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Project Report

Telephone Directory System

Submitted Guided To: Birendra Bright KESWANI

(iv sem)

By: k.
(HOD CA Dept..)


This is to certify that this report embodies the original work done by Birendra k. Rathor during this project submission as a partial fulfilment of the requirement for the System Design Project of Masters of Computer Application ! Semester" of the Suresh Gyan Vihar University, Jaipur Bright Keswani (HO o! ".#.$ ept.% Suresh Gyan Vihar Universe

The satisfaction that accompanies that the successful completion of any task would be incomplete without the mention of people whose ceaseless cooperation made it possible" whose constant guidance and encouragement crown all efforts with success# $e are grateful to our project guide "r. Bright Keswani for the guidance" inspiration and constructi%e suggestions that helpful us in the preparation of this project# Birendra k.Rathor
MCA (4th sem)

The report is organized in chapters; each dedicated to explaining the project in easier way. Although detailed information is not provided due to security reasons of the project and its replication protection, ut the chapters are rief enough to convey the wor! done. "n the chapter, a rief introduction of the project is presented. The second deals with the system description of the project where we have descri e the loc! diagram of the project and hardware and software portion of the project. "n the third , we have descri ed the detail information of project where function of each hardware components and software portion is descri ed. #ourth deals with

o servation. #ifth deals with limitation and further implementation of project. And finally it gives conclusion to the project. #H$&'(R )

2.1 SYSTEM DESCRIPTION:The main aim of the project is to create a directory that is a le to provide the a ility to search, view, and manage entries in a directory a out various individuals. 2.1 %loc! &iagram The asic loc! diagram of the project which shows how 'Telephone &irectory( wor!s is shown elow.

).) iagra*+,

2.2 Block Diagram :-

2.3 Descri !io" o# !$e %lock &iagram :The a ove loc! diagram descri es the project architecture. #rom the loc! diagram we can understand the flow of the system. As shown a ove first of all num er and name are entered via !eypad .These data are displayed regularly in the lcd connected to a port of microcontroller.These contact of the individual can e stored in the external memory +,,-./01. As further these records can e further manipulated y retrieving them from

the ,,-./0. These contacts can re3uired y the user

e edited, deleted, also searched as

. There are mainly two parts in the loc! diagram. a. 4oftware part . 5ardware part So#!'are ar! (6 4oftware ena les us to perform specific tas!s. 4oftware is a tool that interfaces with hardware and implements the user specifications. #or interfacing etween microcontroller and 78&, microcontroller and 9eypad and ,,-./0 various software tools are used. The software tools used are as follows: a. 86programming . 4&88 c. ,;6&ownloader d. Top view simulator e. -roteus a. C- rogrammi"g (6 The 8 programming is a popular and widely used high level programming language for creating computer programs. -rogrammers around the world em race 8 ecause it gives maximum concomponents used while developing program. c. -roteus is mainly used in simulation, a simple model of c!t was created and with particular program it was loaded to view output. )ar&'are ar! :6 a. 0icrocontroller .78& display c. ,,-./0

The hardware parts of the project includes



Front end as: HTML Back end as: Advance Java Server: Apache tomcat 6.0 Database: Microsoft access

!er"#n$ %an$!a$e: Sql

3.2 Basic Com o"e"!s :"t is important to get ac3uainted with the integral components and its purpose that is used in this project efore going through the project details. The list of the major components that are used are as follows: 5ex 9eypad :6 9eypads are a part of 5uman 0achine "nterface and play really important role in a small em edded system where human interaction or human input is needed. 0atrix !eypads are well !nown for their simple architecture and ease of interfacing with any microcontroller. 0icrocontroller +AT=>c*11 #eatures :6 The AT=>8*1 microcontroller provides the following standard features: 1. )9% of #lash memory 2. 12= ytes of .A0 $.$2 "?/ lines with two 126 it timer?counters ).#ive vector two6level interrupt architecture *.#ull duplex serial port 2. @n6chip oscillator and cloc! circuitry.


3.3 *i+,i& Cr-s!al Dis la-.*CD/

"ntroduction 78& is a 7i3uid 8rystal &isplay. A 78& is a thin, flat panel used for electronically displaying information such as text, images, and moving pictures. "ts uses include monitors for computers, televisions, instrument panels, and other devices ranging from aircraft coc!pit displays, to every6 day consumer devices such as video players, gaming devices, cloc!s, watches, calculators, and telephones.

78& -in &escription :6


Ta%le o# *CD i":-

$.) 0"8./8/AT./77,. +AT=>8**1

DESCRIPTION:- The AT=>8** is a low6power, high6performance 80/4 =6 it microcomputer with 2@9 %ytes of #lash programma le and erasa le read only memory +-,./01. The device is manufactured using Atmel(s high6density nonvolatile memory technology and is compati le with the industry6standard =@8*1 instruction set and pin out.

0icrocontroller %oard:6

The microcontroller oard consists of one crystal oscillator whose function is to create an electrical signal with a very precise fre3uency. This fre3uency is commonly use to !eep trac! of time, to provide a sta le cloc! signal for digital integrated circuits, and to sta ilize fre3uencies forradio transmitters.

$ 9eypad and 78& "nterfacing To scan the !eypad completely, we need to ma!e rows low one y one and read thecolumns. "f any of the uttons is pressed in a row, it will ta!e the correspondingcolumn to a low state which tells us that a !ey is pressed in that row. "f utton 1 of arow is pressed then 8olumn 1 will ecome low, if utton 2 then column2 and so on. ,ach utton of 9eypad is assigned with various functions. Be have assigned !eyswith alpha ets and num er. 4ome !eys have een allocated for special function li!emenu, delete, ac!. Bhen these !eys are pressed various special functions such asadd, edit, search etc has een generated with certain functions in programming. Bhencontact has to e added we insert name as well as num er using !eypad. 9eypad isconnected to -2 through which input is given to microcontroller. These datas areconcurrently displayed in the 78&. 78& is connected to -1 and -$, which serves as output device. #irst of all 78& is initialized with following control codes as shown in the ta le. Bhen data us of 78& is provided with =6 it data then certain output is generated.


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and &"48C44"/A :

&,48."-T"/A /# #"A&"AD:6 Bor!ing in this project led us to many findings which initially we were unaware of. Be not only got chance to implement our theoretical !nowledge into practical ut also got opportunity to learn new programming languages. This project has helped us to enhance our !nowledge a out electronics components, software development and wireless communication. Bor!ing in 78& we found out that to display alphanumeric value in 78& we can either use 78& ta le which provides us hex. code corresponding to the data that is to e displayed or we can use A48"" value of that data. Bhile interfacing 9eypad with 0icrocontroller we found out that same port must e used for oth column and rows. Bhile interfacing of ,,-./0 addressing is the !ey factor and using proper delay is very essential for output generation.

Limitations:This project on ET,7,-5/A, &".,8T/.FG has following limitations H &elay in pressing the !eys cannot e achieved perfectly. H ,&"T option in this project could not e implemented. H 0emory management is a great draw ac!. H This unit is having pro lem when ac! utton is pressed.

-ro lem /ccurred &uring -rogramming H "f we don(tuse the same portfor !ey pad entry then pro lem occurredI H Bhile storing the flipped char in the array nameJrrK all the flipped characters were also stored so a new name1JttK array was made and the last value stored in nameJrrK after each case was stored..eg..a, ,c was pressed then another utton pressed then at +LM1case values was interchanged.. H -ro lem occurred when tried to rea! out of while loop H 8alculation of particular delay was difficult. &uring 5ardware Testing H 8a les created were very fragile and ultimately we used glue stic! to fix it. H ;ip 4oc!et is trou led us with it(s pin holdings. H -ro lem in Noltage regulation for microcontroller was fetched . H "nterfacing of ,,-./0 was a great challenge. #urther "mplementation:6 electronics projects. This architecture is a asic ac! one for other

H The concept of ETelephone &irectory Ecan e implemented with interfacing of 008 cards using 4-" +4erial -eripheral "nterface1. H This architecture can e used in systems such as 1.-assword %ased door loc! 2..estaurant Automation 4ystem This architecture can e implemented in all systems that uses input as 9eypad and /utput as 78&



&.1 ECONO'IC FE(SIBILIT):* Economic analysis is most freq ently sed for eval ation of the effectiveness of the system. More commonly !no"s as cost#$enefit analysis the proced re is to determine the $enefit and savin% that are e&pected from a system and compare them "ith costs' decisions is made to desi%n and implement the system. This part of feasi$ility st dy %ives the top mana%ement the economic( stification for the ne" system. This is an important inp t to themana%ement the mana%ement' $eca se very often the top mana%ement does not li!e to %et confo nded $y the vario s technicalities that $o nd to $e associated "ith a pro(ect of this !ind. A simple economic analysis that %ives the act al comparison of costs and $enefits . &.+ TECHNIC(L FE(SIBILIT):* Technical feasi$ility centers on the e&istin% man al system of the test mana%ement process and to "hat e&tent it can s pport the system. Accordin% to feasi$ility analysis proced re the technical feasi$ility of the system is analy)ed and the technical req irements s ch as soft"are facilities' proced re' inp ts are identified. *t is also one of the important phases of the system development activities. The system offers %reater levels of ser friendliness com$ined "ith %reater processin% speed. Therefore' the cost of maintenance can $e red ced. Since'processin% speed is very hi%h and the "or! is red ced in the maintenance point of vie" mana%ement convince that the pro(ect is operationally feasi$le. &.3 BEH(,IOU-(L FE(SIBILIT) :* +eople are inherently resistant to chan%e and comp ter has $een !no"n to facilitate chan%es. An estimate sho ld $e made of ho" stron% the ser is li!ely to move to"ards the development of comp teri)ed system. These are vario s levels of sers in order to ens re proper a thentication and a thori)ation and sec rity of sensitive data of the or%ani)ation.

CH(.TE- /


T(BLE DESIGN ,.- . stomer: Ta$le

S./o. 0ield /ame1ata Type 2 3 4 *d /ame Addreess +rovider / m$er Te&t Te&t Te&t

,.2 Service +rovider : Ta$le

S./o. 0ield /ame 2 3 4 , *d +lan *ss e5date 1 e5date +rovidername 1ata Type / m$er / m$er 1ate#time 1ate#time Te&t

,.3 1irectry: Ta$le

S./o. 0ield /ame 2 3 4 6ro p Move .opy 1ata Type / m$er / m$er / m$er

add ne" / m$er


CHAPTER 6 0.1 Cos! es!ima!io":Soft"are cost estimation is the process of predictin% the effort req ired to develop a soft"are system. Many estimation models have $een proposed over the last 30 years. This paper provides a %eneral overvie" of soft"are cost estimation methods incl din% the recent advances in the field. As a n m$er of these models rely on a soft"are si)e estimate as inp t' "e first provide an overvie" of common si)e metrics. 7e then hi%hli%ht the cost estimation models that have $een proposed and sed s ccessf lly. Models may $e classified into 2 ma(or cate%ories: al%orithmic and non8al%orithmic. Each has its o"n stren%ths and "ea!nesses. A !ey factor in selectin% a cost estimation model is the acc racy of its estimates. 9nfort nately' despite the lar%e $ody of e&perience "ith estimation models' the acc racy of these models is not satisfactory. The paper incl des comment on the performance of the estimation models . 0.1 So1t2are s#3#n$ The soft"are si)e is the most important factor that affects the soft"are cost. This section descri$es five soft"are si)e metrics sed in practice. The line of code and f nction point are the most pop lar metrics amon% the five metrics. L#ne o1 Code: This is the n m$er of lines of the delivered source code of the soft"are' e&cl din% comments and $lan! lines and is commonly !no"n as LOC :-0;. Altho %h L<. is pro%rammin% lan% a%e dependent' it is the most "idely sed soft"are si)e metric. Most models relate this meas rement to the soft"are cost. Ho"ever' e&act L<. can only $e o$tained after the pro(ect has completed. Estimatin% the code si)e of a pro%ram $efore it is act ally $ ilt is almost as hard as estimatin% the cost of the pro%ram. A typical method for estimatin% the code si)e is to se e&perts= ( d%ement to%ether "ith a techniq e called PERT :3;. *t involves e&perts= ( d%ment of three possi$le code8si)es: Sl' the lo"est possi$le si)e> Sh the hi%hest possi$le si)e> and Sm' the most li!ely si)e. The estimate of the code8si)e S is comp ted as: S?41O4nO4m?2 Cost est#4at#on

There are t"o ma(or types of cost estimation methods: algorithmic and non-algorithmic. Al%orithmic models vary "idely in mathematical sophistication. Some are $ased on simple arithmetic form las sin% s ch s mmary statistics as means and standard deviations :@;. <thers are $ased on re%ression models :3A; and differential eq ations :30;. To improve the acc racy of al%orithmic models' there is a need to ad( st or cali$rate the model to local circ mstances. These models cannot $e sed off-the-shelf. Even "ith cali$ration the acc racy can $e q ite mi&ed. 7e first %ive an overvie" of non8al%orithmic methods. Non*a%$or#t54#c 'et5ods (na%o$" cost#n$: This method req ires one or more completed pro(ects that are similar to the ne" pro(ect and derives the estimation thro %h reasonin% $y analo%y sin% the act al costs of previo s pro(ects. Estimation $y analo%y can $e done either at the total pro(ect level or at s $system level. The total pro(ect level has the advanta%e that all cost components of the system "ill $e considered "hile the s $system level has the advanta%e of providin% a more detailed assessment of the similarities and differences $et"een the ne" pro(ect and the completed pro(ects. The stren%th of this method is that the estimate is $ased on act al pro(ect e&perience. Ho"ever' it is not clear to "hat e&tend the previo s pro(ect is act ally representative of the constraints' environment and f nctions to $e performed $y the ne" system. +ositive res lts and a definition of pro(ect similarity in term of feat res "ere reported in :33;. E67ert 8!d$4ent: :8 This method involves cons ltin% one or more e&perts. The e&perts provide estimates sin% their o"n methods and e&perience. E&pert8consens s mechanisms s ch as 1elphi techniq e or +EBT "ill $e sed to resolve the inconsistencies in the estimates. The De%75# tec5n#9!e "or!s as follo"s: -C The coordinator presents each e&pert "ith a specification and a form to record estimates. 2C Each e&pert fills in the form individ ally D"itho t disc ssin% "ith othersC and is allo"ed to as! the coordinator q estions. 3C The coordinator prepares a s mmary of all estimates from the e&perts Dincl din% mean or medianC on a form req estin% another iteration of the e&pertsE estimates and the rationale for the estimates. 4C Bepeat steps 2C83C as many ro nds as appropriate. A modification of the 1elphi techniq e proposed $y Foehm and 0ahq har :,; seems to $e more effective: Fefore the estimation' a %ro p meetin% involvin% the coordinator and e&perts is arran%ed to disc ss the estimation iss es. *n step 3C' the e&perts do not need to %ive any rationale for the estimates. *nstead' after each ro nd of estimation' the coordinator calls a meetin% to have e&perts disc ssin% those points "here their estimates varied "idely. .ark#nson: 9sin% +ar!inson=s principle G"or! e&pands to fill the availa$le vol meH :2A;' the cost is determined Dnot estimatedC $y the availa$le reso rces rather than $ased on an o$(ective assessment. *f the soft"are has to $e delivered in -2 months and , people are availa$le' the effort is estimated to $e 60 person8months. Altho %h it sometimes %ives %ood estimation' this method is not recommended as it may provide very nrealistic estimates. Also' this method does not

promote %ood soft"are en%ineerin% practice. .r#ce*to*2#n: The soft"are cost is estimated to $e the $est price to "in the pro(ect. The estimation is $ased on the c stomer=s $ d%et instead of the soft"are f nctionality. 0or e&ample' if a reasona$le estimation for a pro(ect costs -00 person8months $ t the c stomer can only afford person8months' it is common that the estimator is as!ed to modify the estimation to fit 60 personmonthsE effort in order to "in the pro(ect. This is a%ain not a %ood practice since it is very li!ely to ca se a $ad delay of delivery or force the development team to "or! overtime. Botto4*!7: *n this approach' each component of the soft"are system is separately estimated and the res lts a%%re%ated to prod ce an estimate for the overall system. The req irement for this approach is that an initial desi%n m st $e in place that indicates ho" the system is decomposed into different components. To7*do2n: This approach is the opposite of the $ottom8 p method. An overall cost estimate for the system is derived from %lo$al properties' sin% either al%orithmic or non8al%orithmic methods. The total cost can then $e split p amon% the vario s components. This approach is more s ita$le for cost estimation at the early sta%e. (%$or#t54#c 4et5ods:* The al%orithmic methods are $ased on mathematical models that prod ce cost estimate as a f nction of a n m$er of varia$les' "hich are considered to $e the ma(or cost factors. Any al%orithmic model has the form: Effort ? fDx1' x2' I' xnC "here Jx1' x2' I' xnK denote the cost factors. The e&istin% al%orithmic methods differ in t"o aspects: the selection of cost factors' and the form of the f nction f. 7e "ill first disc ss the cost factors sed in these models' then characteri)e the models accordin% to the form of the f nctions and "hether the models are analytical or empirical. Cost 1actors:* Fesides the soft"are si)e' there are many other cost factors. The most comprehensive set of cost factors are proposed and sed $y Foehm et al in the .<.<M< ** model :6;. These cost factors can $e divided into fo r types: .rod!ct 1actors: req ired relia$ility> prod ct comple&ity> data$ase si)e sed> req ired re sa$ility> doc mentation match to life8cycle needs> Co47!ter 1actors: e&ec tion time constraint> main stora%e constraint> comp ter t rnaro nd constraints> platform volatility> .ersonne% 1actors: analyst capa$ility> application e&perience> pro%rammin% capa$ility> platform e&perience> lan% a%e and tool e&perience> personnel contin ity>

.ro8ect 1actors: m ltisite development> se of soft"are tool> req ired development sched le. The a$ove factors are not necessarily independent' and most of them are hard to q antify. *n many models' some of the factors appear in com$ined form and some are simply i%nored. Also' some factors ta!e discrete val es' res ltin% in an estimation f nction "ith a piece8"ise form.

0.1 CONC*1SION(The aim of this project was to uild an Telephone directory through which allowed to add,search, delete contacts of individual andaccess toexternal memorydevice. At the completion of this project we are a le to add, search and delete contacts hence the project is completed successfully. A approximate model of Telephone &irectory was assem led using !eypad, lcd, microcontroller and ,,-./0.