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Citizens Satisfaction from the Public

Services: A Multicriteria Approach


Prof Denis Yannacopoulos, PhD
Technological Educational Institute of Piraeus, Greece
Department of Business Administration

Panagiotis Manolitzas, MSc
Technological Educational Institute of Piraeus, Greece
Department of Business Administration

Nickolaos Tsotsolas, PhD
Technological Educational Institute of Piraeus, Greece
Department of Business Administration

Dimitrios Drosos, MBA
Technological Educational Institute of Piraeus, Greece
Department of Business Administration




CITIZENS SERVICE CENTERS (CSC)
Citizens Service Centers were created in 2002 by the law
3013.
In Greek region 1089 Citizens Service Centers have been
created.
In these branches the citizen has the opportunity to acquire
information about public administration or even certificates.

Nowadays CSCs constitute:
1) An effort to import a new model of transactions in the
public sector based on the New Public Management
principles,
2) An implementation of the one-stop-shop philosophy
with the purpose to deliver more efficient services to
citizens from a single point of interaction.
CSC MODEL
CITIZENS SERVICE CENTERS
(CSCs)
Public Administration
Citizens
G2G
G2C
TYPES OF TRANSACTIONS
Substantially e-government concerns transactions that are related with the
relations of Public Administration:

(a) with citizens (Government to Citizens-G2C) providing services that are
related with submission of tax of income, publication of certificates, etc,

(b) with businesses (Government to Businesses-G2B) providing services that
are related with the submission of tax, contributions of social insurance,
submission of statistical data etc and finally

(c) with public services in the particular type of transaction (Government to
Governement-G2G) the possibilities provided via the completed
interconnection and the interdepartmental collaborations for communication
between the public authorities.
ISSUING A CERTIFICATE AT CSC-STEPS
Step 1: The CSC employee receives and checks the documents that are
presented by the citizen. If, during the check, a missing or incomplete
document is discovered, the employee informs the citizen and refrains from
submitting the Application.

Step 2: The employee fills in the electronic Application and creates a new
folder in the CSC Information System. The citizen has the opportunity, if
he/she wishes, to declare his/her mobile phone number and thus to be
informed via SMS for the completion of his/her request. Finally, the
employee hands to the citizen a request submission certificate in which the
number of the request file is written.

Step 3: The Employee of the CSC sends the Competent Entity the file of
the case (which includes both the application and the supporting
documents) in one of the accepted ways (email, fax, courier, post, etc).

Step 4: The employee of the CSC receives the final Document immediately
from the Competent Entity and notifies the citizen (via sms or telephone) to
come and receive it.
Finally, the Citizen visits the CSC and receives the requested certificate.

ONE-STOP GOVERNMENT
One-stop government refers to the integration of
public services from a citizens - or a customer of public
services - point of view.
A significant characteristic of one-stop government is
accessibility through multiple delivery means (or
channels), including physical presence at designated
offices, call centres, the Internet, mobile devices,
satellite TV etc.
Basic concepts of the
MUSA method
Main principles
Customers global satisfaction
is based on a set of criteria
representing service
characteristic dimensions.
The main object of the MUSA
method is the aggregation of
individual judgements into a
collective value function.
Satisfaction
according to the
2nd criterion
Satisfaction
according to the
1st criterion
Satisfaction
according to the
n-th criterion
...
Customer's Global Satisfaction
The method is an ordinal regression-based approach used for the
assessment of a set of collective satisfaction functions in such a way that
the global satisfaction criterion becomes as consistent as possible with
customers judgements.
The ordinal regression equation
MUSA is a preference disaggregation method used for the
assessment of global and partial satisfaction functions Y* and X
i
*
respectively, given customers judgements Y and X
i
.
The ordinal regression analysis equation has as follows:
* *
1
1
1
where and are the global and the partial satisfaction
functions, and is the weight of the i th criterion
n
i i
i
n
i
i
* *
i
i
Y b X
b
Y X
b -
=
=

Variables of the method


Main variables of the model
Y : clients global satisfaction
: number of global satisfaction levels
y
m
: the m-th global satisfaction level (m=1, 2, ..., )
n : number of criteria
X
i
: clients satisfaction according to the i-th criterion (i=1, 2, , n)

i
: number of satisfaction levels for the i-th criterion
x
i
k
: the k-th satisfaction level of the i-th criterion (k=1, 2, ...,
i
)
Y
*
: value function of Y
y
*m
: value of the y
m
satisfaction level
X
*
i
: value function of X
i

x
i
*k
: value of the x
i
k
satisfaction level

LP formulation
Introducing error variables
and transforming the Y
*
and
X
i
*
variables of the model, the
final LP can be formulated.
| |
+
1
1 1
+
1 1 1
1
1
1
1 1
+
min
under the constraints
0 for j=1, 2, ..., M
100
100
0, 0 m, i, and k
0, 0 for j=1, 2, ..., M
j j
i
i
M
j j
j
x y n
ik m j j
i k m
m
m
n
ik
i k
m ik
j j
F
w z
z
w
z w
o
o
o o
o o
o o

= = =

= =

= +

+ =
=

=
> >
> >

where M is the number of customers, n is the number of criteria,


and , are the j th level on which and are estimated.
j j * *
i i
x y - X Y

RESULTS OF MUSA METHOD


Value Functions: They show the real value that customers give for
each level of the global or partial ordinal satisfaction scale.
Criteria Weights: They present the relative importance of the assessed
satisfaction dimensions
Average Satisfaction Indices: They show in a range of 0%-100% the
level of customers satisfaction and they can be considered as the
basic performance norms. They refer to global and partial satisfaction.
Average Demanding Indices: These indices are calculated according
to the shape of global and partial value functions which indicate
customers demanding level (Neutral customers, Demanding
Customers, Non Demanding Customers).
Average Improvement Indices: They represent the improvement
efforts and they depend on the importance of satisfaction criteria and
their contribution to dissatisfaction as well.

ACTION DIAGRAM
Transfer Resources
(High Performance/ Low
Importance)
Leverage Opportunity
(High Performance/ High
Importance)
Status quo
(Low Performance/ Low
Importance)
Action Opportunity
(Low Performance/ High
Importance)
Importance
P
e
r
f
o
r
m
a
n
c
e
Low High
L
o
w
H
i
g
h
IMPROVEMENT DIAGRAM
3
rd
Priority
(Large Effort/ Low Effectiveness)
2
nd
Priority
(Large Effort/ High Effectiveness)
2
nd
Priority
(Small Effort/ Low Effectiveness)
1
st
Priority
(Small Effort/ High Effectiveness)
EFFECTIVENESS
D
E
M
A
N
D
I
N
G
Low High
L
o
w
H
i
g
h
EVALUATION OF CITIZENS
SATISFACTION
SATISFACTION CRITERIA (I)
The questionnaire developed for the purpose of this study consists
of two major parts.
The first part investigates the citizens profile:
1) Gender (Male-Female),
2) Age (18-25, 36-45, 46-55, over 56),
3) Educational level (secondary education, higher education,
Postgraduate/ dictatorate),
4) Income level (<700, 701-1400, 1401-2000, 2001-
3000, over 3001).
SATISFACTION CRITERIA (II)
The second part refers to satisfaction evaluation where citizens are asked to
express their satisfaction judgements to a set of predefined criteria from
visiting a Citizens Service Center.
The main satisfaction criteria are the following:
1) Personnel of the Citizens Service Centers: this criterion is related to
the characteristics concerning personnel, like skills and knowledge,
responsiveness, communication and collaboration with customers and
friendliness,
2) Service: This criterion refers to the service offered to the citizens
(waiting time, variety of services),
3) Image-Access: This criterion includes technological excellence,
building infrastructure, access for people with special needs, location of
centers (connection with the means of public transport, parking
availability).
Citizen satisfaction for all criteria and sub-criteria is measured using a 4-
point Likert type ordinal scale of the following form: very satisfied, satisfied,
somehow dissatisfied, dissatisfied.
SATISFACTION CRITERIA
CLOBAL SATISFACTION
PERSONELL SERVICE IMAGE
Responsiveness
Skills &
Knowledge
Communication
& Collaboration
Friendliness
Variety
Waiting Time
ACCESS
Location Of
Branches
Access for Citizens
with Special needs
Technological
Excellence
Building
Infracture
SAMPLE- DEMOGRAPHIC DATA
701-
1400
44%
2001-
3000
4%
1401-
2000
16%
<700
33%
>3001
3%
MALE
45%
FEMALE
55%
BSc
55%
Secondary
Education
37%
MSc/PhD
8%
EDUCATION INCOME
AGE
GENDER
MAIN SATISFACTION CRITERIA FREQUENCIES
Criteria Weight Satisfaction Indices
Personnel 83,12% 96,18%
Services 8,9% 90,93%
Image-Access 7,99% 47,06%
Global Satisfaction - 92,57%
0,00%
20,00%
40,00%
60,00%
80,00%
100,00%
P
e
r
s
o
n
n
e
l
S
e
r
v
i
c
e
s
I
m
a
g
e
-
A
c
c
e
s
s
G
l
o
b
a
l
S
a
t
i
s
f
a
c
t
i
o
n
Weight Satisfaction Indices
ACTION-IMPROVEMENT DIAGRAMS
MAIN CRITERIA
ACTION DIAGRAM IMPROVEMENT DIAGRAM
MAIN SATISFACTION CRITERIA FREQUENCIES
Criteria Sub Criteria Weight
Satisfaction
Indices
Personnel
Skills & Knowledge 2,52 % 61,26%
Responsiveness 11,48% 89,32%
Communication & Collaboration 2,25% 55,49%
Friendliness 83,74% 96,83%
Service
Variety 4,21% 66,16%
Waiting Time 95,79% 91,76%
I mage-Access
Technological Excellence 69,3% 90,52%
Building Infrastructure 20,19% 66,57%
Access 10,51% 86,55%
Access
Location Of Branches 53,5% 70,04%
Access for Disable Citizens 46,5% 64,81%
ACTION DIAGRAM
SUB CRITERIA
Importance
P
e
r
f
o
r
m
a
n
c
e
Low High
L
o
w
H
i
g
h
Friendliness
Responsiveness
Skills & Knowledge
Communication &
Collaboration
Waiting Time
Variety
Building
Infracture
Access
Technological
Excellence
Access for
Disable Citizens
Location of
Branches
IMPROVEMENT DIAGRAM
SUB CRITERIA
EFFECTIVENESS
D
E
M
A
N
D
I
N
G
Low High
L
o
w
H
i
g
h
Location of
Branches
Friendliness
Variety
Communication &
Collaboration
Skills & Knowledge
Waiting Time
Technological
Excellence
Building
Infracture
Access
Access for
Disable Citizens
Responsiveness