in*class do differentl that is (etterQ "f (est*in*class practices were adopted, what would (e the resulting impro#ementQ =enchmarking studies can re#eal three different outcomes /egati#e gap Parit Positi#e gap 6. U*0)@ %7, 90)>0)@* The o(>ecti#e is to close the gap! For this Findings must (e communicated to the people within the organi'ation Action plans must (e de#eloped to implement new processes 0roups that must agree on the change Process owners Epper management Steps for the de#elopment and e6ecution of action plans are +! -! .! 1! 2! 4! 5! Specif tasks Sequence tasks Determine resources needs Esta(lish task schedule Assign responsi(ilit for each task Descri(e e6pected results Specif methods for monitoring results