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BA 9227-BUSINESS RESEARCH METHODS UNIT-I-Significance of business researc *ull hypothesis and #lternative hypothesis Identify critical issues The

The level of significance Gather relevant Test of hypothesis Predict and control the environment Type I and Type II To get the maximum benefit out of them T o tailed and one tailed tests To get the good solutions 'roce(ure for %$o" esis "es"ing To calculate the risks +aking a formal statement To solve the problems ,electing a significance level For taking business decisions Deciding the distribution Ob!ec"i#es of researc ,electing the random sampling It develops focus !omputing an appropriate value It reveals characteristics !alculation of the probability It determines frequency of occurrence !omparing the probability It tests hypothesis UNIT-II RESEARCH DESI)N S"e$s in researc $rocess T%$es of researc (esign Formulating the research design Exploratory research Extensive literature survey !asual research Development of orking hypotheses Descriptive design Preparing the research design Experimental design Co*$onen"s of researc (esign Determine sample design Title of the study !ollecting the data Introduction Executive of the pro"ect ,tatement of the problem #nalysis of data (evie of selected literature $ypothesis testing ,cope of the study Generali%ation and interpretation &b"ectives of the study Preparation of the report $ypothesis to be tested T%$es of researc Pure research &perational definition of concepts #pplied research Geographical are to be covered $istorical research (eference period Descriptive research +ethodology Exploratory studies research ,ampling !asual research Tests for collection of data Theoretical and empirical research Plan of analysis !omparative research (esearch report &peration research Time schedule and financial budgetE+$eri*en"a, researc (esigns 'ibrary research Pre experiments Individual research True experiments lab experiments Researc &ues"ions Discover management dilemma exploration Field experiments 're-e+$eri*en"a, (esign Define management question exploration &ne.shot case study Define research question C arac"eris"ics of researc &ne.group pretest/ post 0test design Purpose clearly defined ,tatic group comparison (esearch process detailed True e+$eri*en"a,- ,ab e+$eri*en"s (esearch design thoroughly planned Pre.test and post.test control group design $igh ethical standards applied Post.test only control group design 'imitations frankly revealed Extensions of true experimental design #dequate analysis for decision maker)s needs !ompletely randomi%ed design Finding presented unambiguously (andomi%ed block design !onclusion "ustified 'atin square design (esearcher)s experience reflected Factorial design Researc %$o" eses -ie,( e+$eri*en"s

*onequivalent control group design ,eparate pretest and post.test design Group time series design .a,i(i"% of fin(ings /or0 #a,i(i"% of e+$eri*en"s Internal validity External validity -ac"or " rea"ening in"erna, #a,i(i"% $istory +aturation Pre.testing +easuring instruments ,tatistical regression Differential selection Experimental mortality Interaction of factor -ac"or " rea"ening e+"erna, #a,i(i"% Pre.testing Deferential selection Experimental procedures +ultiple treatment interference .ariab,e in researc c,assifie( four ca"egories Independent variable Dependent variable The moderating variable The intervening variables T%$es of #ariab,es Descriptive variable !ategorical variable *umeric variable Discrete variable !ontinuous variable Measure*en" an( sca,e 1e#e,s of *easure*en" /or0 "%$es *ominal measurement &rdinal measurement Interval measurement (atio measurement Measure*en" sca,e ,ocial distance scale 'ikert scale Guttmann scale (ank ordering scale Thurston scale ,ementic differential 1isual analog rating scale Ra"ing sca,es Graphic rating scale Itemi%ed rating scale (ank order rating scale Paired comparison rating scale !onstant sum rating scale Fractionation rating scale Differen" "%$es of sca,e *ominal scale

&rdinal scale Interval scale (atio scale Cons"ruc"ion of ins"ru*en"s #rbitrary scaling !onsensus scaling Item analysis scaling !umulative scaling Factor scaling Re,iabi,i"% an( #a,i(i"% (eliable not valid 1alid not reliable *either reliable nor valid 2oth reliable and valid UNIT-III DATA CO11ECTION T%$es on (a"a co,,ec"ion Primary data ,econdary data Me" o(s of $ri*ar% (a"a &bservation 3uestionnaire Intervie Focus groups Pro"ective techniques &mnibus studies ,urveys Panel data Source of secon(ar% (a"a Government publication Technical reports ,cholarly "ournals 'iterature revie articles Trade "ournals ,yndicate (eference books International publications Cons"ruc"ion of &ues"ionnaire Information anted Type of questionnaire ,tructured direct questionnaire ,tructured indirect questionnaire 4nstructured direct questionnaire 4nstructured indirect questionnaire !ontents of individual questions Types of questions &pen 0ended questions +ultiple choice questions 5orking of the questions ,equence of questions

'ayout and production (etesting the questions Find draft of the questions Cons"ruc"ion of a goo( (a"a ins"ru*en" (eliability of the instrument

(elevancy 2revity *on ambiguity ,pecificity Test the validity of the data 4nbiased reply !ost effective Possibility of pre.test Sa*$,ing $,an Define the target population ,elect the data collection method Indentify the sampling frames needed ,elect the appropriate sampling method Determine necessary sample si%e !reate an operating plan Execute the operational plan Sa*$,ing "ec ni&ues Probability sampling method *on probability sampling method 'robabi,i"% sa*$,ing *e" o(s ,imple random sampling ,ystematic sampling ,tratified sampling !luster or multi stage sampling Non 2 $robabi,i"% sa*$,ing *e" o(s !onvenience sampling Purposive sampling 6udgment sampling 3uota sampling ,no ball sampling De"er*ina"ion of a$$ro$ria"e sa*$,e (esign (esearch ob"ectives ,cope of research #vailability of resources Time frame #dvanced kno ledge of the target popular Degree of accuracy Perceived statistical analysis needs UNIT-I. DATA 'RE'ARATIONAND ANA13SIS Da"a $re$ara"ion Editing !oding Data entry !lassification Tabulation Interpretation T%$es of e(i"ing Field editing In. house editing Editing for consistency Editing for completeness Item non response Editing questions S"ages of e(i"ing $rocess

Initial screening Establishing response categories Field editing !entral editing Co(ing of (a"a Deciding the categories to be used #ssigning individual codes to them !omputer coding The broad general rules for coding !omputeri%ed coding Da"a co,,ec"ion $re$ara"ion !ollect data Enter data Edit data file Port code the instrument Post code free response question Data analysis and interpretation Co(ing !oding book construction !oding free responses questions !oding free.response questions !oding rules #ppropriateness Exhaustiveness +utual exclusivity Derived from one classification principles Data entry ,P,, Data fields (ecords Files Data base Mu,"i#aria"e s"a"is"ica, "ec ni&ues Dependent methods *umber of dependent variable Independent variable *ominal Dependent variable level of measurement Interval or ratio Factor !luster Perceptual mapping &rdinal 1ariable multi variable analysis Explanatory variable and criterion variables &bservable variable and latent variables Discrete variable and continuous variable Dummy variables -ac"ors ana,%sis s"e$s in con(uc"ing fac"ors ana,%sis Formulate the problem !onstruct the correlation matrix Indentify the method of factor analysis Determine the number of factor (otate the factor

Interpret the factors C,us"er ana,%sis s"e$s in con(uc"ing Formulate the problem ,elect a distance measure ,elect a clustering procedure Decide on the number of cluster Interpret and prefix cluster #ssess the validity of clustering ,elect a clustering procedure 'inkage methods ,ingle linkage !omplete linkage #verage linkage 1ariable methods !entroid methods Discri*ina"e ana,%sis Formulating the problem (esearch design issues #ssumption Estimating the discriminate functions #sses the validity of discriminate Interpretation of discriminate functions 1alidation of discriminate results (esearch issues ,election of dependent and independent ,ample si%e Division of sample S"e$s "o *u,"i$,e regression ana,%sis Formulating the research problem #ppropriateness research problem ,pecifying a statistical relationship ,election of dependent and independent variable (esearch design issues #ssumption Estimating the regression model Interpreting the regression variate 1alidation of the results 4ua,i"a"i#e an( &uan"i"a"i#e Researc agen(a &ua,i"a"i#e an( &uan"i"a"i#e Focus Involvement Purpose ,ample design Sa*$,e si5e (esearch design Participants Data type Insights and measuring Mu,"i (i*ensiona, sca,ing-S"e$s in con(uc"ing researc Formulating the problem &btaining input data (unning the statistical program The results and defining the dimensional Test the results for reliability and validity

UNIT-.-RESEARCH RE'ORT CONTENT O- RESEARCH Title of report Table of content !opy of authority Executive summary The introduction Problem of statement &b"ective ,cope and limitation Preliminary details ,tructure 4nstructured intervie (evie of literature $ypothesis of formulation (esearch methodology Data analysis and interpretation Table !hart Findings (ecommendation or suggestion !onclusion 2ibliography #ppendices T%$es of re$or" Technical report Popular report )enera, ou",ine of "ec nica, re$or" ,ummary of result *ature of the study +ethods employed Data #nalysis data and presentation of findings !onclusion 2ibliography Technical appendices Index 'o$u,ar re$or" Finding their implications (ecommendation for action &b"ective of study +ethods employed (esults Technical appendices S"e$s in Re$or" 6ri"ing 'ogical analysis of the sub"ect matter Preparation of the final outline Preparation of the rough draft (e riting and polishing of rough draft Preparation of the final bibliography E" ics in researc 2eneficial #utonomy 6ustice

(espect for participate as right a dignity E" ica, be a#iora, researc !onfidentially Privacy 4nsolicited telephone calls ,pam &nline survey research and spam -or*a" of " e researc re$or" The Preliminaries Title page Preface including ackno ledgements Table of tables 'ist of tables 'ist of figures or illustrations

The Text Introduction +ain body of the report !onclusion

The (eference +aterials 2ibliography #ppendix or appendices

Index (if any) s