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HYPNAGOGIA

The

Nature

Function

and

the

of

Hypnagogic

State

by
Andreas

Thesis
Brunel

to

submitted

University,

for

Mavromatis

the
the

Department
degree

January

of

of
Doctor

Psychology,
of

Philosophy

1983

jr
vor
Qa
T)

IN.

---l

13

CHAPTER

CREATIVITY:

Hypnagogia
in

varying

164)

creative
gia

work".
the

all

range
dreamy
"flights

p. 149)

question...

p. 47)
new

way

dream.

by

which

p. 210)

This
both

activities

Varendonck
most

ted

(Japp

Kekule

73-74),

1878),

Hadamard,

tional'

is,
blem

or

is

creative

(1978)
duals

people
evening,

ciated

with

1906;

Prince

stories
novels

and

pointed
have

were

reported

for
(Leader

at

Green

out

reverie
1952;
novels
1973:

he

that

an
that

and
Moss

in

1970;

-310-

the

'informathat

to

a pro-

literary
and

morning

early

Green

Green

and

indivi-

creative
insights

were

1981),

Koestler

Coleridge:

1973),
1975)

have

asso-

(Miller

Poems

imagery.

Panati

pp.

'Psi',

and

and

Stearn
by

1981,

danger.

greatest

hypnagogic

pp.

(Bernd

solution

outstanding

their

repor-

1950,

on

artistic

et

(Caldwell:
cited

impending

falling
been

also

added

a sudden

his

before

Edison

chapter

(1970)

that

just

be

best

genius,

conceived

(Koestler

their

many

the

(Beveridge

most

al

had

(1977),

the

not

altogether

has

Scott

has

about
found

(1906)

in

ent-

Novalis

of

science

must

Sartre

reinforced".

that

these

subject

'warned'

Marsh

late

the

where

cases

operation

and

to

"an

as

from

the

Brindley

to

referred

mind".

mentation

Stanford

To

cases

the

hypnagogia

Einstein,

116-117,183,211).

into

dream

W.

(1913),

Poincare

1978),

in

solving

general

answer

"To

to

"a

the

flash

reported

the

moments

mutually

contributions

Problem

by

are

(1921)

original

asleep.

is

synthesis

of

with

of

A quotation

reads:

hypnago-

in

Arnold-Forster

hypnagogic

thinking".

of

1939,

such
may

to

referred

talked

hypna-

a higher

them

hypnagogia.
"at

that

noted

difficult

to

in

high

speaking

compared

(1903)

Myers

of

into

(1895)

general

faculty"

of

(Begouin

in

in

that

"lifted

p.

ideas

amount

remarked

Crichton-Browne

genius".

heightening

irely

are

states

of

(1978,

faculties

mental

mental

(1921,

(1894)

(1857,

of

immense

"an

of

process

Maury

generation

Greenwood

freedom".

of

some

(1885)

creative

writers.

of

spontaneous

Gurney

the

to

related

a number

"the

of

and

been

by

ways

spoke

gogia,

has

and
been

whole

311
conceived

in

E. A.

R. L.

Poe,

1975),

(Panati

hypnagogic-hypnopompic

the

Stevenson

(Hollingworth

Max Ernst

(1952),

1957)

(McKellar
1979b)

known

are

a tactile

hypnagogic

one

discussion).
in

ery

Emily

'Wuthering

personally
having

thought

"The
ged

one

occasion
(Abell

Brahms
(Gowan

1976)

wherein

they

described
had

had

probably
drowsy

same

in

one

in

that

and

a vision,

music:

may

also

be

his

that

1969,

p. 116).

where

of

hypnagogic

ation

and

inspiration.

gogic

imagery

caused

by

second

before

duced

the

a number

flight

of

waking

up".

of

to
"a

of

sleep?
but

sleep
the

mysterious

for

his
of

a means

full

are
the

around

Similarly,

both

of
relax-

hypna-

(1966)

one
has

hypnagogic

phosphenes.
Edison
gogia

as

is

said

a means

of

to

have

arriving

made
at

extensive
new

ideas.

"Dream

a pomegranate
his

Lewin

use

of

title:

Oster
on

by
Ernst

besides

known

who,

wandered

(quoted

sleep"

bears

based

Be"cquer

poet

paintings

a bee

paintings

or

shape,

as

them

of

'Ode

his

lines:

not

well

relaxation

one

Keats

description

painters,

is

His

and

did

from

Dali

by

Spanish

change

modern

states

as

compositions.

wake

the
"I

waking
the

of

objects

to,

referred

wrote:

separate
Of

do

"emer-

dream?

a waking

said

poems,

limbo

tracts

method

or

sleep:

Wagner

and

trances

the

with

of

morning".

Puccini

the

with

closes

that

of

already

opens

is

Fled

reports,

judging

outcome

p. 141),

famous

their

experiences

which

it

Was

pp. 19-21),

opium

the

the

she

which

before

in

up

'Vill-

in

taking

as

imag-

occasions

(1963,

waking

created

numbness"

but
-

hypnagogiclike

similar

a Nightingale'

vision
of

for

1977

Bronte

on numerous

after
1964,

Ishmael,

to

Charlotte
opium

source

describes

Dick'

hypnagogic

any

McKellar

as

Schneck

a result

as

taken

it

about
itself",

vision
on

The

having

ever

imagery

describes

an

calls

Carroll

(McKellar

Quincey

(see

novel

and

not

Bradbury

occurring

as

also

she

experienced

denied

she

what

and

'Moby

his

the

Heights',

describes

ette'

in

Bronte

de

T.

experience

characters

L.

hypnagogic

used

in

1911),

Wagner

and

(1961)

material.
the

Lamb

have

to

Melville

of

C.

and

M. Twain,

state.

of

hypna-

Bernd

(1978)

use

pro-

312
that

reports

in his
hard
Edison
research
used to work very
- at
brain
beta,
the faster
Then when
wave frequencies.
he would
he would
'sticking
take
reach
point'
a
one
famous
'cat
doze off
He would
in his
of his
naps'.
favourite
balls
in the palms
holding
chair,
steel
of
hands.
into
his
fall
As he would
driting
asleep
lower,
his
letting
the
and
alpha
arms
relax
would
fall
into
balls
The noise
would
pans on the floor.
he would
wake Edison,
an
often
awaken with
and very
idea
his
to continue
project.
with
1978,

pp. 28-29).
"what
question:

(Bernd
Bernd

follows

might

this

alpha

levels

there?

"

the

consciously

the

and

hypnagogia.

and

D.

to

this
"to

tents

answer

Green

such

his

their

how

asleep

to

and

directed

feedback

autogenic
the

study
of

This

Elmer
have

falling

creativity

of

known

to

use

to

get
have

a question
brain

alphoid

attention

Green

A.

co-workers

waves

specifically

problem.

Using
out

relating

to

had

he

without

Attempts

Walters

if

done

the

with

report

have

genius

(p. 29).

involved

above

general

of

(though

essential

(Green,

tivity"

during

to

attention

reverie

maybe

the

and

to

seems

1970,

con-

reverie.

ingredient

Walters

following

(a)
the
existence
alpha-and-theta-rhythms
and-hypnagogic-imagery,

awareness

sufficient)

not

Green

deep

of

set

and

conditions,

a state
and

have

they

processes,

consciousness

combination

techniques,

p. 21).

be

an

of

creadrew

They

considerations:
of

link
in

or
the
to
and

between
relationship
brain
and reveriewave
(b)
the
of
existence

between
or relationship
a link
reverie-and-hypnagogicimagery
from
It can be inferred
the
and creativity.
juxtaposition
that
the areas
above
of alpha-and-thetarhythms
and creativity
and that
may indeed
overlap,
in the production
training
and control
of alpha-andtheta-rhythms
may make possible
of
an enhancement
in individuals
is yet
creativity
whose potential
unrealized.
(Green

Earlier
"sine

on
qua

they
of

non

"reverie"

They

abstract

attention

or

their

use

like"

explain
instead

define

of

for

creativity

(p. 10).

and

of

speak

internal
of

hypnagogic

the

many
as

"a

imagery"

of

state

our

inward-turned

(p. 10,
term

qualifying

the

as
people"

outstanding

scanning"
"because

pp. 11-12).

1970,

et al
"hypnagogic-like

note

3)

"hypnagogic-

subjects

were

313
trying

to

awake

remain

than

rather

to

go

(p. 12,

sleep"

note

6).
In

studies

pilot

psychiatrist,

and

individualistic,
tive

high

creative,

percentage
trains

like

imagery

of

nal

scanning

his

alpha

this

reported
in

stage

In

in

the

latter

ssary
tivity.

sufficient
also
the
so

ter

throw

light

that

to

creativity
of

earch
(1):

state
to

of

speak,
on

both

necessary
be

boundaries

ego

into

the

relate

and

discussed
which

the

The

literature

on

the

following

areas

and

thought

for

creative
and

of

the

the

the

of

their

of

may be

shall

lat-

mainfor

loosening
of

roughly

by

crea-

the

of

the

feature

of

natural

study
I

nece-

creativity

conditions

characterized

that

emergence
is

nec-

occur-

argue

all,

former.

a defining

the

activity.

and

functions

creativity

be

to

to

sufficient

concept

creativity

state

that

and

(p. 12).

general

schizophrenia

are
is

trials

reverie"

hypnagogia

lower

to

imageless

of

sometimes
for
the

conditions

shall
that

and

inter-

their

1-minute

are

of inspiration
hypnagogic-hypnopompic

place,

tain

conditions

showed

hypnagogic-

with

managed

cases

meeting
can

what

them

third

examine

out

some,

Two of
in

state

shall

point

EEG records

mind-quieting

a deeper

respec-

unusually

their

"during

Hertz

contains
I

argue

and

8.3

uniquely

co-workers

customary

the

whilst

sufficient

the

and

was

said

a preliminary

and

present

ring

conjunction

follows

creativity

shall

in

waves

toward

moving

and

(p. 12).

to

as

what

essary

reverie"

experience"

his
"an

in

waves

whom are
in their

demonstrated

deep

they

physics,

and

Hertz

"which

rhythm

Green

6-8/

theta

of

of

successful
4).

note

subjects

of

periods

long

their

of

all

and

(p. 12,

that

during

of

a psychologist,

vocations"

reported

"a professor

with

different

hypnagogia.

divided
res-

orientations:
Personality

traits,

abilities,

and

attitudes

identified

314
in

individuals

creative

1953;

1956;

Angyal
1958;

Whiting

1958;

Hilgard

1956;

Research

into

tical

into

(1967)

has

Creativity

Dewey

1910;

sub-groups

of

dencies"

bound

of

1953;

Maslow

(2c):

Creativity

from

non-creative

education

of
than

rather

Bruner's

systems.

types

of
Thus,

the

and

vertical

primary
adju-

reality
deliberation,

unconscious

ten-

articulating
(1959),

Freud
1950;

which

creative

other

Ehrenzweig

as

the

as

(1958)

Bartlett

(1962)

this

imagination

from

distinguished

On Knowing

inte-

of

thinking

creative
(1952),

as

is

examples

operations;

thinking

distinct

disparate

of

summarizes

Vinacke
rational

are

mentation

fusing

to

refers

book

stages.

the

and

thinking

relational,
(1967,
p. 18)

autistic

(1926)

1959).

correlates;

divergent

autistic

Schneider

voluntary,

1954;

among

"as

e. g.,

include

(1931)

1913;
Hutchinson

of energy

view

ones.

"Spearman

view:

(e. g.

by Wallas's

Besides

as

are:

evaluation

and

theoreHallman

Hadamard

exemplified

gestalt-free

Murray

Hallman

1952;

may

stages

1946;

p. 17).

1959;

by

Poincare

1967,

such

This

se.

They

Spender

systems",

1963).

reports.

1931;

Vinacke

the

Abdel-Salan

chronological

interchange

energies,

synthesizing,

elements.

areas.

mechanisms

(Hallman

grating,

"an

processes,

proponents

such

inspiration,

psychological

unconscious
and

evidential

of

is

view

as

secondary

sted,

1952;

Cattell

and

per

by

al

1959;

characterized

1937;

incubation,

Creativity

layers

process

Rossman

Patrick

This

preparation,
(2b):

1926;

et
1958;

Rogers

1967;

Razik

a series

Ghiselin

1959).

Arnold

Drevdahl

again

three
as

1931;

1939,1949;

1968;

suggested

Wallas

Montmasson

1959;

and

Wilson

Lowenfeld

Fromm

creative

identified

(2a):

as

Mooney

orientations

free

1959;

the

1939;

Meier

1958,1963;

Maslow

Mooney

be divided

and

Barron

1959,1962;

Guilford

(2):

(e. g.,

makes

the

closed
same

distinction".
(3):
Gordon

Training
1961),

for

creativity,

e. g.,

'brain-storming'

(e. g.,

'synetics'

by

Parnes

(e. g.,
1962;

Osborn

1963).
(4):
1964;
(5):

Studying
MacKinnon
Creativity

creativity

through

hypnosis

(e. g.,

Krippner

1964).
in

education

(e. g.,

Mearns

1925;

Getzels

315
1962;

Jackson

and
1963;

Cattel

1968).

Hallman

(1967)

has

tivity:

(a)

connectedness,

nality,

(b)

openness,

of

be

to

considers

certain

qualifications

are

points

in

and

'actualized'

criterion

out,

explanation

as

its

basic

workers

who
(Bruner

vity

nections

1958),

relationships
is,

the

to

equivalent
equation
is

ship
phoric

In
fusion

tions"

all

of

areas

to

respect
(i)

of

posite,

may

activity

whose

is

outcome

1959),

config-

new

comprises

symmetrical

connections

as

nor

are

wholes
Neither

connected.
the

transitive;

nor

for

other,
causal;

not

side

the

of

relation-

rather,

it

is

meta-

in

connectedness
of

human

creativity

is

to

be

activity:

intell-

perceptual,

imaginative.

ectual,

irely

symbolic

transformational".

feature

in

neither

inferential

con-

unexpected

"connectedness

that

implies

acti-

1959).

being

parts

validly

and

found

the

of

combinatorial

(Murray

Arnold

created

neither

The

and

newly

image

similitude
a number

1957),

activity

argues
are

as

a principle

as
by

proposed

unconscious

1952;

which

these

Hallman

as

of

(McKellar

or

(p. 19)

(C)

and

relation

variously

fusion

(Ghiselin

Hallman

the

it

experience

urations

which,

relation

been

compositional

object,

(y)

that,

argue

and

to

of

the

has

from

he

conditions

below

respect

category

feature,

1962),

sufficient

connectedness,

described

origi-

metaphors:

isolates

and

(y)

hypnagogia.

the

resulting

(Kubie

that

of

employs

of

in

crea-

These

them

examine

present

Connectedness

The

shall

for

self-actualization.
and

Parnes

criteria

nonrationality,

necessary

features

new

the

five

()

1962;

Torrance

identified

(E)

creativity.

with

1962;

MacKinnon

in

as
(ii)

hypnagogia

relatively

be present
or

(1883)

in

divergent

the

waking
thinking

mechanisms

state
(Hudson

as

of

"contrary
1968)

but

a com-

photographs

belonging

elements
The

matrices.

form

to

(1948)

Katz's

the

as

encountered

components

and

disparate

apparently

is

relevant

Galton's

different

it

to

this

ent-

activity
imagina-

the

quality

316
in

fusions

of

In

(i)

to

regards

hypnagogic

experiences
are,

parts

unique

(Leroy

1933;

the

numerous

reports

of

are

which

contain

already

something
is,
that

in

nections

as wholes

agreement

but

"the

'like'

dimensions;

newly

con-

created
being

to

the

that

of

Miller's

experienced

and

is

here

point

to

being

as

added

equivalent

not

in

A case

with

Hallman,

with
are

belonging

as

experiences,

experienced

images

unrecognizable

recognized

imaginative

or

connected".

there

nonetheless,

perceptual

past

considered

1967a).

Rapaport

whose

is

hypnagogia

parts

(1906).
She relates
a hypnagogic
with
I

drama

closed

was

how

eyes,

relaxation
There

followed

sparks

and

spirals
review

the

impression

that

There

Miller

which
this

character

ma"
drama

in

to

(fused,

the

and

she

Inca,

"Chi-wan-to-pel",
by

the

complete

"wa-ma,

of

scenes,

words

for

"You

walittle

the

and

monologue

stood

Round

syllable.

cries

last

came

communicated

which

was

which

were:
under-

will

familiar

which
that

by

experiences
believes

she

came

eventually

and

unfolded

as

drama.

Although

she

does

attempt

of

the
she

Inca-like
suggests

a central
with.

Other

together

a new,
to

"wa-ma"

neologisms
that"Chi-wan-to-pel"

constructed

subconsciously

not

refer-

probably

hypnagogia

genesis

been

her

in

combined)

the

ones

elements

"Po-po-cat-a-pel"
was

be

of

the

explain

wakeful

"Ja-ni-wa-ma"

may have
of

to

various

self-contained
explain

and

to
an

other

for

Then

of

dying

except

attempts

previous

provided

followed

"lines,

of

events.

syllable
and

48).

(p.

50).

Miller
ence

a battle

Ja-ni-wa-ma"

(p.

stand"

out

great

a kaleidoscopic

about

name

Chiwantopel's

English

"Ja-ni-wa-ma,

the

spelled

There

with

ended

delivered

bore

felt

mosaic

figure

the

raged

heard.

were

was

that

possible"

as

trivial

recent

bed

sensation

Then

[and]...

something

heard

happen.

wrote
in

Lying

the

hypnagogic

of

who

had

impassive

as

appeared

head-dress,

with

to

light...

of

fragmented

me".

"[I]

writes,

familiar

and

to

"Chiwantopel".

called

remained

the

she

night

something

and

she
she

for

waiting

one

American
elements

along
volcano
were

also

the

lines

whose

name

condensed

317
and

rearranged

unconsciously

before

hypnagogic

experience.

form

during

tant,

she

explains

ience

she

"had

inal

her

distant

and
her

of

other
argument

seen

as
to

place,
may

fact

the

the

or

the

to

the

close

that

frame
their

(1981,

Khan"

p. 167)

himself

of

an

neologisms,
that

schizophrenia,

and

mind,

may be
creativity

the

constitutes

meeting
states

such

wherein

intense

an

intermediary

Coleridge's

that

suggests

"in

some

as

out

relationship

of

and

appearance.

originated

state...

Coleridge

psi,

given

this

interpretations

presence

hypnagogia

make

Koestler

gogic

and

general

naturally

"Kubla

This,

by

this

of

orig-

outcome

together

were

spiritualistic

experan

the

was

explanations

experiences

between

existing

this
for

brought

new

impor-

more

before

"mosaic"

this

possible

both

point

their

inspiration,

experiences

hypnagogic

But,
days

the
for

Miller's

events.

clearly

and

that

and

recent

against

such

during

searching

Interestingly,

need.

of

been

(p. 51)

idea"

of

that

in

emerging

day-dream

kind

'waking

of

hypna-

or

dream'".

that

noted

Ideas
in the twilight
and images
exist
of conrealms
that
half-being,
sciousness,
that
shadowy
of
state
in the twilight
nascent
existence
and
of imagination
just
on the vestibule
of consciousness,
a confluence
through
of our recollections
which
a
we establish
in [this)
centre,
as it
were,
a sort
of nucleus
reservoir
of the soul.
(cited
Moreover,
to

having

'Purcha's
garden

the

Khan

Kubla

another

out

of

Beneath

fusings

of

conscious

of

which
had

ima-

the

all

been

prior

reading

palace

and

stately

to

borrow

Lowes's

words

in

poems,

'The

"facts

recollection
the

that

stated

Kubla's

occasion

chemical
poem

impressions,

mental

he

Coleridge's

almost

also

p. 481).

Khan

Thus,

through

1946,

"in

things",

as

conscious

elements....

pp. 84-85)

where

of

Gerard

experience

hypnagogic

this

surface

and

him

described.

were

on

ervals

the

Pilgrimage'

analysing
ner',

(1952,

up before

rose

ges

Coleridge

by

lie...

brought
(cited

processes"

Mari-

Ancient

which

sank

drew

together

affinities

of
below

by

Gerard

beneath
common
blendings

innumerable
about

int-

at

the
1946,

level
p.

481).
An experience

similar

to

Miller's

and

Coleridge's

but

318
at

occurring
of

hypnopompic

the
(1952)

Prince's

is

end

also

described

by

one

She writes:

subjects.

in
four
three
between
and
time
I woke suddenly
some
I was perfectly
awake and conscious
wide
the morning.
two
time
for
but
perhaps
short
a
of my surroundings
I
this
and
saw
move,
three
not
could
minutes
or
-I
I recognized
as such.
which
vision

The

vision
love

tender
"a

the
"was

in

any

that

amazed
poem

Miller's

wrote

she

read

she

Prince

the

the
in

down,

the

and
as

it

against

set

that

notes

she

of

seeing

the

verse,

at

once.

In

had

and

written

She presented

rhythm".

Again,

written.

was

moment

she

what

over

exactly

case,

a woman

subject

at

it

language

the

at

to

The

emotion

depicted

clear"

a man and

atmosphere".

morning

next

the

rosy

and

vision

between

experience

not

"extraordinarily

was

scene

of

sort

did

which

p. 204).

1952,

(Prince

as

notes:

subject

I had been trying


For two or three
days previously
deal
been
had
good
a
reading
to write
and
some verses,
had
I
in
also
had
thinking
I
been
rhythm.
of poetry.
strain
been under
and emotional
nervous
considerable
facts
to
the
porin
for
little
time
reference
some
in the verse.
trayed

Einstein's
came

to

him

insight

into

morning

as

basic
one

early

the
he

p. 206).

1952,

(Prince

of

relativity

got

out

And,

bed.

of

Time

that
moment of
sudden
p. 183) remarks,
by ten years
on
had been preceded
of contemplation
truth
(1954)
long
Hadamard's
Likewise
and intense
the subject.
He
illumination.
in
hypnopompic
thinking
culminated
a
as

Koestler

(1981,

writes:
its
for
I
absOne phenomenon
is certain
can vouch
and
appearance
the sudden
and immediate
certainty:
olute
awakening.
moment of sudden
at the very
of a solution
by an external
noise,
On being
very
abruptly
awakened
to
for
long
me at once
appeared
searched
solution
a
instant
on my
the
of reflection
slightest
without
have
to
fact
struck
the
remarkable
enough
was
part
direcin
different
a
quite
me unforgettably
- and
tried
had
I
from
those
previously
tion
which
any of
to follow.
(Hadamard:
In
13)
him

a similar
the

achieved
after

two

manner,
solution

weeks

of

quoted

by

Lamberton
of
intense

a problem
analytic

1897,

(Newbold
that

pp. 1167).

1981,

Koestler

had

thinking

pp. 11-

"bogged"
over

it.

319
Having

put

its

with

morning

the

aside

for

problem

solution

he woke

a week,
in

projected

front

up

one

him.

of

He

wrote:
in question,
I saw
On opening
my eyes on the morning
blackboard
surface
a complete
upon this
projected
lines
by the profigure,
the
given
only
containing
not
just
lines,
but also
blem,
and
auxiliary
of
a number
further
the prothought
solved
such lines
as without
blem at once.
by

(quoted
he

Moreover,
rical,

whereas
ever

drawing

Cocteau

Likewise,
later

he

Table'.

into

"One

morning",

woke

a theater,

and
tion

and

his

with

which

describes

his

he

regarded

a seat

an epoch
informaPoincare

forbidding".

as

functions

Fuchsian

of

life

to

slept

from

as

documentary

no

Round

having

witnessed,

moreover

what
the

of

"after

had

a single

Knights

brought

which

figure".

hypnopompically

writes,

which

discovery

'The

and

acts

about

saw

play

a start

three

characters

p. 82)

analytically

draw

to

attempting

(1952,

it

for

geomet-

entirely

was

solution

labouring

been
or

turned

poorly,
in

had

without

"the

that

noted

p. 12)

1897,

Newbold

follows:

as

fifteen
days
For
I strove
that
there
to prove
could
functions
be any
like
I have
those
called
not
since
functions.
I was then
ignorant;
Fuchsian
every
very
hour
day
I seated
table,
an
myself
my
work
at
stayed
tried
and
a great
number
of
or two,
combinations
One evening,
to my cusreached
no results.
contrary
Ideas
black
I drank
tom,
coffee
and could
not
sleep.
intin crowds;
I felt
them
pairs,
collide
rose
until
so to speak,
making
a stable
combination.
erlocked,
By the next
I had established
the
morning
existence

functions,
series;
but
took

of a class
of Fuchsian
from
the hypergeometric
out the results,
which

those
which
to
I had only
a few hours.

But
in

hypnagogia,

the

is
by

Some

celebrated
led

to

to

reported

of

German

the

recounts

how

bus

saw

atoms

gambolling

part
years

of
later

that

night
a

similar

making
event

one

has

which

be

to

evening

he

dozed

before

his

eyes

to

the

found

in

Society

Chemical

of

been

1981,

(Koestler

sketches
led

creativity

prediction

chemistry"

He
and

of

a discovery

piece
organic

case

Kekule.

a London
spent

that

of

range

that

most

brilliant

most

whole

p. 118)
1890

one

"the

called
in

the

perhaps

p. 81).

1978,

(Poincare

come
write

these
discovery

on
and

forms.
of

320
the

ring

benzene

the

of

He relates:

molecule.

but the work


I was sitting,
at my text-book;
writing
I turdid
were elsewhere.
my thoughts
not progress;
Again
the atoms
to the fire
and dozed.
ned my chair
This
time
before
the smaller
my eyes.
were gambolling
My mental
kept
in the background.
modestly
groups
by repeated
visions
of the
rendered
more acute
eyes,
larger
kind,
structures,
of mancould
now distinguish
ifold
long
sometimes
rows,
more closely
conformation:
in snakefitted
together;
twining
and twisting
all
One of the
like
What was that?
But look!
motion.
form
the
its
tail,
had
hold
own
and
of
snakes
seized
flash
if
by
As
before
a
eyes.
my
whirled
mockingly
the
I
lightning
time
this
I
spent
also
of
and
awoke;
the
the
of
the
consequences
out
rest
of
night
working
hypothesis.
by

(quoted
(1963,

As McKellar
ination

in

occurred

mind

was

tual

experience".

that

it

stored

was

hypnagogia

together

Moroever,
in

is,

snake-like

the

in

operation

by

Silberer

instead

in

to

type

this

somewhat

is,

hypnagogia
of
rise
seen

ence

to

that

becoming

one
to,

imagery

as

themselves

creativity

form

fact,

an

of

from

a transfer
Indeed,

of
as

activity
the

subject's

is

e. g.,
imagery

to

of

a wider

feature
where

activity
into,

itself

frame

conceptual

or
is

It

modality.

sense

often

gives

concept

synaesthetic

across

repre-

rings.

or

of

refer-

transformations

synaesthetic

transferences

is,

That

from
aspect

one

seen

observed

compounds,

chains

another

that

to

organic

transforms

modality

be

symbolically
of the latter

emergence

encompasses

sense

another.

This

in

struc-

can

example

phenomena.

some

that

molecular

of

transferring

of

form,

a symbolic

opposite

closed

are

experiences

past

represented

that

viz.,

molecule,

versa

also

on

in

autosymbolic

character

vice

imagery

are

in

his

a concept,

benzene

gives

vision

formations

a mechanism

This

of

hypnagogic

the

from

were

a particular

within

facts

FsOR.

described

employment

note

in

experiences

relevant

of conceptual
activity
in visual
imagery,
the

sented

and

the

Interestingly,

tures.

the

became

and

to

prevailing

perceptual

of

percep-

past

important

as

conditions

special

a number

emerged

rise

the

just

his

because

from

facts
is

it

life

mental

relevant

However,

under

framework.

the

out,

points

rightly
hypnagogic

his

with

that

brought

p. 134)

p. 100).
illum"the

1898,

Japp

of

in

papers

metaphor.

321
The

in

presents
language

stated

a master

of

similarity
capable
also

of

use

It
FsOR,
and

it
word
the

might,

of

course,
in
they

But,

as

that

augment
it

may

hypnagogia,

in

everyday

hypnagogia,
symbols

as

actualities,

are

have

already

p. 144)

are
the

be

may

they

reminiscent

cription

of

the

creative

process

Coleridge's

and

images
is

rose

the
to

ning
can

in

the
these

in
some

and

wherein
as

schizophrenic

"in

the
are

they

argued,

and

shall

pre-

always

the

case.

to

hypnagogic

not

the

as

things"

and

out

by

called

by

the

in
aspect

experienced

of

Nietzsche's

which

"one

face
desloses

84-5).

hypnagogia,

by

lear-

hypnagogia

that
imagery

occurring

state

unique

artistic

and
and

all-

or

the

in

acting

scientific

primitive-regressive

It

thus

judgement,

of

the

all

which
pp.

all

p. 203),

(1952,

(1952,

mind

waking

their

on

"in

of

In

often,

simile"

for

room

Metaphors

are

metaphor-actualities
the

compounds

and

experience

metaphoric

render

condition
well

Khan

of

crossing

context

taken

in

passive-receptive

remain

hypnagogia

as

imagery

him

mind

waking

But

general
ivity

before

oscillating

appreciate

state.
do

up

by

only

owing

Kubla

and

executed

are

are

strongly

is

order,

seen

they

is

what

poet

descriptions".

This

of

word

arts

value.

perception

He

FsOR.

actualities.

"synaesthetic

is,

that

is

poet

case.

representations,

or

the

attention

in

they

the

that

is

this

the

and

the

of

a creative

not

of

out

metaphors

although

as

unusual

occur

by

life

(1963,

McKellar

of

appropriate

never

In

argued

argument,

the

given

imagery,

be

metaphor

compounds

as

indica-

" an

across

for

be

to

a good
is,

that

well

hypnagogia

that

is

of

way".

proper

employment

words

Moreover,

"as

order,

is

perception

thing

a great

use

thing

concepts

and

the

on

forge

to

or

affairs.

mastery

such

(1459a),

is

of

greatest

intuitive

an

imagery

in

irrelevant.

used

has

words,

way",

sently

ability

dissimilars"

strange

proper

the

in

the

the

that

poet

that

and

far

enhances,

writing

and

since

unusual

strange

"by

shifting

which
state

'Poetics'

the

argued

to

his

that

that

a certain

metaphor"

that

shows

in

genius,

of

is

metaphor

light,

a new

(1969)

Aristotle

tion

of

use

creative

one
the

of
as

they
as

the

creat,

322
mentation
on

we find

Thus,

emerge.

Kretschmer(1934)

writing

creativity:

artistic

imagination
the
artistic
Such
of
products
creative
twilight,
from
to
of
a state
tend
a psychic
emerge
to
attentivity
lessened
and diminished
consciousness
is
the
Further,
condition
one of
stimuli.
external
hypnoidal
'absent-mindedness'
over-concentration
with
focus,
exppassive
an entirely
providing
on a single
divorced
frequently
character,
visual
a
of
erience,
and
from
the
and reason
and time,
of space
categories
will.

(Kretschmer:
Under
like

the

thoughts

abstract

further
is

people
each

is

thinking
than

in

as
is

children

thinking

conceptual

individual

more

and

that

the

of

'picturesque'

an

primitive
-

the

or

action,

that

"pictorial

form

of

mentaof

language

The
in

to

as

evolution

species.
again

where

regardless

concurs

in

primitive

of
strip,

object,

p. 322)

(1981,

earlier

an

an

will,

a dream".

or

a picture
image,

signifies

Koestler

quality".

of

"the

imagery"

and

language

the

a pictorial

picture

reason

and

and

Kant

into

picture

that

unfolding

expresses
the

whether

the

by

work

experimental

remarks

"like

word

tion

an

time

and

related

normality

converted

continuously

space

in

as

Kretschmer

the
of

literal

sense

of

'regressive'

type

of

the

word".

And yet
to

order

their
that
ments
images

p. 12)
Paivio
ation

is

"the
in

very

can

or

are

certain

method

discovery

seem

signs

and

suggested
is

to

serve

more

or

the

in

adults
that

characterized

as
less

and

"image

discovery",

brilliant

understand

instance,

for

reproduced
that

stated

imagery

p. 43),

the
by

says
eleclear

combined".
rem-

method

Richardson
with

to

resort
and

which

'voluntarily'

be

of

(1971,1974)

(1952,

entities

p. 226)

vivid

individuals

creative

Einstein

(1932,

linked

and

(perceive-conceive)

experience

thought

the

often

psychical

which

'primitive'

this

ideas.

own

Bartlett
ains

it

that

mentation
in

from

"arbitrary

the

are

divorced

which,

between

state
a philosophical

on reading

abnormality,

is

a transitional

his

of

patient

child-

of

conditions

similar

very

a schizophrenic
in

whilst

or

same

absorption,

how,

quoted

p. 325)

1981,

Koestler

by

(1969,

creativity,

stage
concrete

of

illuminimagery.

323

live

still

to

"anecdotal

fantastic

lowering

ego

of

...
witches,

of

(1975)

concluded
is

there

that

controls

least

at

that

so

to

arise

associations

primitive

world

Schaefer

and

reports...

and

the

indicate

controlled

a partially

in

degree

ogres",

and

"scientists

that

remarked

a moderate

fairies

gnomes,
that

p. 141)

(1964,

McClelland

the

consciousness".
Einstein's

thinking

as

jects,

and

(see,

1972,1975).

As already
imagery,
to

ject

learns

into

and

enter

the

imagery.

tedly

tion
cussed

of

extent,
in
himself

to,

there

further

creative
later

is

where

Slight

1924;

comments

mode

a passive-receptive

with

relationship
the

imagery

is

fascina-

also
an accompaniment
to compare
of interest
illuminathe
of
about
stage

often
is
It

says

process

(Wallas's

in

chapter):

this

fit

hypnagogia.

a conversational-empathic
cases,

rela-

can

a certain

such

repres-

be prolonged
and
if
the submanipulated

hypnagogia

significance.
(1926)
Wallas

what
in the

1965;

induced-sustained

poise

hypnagogists

actions,

Schaefer's

Moreover,

argued,

In

attended

a sense
with

to

functions,

Silberer

e. g.,

by

reports

quasi-perceptual

concepts,

a deliberately

exactly

or

to

ob-

signify

pictures

which

may constitute

etc.

Dusen

not

in

qualities

abstract

disseem to me at all
describing
primitive

Kretschmer

a picture-strip

of

tionships,

by

that

experiences

entations

its

to

actions

whose

van

statement

either

similar

does

stages

will

of
this

be dis-

for
'intimation'
it
I find
to use
the
term
convenient
fringe
in
illumination
that
the
our
when
moment
stage
in the
is
train
stage
consciousness
of
an association
fully
the
indicates
that
of rising
consciousness
which
If
this
flash
is
conscious
success
coming....
of
time,
feeling
intimation
lasts
for
of
an appreciable
by
is
effort
can
or
conscious
either
sufficiently
and
it
is
be
made sufficiently
conscious,
attention
of
bear
to
directly
be
brought
that
can
our
will
obvious
inhibit,
least
it.
We
to
or procan
at
attempt
on
intimation
brain
the
long
which
activity
or divert
if
intimation
And,
be
accompanies
to
on.
going
shows
brain
the
accepts,
train
of
association
which
a rising
the
but
without
to
not
plausible,
would
as
speak,
so
'flash'
the
to
automatically
push
of attention
effort
to
hold
to
on
we
can
attempt
success,
of
conscious
it
that
the
train
may succeed.
chance
on
a
such

(Wallas

1978,

p. 97)

324
Wallas's

state

its

and
ness

if

obvious

there

an activity

called

of

experience
has

in

that

onto

and

stumbled
fection

an

He uses

the

thesizing

of

eriences"

(p. 37).

field

then

the

to

visualize

in

which

In

scientific

an

appear

to

are

of

creative".
syn-

mental

just

exp-

ocular

in

'seeing'

of

nature

per-

almost

the
not

p.

have

degree

include

the

analysing

is,

mentally

experiences,

be

(1965,

they

"to

sensory

might

a high

to

'visualize,

many

of

areas

what
Walkup

individuals

developed

said

creativity

that

imagery.

ability

word

sense,

been

in

and

perception,

"creative

in

a literal

conscious-

has

what

hypnagogia

life-like

unusual

hallucinate

mind

imaginal

vivid,

noted

in

clearer

'fringe'

hypnagogic

the

we bear

of

become

may perhaps

both
that
namely,
is present,
and in

above,

the

to

relationship

more

36)

intimation

of

he writes:

creativity,

is almost
It
like
being
the object
visuala feeling
ized.
One can feel
the pressure
objects
of contacting
by friction,
or the erosion
of material
or the flow
from
of heat
to another,
one point
of
or the swing
the oscillating
of
electrical
circuit,
or the bending
light
from
to another,
as it
passes
or the
one medium
appropriateness
to hold
of a well-designed
structure
in
a maximum load,
with
every
part
equally
strained
the process,
bouncing
or the eternal
of the
about
molecules
transfer
of gas,
of
or the almost
physical
from
the gasoline,
through
energy
the motor,
transmission,
and to the driving
wheels
of the automobile.
is as though
It
kinesthetic
one's
sensing
mechanisms
the physical
he
were associated
with
object
and that
directly
thus
sensed
what was going
on in the external
system.
(Walkup
Similarly,

Farady

Einstein

and

thought"

(1952,

above
of

visual

and

with

the

mentioned
logical

logical

even

imagery.
not

ships".
that

some

a physical

imagery
Indeed,
meanings

but

depend

is

one
(1969,

any

Bugelski's
on

images.

case

these

and

that

"the

play

analogous

to

for".

Thus,

be

experienced

that

object

can

as

also
be

subtlety
(1970)

in

his

searching

p. 124)

force,

of

"elements

the

to

aimed

may be

almost
in

type"

is

connections

in

that

muscular

As Richardson

to

referring

elements

lines

electromagnetic

says

connections

merely

visual

p. 43)

mentioned

"of

certain

'saw'

p. 39).

1965,

of

However,

forms

logical

is
in

represented

it

of

"it

notes,

review

were

relation-

it

is

argued

is

not

my

325
aim

here

(a)

to

to

argue
into

put

individuals
'primitive'

to

further

The
being
in
of

is

referred

present

in

in

necessarily

and

tant

scientific
hypnagogic

vivid

in

If
or

to

pathological,
some form

of
the

which
if

ever,

try

conceptualization
acquire

spatial

concept

is

tally
in

in

them
Arnheim
imaginal

up,

In

have

may
g.,

1969)
qualities

more

clear

that

the

but

engage

to

the

of

a generic
the

engage

in

etc.

Koffka

beyond

our

to

begins

as

if

is

one
inside

moulding

menoneself
con-

abstract

wakefulness

about

quality

1912;

the

kinesthetic

as

Binet

on they
the

How-

in

precise

internal

or

concentrated
go

on

concurrently,
in

endowed

represented.

and

concept

ordinary

1909;

which

necess-

those

impressionistic

when

not

concept

that

we

a typically

Titchener

may

verging

vaguely

sculpturing,

medium.

the

point,

verbalizing,
is

and

relation
birth,

a pliant

(e.

find

qualities

giving

cepts

become

shaping

present

the

Shereshevski)

- visualizing,

we

imagery

(excepting

1975

Luria's

concept

to

impor-

certain

we think

state

concretization

extreme

relevant

we

activities

waking
we generally

e. g.,
imaging

creativity.

'regressive'.

ordinary

a tendency

to

imagery

of

or

concept

abstract

with

in

the

significant,

to

of

use

creativity

analogies,

obvious

More

concretization

condition

of

metaphors,

the

state

This

More

more

the

hypnagogia.

conducive

activity.

'primitive'

be

arily

be,

con-

as

this

aspects

for

occur-

regarded
of

character.

as

such

be

consid-

the

so

anything
in

render

may

and

con-

thought
is

description

essential

must

be

state

not

the

of

not

the

obtained

or

creative

hypnagogia.

might

in

processes,

in

(b)

and

all,

anyway

ground

is,

not

means

some

resort

problems,

since

Wallas's

that

hypnagogia

mental

in

if

activities

might

but

general
intellectual

if

above

it

a breeding

imagery

Moreover,

to

regressive
as

vivid

present

in

least

at

most,

regressive

to

that

solve

creativity

dissimilar

hypnagogia

their

imagery

"intimation"

are

be

to

vivid

implies

to

hypnagogia

However,

not

mental

are

paradox

general

abstract

in

highly

that

paradox

that

creativity

tradictory.
of

in

imagery

of

rence

relief

imagery

of

status

the

my argument

ditions

ered

the

engaged

to

as

for

sum

1921;

display
total

unique
of

the

326
particular
involve
in
of

in

fact

already
the

imagery,

becomes

'subjectif

ically

to
like

occasions,
(e. g.,

Hanawalt

that

and
in

sentable

It

are

none

probably

imagery

they

must

ther

supported

be

tension,
In

this

ism

of

and

perhaps

that

i. e.,
kinesthetically.
way hypnagogia
may
mental

use of
in intellectual

the specific

himself

the

one

act

of
of

nary

process,

a much
that

the

underlying

in

swelling,

at

one

the

root

seen
level

shrinking,

in

of

suggest

an

explanation,

resembles

respects
when

or

and

fusion
of

as

another

pro-

and

ordi-

of

and

condensation
LEB of

the

LEB showed

the

falling,
as

the

both
to

act.

drifting,
level

the

points

the

how

an

feels

creative

chapters

in

engaged

it

the

be-

hypnagogist

the

hypnagogia

of

the

achieved

by

looks

mechan-

of

afforded

and

at

the

a normal

hypnagogia

etc.,

on

in

phenomenon

earlier

shifting

of

is

process

hypnagogia

both

We have
itself

of

out

how

and

phil-

light

many

concept

fur-

is
and

'idealization'

although

indication

kind

essentially
in

repre-

analysis,

paradox
(visual-kinesthetic)

himself

a generic

at

arrived

stems

subject

at

last

consciousness

which

finds
But,

arriving

wider

of

a state

creation.

is

state

individual

an

cess
it

in,

is

This

and

only

not

apparent

imagery

of

tasks.

finds

the

of

some

contention

some

and

that

mathematical

throw

activity

a resolution,
'primitive'
types

of

in

expressed

them

of

concepts

the

This
even

of

argued

are
in

such.

fact

is

a normal

cause

concepts,

as

the

be

generic

also,

on earlier

or
images

than

but

experienced
by

less

images

some

reproductions

thus

might

all,

types

thinking

osophical

how

1954).

hyp-

kinesthet-

that

"idealized"

rather

is,

and
day,

exact

not

are

but

images

these,

inner

they

this

absorption,

seen
the

mean

that

subject's

during

under-

own).

imagery,

also

be

might

that

empathically

We have

that

perceptions

hypnagogic

linked

one's

chapters

the

to

perceived

and

actual

earlier

partly

subject.

objects

(It

make

hypnagogic

ied',

the

in

with

due

'subjectified'.

possession,
seen

case

nagogic

look

take

occupy,

they,

subject:

for
the Greek
that
words
&vt Xa6Xvoau
- literally

note

- xaTaXavw,

We have
is

become

invariably

also

the

of

participation

sense,
a specific
to
some interest

seize,

They

may represent.

kinesthetic

the

standing
to

they

cases

327
facilitation

of
fusing

the

and

of

a number

of

deeper

level

At

yet

another

and

of

the

logical

dampers

is

It

made

that

creativity

was

seen

applied

the

as
the

on

relaxing

waking

(1978,

p. 80)

further

fertile

most
from

domains

(1962,

have

Cropley

states

to

improbable

also

chosen

combinPoincare

combinations

formed

of
In

apart".
"creative

that

of

also

earlier

before.

made

those

far

are

p. 228)

making

"Among

be

often

the

been

not

that

which

access
(1978)

have

says

will

in

mainly

that

elements

We saw

creativity.

of

have

observations

similar

nature

consists

of

Mednick

that

the

about

ations

must

it

FsOR.

unrelated

apparently

normally

significant

been

drawn

conceptualization

reality.

everyday

the

in

over-inclusiveness

elements
vein

a similar
individuals

associative

responses".

that

argues

Clearly
the
data
look
to
treats
more
a person
which
have
to do with
they
nothing
other
are
each
as though
the
likely
related,
he is
to make data
more
combin(i. e.,
ations
which
to
think
are
unusual
creatively).
The kind
in this
broad
of person
refwho codes
way is
to
erred
the
as a wide
categorizer,
while
opposite
kind
is
of person
called
a narrow
categorizer....
to treat
willingness
data
whose
each
connexion
with
is
immediately
other
not
apparent
equivaas roughly
lent
be particularly
favourable
would
to the
appearCreative
ance
looks
of
to
creativity.
thinking
thus
be related
to width
of
categorizing.

(Cropley
it

Now,
the
is

equivalence
not

uncommon
1948).

Mintz
tion

to

hypnagogia

(e.

a feature

that

but

(1948)

covery

and

'note

identity

of

pointed
invention
in
state

equations

to
also

instance,

"in

difference'"

turns

and

not

effected

equate

freeing

(Milner
in
is

into
only

matrices

As

creativity.
the

science

ideas,

merely

not

similarity

of

atten-

related

unrelated

consciousness
are

drew

become

and

of

1946,1949;

tenuously

entirely

consists

of

for

relate

concepts

and

Froeschels

vague

hypnagogia
out,

data

etc.,

that

arguments

g.,

hypnagogia

tendency

both

Jones

and

in

situations,

concepts

actual

(1949),

that

This

different

ships

in

identified,

sameness.

The

unrelated

fact

but

earlier

apparently

functions,

related

from

of

Froeschels

the

concepts,

is

be recalled

will

pp. 120-1).

1978,

process
the

1981,
which
probably

of

dis-

tendency

to

pp. 161-2).
such
very

relationsimilar

328
in

to

that

as

actualities

in

in

analogy

itself

a concept

such
thing

as

the

earlier:

out

It

and

actual

in

as

that

metaphors
two

are

Cropley's

and

olic

different

phenomena

erienced
then

and
In
first

ple

we

transformed

i.

as

how

saw

certain

character
he

then

of

see

identifying
(see

also

often

the

snake

that
the

the
or

analogy

completely

Schneck
with

(1926),

Kretschmer's

above.

From

these

1968

quotations

as

are
sug-

strongly

and

he

the

it

it

and

expFOR,

represents.
is

in

itself

to

a diff-

tail,

transfer
In

a hypnopompic
who

into

another

hypnopompic
of

Walkup's
clear

women
imme-

not

he began

contrary,

be

two

character

he did

one

state

these

certain

can

state,

represented

turned
the

exam-

earlier

an

the

with
The

case).

is

own

its

the

as

its

there

by

a similar

and

autosymb-

a different

importantly,
on

which

reversed:

knew

in

either

FsOR

imagery

in

then

in

move

to

in

the

while

creativity,
(1934)

case

analogies

concept

equating
for

the

there

Silberer's

thing

afforded

resemblance;

as

debatable.

may

identification

But,

is

seen

above

chemistry.

still

the

both.

by

case

While

exp-

together

is

who

and

is

into

comes

woman

type

as

are

which

biting

(1924),

knew.

also

shared

diately

the

a particular

from

traits

procedure

Slight

realised

resulted

the

of

same

not

belonging

the

with

that

is

this

in

a new

then

some-

as pointed

this

bring

first

viz.,

of

he

and

actuality,

thought

woman

directions

identified

as

experienced

events

is

vision

matrix,

erent

imaginal

example

imaginal

an

such

e.,

not

actualities.

concept

is

the

as

of

analogy

experience

abstract

it

Kekule's

often

an

such,

are

individuals

Thus,

as

the

argument

related.

FOR

the

analogies

my own
of

and

hypnagogia,

However,

i. e.,

obviously

particular

latter

persons

things,

thing

that

argued

reports

as

not

analogies

more.

Significantly,
of

and

nothing

creative

in

case

an

experiencing

which

about

the

the

the

experienced

we consider

becomes

else

be

if

or

event

idea

might

introspective

gest

an

that

from

the

then

metaphors

creativity,

Apart

a concept

clearly

actualities.

such

as

original
is

This

made.

Indeed,

something

are

analogies

and

hypnagogia.

to

analogous

eriencing

in

metaphors

which

seen
(1965)
that

other

same

from

by

is

Wallas's

quotations
sometimes

329
the

'seen'

metaphors

felt

ally

seen

and

with

what

they

force

of

are

they

tend

is

more

of

to

a literal

1976,

Ryle

only

as
the

and

The

imaginally

one

side

of

act,

the

creative
Kekule,

biting

its

instance,

tail

would

it

had

framework

the
of

such

in

earlier
and

i. e.,

these

that

ther

is,

the
to

not

hypnagogic
say

metaphors,

priate

stance

become

able

or

may

or

"write

in

into

poetry"

the

a word

is

to

ideas,

points

"condense"

out

symappro-

subject
of

may

FsOR.
poetry,

believed

(dichten).

as

the

genuine

that

is

this

seen

a number

(cited

phrase

most

But

the

of

fur-

without

adopt

witticism,

or

mental

sujbect's

subject

condensation

however,

case,

be

one,

recognized

Indeed,

case

hyp-

concepts,

are

the
the

argued

his
with
it)
hypna-

put

may not

of

for

been

nature.

such

fusion

Freud,

further

Koestler

In

conscious

was

poetry

the

full

is

things,

real

this

images

the

has

value.

of

them.

insights.
of

is

should

discern

result

allusions

p. 339).

etc.,

as

within

accepts

which
in

a snake

analogy

already

often

symbolic

hypnagogic

to

creative

essence

their

towards

is

taken

imagery

that

bols,

This

are

of

form

'actualized'

are

an

consciousness

symbolic

case

importance

the

Dusen

the

of

relationship

van

It

In

hypnagogist

empathic

symbols.

they

recognition

of

in

symbols

that

space,

as

the

his

to

FsOR.

as

the
that

vision

has

It

as

etc.,

such,

an

convey

relationships,
as

into

'conversation',
then

may

recognition

more

form

in

Hypnagogia

symbols.
when

(e. g.,

creativity

the

chemistry.

that

enters

(a

Kekule

and

in

results

acquired
seen it

from

taken

that

or

'seeing'

mental

behaviourism).

hypnagogic

have

not

organic

chapters

two

the

not

metaphors

nagogia
imagery
gogia

of

being

side

together

for

to

attached

act

such

believe

to

metaphors

balancing

other

of

philosophical

actualized

brings

metaphor

of

school

Kirlian

a metaphor

seem

writers

some

the

in

implications

deal

than

experience

lines

of

Incidentally,

a great

ins-

For

of.

epistemological
that

suggest

perception

visual

1975).

important

identical

be

seen

liter-

only

composed

be

can

as

Panati

e. g.,

to

out

fields

that,

not

be metaphors

to

supposed

have

as

turn

also

electromagnetic

(see

observations

of

are

are

scientists

they

precisely

photographs

the

but

Faraday's

tance,

by many

that

several

meanings

by

Koestler

in

German
As said

the

1981,
to
above,

330
in

hypnagogia

as

such

is

imagery
the

also

the

taken

case

may come
later

in

Koestler

of

with

the

creative

"the

both

sees
latter

the

matrices

by

the

Kekule

imagery

nagogic

The

problems.

dependent

is

the

on

subjects

himself

bols

metaphors

and

of

to

his

appreciating

respect

is

the

of

as
in

via

imagery

act

itself
In

the

respect
exem-

again

hyp-

that
solutions
is

solutions

saturation

partly

a person

and

is,

it

in

chapter

mediate

types

is

which

in

expressed
in

not

associations

of

conden-

and

sub-

effected

thus

association

considered

simply

expli-

most often
(and con-

together

11, are

this

oblique

and

overt

operates

brings

These

in

'language'

often

hypnagogia

FsOR.

of

suggested

unconsciously
ting

is

metaphor

that

a number

sations,

it

that

multi-sociatively,
denses)

the

unlikely

hypnagogic

the

Moreover,

analogies.

cit

associating

to appreciate
readiness
symin hypnagogia.
A main difencountered
and

fact

forms

He

the

is

these

creat-

on

connecting

time.

not

problem

and

be deve-

unrecognized

of

degree

in

condensed

with

recognition

ficulty

or

replete

in

same
is

It

an

madness

creativity

case.

con-

experience.

that

hypnagogic

point,

resulted

we have

the

i. e.,

the

at

(e. g.,

writers

is

of

adds

and

was

this

will

other

act

act",

FsOR,

that

which
that

many

matrices

bisociative

different

two

plified
to

along

unconnected

this

subject
to

(1981),
that

in

a point

chapter.

previously

calls

together,

the

functions,

Thus

a state

as

absorbed,

often

things,

12).

this

proposes

process

of
chapter

hypnagogia

recognized

of concepts

this

that

(see

creativity

We saw

value.

condensation
and

etc.

of

ivity,

considerably

identification

people,

loped

face

the

with

intimation

of

its

on

schizophrenic

cepts,

is

subject

1948, example)

Mintz's,
in

if

and,

be

always

may not

condensations

or
resul-

or

strange

irrelevant.
is

Multi-sociation
logic
It

and

experienced
is

phrenia,
gogia.
together

typical
and
The
and

of

dream

mysticism
normal
relating

logic

clearly

in

employed
mentation,
of

all
of
things

of

uncharacteristic
the

normal

which

are

classifying,
or

concepts

to

related
i. e.,

state.

waking
psi,

creativity,

the

schizohypna-

bringing

according

to

331
strong

and/or

permanent

bi-sociation,
sumed

may be
the

under,

which

gave

tains

the

to

thus

that

suggesting
to

the

adjective

one

whose

control

dampers

are

pnr

is

of

and

of

individual

one's
the

raises

latter

the

ability

and

thus

internalize

identify

them

as

opposed

is

also

shall

difference

and

shows

demonstrate

it

is

also

recounts
to

an

in

The

to

for

of

connections.

First

days

Galton

eighty-nine;

this

he

it

a number

of

clearly
logic

be brought
used

who
of

argument

he

time

times
on

lived

to

the

ripe

recalled

this

Koestler

him

also

In
paralogical.

point.
of

and

hypnagogic

point

of

thought

matrices

widening

may

thought

had

is

Koestler

period

confers

converging.

and

different

a certain

LEB

diverse

matrices

my present

Galton

The

demonstrates

from

taken

hyp-

associated,

and

logic
many

entirely

an

how within

because

is

example

weakly

and

which

in

multi-sociation,

primitive

latter

and

LEB occurring

other:

narrowing

waking

a separate

subjectify

each

example

the

suitable

think

to

i. e.,

FsOR.

other,

with

schema,

facilitates

and

between

how

together.

each

as

the

clearly

world

normally

regressive,

give

the

self

and
along

to

to

it

place

foreign

diverging
sense,

dampers

taking

entirely

of

By contrast,

entity.

nagogia

sense

and

boundaries,

ego

ego

the

a narrowing
a deeper

of

one's

by

also

implies

objective

from

the

flouted

are

reflecting

'outer',

an

logical

see,

also

crazy,

implies

which

tightening

differentiated

and

it

frantic,

whose

presently

mentation
of

outlining

constitutes

the

of

condition

sharply

what

we shall

hand,

other

logical

logic

of

Thus,

type

far-reaching

defined

as

creativity.

converging

of

rules

dampers

the

On the

be

whose

'damper'

put

or

con-

mind)

means

to

also

or

to

'lifted'

or

Moreover,

and,

is

oneself.

'raised'

language

(logical

(frehneeris)

certain

hypnagogia,

process

sion

cppcu

raised.

application

or

restrict

the

'brake'

logical

sub-

multi-

logic

word

means

be

to

and

mind

the

even

of

that

'mind'
=

(frehnon)

or

activity

world

(freen)

Wpny

of,

significance

western

Tpevov

on,

by

some

Koestler's

and

forms

as

'older'

and

of

the

word

derivative

considered

wider
is

It

sociating.

properties,

common

and
one
old
the

of

had
in
his
age

name

occa-

different
birthof

it
but

332
On another

'Methuselah'.

a woman

about

reading

in

Galton
by

studied
Now,

Dalton

mayoa=

associations

perhaps

earing

as

changing

images.

image

of

the

tiful

baby
of

The

to

an

of

type

of

man with

and

moustache
a lovely

by

effect

artistic

a beauin

of
by

a fam-

we shall
been

has

condensing

and

associating

fast

squinting

as

app-

strange

face

Indeed,

'Hilton'!

the

painted

sunset

these

form
of

a series

the

diff-

of

all

we may have

the

The

a condensed

or

forth.

so

given

latter

in

old

Hitler's

called

great

occurred.

the

first

painters.

surrealist

unconscious-nonrational:
The

gory

of

that

"certain
the

ations".

of

criterion

"logically

as

causality

...
of

a principle

unconscious

metaphoric

which,

nonrationality

p. 22)

(1967,

Hallman

for

instance,

painting

this

see,

explored

For

wearing

mad scientist

soon

visual

thought

And

they

image

one

of

Galton.
normal

in

that

men who

quite

simultaneously

figure

the

which
is

S. S.
he

occasion

with

are

within

this

'colour-blindness'

rhymes

which

his

on

baby

malformed

and

another

with

hypnagogia

with

front

On yet

him

of

'eugenics';

word

Hitler

of

associations

contexts

erence

the

thought

association

these

all

different

ous

the

eugenics.

practised
of

invented

thought
her

killed

had

who

had

Galton
because
brought
up
also

he

occasion

function

mental
of

depends

fusing

a cate-

upon

argues

explanation"

processes
images

to

according

are

responsible
into

new

cre-

It

describes
the
processes
symbolizing
metaphoric,
...
it
to
I
as nonrefer
which
produce
new connections.
because
the combinatorial
occurs
activity
rational
it does not
in the form of unconscious
operations;
belong
to the rational
consciously
mind,
nor is it
divides
Rationality
and distinguishes;
controlled.
Metaphoric
it
focuses
activity
upon differences.
it
flourishes
upon similarities,
relates;
and
unites
Nonthe
transpires
primary
processes.
among
and
it
is
novelty;
of
a condition
not merely
rationality
between
The relationship
is a cause.
such processes
displacement,
and
symbolization,
as condensation,
is
the
of new connections
production
and
neologisms
is
the
It
of unconscious
very
nature
one.
a causal
levels
(or preconscious)
of the mind to function
the
The
constitute
which
mechanisms
metaphorically.

333
inevitable.
Unless
Thus,
can occur.
between
the two.

make this
operations
unconscious
function,
they
no new connections
is an invariant
there
relationship

1967,

(Hallman
further

Hallman
limitations

tial

from

tions

from

three

to

one

on

agree

process

creation

of

face

of

under

framework

considers

logical

the

cal
stages,
functions

and

discuss
In

third

as

all

three

frameworks

to

incubation,

first

the
in

stages

types

the

of

creative

process:

(1913);
Spender

(1946);

same

to

regards
Cade

gogia

first

psychological
I

processes.

(1952).

(1926)

pro-

preparation,
*Others
who

(1937);

Poincare
(1931);

Montmasson
(1950)

Beveridge

pro-

suggests

series.

a similar
In

it

chronologi-

Wallas

verification.

Vinacke

sur-

below.

include
Patrick
series
(1954);
Hadamard
(1959);
Arnold

the

posed

of

mental

framework,

illumination,

the

the

The
of

levels

the

the

of

analysis;

a series

vertical

as

which

with

(p. 23).

as

creativity

world.
various

below

rational

resists
examination"

second

respect
four

posed

it

level

lies

It

new

of

associated

nonrational.

consciousness;

dissolves

shall

is

novelty

by
three

all
or

of

the

of

devised

segment

connec-

emergence

process

invariably

is

inferen-

causal

views

schemes

"that

which

the
and

creative

fact:

major

creative

for

experiences

the

explain

uncouple

and

conceptual

lift

metaphors

allowing

unexpected

He identifies
writers

language

thus

objects

and

visions

that

proposes

pp. 22-23).

and

the

Coxhead

hypnagogic
long-forgotten

occurrence

of

in

creativity

hypna-

that

noted

to consciousness
often
presents
in arrangedisplayed
material,
vividly
have
the
thought
ments
which
conscious
mind
might
not
form
in the
the
of,
even
were
all
material
available
is
that
The paradox
of written
notes
or sketches.
reverie

to get really
solutions
one is most likely
creative
in mental
thinking
the usual
to problems
states
where
is virtually
extinguished.
ability
(Cade
More
vity,
ond

Indeed,
very

specifically,

and
and

in

in

third

stages

hypnagogic
features

are

of

the
the

experiences

describing

these

Coxhead

p. 127).

1979,
to

hypnagogia

relating

to

particular

and

four-stage

theory,

greatest

relevance.

are
two

characterized
stages.

creatithe

by
Hallman

secthe
(1967)

334
for

instance,

that

notes

The second
the new
actually
produce
and third
stages
the novel
tranand these
relationshps,
connections,
in the form of nonrational
The incuoperations.
spire
for
bation
consists
of spontaneous,
stage,
example,
themselves
cluster
which
uncontrollable
events
seemin accordance
ingly
laws.
their
own autonomous
with
involves
It
the relaxation
thinking
operof conscious
and the inhibition
of logical
control.
ations
(Hallman
He refers

to

Maslow's
(1953)

Ehrenzweig's
to

openness

voluntary

in

(1939,

ego,

this

respect.

p. 324),

reporting

by

experienced

an Oxford

pp. 23-24).

regression,

the

of

surrender

experience

Hutchinson
insight

(1958)

1967,

(1959)

and Rogers'

the

on

creative
quotes:

mathematician,

had solved
I knew somehow or other
that
something
itself
but had no idea
of
at the back of my mind,
the solution
automatically
until
almost
my pencil
it
wrote
out.
(Hutchinson
Another

case,

a research

p. 324).

1939,

writes:

engineer,

design
I visualized
the
a flash
of
proper
a drawing
the
immediately
I drew
of
apparatus,
out
a notebook
and,
without
wrote
consciousness
of my surroundings,
down
the
it
I knew
answer.
was right.
In

(1939)

Hutchinson
as

"period

the

or

to

referring
moment

the

stage

insight"

of

p. 325).

1939,

(Hutchinson

illumination

of

concludes:

is often
Insight...
by a flood
accompanied
of ideas,
hypotheses
alternative
appearing
at the same time,
many of which
to make explicit
are difficult
owing
to the crowded
rapidity
of their
appearance.
(Hutchinson
He further

draws

department

sense
in

the

of

vividness

this
The

change

ideas

"the
in

appearing

- visual,

almost

hallucinatory

(p. 329)

kinaesthetic"

auditory,

any

wiht

connection

experience.
vividness,

spontaneity,
and

of

multitude

or

semi-dissociated

of

self-consciousness
these

state,

are

autonomy,

imagery

and

the

diminution

and

logical

all

features

mentation,
of

the

of

rapidity

ideation

associations,

paralogical

multi-aspected

regression,

to

attention

p. 329).

1939,

with

the

dissociated

or

dissolution
openness

state

of

their

and

335
hypnagogia.
or

is

creativity

16)

boundary

all

here

his
made

of

umination'

or

the

of

by

and

be

the

feeling

of

has

been

indeed,

the

such

inspiration

and

of
ful

Planck
work

"the

1978,

American

chemists
those

were

blamed
the

state

to

and

of
ugly

p. 212)

that

be

to

a false

But

not

found

in

facts"

cent

per

cent

to

and

Barker

which

who

answered

always

correct".

credited

for

individual

them

asserted

enters

and
in

if

his

such

Darwin,
two

years

Huxley

said
beauti-

1981,

p. 214).

inquiry

by

the

that

showed

questionnaire
occasional

assi-

the

time

at
that

hypnagogia
true

with

of

an

But

But
false

hypnagogia.

slayings

or

intuitions.
among

all

lost

their

frequent

claimed

fact,

external,
insfalse

Kepler,

(Koestler
refers

also

of

abound

the

are

in
certain

absence

inspiration;

science

unconscious

an

the

that

paper

is,

feel

to

in

case
is

Platt

per

from

tions

the

scientists

eighty-three

seven

valid-

noted

It

individuals
creative
(1981,
pp. 213-4)
names
The latter
and Einstein.

by

(1981,

only

the

this

hypnagogia.

verification.

tragedies

Koestler

stance

certainty

pp. 83-4).

in

points

hallucination

of
is

owing

hypotheses

"among

'ill-

instance,

for

of

Koestler

that

in

illumination

and
biographies

hard

earlier,

for

guarantee

no

various

case

logical

or

cases.
Huxley,

the

such

piration
The

at

feature

and

objective

noted

is

pervading

that

and
is

hypnagogic

that

(Poincare

this,

the

and

feeling
this
being
deceives
any less
us without
find
and we only
out when we seek to put on
the demonstration.
I have especially
noticed
fact
in regard
to me in the morto ideas
coming
in bed while
in a semi-hypnagogic
or evening

often
vivid,
foot
this
ning
state.

It

creative

creativity.

Poincare,

experience.

p.

materials

as we saw

argued
is

the

e.,

his

case

(1967,

blur,

with

one

aspects

the

also

[i.

scientific

hypnagogia,

is

are

Hallman's

observation,

course,

in

experienced

this

distinctions

as

of

might,

That

argued,

experience

fade,

same

mathematical

It

ity

the

himself

The

vision".

have

supported

lines

experiences

artist

as

LEB.

"during

that

remark

act]

the

of

ramifications

with

features,

These

intuitions,
incubation

same

their
is

intuito

be

and
and

if

336
illumination
being

thus

the

above

between

tionship

Further

this

the

strengthen

rela-

hypnagogia.

and

for

a hypnagogic-like

or

creativity)

observations

support

(hypnagogia

hypnagogia

of

creativity

Wallas

remarks.

that

to

conducive

then

state,

is

stages

from

comes

some

Wallas's

of

that

proposes

two different
The incubation
things,
stage
covers
fact
is the negative
during
that
the first
of which
incubation
think
or consciously
we do not voluntarily
is the posiand the second
problem,
on a particular
fact
that
tive
of unconscious
a series
and involun(or preconscious
tary
and forevoluntary)
mental
events
during
this
period.
place
may take
(Wallas
first

The

aspect

important

the

for

(e. g.,

Collard

argued

that

the

by

second

stage,

effect

he

their

most

to

sudden

the

third

cases

of

creative

ideas

during

in

gery
ral,

however,

ensuing

and

remembered
degree

or

ral
draw,
is

of

proposed

by

if

the

too

asleep

Wallas

and

mental

the

psychological

and

process

bed)

due

same

was

often

very

ima-

hypnagogic
In
this

Whether

a matter

to
Again,

second

element

is,

that
subject

gene-

experienced

mostly

quickly.

involuntary

events),

that

bedbound.

is

the

regarding

the

are

retained,
of

that

imagery

subject

wakefulness

in

induction.

the

on
lives

stay

its

the

hit

their

naturally

and

the

To this

of

their

and

also

of

who

often

to

is

same

namely,

contains

for

aspects

recalled

ill-health

have

creativity.

of

necessary

sufficient

periods

richness

by

not

(unconscious

forevoluntary

the

state

fall

not

be

disposition

acquired
and

bation

that

or

seen,

thinkers

hypnagogia,

in

mental

we have

two

(and

a prerequisite

as

the

of

relax

hypnagogia

relaxation

the

by
are

stage

investigators

The

by

out

some
is

the

will

to

regards

they

when

of

to
It

struck

are

people

and

illness.

as

to

respect

forced

area as

imagery.

in

original

hypnagogic

relaxation

Wallas

cites

pointed

1957)

Myers

hypnagogic

of

were

proposed

of

1953;

contains

relaxation

Indeed,

psychophysical

claimed

when

induction.

its

emergence

they

the

p. 94).

incubation

of

stage

mental
in

workers

all

condition

of

element

practically

the

of

1978,

the

natuwith-

relax,
the

aspect

same
of

incu-

and
or foreconscious
illumination.
He says
involved

in

these

stages

337
is

to

the

enter

be

and

consciousness

subject's

controlled

is

that
that
only
process
should
not
necessary
...
be,
but
for
time,
last
should
also
an appreciable
for
the thintime,
during
that
conscious
sufficiently
is
happening
that
ker to be at least
something
aware
the evidence
On this
to him.
seems to show
point,
trains
both
the unsuccessful
of association,
that
'flash'
led
the
have
to
and
of success,
might
which
train
either
the final
are normally
and successful
'fall'risings'
(with
take
and
place
or
unconscious,
ings'
seems to approach
as success
of consciousness
in that
of consor 'fringe'
periphery
or retire),
'focal'
consciousness
our
surrounds
which
ciousness
lumifull
in
disk
'corona'
the
the
surrounds
sun's
as
to
last
'fringe
up
This
may
consciousness'
nosity.
in
it,
instant,
'flash'
some
the
and
may accompany
is
it
just
it.
But,
beyond
as
may continue
cases
disk
the
the
difficult
to
corona
unless
sun's
see
very
it
is
difficult
by a total
is hidden
very
so
eclipse,
instant
the
'fringe
to observe
at
consciousness'
our
the preceding
illumination,
or to remember
of full
has taken
illumination
full
'fringe'
place.
after
is there,
'when the conclusion
James says:
As William
forgotten
preceding
most of the
steps
we have always
its
attainment'.
it

There

we begin

If

tion.
James

may

them

with

carrying

that

taken

below

the

statement
is often
This
nificance

they

densation;

the
may

of the

both

on

to

ging

together'

(either

the

etc..

the

of

state

of

the

below

But,
creativity

the
or
as

false
of

of

pre-consciously)
so many
relinquishes

writers

that

and

of

sig-

forms

of

conin

logic'
in

both
in

the

may

inspiration

threshold

has

a sense

view

'breaking

activity.

are

and

This

is,

such

is,

that

subjeck

actiivty

'collapsed

condensing,

activity

the
that

of

They

called

of

by

of

presence

we saw,

as

consciousness

'collapse',

problem

statement-

logical

conclusion

disintegrating.

unconsciously

concepts,

also

together,

two-fold

ting

be

from

spoken

or

the

quotation

concluding,

statement.

word

senses
falling
of
sense
down,
of falling
light

by

suggested

regarding

of

the

quota-

These,

or

threshold

this

the

hypnagogia.

associative

constitutes

the

describing

feeling

the

one,

'heard'

a certain

place

extra

in

statements,

as

appear

feeling

been

have

encountered

conclusions

last

the

with

easily

could

of

a number

are

in

points

relevant

pp. 96-97).

1978,

(Wallas

up'

the

sense
shed

some

by

poin-

and

'brin-

consciousness
objects,

various
have
temporarily

pointed
the

out,

338
normally
is

by

virtue
p. 189)

(1981,

benefit

can

the

of

one

parts

in

chemistry,

as

be

to

form

of

restraint

Thus

with

a new object,
the

there

may

merging

conclusions

ations,

without

in

in

agreement

premises,

chapters.

earlier

beginning

the

cance

usually

in

flashes,
miraculous
In fact
they
may be
the begof which
only
the surface
of
above

a smile

without

uitions

they

the

by

do

1981,

Koestler

stage

like

"fallings"

and

only

a sense

solutions
cat.
us

with

the

had

my solutions

how

am to

a posited

Such

be

they

arrive

are

an
i-

without
of s ignif

difficulty

"I

have

In

like

problems,

without
Should

that

case

activity.

They

int-

true
of

finding
of

reminiscent
for
a long
at

them"

time,

(cited

p. 117).

illumination

hypnagogia

form,

steps.

description
of

merely

logical

know

yet

not

Wallas's
the

like

the

is

visual

in

advanced

visible.

under-the-surface

may present

statement:

are

there
or

p. 211).

1981,

always

chain

and

a Cheshire

intermediate

Gauss's
but

look

not

not,

beginning,

i. e.,

of

is

auditory

some

often

statements

than

associ-

arguments

the

of

end

often

indicate

to

it

more

or traceable

obvious

However,

and the

hypnagogia,
statement,

similar

steps.

that

says

with

absence

logical

(Koestler
is

others)

the

(obvious)

intuitions
the appearance
give
or short-circuits
of reasoning.
likened
to an immersed
chain,
inning
and the end are visible
consciousness.

This

(or

'irrelevant'

(1981)

Koestler

intuitions.

take

may

constituents

jumps,

logical

appear

follow

need

steps

or

inte-

a new

but

But

not

need

there

another

etc.

the

where

concepts,

two

aspects
of

concept,

thinking

by

other

each

constituents

of

objects,

these

case

which

Koestler

naturally,

followed

on

consequent
in

may merge

place
of

constituent

concurrently,

place

takes

way

as

hypnagogia

In

a disintegration

However,

necessarily

not

'dreamy'

person".

"It

controls.

restraint",

the

restraints

their

gration.

from

"that

creative

occurs

into

etc.,

it,

of

first

freedom

put

relinquishing
often

its

of

logical

and

conscious

prevailing

a glove.
"risings"

of
in

the
the

We may
of

fringe
creative
easily

consciousness

and

consciousness
process
recognize
the

fits
in

the

339
'oscillations'

it

it,

although

"flash"

tends

case).

It

is

images

of

ject's
gap

terminate

the

state

also

to

difficult

very
to

and

observe

during

this

absorption-fascination
the

and

which

In

non-focal.

clearly
in

who,

his

letter

to

this

and

recall

the

often

and

the

objectively

both

Hadamard,

the

succession

thoughts,

which

the

of

sub-

'collapses'

back

we are

whose
may

the
diss-

and

experienced

bey-

by

Kekule's

analyse

respect

last

may

(e. g.,

and

the

"flash":

the

produced

because

phenomenon

its

to

provides

of

state

Again,
self-consciousness.
internalization
facilitates

olves

LEB,

) and

etc.

auditory,

him

due

occurrence
it,
accompanies
excitement

difficult

between

the

the

activities

mental

from

sometimes

(visual,

more

even

to

latter,

the

to

"flash",

the

The

rising

conducive

milieu

precedes

ond

restraints

of

abolition
general

hypnagogia.

of

to

LEB

the
is

nature

Einstein

quote

wrote:

full
that
It
to
call
consciousness
you
me
what
seems
be fully
is a limit
can never
accomplished.
case which
the fact
This
narrowcalled
with
seems to me connected
(Enge des Bewusstseins).
ness of consciousness
(Einstein
further

(1981)

Koestler

p. 43).

1952,

that

comments

the
between
the existence
region
of an intermediary
the
focal
'limit
and
awareness
narrow
of sharp,
case'
has
been
the
recogof
mind
regions
unconscious
vast
(and
later
Freud)
Fichte
long
for
called
time.
a
nized
James
(das Vorbewusstsein),
it
the pre-conscious
'subsidiary
it
fringe;
Polanyi
the
awareness';
called
'peripheral
awareness';
the analogy
yielded
with
vision
it
degrees,
is
would
but since
of
a matter
awareness
line
between
and
be mistaken
to draw a sharp
prethe
between
the
and
shallows
processes,
unconscious
the
between
is the distinction
deep.
What matters
(the
or word or
or concept,
event
percept,
single
for
moment occupies
a fleeting
muscle-action)
which
the
the
on
the focus
processes
and
of attention
the purpose
and
define
the context,
which
periphery
meaning
of the former.

in

Nevertheless,
hypnagogia

in

to
attention
an in-between
gogic
to

the

"fringe
workings

the
the

the

relating

present

paper

existence

and

creative
is

consciousness"
the

creative

may

to

process

draw

to

important

characteristics
As we have seen so far,

state.

of

it

p. 159).

1981,

(Koestler

of
the

furnish

us

with

process

and

may

such
hypnaclues

form

as
the

340
background

against
does

Not

only

the

eruption

making

it
the

of

aware
during

the

it

makes

epistemological
emergence

of

logical

changes'

because

clearly

contains

forms

fulness

and

of

have

entering,

losing

without

tradiction),

the

(1957,

p. 152),

images"

spoke

realms
them

but

of

structural

and

developmental

their

knowledge,

them,

clearly

requires
in

changes

individual

the
logical

mode
of

occurrence

that,

that

the

creative

hypnagogia

may

ries
sed

not
for

logical

the

climax

incubation
the

the

creative

viz.,
In

of

as

and
creative

hypnagogia.
onto

him

on

a parain

necessary
be

will
by
in

effected

also

workers

unconscious,
and/or

state
in

activities

the

presently

many

the

a conducive

some

cases

that

have

it

unconscious.
second

third

and

heading.

The

process,
this
illumination

group,
the

consists
incubation,

framework
which

discusthat

view
of

theo-

of

groups

first

supporting

preparation,

discussing

in

argued

but

arguments

the

stages,

of

the

this

comprised

verification.

act

me to
under

or

are

Such

relaxation

it

well

consciousness
in

brings

creativity,

is

creativity,

to

subsumed

stages

only

transpired

above,

it

that

knowing.

and

conditions

exist,

within

changes,

conferring

Moreover,

own

laws

such

LEB occurring

time
-

linkages

may re-present
This

the

same

although

house

already

by

creativity.

proposed

half-way

experiencing

cognizing

of

if

psychophysical

the

at

its

has

which

of

only

not

internal

of

'forces'

hypnagogia

Thus,

mode

facilitated

are

changes

the

Pinard

functioning

subjective

con-

"spontaneous

But

individual's

the

or

laws".

a means

as

Also,

of

world

that

without

"creative

a non-sensory

'Psi'

on

(and

contain

or

hypnagogia

nature

apparently

as

of wake-

to,

unconscious.

the

to

referring
of

the

itself

in

chapter

of

use

'epistemo-

say

lead

may
the

himself

to the logic

consciousness

of

themselves

is,

the

foreign

in

we saw

suggested

in

process

mentation

of

Moreover,

writers

some

creative

mentation

of

forms

which

new knowledge.

the

in

become

to

occurring

insights.

creative

the

to

preconscious

a subject

changes

for

referring

being

for

emerge.

conditions

term

but,

possible

might

necessary

(Housman's

intuitions,

of

also

the

provide

"secretion"

poetry)

intuitions

creative

hypnagogia
or

of

nature,

which

chrono-

illumination,
we saw
constitute

that

the

341
act,

are

that

hypnagogia

hypnagogic

clearly

The

is

second

of

In

tions.
play

and

the

the

these

explains
of

theories

between

As Hallman

emergence

levels

vertical

main,

phenomenology,

theories

of

collaboration

processes.

to

conducive

group

a relationship

in their

insights.

of
creativty

as
func-

psychological
for

argue

unconscious

(1967)

and

and
they

explains,

inter-

the

conscious
that

assert

though
the actual
involves
creative
process
a shift
in psychic
levels,
in such
the shift
must always
occur
that
the metaphoric
fusion
a manner
of elements
shall
in the unconscious
transpire
levels
and be projected
into
upwards
consciousness.
(Hallman
Then,

the

at

gestalts,

third

distinct

group

from

from

the

that

this

by

views

combinatorial
Hallman,

is

It

that

a type

as

types.

activity

again,

testing,

elaboration,

creativity

fact

the

p. 24).

approvals.

non-creative

latter

ality.

enter

derived

socially

The

level,

rational

1967,

it

is

is

not

distinguished

combinatorial
bound

this

summarizes

thinking

of

and

by

ration-

thus:

view

In every
it
is the nonrational,
the autistic,
case
the metaphoric,
the internally
the spontaoriented,
the integrating,
neous
and involuntary,
unbound
in producing
energies
which
are active
new connections.
These nonrational
for
the
processes
account
....
seeming
effortlessness
and the spontaneity
of creative
they
the autonomy,
the quality
activity;
explain
of
'otherness',
by a daemon or a voice.
of being
visited
They account
for
for
And they
connectedness.
account
the direction
which
creative
movement
assumes.
(Hallman
As

these

ilar,

shall

shall

also

ative

two

groups

discuss
argue,

is

mentation
on

two

them

along
(a)

that

process,

nonrational

activities,

unconscious

as

given

the

(b)

Dreyer

inner
the
dynamic,
mental
are of a different
order
and as such are incapable
though
influencing
cesses,
sorts
of ways.

that
defend
in

evidence

evidence
and

by

shall

arguing
on

to

the

(1964),

me very

doing

In

Hallman,
I

on
is,

seem

together.

with

nonrational.

grounds:

theories

of

pp. 24-25).

1967,

simI

this

unconscious
this

respect
for
definition

argument
to

the

cre-

unconsciousof

the

namely,

involving
which
processes
from
conscious
processes,
of becoming
proconscious
in all
these
and modifying
(Dreyer

1964,

p. 306).

342
if

Naturally,
since

and

experience

all

through

unconscious,

themselves

with

part

though

which,

at the

ready

to

become

particular

part

of

his

supports

my view.

and

able,

because

tance

as

which,

for

possible

iousness
ples

to

mentation

scious

of

and

chapter.

nopompic
vision
in
immediately
Prince

noted

be

will
of
the

avail-

vitiates

that

unconscious,

and
impor-

of

hypnagogia

as

it

the

does

makes

conscious,

never
it

reach

conscexam-

provides
of

nonrationality
seen

also

as

not

uncon-

only

as

noninhibitory,

non-obviously-purposive.

me substantiate
(1952)
Prince's
It

but

is

nature

being

nonrationality

"mater-

great

might
the

as

of

Moreover,

so.

mentation

noncontrolled,

case

do

that

point

and

which

clearly

nonreality-oriented
Let

unconscious

demonstrate

which

this

constituting

material

directly

the

of

preconscious

the

(p. 219)

conscious.

unconscious,

conscious"

earlier,

remarked

in-between

state
it

the

of

becoming

preconscious
is

moment

consider

render

namely,

of

the

remThus

definition,

definition

talked

classification.

of

another

either

i. e.,

incapable

definition

Drever's

Indeed,

or
and

events

mental

undergo

are

form

be retained

to

Drever's

of

nonrational,

one

'rationalized',

and

processes

unconscious

is

become

conscious

disagree

it

in

pass,

nonrational
or

unconscious

ial,

if

is

mentation

must

consciousness

about,
ain

unconscious

these
subject

recalled

a tender
form

of

by

claims

mentioned
that

love
a poem.

this
scene
In

to

referring
earlier

had

subject
which

in

she

discussing

the
this
a hyp-

recorded
the

case

that:

The
The script
was written
automatically....
'subconscious
in her
'thoughts'
of the verse
were
"by
this
in
footnote
[Prince
that
a
explains
mind'
These
'thoughts'of
is meant
aware'].
not
which
she was
logi'words')
(also
'thoughts'
described
not
were
as
'sort
but
in
the
verse,
arranged
cally
or as written
'They
little'.
together
were
of tumbled
up a
- mixed
in composing
the thoughts
a verse'one thinks
not like
from
did
There
at selection
not seem to be any attempt
be elicited
the thoughts
No evidence
or words.
could
In other
to show that
the composing
was done here....
happened
there
all
words
as if
underlying
was a deeper
did
the composing
this
which
process
proand from
thoughts
logical
certain
cess
without
emerged
order
to form
the composing
a subconscious
stream
and after
was done the words
of the verse
as coconscious
emerged

343
images
as they
were to be written.
'automatically'
then
did
process
composing.

This
underlying
writing
and the

the

(Prince
her

In

the

report

thoughts

expressed

erienced

at

writing

in

hypnotized

pic

vision

dream

experienced

over,.

he

tude,

sentiments

the

vision

in

mind

at

Now,

but

cumstances,
these

are

found

that

the

were

given

the

the

emotions
in

accurately
and

hypnagogic

the

dream's

added

but

had

not

not

have

she

been

details
were

the

poem

dream

the
vision

dimension,
been

uncovered.

hypnagogic-hypnopompic

the

it

in

was

FOR,
added

atti-

was

a state

of

a participant,
in

was

the

poem

revealed;

dimension
once

that

re-

these

moreover,

suggests,

phenomena

not

mental

a spectator,
this

This

are

did

present

which,

another

hypnotized

).

not

subject

was

state

is
subject
is important
It

i. e.,

the

she

the

subject

"automatically",

written
In

this

its

all

cir-

other

events

of

etc.

although

This

memory.

circumstances

state

twilight,

in

hypnopompically

such

different

with

presented

in
not recalled
hypnagogic-hypnopompic

mental

that

constitute

conscious

Moreoverwhen

actual
(dreamy,

and

to

consciously

here

are

gives

script

are

apparently

sentiments

dissociation.

many

in

dream

composed
in

that

the

experience
tude,

them

dreams

however,

note,

we

but

dream

the

"the

re-experiences

that

in

hypnagogic-like
to

subject

re-experienced.

re-experienced
is

then

transfers

such events
and
is not to argue

in

dreams

unrecalled

atti-

mental

was not
(p. 206).

writing"

events

the

which

the

that

and

More-

up.

which

that

we assume
mental

in

of

hypnopomof

waking

experienced

interpretation

hav-

Prince,
the

"expresses

vision"

consciously

that

to

the

and

re-presentation

prior

exp-

language

thought

that

accurate

emotions

moment

"the

is

case

vision

the

of

the
if

the

she

not
205-6).

discovered

an

and

an

unconscious
a case

fact

that

time

of

the

to

thoughts

had

(pp.

vision"

immediately

noted

the

the

which

emotion

the

had

p. 207).

although

vision,

anything

subject,

in

was

the

seeing

sequel
his

the

poem were

from

seeing

important

ing

at

of

the

expressed
The

the

time

that

recorded

different

experienced

not

in

the

entirely

was

subject

1952,

more,

appear

might
that
puzzling

344
-

irrelevant,

strange,

ause

hidden

of

are

FsOR,

tion

"the

may provide
a daemon

by

ted
to

or

"subconscious
'sort

tumbled

of
Thus,

into

"were

in

in

its

governed

It

might

and
by

be

objective

state

tification
event

leading

up

which
be

and

rationally

ideal

for

what

during

the

unconscious

mental

is

sights
ters

to

further

the

a character
Gowan

(1975)

processes
supported

effect
in

order

argues

that
to

of

creativity
manifest

the

it

as

and
jusis

here

mental

processes
these,
we find,
as

preconscious,

of

be

to

were,

interest

And

hypnagogia

claims
requires
itself.

to

appears

analysis

culminating
the

1948;

Mintz

last

nonrational

by

seen

true

of

character

emergence

we have

as

is,

event.
or

'catching'

a recognizable

is

are

hypna-

and nonlogical.
intuitions
and

this

What

event.

preconscious
the

the

through

slip

mentation

to

nonrational
and unconscious,
in hypnagogia.
strated
it

subject's
but

for

(e. g.,

that

But

place,

and

the

of
fact

another,

nonrational

are

That

respect

the

in the

Also,

in

seen

affairs.

takes
to

in

state

this

this

can

the

ideal

of

are

against

of

after

how the

visi-

character

may
or

examples,
much

argued

logically

related

in

arranged...

form

one
and

earlier

rules

insights

creative

being

were

own process.

1946,1949),

be

of

mentation

a special

present

Froeschels

dissocia-

noted

logically

unconscious

consciousness

mentation

the

of

clearly

which

not

state

together'".

constitutes

such

"words"

although

waking

gogia

and

as

reference

nonrational

quite

of

of

Hallman

the

bec-

so

frames

'otherness',

that

here

mind"

the

of

quality

shown

"thoughts"

the

or

Moreover,

a voice"

is

unconscious

that

frame

Furthermore,

creativity.

the

in

known.

made

suddenly

they

this

when

do
may
may be thought

crazy

that

and

creative

or

original

illogical,

demon-

renders

and otherwise
inin creative
various

of

precisely
For

wrisuch

instance,

that

involves
Its
to preconscious
openness
eleessence
involves
Creativity
'gentling
the
of the
ments....
it
the conscious
mind to
since
allows
preconscious',
insights
from,
reland to establish
gain
an intuitive
Higher
the preconscious....
emergent
with
ationship
in individuals
such
also
appear
aspects
of creativity
individual
in
'witness
the
the
phenomenon',
which
as
ideas
development
of
autonomous
an almost
witnesses
in his
often
several
at a time.
own mind,
(Gowan 1975,
p. 313).

345
Gowan

also

leaks

(as

from

between

insight
1971,

p. 9)

the

mind

remarked

that

It

tion".

must

Similarly,

seems

quite
is

process

this

regularity

ittling
f ication

and

logicality,

ability,
processes
only

are

the

event"

"the

tary
bringing

forms

ifest

of

themselves

(p. 169).

beside

yourself,...
-

flashes

faltering

(Jung

ask

pp. 104-5).

experience

of

the

hidden

most

and

that

in

role

of

slave

"inundates
Returning

such
it

creative

to

the

with

alien

to

scientific

and

one

does

it

comes

momen-

with

being
not

"consciousness

completely
seek;

one

suddenly

necessity,
in

the

with-

matter"

on Nietzsche's

remarked
were

"Thus

of

a thought

commenting

ideas"

he

evolution,

composition

choice

the

verifiable

manotherwise
dream-like
state"

of

of

on mental

which

feeling

process,

daemon

verifi-

involves

mental

play

associations"

a state

symbols,

artist
in

veriknowl-

of

the

"a

Jung,

branch

dependent

the

any

for

creativity

gives;

had

never

bel-

"the

artistic

who

lightning,
-I

1957,

and

not

is

abstract

on

One hears

like

up

of

the

Of

dream

the

through

and

into

writing
spoke

does

one

in

points

irrational,

stages

mentation

Nietzsche,

Zarathustra",

of

earlier

only

Spake

takes

(p. 147).

and

objectivity,

be

to

out

activity
to

regressions

are

subjective,

creative

"A

with

credo

turns

which

after

says:

otest

and

p. 146)

(except

adds:

creative

law

scientists

he

"it

of

(1981,

predominantly

rationale

rule

reasoning

And

filtering

the

of

reverberating

deductive

al

thought

concludes:

the

creative

the act)".

-operates

entire

many

et

depersonaliza-

heart

very

themes

(Weil

its

of

p. 249)

shatter

intuitive

of

guard,

Koestler

main

logic

after

whose

out

the

of

of

which

to

and
closely

original

a state

the

at

mind".

writings
of

edge

the

one

intimate

that

work
Heard

critical
in

(p. 278)

"correspond

truly

(1963,

ability

of

that

out

its

Barron

evident

membrane)

the

as

have

itself

put

a permeable

(p. 124).
"to

off

results

conscious"

described

insight"

throw

production

phenomena

creative

must

censor.

the

and

been

often

or

through

osmosis

autosymbolic

has

what

by

preconscious

Silberer's

that
to

the

if

"creative

that

argues

that"the
up

called
only

plays

unconscious"

remin

him,

the

which

(p. 105).

creativity,

Koestler

(1981,

346
p. 169)

draws

again

shing

conscious

of

into

activity

tive

levels

"verbal

of
of

the

temporary

controls

and

the

simultaneous

types

mental

a subordinate

tive

act"

tion

there

(p. 208),

part

in

and

that

decisive

during

the

activity

processes

that

in

general,

phase

of

the

of

incuba-

several

plays
creainv-

planes

levels

various

primi-

argues

period

on

at

bringing

further

thinking

the

relinqui-

on more

he

conscious

simultaneous

unconscious

ideation

of

organization;

and

only

olving

to

other

thinking,

is

attention

depth

of

(p. 209).
Summarizing
mental

vailing
Koestler

the

features

characteristic
in

activities

the

the

of

creative

pre-

process,

says:

in so far
The creative
depends
act,
as it
on unconpresupposes
scious
resources,
a relaxing
of the conto modes of ideation
trols
and a regression
which
to the rules
logic,
are indifferent
of verbal
unperby contradiction,
turbed
by the dogmas and
untouched
taboos
At the decisive
common sense.
of so-called
the codes
of discovery
of disciplined
stage
reasoning
the reverie,
are in the dream,
are suspended
- as they
flight
the manic
of thought
when the stream
of ideais free
by its
to drift
tion
own emotional
gravity,
in an apparently
'lawless'
fashion.
were,
as it
(Koestler
In

respect

to

out

that

he points
the

be,

can

also

of

entations

and

has

to

been

argued

that

the

(i.

e.

which

reflect

changes,
tualization,
ctioning

the

repres-

beings,
to

and

As Levy-

collective

events
both

us,

them-

(quoted

themselves"

the

been

nature
in

by

self)

synaesthesias,
regression
characterized

we call

organism,

loosening
to
by

or

earlier,
ease

of

is,

e. g.,
widening
empathic

identification

it
a LEB

place

individuality

fundamental

undergoes
the

takes

there

this

That

hypnagogia.

of

schema

throughout

throughout

advanced

hypnagogia

psychophysical

undivided

child

(p. 303).

incomprehensible

have

arguments
regard

whereby

the

of

objects,

than

particular

p. 308).

in

paper

"In

out,

other

something

Similar

it"

mentality,

a way

mind

to

p. 178).

in

contradiction

indifferent
pointed

in

1981,

Koestler

of

unconscious

primitive

though

selves

"the

are

primitive
(1926)
Bruhl

law

the

1981,

alterations
as
of

body

schema

concep-

modes

of

and

fun-

347
thinking,

paralogical
I

it

consider

(1981,

pp. 187-8)

ries

the

of
into

from

gift
of

the

place

empathy

mental

creative

fully

1972, p. 283) observed,


creativity
to "passively
fantasy
experienced
and
integration
of fantasy
reality".
with
Koestler
(1981,
"The
p. 317) once more:
more

less

or
losing

out

It

is,

poetic,
of

course,

face".

For

instance,

ness
on

the

at

which

of

are
solutions
hypnagogia.
Garrett,
in

the

task

the

at

morning
information
I
a friend
that

the

p. 74).
find
asleep,

arrived

of

finding

the

threshold

saying:

"It

desired

ideas

Interestingly,
the

subject
thus

thinking

transferring

as

from

seen

the

act
the

sur-

by

the

to

communicate

of

"I

first

in

great

many

cases

about

the

for

sleep,

find

as

and
the
to

wrote

opened

of

of

(Beveridge

problem

their

my consc-

Scott

me"

to

problems

give

awakening,

upon

"Psi".

a state

while

Walter

on

certain
in

data

the

chapter
to

answer

desire

conscious-

in

thronged

his

ess-

creativity".

with

always

with-

the

creative

when

was

of

says:

Similarly,

sought".

be

to

'given'

or

the

regress,

underground,

evidenced

instance,

for

the

solutions
at

to

subject's

as

learned
for

desires

their

quote

capacity

the

the

furnished

even

to

activity
may transpire
is no memory)
there
and the

awakening,

have

to

progression

contact

in

up

cases

which

iousness

activity
flash

may

"informational"

unconscious

in

and

regression

And,

true,

achieving

(Fromm

then

may

process
for

form

other

creative

this

seems

totally

not

much

moment

Some individuals

any

of

code. into another.

one

involves

of

surface,

regression
"without
losing

place

(of
sleep
insight

of

games

that

takes

creative

the

and

always
during

the

with

adduced,

evidence

to

will,

contact
the

of

ence

at

both

oscillating

Bowers

Shor

enter-

partakes

over

and

of

selves".

situation

Bowers

mind,
-

other

from

favourable
as

bounda-

conscious,

control

respect

unconscious

with

translating

For,

act.

fluid

hypnagogia

the

a very

"the

Einfuehlung

nature

a certain

in

of

the

symbiosis

and

of

a person

the

of

other,

acquisition

in

this

Koestler's

another

that

namely

preconscious

to

note

represented

unconscious

one

The

the

its

total

the

as

a kind

By

to

remarks,

self
it

on

confer
ing

importance

of

In

experiences.

mystical

this
he

a solution

my eyes
1950,
kind

we

falls
to

his

348

receiving

an answer
beginning

At

the

to

Edison's

it

the

of

was

made

is

paramount
is
thinking

in

this

also

to

arrive

at

for

either
1950;

McKellar

"what

we are

upon

the

than

upon

one

and

rational
the

literature

far

more

its

than
from

"otherness",

1952),

here

included
elements.
1957;

Stoney

Blyton

wrote

too,

One such

case

and

autonomously

like

a proper

given

till

she

fact

is

it

her

that

of

earlier
nonis

mentation
it

at
fact,

In

act.

cases

contributes

are

in

fell

E.

of

they

Prince

"and

"just

the

on

McKellar
vividly
evolving
1974,

(Stoney

these

a jumble,

to

see

on

evolving

what

above

(McKellar

appeared
went

be

may

with

distinguishes

went

for

Blyton

asleep"

difficult

accounted

by

which

is

and

instances

characterized

bed

autonomy,
1906;

Miller

stories"
lay

we find

where

correspondence

which
is

an

regressive,

remarked,

that

explicitly

imagery

account"
the

she

story

hypnagogic

are

"night

as

Although

no

In

her

of

However,

in

spontaneity,

Hallman

which,
1974).

rather

thinking".

creative

hypnagogic

effortlessness,
as

that

proposes
kinds

instances

most

Guilford

depends

suggested

the

a more

counterpart.

clear

which,

p. 129)

argue

for

or

autistic,

of

speak,
in
that

that

(e. g.,

of

(e. g.,
processes,
nonrational
hypnagogic-like
some interesting

the

of

the

apparent.

theories

kind

rational

the

of

elements

211).

to

so
shows

Apart

have

1957),

are

different

kind

to

seems

whole

nonrational

'originality'

non-reality-oriented

half,

one

creativity

of

specific

(McKellar

of

as

processes

single,

those

(1963,

assess

of

himself

publication
least

to

in

interchange
McKellar

likely

interplay

McKellar

the

1963).

the

tendencies

nature

divergent-convergent

balanced

the

Even where
area.
conscious,
(excepting
the time
of veri-

instance,

divergent

the

for

that

regressive

for

seen,

nonconscious-

account

maintained

involved

nonrational,
be

that

to

are

processes
it

can

here

argued

act,

fication),

were

end.

hypnagogia

of

use

and

hypnopompic

reference

chapter

not

is

wakeful
This

is

creative

element

and

preconscious

1978)

mental

nonrational

from

this

of

(Bernd

Although

by

the

at

consciousness

inventions.

new

as

fringe

hypnagogic

the

via

unconscious

p.

stories
fleeting,

else
until

they
she

349
fell

asleep.

She

to

describe

screen"

3-dimensional
istically
been

p. 210).

is

but

Her process

of

a very

general

about,

and

"when,

on

At

the

be

already

she
with

can

'as

if

sound,

had

Monday,

in

complete

taste

so

real-

have

there'.
"

(Stoney

1974,

consists

be

to

begin

to

telling

of
is

story

down

sit

and

things

been

the

what

"it's

smell

describe

a story

way

cinema

explains,

my imagination!
writing

in

will

"But",

in

only

herself

it

of

why

my stories

a "private

simile

complete

This

in
there

them.

screen,

feeling!

and

the

uses

book,

the

my imagination"

(p. 211).

writing

actual

I shut
my eyes for
with
a few minutes,
my portable
I
blank
typewriter
on my knees
make
and
my
mind
a
I
then,
and wait
and
as
clearly
as
would
see real
before
children,
my characters
stand
me in my mind's
I am in the happy position
to
eye....
of being
able
it
for
the first
time,
write
a story
and read
at one
If
'real'
I am writing
and the same moment....
poefrom
try,
I have to work
as distinct
ordinary
verse,
it
hard over
the
and
welcome
sudden
gift
of a comline
or two,
plete
or the happy
word - these
come from
'under-mind'
the
it
hard
the
or whatever
you call
thinking
I use
comes from my upper
conscious
mind.
lot.
I send things
down
my 'undermind'
a tremendous
forgotten.
there,
The
to it
them simmer
and let
it.
comes up complete
answer
when I want
(Stoney
in

answering

a tape-recorder,

she

Interestingly,
writer

to

"break

the

person

- suggesting
pp. 64-65)
offers

(1941

Garrett

why

she

the

presence

a similar

latter

of

would

fascination.
in

the

which

concerned
explicitly
points
out that
is no selection,
There
logical
sequence.
no apparent
is like
from
It
reading
a written
page of an unknown
fasis not mine.
I listen
and the style
with
author,
itself,
tale
as the little
and somecination
unfolds
building
'This
is surely
I say to myself,
fellow
times
in an odd way',
his
him with
someeffect
and I watch
thing
encounof the excitenent
which
comes when one first
ters
talent.
a strange
and original

Similarly,
"Uncle

Tom's

sitting

during
ing

a type-

case

1941,

(Garrett

was

pp. 206-207).
prefers

that

says
the

spell"

1974,

the
of

the
Cabin"
"in

her

scene
(Stowe
pew

communion

a picture

of

scroll,

the

1909

in

the

death
) came
college

service....
the

scene

of
to

Uncle

Tom

Stowe

while

church

Suddenly

like

the

death

of

p. 65).

at

in
she

Brunswick,
the
of

unrollUncle

350
Tom seemed
Commenting

to
on

"has

chapter

pass

before

her"

(W. F.

this

Prince

says

that

many
and

that

gushed

up

participation"
the

material
Suggestive
the

at

and

and

proper
p. 73)

"it
from

hypnagogic-like

description

of

consciousness,
hypnagogia
(1950,

Beveridge's

known

well

very

main,

(p. 174).

between

gap
is

states,

some

fringe

the

the

spring"

of

states

conscious

in

though,

as

this

of

without

a concealed

diminishing

time

writing

authorship

seems

'forced'

of

same

in

analogies

the

p. 174).

1963,

Prince,

creat-

of

cases

He writes:

ivity.

his
has reported
that
generalization
Einstein
profound
he
him
to
time
was
while
occurred
space
and
connecting
dishis
is
have
to
in
bed.
Descartes
made
said
sick
both
in
bed
in
the
lying
morning
and
while
coveries
ideas
having
bright
Cannon and Poincare
got
report
the
in
bed
to
lying
good
only
sleep
unable
when
is said
James
insomnia!
It
for
that
to be said
thing
idiff
the great
a
Brindley,
when up against
engineer,
for
days
bed
till
to
several
go
would
problem,
cult
it was solved.
(Beveridge
To these
stated

who

out

rather
In
ier

more

to

The
points

prefer

unless

of

specifying
is
if
a product
ties
are "novelty,

prise;

they

science,

are

was

to

but

category

of

though

the

psychologist

considered

original.

art,

and

same
the

p. 20)

the

which

from

bedbound.

(1967,

Hallman

qualities

the

and

relax

Hallman

unpredictability,
to

to

madness:

"requires

be

for

experienced

while

originality,

four

an earl-

that

rarely

'forced'

'individuality'".

refer

originality,

sophy,

and

in

suggested

introspective

explanation,

as

gory

was

were

and

of
criterion
logically
out,
term

it

they

creativity

the

p. 91)

unless

that

recalled

phenomena

receptive

a principle

be

will

hypnagogia

hypnagogic

Originality:

of

it

respect,

people

attended

poetry

written

seldom

1952,

Ghiselin

health".

of

this

add

have

of

become

as

"I

that

discussion

some
or

we may

cases

(in

Housman

p. 73).

1950,

must

sees
be
These

singularity
may

this
present

quali-

and
uniqueness,
fundamental
characteristic
frames

psychology

of

reference

respectively"

cate-

of

sur-

philo-

(p. 21).

351
is

Novelty
1958).

(Kubie

1959),

1952).

(Ghiselin
fusion

of

(1953)

al

tivity
ties

which

been

predicted

never
Metaphoric

events.
necessity"

Likewise,

compared.
1967,
p. 22).

They

are

be

"refers

Surprise
combinations
test

nition

which

registers

occasion

for

no

or

to

produce
list

Hallman's

includes

ativity

(1962)

Jackson
in

(1962)

Bruner

cept

The

criterion

of

creativity,

draw

this
discussed

how different

combine

in

paper.

can

reference

perceptual

hypnagogia

statement-conclusions.
in neologisms,
abounds

there
to

be

quality
to
and

resulting
We have
incongruous

of

surprise
to

of

by

has

novelty

seen

con-

many
indeed,
One and,
been

where
FsOR fuse

conceptual

also

the

to

reported

strange

plots.

creatiivty.

"connectedness"

in

cre-

and

endings

Part

in
Getzels

of

essential

in

seen

would

quality

essence

been

recog-

p. 22).

presence

the

the

appreciate

(1959),

unexpected

novel

of

shock

Getzels

the

fact,

The

as

this

so

be

serves

stressed

originality,
in

of

1967,

to

to

effect

moved

(1962).

which

unexampled"

the

Schachtel

and

as
in

be

to

objects

(Hallman

Bruner

has,

throughout

saw

who

creations

experience,
to

attention

of

subjects

novel

it

of

class

without

(1959),

considers

hypnagogic

partly

workers

and

of

"original

Surprise

works"

Fromm

have

never

untranslatable,

individuals

incongruities,

humour,

no

for
the

(1962),

Jackson

and

of

quali-

logical-causal

psychological

originality,

creative

could

upon

that

beholder.

the

final

of

the

to

upon

crea-

of

configurations

prior

asserts
is

can

response,

p. 21).

1967,

there

they

(Hallman

of

for

incomparable,

et

produces

which

and
intrudes

uniqueness

are

be

basis
activity

(Hallman

unusual

Creativity

before

on the

Wilson

ways,

incompatability

the

theory....
existed

novel

the

as

p. 21).

"asserts

causality

and

meanings

creativity

sees
in

1967,

Unpredictability

composi-

of

association,

of

(Hallman

cleverness

and

(1957)

experiences

connections

organizations

constellations

McKellar

remoteness

as

new

1961),

(Gerard

1959),

perceptual

of

1959,1961),

(Rogers

insights

(Taylor

experience

of

finding

the

relationships

(Murray

tions

in

expressed

imagery
that

combinations

we
or

and

hypnagogia
of

words

352
ideas,

or

strange

holding

crab

combinations

images

visual

of
Wilson

matrices.

onses"

Many

1933;

1921;

Leroy

their

irrelevancy

being

their

hypnagogic

orts
beauty

ugliness

or

This

erience.
or

natural
the

Also,

has

One,

spiritual

as

incomparable

led

some

matrices

as
to

if

peculiar,

quasi-perceptual

phenomena

peculiar

ideas.

see

The

We shall
of

quality

surprise

as

the

unpredictability,
novelty,
is
thought
sometimes
and
gery
for
instance,
We have seen it,
many

of

those
the

terminated
ject's
contents
recognize

cases

his

the

in

experience
novelty,

the

uniqueness
Kekule's

deprives
unpredictability,

many

unique,

reaction

to

his

ima-

hypnagogia.
and
the

cases,

sub-

with

of

the

and

in

reaction

emotional

identification
him

of

below.

case,

subject's

unrela-

as

of

in

1949).

unique,

of

this

of

a super-

typical

just

and

and

empathic

of

are

subject's

in

exp-

Poe

fusion

encountered

However,

state.

LEB resulting
of

where

something
in

1925;

the

in

rep-

across

production

more

many

of

as

which

the

of

perceptual
in
it
place

or

to

(e. g.,

any

juxtaposition

have

lantern

of

unparalled

to

thought,

to

description

Leaning

contributed

led

that

improbability

(e. g.,

or

unpredict-

described

hypnagogia,

if

often

we come

subjects

of

also

lectures

the

unique,

and

imagery

of

their

and

is

of

but

collection

imagery

unpredictable

1976)

again

irr-

the

of

Arnold-Forster

different

of

of

trains

sequences

Part

world

only

1909;

and

imagery.

before,

resp-

feature

not

Singer

of

hypnagogic

which

experienced

never

to

associative

a regular

remoteness,
fitting
well

words
back

associa-

a mixed-up

experiences

Referring

of

concurrent

other

a number

Again,

are

association

in

to

to

1977).

McKellar

to

1959;

each

compared

"remoteness

spoken

disconnected

belonging

slides

ted

to

1925),
different

Alexander

McKellar

apparently

and

have

1878;

(Leaning

hypnagogia.

images

Maury

p. 142),

to

is

subjects

belonging

"improbable
in

hypnagogic

of

(e. g.,

able

(1953)

al's

ideas

unpredictability

hypnagogia.

thought

et

realized

Similarly,

elevancy

or

(1962)

fully

are

angles

unusual

e. g.,

1963,

(McKellar

claw

imagery

Mednick's

and

its

from

viewed

juxtapositions

tion"

in

a cigar

imagery

visual

of

ability

uniqueness

the
to

353
these

of
ing

Milder

surprised.

Flatness

of

subjects

and

that

strong

ating

the

of

in

the

concept

of

originality

its

personal

at

state

individual's

"the

as

process
in

(1967,

p. 109)

ground

that

ogist".

He defines

unusual,

far-fetched,

it

be

can

generalized

to

or

covert

of

a purely

life.
as ma

Stimuli
laboratory

other

need

in

hence

the

"the

apply

to

setting.

be

Guilford
on

a way

that

by

any

of

the

psycholof
(p. 108).

responses"
from

his

if

on,

are

seen

This

is

not

to
theory

solely

externally

Indeed

the

subject

view-

setting,

situation

so

the

sci-

criterion

laboratory

stimulus-response
not

requirements

springs

to

creainto

production

clever

experimental

the

usefulness

values

an

stimuli.

defines

dismissed

or

are

which

hand,

of

as

of

elements

On the

quickly

and

consists

p. 221)

specified

in

gene-

milieu.

elements

definition

in

conceptualizing,

adoption

be

social

meet

directly;

remote,

imaging,
overt

us

relative

dependent

also

create

criterion

suggests

his

on

associative

originality

originality

of

either

Guilford's

Although
ing

of

can

usefulness

"to

forming

with

are

associative

the

and

history,

partly

and

that

"involves

deal

cannot

they

(1962,

dismisses
it

and

beliefs

useful".

way

some

creativity

individual's

the

bears

observation

are

Mednick

which

combinations

evalua-

uniqueness

of

of

the

and

set

argues

It

moment;

(1978)

implies

nature.

the

Similarly,

social

termin-

of

to

in

make-up

combinations

new

are

out

subjective

on

partly
character

and

useful".

ence

and

unpredictability,

Poincare

or

rep-

various

pointed

effect

This

affairs.

mental

new

been

the

by

noted

reaction

a personal
of

constitution

tive

is

dependent

making

many

spectator.

emotions,

all

state

qualities

on

like

general,
it

novelty,

the

have

reactions

amuse-

hand,

been

has

his

state.

for

that

it

and

emotional

interest,

other

has

hypnagogia

feel-

of

to describe

used

a disinterested

as

investigators,

on

argues

On the

a certain

directly

ral

in

judgement,

tion

been

incapable

childlike

subject

affect

Surprise
value

have

surprise.

the

to

refer

orts

him

curiosity,

even mild

or

ment,

renders

words

reaction:

emotional

thus

and

contents

thinking,
responses

as

the

suggest
of

mental

generated,
need

not

354
be

even

conscious

implicit

or

lated

or

i. e.,

his

is

mind

conscious

menon
In

this

number
fusion

or

juxtaposition

root

(1981,
that
iously

on

one's

is

the

In

"the

that

Miller

one

when

is

teeming

with

a pheno-

unusual,

As noted
the

of

crossing,

a similar

from
Koestler

vein,

is

discovery

of
kings

or

on

FsOR rising

and

seris

of

hypnagogia.

reference

of

formu-

and

essence

cabbages

of

stimuli

This

more

LEB.

of

consciousness

result

or

thought

phenomena
for
which

responses.

two

the

frames

unrelated

things

across

(e. g.,

occupied.

is
of

marriage

the

of

clever

and

of
phenomenon
p. 201) remarked

unlikely

for

explicit

current

factors

creativity

this

of

were,

hypnagogia

remote
occasions,

the

in

respect,

far-fetched,

by

otherwise

both

encountered

it

impinge

which

and

forgotten,

discovery

the

be

previous

by

we come

sometimes

account

the

for

may

which

as

may

analysis

endipity,
not looking

Thus,

motivational

unformulated

This

1906).

re-activated,

are

which

and

in

seen

sought

or

hypnagogia

to earlier,

responses

and

instigated
factors.

in

products

been

has

as

motivational

creative
as

may be

They

section.

them,

of

of

universes

prevdis-

of

insoluble
the
solve
previously
will
union
whose
course
to
Although
posed
are not
problems
solutions
problem".
is,
in hypnagogia,
better
the latter
infrequent
of course,

they
of

its

for

known

are

of

poetry.

very

peculiar

This

is

imagery

hypnagogic

was

ist

like

intended

in
side

wrote

the
the
all

with
in

his

to

verbally,
express
function
of
actual
absence
aesthetic

of

all
or

and

led

its
in

to

air

auditory

comparisons
of

one

McKellar's

hypnagogic

ima-

original

and

surreal-

unusual

ways,

being

most

fitting.

"surrealism

is

Dali".

control
moral

is

surrealism
manifesto,
by

automatism,

psychological

sheer

for

comparison

(1924)

As Breton

way,

the

visual

his

that

arranged

by

a certain

instance,

reported

as

consisting

convey
has

and

For

objects

paintings

Indeed,

speech

and

in

apparent

noticeable

character...

most

most

subjects

"chiefly

which,

marriages,

products.

surrealist
with
(1963,
p. 142)
gery

responses

unsolicited

in

means

of

writing,

thought.
exercised
prejudice".

which

or

in

Thought's
by

is

it
any

other

dictation

reason

Furthermore,

and

out-

355
is based
Surrealism
in the
importance
on belief
of
forms
hitherto
certain
of association
in
neglected,
the omnipotence
in the purposeless
of dream,
game of
thinking.
It
aims at the final
annihilation
of all
other
psychological
mechanisms,
their
and at taking
in solving
the foremost
place
problems
of life.
(Breton:
Automatism,
uttered
and

invited

which

in

gogia
In

the

a fantastic

habitual

iveness

in

in

a group

(p. 12)
by

ted
bility

some

Prairie"

American

hypna-

in

hypnagogic
are

linked

in

Chirico

out,

"Comte

de

table".

of

1960,

surrealist

Lautreumnt's"

a sewing

dissecting

spot

machine

and

an

He further

during

or

p. 12).
ideal
is

describes

express-

chairs

Greece,

placed

in

the

As Schmeller
represen-

well

"Beauty:

umbrella

from

taken

street,

formula:

unheard-

(Schmeller

strong

a divan,

an armchair,

deserted

the

away

reality"
"Furniture

noted:

in

used

purposeful,

(Schmeller

points

of

to

objects

freely

are

wakeful,

Imagine

nature

related

acquires
a particular,
instance,
when seen in the

a removal....

same

and

place
for

and

thinking

as

"well-known
they

As de

the

have

which

control

(1909)

of

creations,

mentation,

p. 10).

a monologue

schizophrenic

artistic

conscious,

is

'Schizophrenia'.

of

manner,

our

1960,
its

chapter

and

in

with

p. 11).

eliminating

Jung's

of

and

surrealist

imagery

thus

experiments

parallels

inattention,

of

states

1962)

1960,

explains

possible,

reminiscent

(Oswald

Schmeller

Breton

as

as

is

criticism,

Stransky's

of

which,

rapidly

as

by

quoted

the
on

meeting
the

possi-

nature

of

the
sur-

thus:

realism

is contradiction
Surrealism
become corporeal
and
incarnate.
On the surrealist
the law of gravstage
ity
is suspended,
in their
keeps
things
which
normally
terrestrial
things
order;
penetrate
and
each other
birth
to new beings
'after
kind,
give
their
no longer
whose seed is in themselves
The
upon the earth'.
basic
foundations
of this
cosmos
are sunk into
an everchanging
ground.
(Schmeller
Max Ernst's
scent
be
his

of

hypnagogic

surprising
own

"oneiric"

since

hypnagogic

collages

imagery.

This,

Ernst

himself

imagery,

of

are
of

1960,
strongly
course,

p. 14).
reminishould

reported
painting
"being
present
as a

not
from

356
indifferent

spectator,
birth

at

the

he

owes

his

between

sleeping

closely
the

painter

whose

objects

in

his

sharply
of

to

His

sion.

of

his

images

are

in

well

Not
of

other

but

also

the

the

as

he

surdevhe

method
to

relevant

Irrational'

only

works

discus-

our

"paranoiac-critical

called
the

dreams

be most

can
Dali.

detailed,

minutely

as

of

that

those

method

as

themes

he

p. 65)

explains
of

Salvador

his

method

'Conquest

his

is

of

some

conceive

and

paintings,

and

"one

to

works

hypnagogia

he

1952,

(p. 64).

waking"

to

elopment

In

and

related

realists,

used

frottage

of

(Ernst

Indeed,

own work.

discovery

Another

are

his

of

impassioned"

or

activity".

describes

it

thus:

It was in 1929 that


Salvador
brought
Dali
his
attention
to bear
upon the internal
mechanism
of paranoiac
the possibility
phenomena
and envisaged
of an experibased
mental
method
on the sudden
power
of the systemto paranoia;
atic
this
associations
proper
method
became the delirio-critical
afterwards
synthesis
which
bears the name of 'paranoiac-critical
Paraactivity'.
delirium
bearing
noia:
of interpretive
association
a
Paranoiac-critical
systematic
structure.
activity:
knowledge
spontaneous
based
method
of irrational
upon
the interpretive-critical
association
of delirious
By this
phenomena....
method
paranoiac-critical
activity
discovers
'significance'
in
new and objective
the irrational;
it
makes the world
of delirium
pass
tangibly
on to the plane
of reality.
(Dali
In
ful,

this

critical

upon

seize

them
of

that

saw
of

from

the

this

material

logic.
FsOR,

ated
allow

assimilate
to

objects
by

unwarranted
and

yet

these
effects
is the

waking

his

creation

they

cross

logic,

allow

Dali's

the

and

then

or

the

double

or

in

objects

laws

the

together

unrel-

processes,

significances
to

be

contain
the

most

paranoiac-critical
"paranoiac"

which
We

flout

or mental
and

my

surface.

fuse

One of

of

unlike

not

that

paintings

manifestations.

of

elements

the

objects

meanings

employment

the

state

forms

added

else.

paralogical

in

to

wake-

allow

is

This

comes

appears

the

would

a preconscious

unrelated

have

something
in

as

unconscious

instance,

For

them.

and

utilize
hypnagoiga

Dali

mind

irrational

and

pp. 436-7).

suspending

the

of

unconscious

description
material

deliberately

activities
of

emergence

by

method,

1976,

themselves
all

of

striking
method

image

which

357
he describes

"the

image

or

anatomical

figurative

least

time

same
(Dali:

represent

The

two

are

the

by

represented
greater

a much

but

theme

us

provides

four

because

with
of

workings

a lake

significance

also

in

former,

Dali's

The

not

because

only

to

its

as

title

reflections

Dali

of

origin

suggests,

are
latter

strik-

carries

of its

profound

the

same

and

a glimpse

paranoiac-critical

app-

"Meta-

the

the

elephants.
by

effect

and
as

whose

a book

a clue

the

at

object

this

which

elephants"
The

in

can

p. 18).

reflecting

swans

the

without

different

absolutely

paintings

Narcissus".

which,

modification

1980,

known

"Swans

four

depicts
ingly

best

of

morphosis

Wilson

an object

of

another,

by

quoted

ears

the

as

title
of

method:

is in the form
The clue
of a few lines
of dialogue
between
two fishermen
fishof Port-Lligat,
a small
ing village
1930.
Cadaques
home since
near
and Dali's
They are evidently
demented
speaking
of a slightly
villager:
fisherman:
First
What's
the matter
that
with
chap
in a mirror
staring
at himself
all
day?

Second

fisherman:

If you really
a bulb in his

want to
head.

(Wilson

p. 18).

know he's

got

'"A bulb
in the head"
in Catalan
Dali
explains
corresthe psychoanalytic
with
exactly
ponds
of "comnotion
in his
If
break
head it might
a man had a bulb
plex".
flower
into
inst'
Narcissus!
Dali's
at any moment,
the Greek myth folof the mirror
ant association
with
jump of his
by the mental
lowed
transformation
of the
into
image
Catalan
the
phrase
sprouting
of the flower
from Narcissus'
head,
the dynamic
provividly
evoke
thought.
But the most extraordinof paranoiac
cesses
is that
body
ary transformation
of all
of the boy's
fossil
into
the strange
hand holding
Here
an egg.
thought
the way in which
can be seen precisely
paranoiac
transforms
to conform
reality
obseswith
unconscious
Furthermore,
by a masterly
sions.
of illusionstroke
ism,
Dali
a virtuoso
piece of painting,
makes the
before
take
place
change
our eyes as our attention
from
in the pool,
the figure
brilliantly
switches
the half-way
from
boy to
at precisely
caught
point
hand,
to the final
monument
side.
at the pool

Comparable
of

Leroy's

vision

of

to

'Metamorphosis

Dali's

(1933,
a carpet

the

subject's

mind

the

carpet's

turning

1980,

pp. 42-3)
being
the

in

reports
shaken

thought
into

of

a molar

from
of

a window
a tooth

brought

which

whose

one

hypnagogic

the

which

tooth

is

Narcissus'

led

roots

to
to

358
(turned

represented
the

shaking
The
to

by

her

has

as

important

and

so

thoughts,

fetched

or

clever

is

times

highly

eccentric.
even

and

abnormal

in

problem

his

ween

me and

p. ll).

The

a madman
In

resemblance

but

in

found

hypnagogia
in

latter
previous
creativity.

the

marrying

to

dency

latter,

hypnagogia

ground

The

of

of

produce
in both
as

the

chapter.

already

has
The

As Koestler

same

of

the

madman.

is

(1981)

being

as

the

identical

1980,
Dali's

mental

clearly

together

the

The

LEB.

bet-

than

onto

ability

associations
may be
madness

or

of
in

suggested
in respect
argued

points

a
ten-

which
seen in

presence

been

being

some-

a superficial

are

kings,

already

is

him

deeper

seen,

the

p. 107)

(Wilson

brings

to

gener-

mad"

thus

and
of

The

difference

merely

as

far-fetched

outcome

schizophrenia

not

employment

creativity

produce

only

sinks

an

cabbages

remote,

they

encapsulated

am not

is

and

genius

both

behaviour

"The
I

which

they

(1967,

Dali

it

far-

and

remote,

branded

sometimes

however,

cases

more

These

revealed
common

some

the

resembles

person's

that

events,

associations

retort:

resemblance,

patient

responses:

pathological".
is

paranoid

As Guilford

has

classical

witticism.

processes.

strong

creative

This

concepts,

theme.
a central
It
to be ignored.

behaviour.

one's

toget-

to

relate

too

bring

unrelated

and

discus-

objects,

unusual,

the

referred

to

delusion

produces

yet

often

the

to his

and

and

"the

remarked,

who was

present

tends

normally

associations

far-fetched

resemblance
into
alizes

it

a sense,

etc.,
who

the

on

unrelated

relates

systematically

associate
are

In

on.

situations,
individual

creative

bearing

normally

systematically

who

person

associations

of

hypnagogia,

with

many

relate

processes,

is

an

that,

and

the

of

systematization

paranoid

in

legs

the

carpet!

Dali

sion

into)

the
the
to

out,

to Planck
From Kepler
and de Broglie,
and Descartes
the working
seem to have
of the great
pioneers
methods
for
the
jingle,
improvised
by Einstein's
been inspired
lady who asked
him for
benefit
a dedicaof an unknown
tion
on a photograph:
A thought
that
sometimes
makes me hazy:
Am Ior are the others
crazy?
(Koestler

1981,

p. 146).

359
In

further

(1981,

p. 170)

vision

reminds

as

painted

ble

"the

have

argued,

throwing

or

melting

(1981,

Koestler

this

enjoy

always

drawing

for

jective

blunder

conviction

entary
fledged

or

delusions,

systematized
p. 214)

(1981,

in

as

sub1981,
mom-

more

they

may be

full-

such

resist

any
Koestler

large,

By and

tenets.

the

same

be

may not

and

their

contradicting

evidence

cry

imagination:

excited

himself

(Koestler

did"

inspirations

false

Moreover,
flights

Archimedes'

of

guarantee

the

carries

and

synthesis,

any

itself

presents

which

does

inspirations:

false

to

he

But

As Koestler

immune

not

of the
the intui-

is

latter

distinction?

is

both

them

the

the

effect,

enjoys".

is

and

guidance,

original

This

is

LEB

the

of

symptomatic

former

the

(p. 171).

praranoia"

distinguishes

only

inspired

an

p. 212).

"is

what

science

of
of

guise

argues,

an objective

out,

points
"a kind

constraints.

resem-

visions

effects

of

away

which

guidance

of

the

of

schizophrenics,

Faraday's

them";

one

crank;

of

systems

p. 210)

the

and

genius

by

delusional

stable

As I

tive

described

giddy

whirling,

hallucinations

the

Koestler

vision

"the

that

remarks

me of

or

hypnagogic

Kekule's

to

reference

continues:

intuitions;
inclined
trust
their
and
to
scientists
if
ambiguous
give
which
confronted
with
experiments
Einstein
declare
as
either
results,
or divergent
did
Hobbes
'the
facts
did
that
as
wrong';
or
are
'the
instance
is
that
and singular
so particular
'tis
that
or to resort
scarce
our observing';
worth
that
the unfavourable
experito the standard
phrase
'
is
'to
due
error...
of
sources
result
unknown
mental
are

1981,

(Koestler
"In

number
tive
by
of

he

words",

other

"a

cases,

of

concludes
he

that

conviction

that

recognition

nent

scientists

40),

indicating

the

held

onto

right

or

right.
is

not

wrong
And

this

restricted

ideas.
but

that
feeling
to

were

insane

strength

the

and

The

point

they

felt

of

245-6).

tenacity
is

lack

that

as

pp. 239-

they

they
were

they

shown

those

emi-

which

that

certain

of

driven

with

not

certainty,

experiences

Moreover,

1981,

(Koestler

subjecshaken

has

right

be

to

track

right

(pp.

ideas

their

literally

these

on

data"

experimental

contrary

the

of

his

allow

not

should

is

discussion

the

after

physicist

p. 214).

were

above,

scientific

360
that

were

clinically

diagnosed

The feeling

of

certainty

experienced

geniuses
in

nately
falsehood),

importance

the

in

LEB

of

presence
feeling

The

of

can

before

logic

The

production
as

viewed

partaking
but

creativity,
further,

can,

or

phors

and

von

Domarus's

(1964)

all

sun,

the

a box

being

Father,

God the
vision
cule,

the

snakes

and

(d)

Silberer's

It

unusual.

Domarus's

in

it

has
is

cess.
by

empty

the

might
the

unjustified,

entirely
ness is not

as

all

so
fact

been

much

in

the

On one

he

no means

permissible

comparison;

it

should

a sense

in

and

the

analogy
four

in

hypnagogia,

four

cases:

basis

of

the

the

to

them
(c)

Kekule's

benzene

hypnagogic

the

of

Ghost,

with

each

with

the

be

can

between

Holy

cases

meta-

comparison

space

the

waking

This

on

sex

Kepler's

thus

and

discussed

identified

(b)

mole-

phenomena.
are

associations
in

the

case

of

identification

is

not

only

unusual

indeed

However,

be

that

argued

crazy.

remoteness

Kepler's

occasion

of

following

case

be

treat

the

considered

mad-

literally,
a cigar

patient
a similar
that

stressed
this

the

associations

taken

suspect

specifically
to

the

of

that

In

form

'actualized'

of

has been
a metaphor
in the mind of
'actualized',

a saint.

earlier

originality

and

autosymbolic

patient

but

an

as
in

with,

and

Son, and

the

of

To begin
indeed

planets,

an

associations

of

who

cigars,

phenomena.

in

conditions.

patient

encircled,
or

stars

unique

the

the

"openness".

creation

comparing

of

these

further

madness

three

all

examining

their

in

to

precious

to

and

the

as

in

analogies

a saint,

box

seen

his
be

func-

point

hypnagogia

criterion

found

also
be

other

von

the

of

diffuse

respect

unusual

in

seen
(a)

of

the

- will

sleep
in
section

and

proposed

surrender

entering

following

the

to

indicate

both,

of

and

pre-eminently

common

was

during

go wrong'

individual

the

allowing

taking

as

madmen

cause

which

truth
relation-

are

madness

possible

certainty

'nothing

that

in

the

("Hypnosis")

chapter

which

uncovering

creativityand

as

both

unusual

produce

in

hypnagogia

of

features

tional

to

- phenomena
individuals
and

creative

indiscrimi-

so

accompanying

as

tendency

associations,

in

present

is

the

and

and

ships

(viz.,

hypnagogia

insane.

as

analogy
by

its

as

pro"it
an

Platonic

361
form

and

(quoted

archetypal
by

is

was

analogy

image

of

superimposed

on

the

relates

Kepler's

comparison
but

unusual

is

Son

similarity
internal

one

(the

Kekule's

and

Silberer's

does

is

revolve
have

examples

an

in

the
belief.

central
is

Son

the

planets

not

as
much

his

there
the

interesting

system

to

causes"

trinity

fit

to

planets

one,

Son

The

solar

irrelevant:

entirely
(the

the

primary

holy

the

phenomena
of

the

of

pp. 125-126).

the

that

a paranoid

way

one

as

1981,

Koestler

here

point

quality

merely

not

neither

external

are

many)

round

the

an

nor
Father).

been

already

discussed.
like

Poetry,

comparison

easier
than

of
he

be;

can

be

(1981,

devoid

tially

of

all

Shakespeare"

or

unimportant
87).

He also

first

stage,

tary

process"

"more

"the

production

active

than

p. 91)

latter

his

and

critmight

analysis
may

criteria
juxtaposition
as

regards

Blake

poetical

than

that

of
Plato

quotes

often
lis-

(1952,

p.

and
who

its-

in

poetry,

a passive

"the

as

we can

tune"

celestial

essen-

is

meaning
so

that

(ib.,

the

poetry

"Blake's

to

an

the

the

as

non-existent,

less

apply

such

of

hearing

says
is

art

latter

and

com-

inappropriate.

spoke

becuase

virtually

our

all

with

of

The

poets"

primarily

poetry

speech

easier

rational

and

an

perhaps

and
an

may

altogether

p. 86)

meaning.

makes
one

with

thought

of

poetical

most

but

(1952,

Housman

also

logic

But

p. 352)

makes

how relative

sheer

inadequate

merely

FsOR.

ten

apply

art,
mentation

science

products.

Koestler
of

In

no matter

also

scientific

not

It

madness.

usefulness

of

hypnagogic

invention.

with

erion

forms

other

with

scientific

parison

to

all

involun-

said:

in his
He who without
the Muses'
comes
soul
madness
knocking
that
art
at the door
of poetry
and thinks
finds
fit
to be called
make him anything
a poet,
will
he indites
in his
the poetry
that
senses
which
sober
is beaten
hollow
by the poetry
of madmen.
(Plato:
In
brings

this
together

strange
more

words.
remote

state

images

associations

sual
the

transient

and,
As

of

from
as

already

these

by

quoted

madness

distant
Aristotle

the

the

out
more

p. 86).
poet

creative

FsOR and
noted,

pointed

elements

1952,

Housman

unu-

produces

and

compounds

by

many

fertile

writers,
or

creative

362
the
as

an

"The

Puzzle"

Monkey

was

"Heat-craze

the

engages

nothing

by

reported

in

Or

worlds"

one of
into
his

have

been

Green's

And

hypnagogic

the

"He

reg-

hypnagogic

other

12 and

Chapter

now

sentence

subjects:
Many

"there

and

anger"

world-caught.

existence".

given

ferocious

bitterest

(1911)

in

(1951)

Hannah

with

least

at

Trmner's

escaped

examples

two

lion's

"The
this

my teeth

teeth,

all

a gear

ally

Compare

quotes

Moore's

Marianne

reads:

which

head".

chrysanthemum
(1973):

from

a line

illustration

instance,

for

p. 221),

(1962,

Mednick

process.

this

throughout

paper.
Housman's
poetic

creation

erence

to

into

the

used

in

being

Plato's

to

relation

creativity

only

not

both

gogia

their
as

originality

nal

example

ing

drunk

a pint

flow

comments

of

which,
into

his

beer

the

process

at

luncheon,

mind

of

are

often

its

syno-

as

and

of
he

nothing

they

rel-

hypna-

and

character
of

qualities
surprise.

Housman

above

thinking

ref-

madness

uniqueness

illustrating

during

a walk

his

to

Further

to

also

nonrational-unconscious
by the
represented

unpredictability,

novelty,

as

here

them

discuss
but

creativity

through

their

would

place

his

'inspiration'.

'insight',
to

which

sometimes

and

of

introduce

terms

certain

stage
and

inspiration,

poetic

'intuition',

to

involuntary

and

discussion

namely,
it
a good
consider

and

of

first

the

to

respect

passive

view

present

nyms,

ate

in

statement

a perso-

offers

Hav-

inspiration.
says,
in

for

he went

particular,

unexpectedly,

a whole
Sometimes
sometimes
a line
or two of verse,
by
a vague
preceded
once,
not
at
accompanied,
stanza
form
to
destined
they
the
were
of
poem which
notion
lull
be
of an
Then
there
a
usually
of.
would
a part
bubble
up
the
hour
then
would
spring
or so,
perhaps
I
far
because,
I
bubble
could
as
so
say
up,
again.
thus
the source
proffered
of the suggestions
make out,
had
have
I
to the brain
already
was an abyss
which
to mention,
the pit
of the stomach.
occasion
(Housman
Earlier

on
There

vant
noting

to

he

calls

this

are

two

points

my discussion.
that

his

conceiving

process

"a

1952,

secretion".

in

this

excerpt

The

first

comes

out

a line

or

p. 91).

two

of

rele-

consider

of Hcusman's
verse

or

363
whole

stanza

poem.

This

is

encountered
remains
it

times

very

in

hypnagogia.

And

case.
of

Miller's

The

i. e.,

stomach,
"the

that

primitive,

information

gives

it

judge,

the

perceptive

that

"when
of

argued
to

the

that

"to

individual

is
of

must

how
the

of

result

us,

tion,
a study
meaning

what

appears

on
of

the

back

Kris

points

the
It

ation

are

out
found

(1939)
to

term

power

is

is

thus

that

in

in

the

their

primitive

They are mostly


connected
and are almost
sciousness
of more or
sorts
various

knows

since

that

In

activities.
notes

that

influence
and

Freud,

menta-

regressive

of

that

in

by

the

autonomous
purest

he

what

descriptions

are

characterized
also

the

over-development

an

sub-cortical

supernatural

some

be

something

common

primitive,

Kris
refers

know

still

activ-

necessary

seems

words

These

to
and

term

externality.

to

(p. 223).

inspiration,

sense

belief,

This

and

He further

it

into

put

it.

unconscious,

God or

phoric

to

of

the

'felt'".

to

unconscious

(p. 219)

directed

not

order

rea-

participation

intuition,
in

its

an

intuition"

be

could

experienced

psycholog-

in

"directed

was

mind

the

"that

as

with

said

withholds

perceptions

ego

able

more,

once

the

like

that

testing"

reality

take

of

knows

he

and

understand
be

Williams

conscious,
intuition

the

intuition

of

but

as
of

pit

the

function

belief

the

the

unconscious

perceptive

other

in

phenomena

interfered

"The

poem

Similarly,

that

in

as

the

noted

ego

some

avoid

and

(1949)

Berne

constitutes

inspiration

to

source

transmits

which

it

paper).

same

conclusions

in

as

visceral,

defined

it
Some-

the

its

(1946)

sons".
function
ical

ity

to

announces
Jung

way".

of

speaking

course

hypnagogic

reference

the

of

inspiration,

'visceral'.

being

as

p. 261)

(1922,

also
in the

its

significance

occasions

poetic

his

of

insight,

of

her

(see

having

as

and

a secretion

impending

whole

unattached.

and

on other

reported
is
point

second

most

a flash

of

yet

case

Sun"

the

to

Moth

cases

undirected

an

(1906)

feeling

the

the

of

notion

a vague

In

beginning

the

intimation

like

much

a feeling,

is

Kekule's
an

is

just

by

accompanied

form

and

the

literal

the

spirit

its

metaof

quality
unpredictable.

states

of

inspir-

society:
loss
of cona partial
with
by
habitually
accompanied
less
motor
unco-ordinated

364
activities.
is not
The clinical
of these
classification
states
They sometimes
of
shew characteristics
easy.
always
hysteroepilor - perhaps
more frequently
epileptic
(morbus
or else
a more or less
states
eptic
sacer)
formation.
hysterical
But while
symptom
complicated
there
of clinical
synvariety
seems to be a certain
drome which
to these
the psychstates,
may predispose
in inspiration
and
conception
ological
of the belief
in it
aims at a solution
of the processes
occurring
that
to any of these
clinical
will
not be limited
These highly
may be
processes
complex
conditions.
described
In clinical
as phenomena
of regression.
is likely
to lead
to a withdrawal
this
cases
regression
from many of the higher
activimental
of ego control
the coorthat
As an example
ties.
we have mentioned
is frequently
dination
affected.
of motor
activities
in
feature,
To add another
states
characteristic
most
is
the
It
inspiration
becomes
automatic....
of
speech
of the unconscious.
voice
1939,

(Kris
it

Although
in

and

features

the

a trance-like

state

these

appear

also

would

'bubbling'

both

a sense

with

and

over-flowing,
of
and

forth,

so

nonsense.
In

senses.
have

might

is

it

said,

and

visual

intimations

with

and

Housman's

remark

deur

suggestions
would

be

sound

poetic
that

of

grandeur,

of thought
less
grand

and
it

that
were

"that
less

both

these

of

Housman
neologisms,

constructions
philosophy,

mysticism,

contains

seeming

verbal-

verbal

sometimes

poetry
if

instance,

associations,

strange

undertones

all

for

go

speech,

as

nonsense',

let

to

talking
in

or

out

moveme+t,
in

the

up,

oozing

and

as

as

welling

hypnagogia

in,

punning,
and

religion,

and

found

It

understood

tendency

'poetical

of
is

up

instance,
in

assonance,

alliterations,
auditory

for

encountered
form

the

of

thought,

over

resulting,
It

filled

auto-

speech,

unconscious:

irrepressible

the

controls

conscious

all

as

the

hyp-

motor

be

feeling

being

of

in

hypnagogia.

describe

of

in

present

autonomous

could

'babbling'

and

as

be

encountered

and

inspiration

kinesthetic-visceral

primitive,
often

to

used

that

Kris

always

will

epileptic-like,

automatic

already

it

are

regressive,

terms

are

inspiration

withdrawal,

ego

matism,

by

described

of

primitive,

nagogia:

inspiration,

of

a state

is

hypnagogia

that

argued

not

respects

all
that

noted

is

pp. 378-379).

reminiscent
are

embryo

mysterious
mysterious"

of
ideas
gran(1952,

365
p. 88).
from

An example
menon

"Frster's

called

(1981,

pp. 315-16)

hypnagogia,

brain
The

in

phenomenon
on

a patient,

ventricle

-a

ally

ancient

orts,

the

a flight

was

small
regions

manipulation
of

may

comments,
andth

hypnagogia
first

further

and

threw

addition,
or

As

(conscious)

oldstates.

Frster,

mid-brain".
the

together

hypnagogic-like

"a tumour
he manipulated
deep down in the
cavity
of tie

in

sub-cortical

by

elicited

Koestler

bring

and,

to

regard

a phenoby

quoted

pathological

in

my argument

activities

ating

with

describing

and

syndrome"

the poetic,

strengthen

(1934)

Kretschmer

when,
in

the

operthird

phylogeneticKretschmer
patient

repinto

speech

He exhiin Latin,
Greek
and Hebrew.
passages
quoting
bited
typical
word
and with
associations,
every
sound
into
Thus,
broke
of ideas.
a flight
of the operator
he
for
[tampon]
Tupfer
hearing
the
a
ask
operator
on
hpfen
into
'Tupfer...
Hupfer,
Tupfer,
burst
Hpfer,
into
'
he burst
On hearing
the word Messer,
Sie mal...
'Messer,
Metzer,
messer,
ja
Gemetzel,
ein
metzeln
ja
doch
Sie
messen
nicht
sum,
profiteri'.
professus

(Kretschmer:
Koestler

ist
das
Metzel,
Sie
so messen
profiteor,

Sie

sind
ein
Sie
doch
nicht
Herr
Professor,

quoted

1981, pp.
315-6).

by Koestler

comments:

into
the
insight
Frster's
up a curious
opened
patient
in
brain
in
the
an unexpectedly
poet's
processes
ideas,
first
flight
The
literal
the
of
word.
sense
of
jump
jumper,
'tampon,
Hupfer,
Tupfer,
and
go
etc.
kind
has
humour
into
coming
the air'
of
a
gruesome
table
from
face
down to the operating
with
a man tied
flight,
his
The second
translated,
runs
open.
skull
butcher,
'Knife,
Metzer,
Messer,
as follows:
etc.
is a massin a butchery;
this
truly
you are a butcher
[Gemetzel];
[metzeln],
take
don't
acre
go butchering
Herr
[messen];
measurements
why don't
you measure,
Professor,
profiteor,
professus
and so on.
sum',

Thus
the
delirious
punning
apparently
patient's
to
the
surand babbling
message
convey
a meaningful
fear
butchered,
geon
of being
entreaty
and his
- his
by careful
that
the
measuresurgeon
should
proceed
is,
in a more
that
ments,
cautious,
way.
circumspect

(Koestler

Openness

and

Hallman's

1981,

p. 316).

self-actualization:
(1967)

criterion

of

openness

encompasses

366
tolerance

sensitivity,

"Defined

spontaneity.
these

conditions

inheritance;

are

as

traits

self-acceptance,
by

most

aspects

of

factors".

environmental

of

category

and

psychologists,

not

are

and

(1961)

Rogers'

to

reference

ambiguity,

learned

are
they

of

man's

He makes

openness

as

defensiveness,
the opposite
of psychological
when to
the organization
certain
protect
of self,
experiences
in
into
from
awareness
are prevented
except
coming
disturbed
fashion....
It means lack
of rigidity
and
in concepts,
beliefs,
perpermeability
of boundaries
ceptions
and hypotheses.
1961,

(Rogers
The
to

trait

of

than

rather
He calls

the

roll

(1959),

(1957),

those

(1959).

Hilgard

style

involves

lable

in

least

the

the

"those

that

proposed

who

(1958),

people

(1978

Cropley
cognitive

information

the
likely

most

are

Greenacre

add

whose

of

ideas

(1956),

Mooney

would

censoring

world

external

(p. 28).

these

supported

Lownfeld

To these

are

really
set"

(1959),

Fromm

(1953),

Stein

they

as

have

who

"refers

explains,

predetermined

some

(1956),

Angyal

Guilford

p. 123)

to

of

things

of

aware

according

follows:

as

being

of

a state

Hallman

sensitivity,

p. 353).

avai-

be

to

creative

thinkers".
Tolerance

of

inconsistencies

erate

be

to

unknown,
tolerance

of ambiguity
is the ability

of

which

(p. 28).

cies"

from

follows
ative

the

It

allows

from

of

proposes
lems,
ber

of

of

causal

in

(i.

ideas

per

be

to

e.,
unit

eight
the
of

ability
time"

"the

unbound

the

crefor

sensitivity

"gives

autonomous,

creative

undetermined.
uncoupled

and

(p. 29).

a factorial

scientists,

again,
since

own

spontaneity
free,

irrelevan-

in

meaning

his

and

implication

ambiguity

upon

conditions"

following

fluency

rely

approximate,

self-acceptance,
of

the

sensitivity
one

perceive

behaviour

creative
the

to

of

tol-

accept

ambiguous,
Out

of

"to

ability
to

flexibility

tolerance

being

(1950),

Guilford

"to

Finally,

creative

previous

nality

of
needs

feeling

comes

condition

(p. 28).

guidance"
act

that

person...

p. 28).

1967,

The

the

with

comfortable

(Hallman

the

contradictions,

and

uncertain"

to

refers

ambiguity

analysis

technologists
traits:

of
and

p. 452),

produce
novelty,

"a

perso-

inventors,
to

sensitivity
to

the

prob-

large
flexibility

num-

367
of

("the

mind

(as

ability

analysing

or

reorganization
formation

function

manipulate

However,

he

traits

might
1926)

Wallas,
the

the

to

of

they

the

high

may exhibit
little

ably

fruitful

more

to
of

criptive

However
to

erred

regard

is

This

to

hypnagogia

not

that

of

and

self

qua

hypnagogia
and

8.

ideas,
and

psychological
sine

in

subject

imagery,

the

A wider

discussed

hypnagogic

e. g.,

des-

of

non

of

the

contradictions.

Throughout

as

subject

this

fluid
to

induction

in

we saw

paper
internal

the

hypna-

and

thought

of

boundaries
that

permeable;

defensiveness
and

that

activity,
that

progression.

approximations,
be

pre-

that
notes
impulses",

openness

to

opposed

accepts

to

open

intuitions;
are

He may

is

of

sensitive

hypnagogic

We have

7 ("Suggestibility-

impulses,

openness

emergence,
"instances
McKellar's

p. 28)

aspect

concepts

the
that

"unconscious

chapters
is

subjects

that

but

subject

to

sensitive

things.

Receptivity")
the

be

as

hypnagogic

creativeness.

(1967,

Hallman
is

person

gogia

often

than-underlying

traits

of

hypnagogic

the

elements.

was

by

characterized

seen

other

may

their

one

may represent

behaviour"

among

remark-

'originality'

that

say

with
endowed
necessarily
is
hypnagogia
conducive-to
of
state

creative

"it

and

the
be,
refconditions
of
most
may
case
form
in
found,
be
or another,
to
one
are

above

conscious

occasion

rather

these

already

individual

"an

are

of

McKellar

the

hypnagogia.

is,

chase

'creativity'

that

that

behaviour

of

traits".

personality

of

like

term

the

instances

concept

suggests

and

others"

on

(e. g.

stages
hand,

on one

originality

creativity.

other

points

these

of

all

not

and merely

out

can

evaluation.

postulating

On the

sight.

ideas

of

are untestable

equating
pp. 131-132),
that
of 'originality'

with

forms

all

intricacy

or

that

reservation

("trans-

different

of

p. 453),

time"

theories

because

one

ability),

wholes

organized

complexity
many interrelated

same

applicable

out

problem

(1963,

in

the

at

organizing

into

("how

he decries

Furthermore,

of

p. 452),

set"

p. 453),

use"

expresses
be

to

object

structure

a person

changes

a complement

redefinition

or

conceptual

one

which

an existing

of

design,
of

with

ease

as

is

the
In

ambiguities,
in
'fluent'

368
the

producing

of

sense

by

characterized
terms

"the

of
and

ety
that

ease

in regards

"nomads"

to

differentiate

er

life

between

subject

In

respect

may be

he

form

of

that

only

on
to

thoughts

autonomous

and

of

ance

lying
is

seen,

already

the

Again,
both

'forced'

that

it

ject,
ceptable

state:

outside

the

subject

related

to

and

there

ambiguity

irrespective

of

because
in
must

the
be

the

there
mind

of

of

relaxation

have

spontaneous
the

imply

appear-

reliance
as

reliance,

such

setting.
in hypnagogia

is

It

necessary.

necessary
ambiguity

of

and

set

we have

Poincare,

Kekule,

thus

and

However,

which

'ext-

transferring

as

acceptance

necessarily

and
of

subject,

of

images

with

feature

the

of

not

tolerance

occurs
and

and

does

externality

factors

that

understand

this

imagery

himself.
those

men-

that

true

coincide

the

thought

like

cases

is

by

outside

something

reflect

Hadamard

and

may be

a position

unconscious

hypnagogic

'outside'

subject

hypnagogia

in

entirely

also,

complex,

often

of

simply
It

not

des-

different

of

nature

characterized

subject

onto

reliance

abandonment,

Hallman;

transpiring

of

and

does

of

self-acceptance',

very

fore.

hypna-

the

hypnagogic

the

the

to

observa-

FsOR.

'forced

or

out-

sense

is

the

constrained

generally

are

to

by

tend

and
-

the

one

of

of

a state

freely

hypnagogic

the

the

placed,

by

Further

conceptualization

self-acceptance

ernality',

on

is

proposed

thought

in

be

come

LEB.

crossings

normally

to

tation

the

object

relaxation

allowing

people

self-acceptance

to

requires

which
of

said

is,

that

to

inner

other

into

that

they

and

in

like

are
world,

own

the

remark

and

redefines

or

his

and
intricate

of

consisting

again,

existing

an

function,

or

to

reorganizes

transforming
ign

themselves

once

pointing,

their

between

vari-

to

(1975)

maintained

poorly

the

respect

outer

and

in

and

flexible

overly
inner

their
are

In

Hudson's

note
is

neither

nor

gogic

to

boundaries

ego

tions

to

imagery

set"

changes

imagery.

his

of

whose

he

are

which

'flexible'

autonomy,

and

which

interesting

is

persons

their

with

images

of

number

spontaneity

changeability
it

latter

a large

in

'forced'

be

must
the

no

subject
and

the
of

personality

is
sense
the
of

sense
as

a diffuse

sub-

he

unac-

enters

feeling

369
that

certainty

of

dictions
just

they

what

be

either

will

incongruities

ambiguities,

are

be

should

and

in

resolved

due

course
in

taken

contra-

and

they

or

one's

are

stride.

***

Hallman's
"rests
ciple"
"in

of
and

of

the

goal

upon
(op.

cit.,

p. 25).

terms

of

motivation

toward

It

are

growth

the

of

(1956),

notes
ween
drive"

(p. 26).
in

pointed
is

this

Vogel

the
in

done

(Crichton-Brown
1971b)
ence

due

to

to

creativity
If

the

of

personshort

self-actualizing

common
1974)

(Kubie
process

of

1958).

many

be

et

1973)

hypnagogia.
to

Green

have
Sometimes,
process

creative
Green

1959;
to

related

self-actualization

the

various

1971b;

al

of

through

changes

However,

Stoyva

connection
and

are

1972;

and

motivational

strong

Green

hypnagogia

their

the

transient.

relating

may

bet-

for

value

it

He further

a connection

therapeutic

Tauber

health,

psychological

there

Dusen

out,

points

asserts

1966;

al

van

p. 26)

an unusually

and

et

which

(Greeley

implies

fall

process.

though

1895;

through

tation

by

1972,1977;
to

state

creativity,

fleeting

(e. g.,

Budzynski

in

will

cit.,

also

hypnagogia

mostly

are

writers

the

characterized

Now,

change

personality
identit

occurs

activity

(op.

criterion

motivation

these

that

trans-

as

therefore

and

self-actualizing

and

person

of

creativeness...

transformation

with

"this

is

and

cate-

personality

all

formation,

Hallman

the

with

that

This

directed.

as

(p. 25).

creativity

this

and

for

self

an activity,

creative"

equates

is

instances

all

grounds

significant

Maslow

health

though

growth,

change,

psychological

transformation

as

that

with

during

ality

change

in

possible

unless

of

spoken

for

source

energy

energy

implies

creativity

that

this

for

terminate

may not

direction

which

account

cendence....

if ies

the

as

is

this

Psychologically,
the

prin-

an explanatory

as

change

of

category

in

growth

must

gory

the

self-actualization

of

criterion

logically

al

et

experi-

mystical

with

preconscious

men-

the

latter,

more,

is

seen

once

as

370
integration

progressive
individual
the

and

the

of

the

standing
the

for

self-actualized

To begin

with,

instances

of

in

the

features
spontaneity

lack

cence,
unknown,
bring

be

course,
is

understood

are

many

cases

far

from

reflecting

gogic

imagery

their

state

the

of

of

strict

occur

physical

individuals

or

psychological

screen

against

physiological

and

psychological

Evidence
1925;

from

various

Vihvelin

that

somatic,

1948;

the

(Germane

to

contents

of

were

who

just

of

is

1962;

There

growth.

hypna-

as

of

health.

(e. g.,

Oswald

latter

the

geniuses

state

psychosomatic,

in

reflected

if

its

character

of

may

as

material,

which

sources

hypnagogia

healthy

because

a diagnostic

of

irrespective

unconscious

surface

to

might,

nor

personalities,

hypnagogia,

the

It

motivated

in

or

ability

and

of

inno-

and

growth,

sense

healthy

Nonetheless,
to

personality

powerfully

may

viz.,

ambiguous

creativity

the

of

all

opposites.

pers-

and

personality,

bipolarity

inst-

an

such

practically

uncertain,

neither
of

grounds

possible

expressiveness

the

that

in

under-

that

remark

are

creative

integrate

instances

always

by

tolerate

and

argued

are

bringing

for

to

together

to

for

self-acceptance

effortlessness,

ability

the

character-

constitute

may

(1968)

fear

of

to

framework
traits

growth

characterized

and

achievement

may point

Hallman's

facilitating

of

Maslow's

of

it

the

to

respect

hypnagogia

balance

onality

the
directly

particular

personality

sense

then

person.
in

creativeness",

ance

the

of

in

role

provide

conscious

nonrational,

secondly,

and
and

the

the

contribute

may

target,

presence

between

major

it

aetiology

an underlying

"all

a twofold

the

wherein

and

rational

firstly,

a goal:

realization

izing

the

may play

such

personality

a balance

strike

unconscious,

hypnagogia
of

to

comes

the

of

van

both

projected
of

1965;

Silberer

1972)

Dusen

psychological

the

subject's

the

individual.

the

and

act

Leaning
suggests

states

are

hypnagogic

imagery.

findings

of

visceral

diseases.

footnote

3)

mental

notes

this

aspect
changes
In

that

the

of
and
same

attacks

hypnagogia
images
vein,
of

that

are

(1901)

accompany

Leaning

headache

Head's

(1925,

may be

p. 331

371
by

accompanied

visions

Significantly,
ters,

(1957),

McKellar
(1966),

tile

Slight

the

interpretation.
symbolism

in

'dream'

symbolism

which

(Piaget

be

pations

1971),

in

with

(see

Griffiths

for

both

Freudian

the

Jungian
subject's

(Oliver
study

showed

alities

with

(1978)

(1966)

that

are

important,

More

future
1964;

the

of
interpre-

resolution
1976,

dreams).

nocturnal
appears

to

world

as

contain
as

well

aspects

wherein

manifested

Foulkes

et

subjects

(1966)

al

person-

reflect
Green

As

characteristics.

to

preoccu-

Oliver

symbolically

hypnagogic

good

positive

possible

outside

of

processes

present

representations

personality

1976).

or

symbolism
the

a type

repression

relating

to

respect
to

references

integrative
of

in

"func-

of

"anagogic"

Fromm

and

hypnagogic

addition,

states

their

French

arguments

for

thus

and

1935;

similar
In

i. e.,

problems

for

symbol-

idea
for

of

(b)

and

future,

the

(a)

argues

fer-

a most

for

(1965)

al

(1976),

is
and

independent

is

1951),

(Silberer

realized

hypnagogia

et

Oliver

symbols

Silberer's

Moreover,

censorship

of

wri-

(1943),

Vogel

(1972),

various
Kubie

hypnagogia

that

emergence

level

(1965),

Dusen

shown

tional"

tation

and

a fortress".

of

(1924),

Vogel

van

have

for

period

(1965),

(1968),

(1977)

Budzynski

psychological

Foulkes

Schneck

battlements

the

on

Silberer

e. g.,

"the

of

Green

and

remarked:
interesting
Is it
that,
not
on the one hand, many outhave reported
their
creative
greatest
standing
people
insights...
were associated
and hypnopomwith
reverie
imagery,
hand,
the imagery
and
pic
on the other
and,
insights
in the theta
by college
reported
students
involved
training
in their
personal
project
changes
intuilives....
These are also
to insight,
amenable
tion
and creativity.

(Green
(1972)

Budzynski
et

al

itive

(1966)

may be

subjects

to

matic,
by

and

better

training

reasing

used

become
able

them to enter
intervals.

depression

and

tated

by

gogia

(Budzynski

the

use

to

to

obesity,

inter

hypnopaedic

1977).

by

tolerant

remain

in

others,

Foulkes

less

pos-

less

dog-

feelings

simply

hypnagogia

for

changes
alia,

training

of

their

express
and

the

advantage

more

Personality

of

that

suggested

p. 149).
findings
of

1978,

and Green

and

might

programmes

treatment
also
utilizing

be

incfor

facilihypna-

372
important

The
or

Simon

1968,1970)
ter's

definition

stage

the

Leuba

and

Emmons1955,1956;

has

involved

is

in

1 of

as

Stampf

1968;
much

Rubin
lat-

the

as

during

sleep

highly

be

to

1952;

Svyadoshch

stage

said

hypnopaedia

of

Bateman

and

hypnagogia

includes

subject

area

controversial

(e. g.,

learning

sleep

1953;

but

which

suggestible

and

receptive.
The
for

stages

early

beneficial

their

(e. g.,

Thus,
process

hypnagogia

of

gence

of

unconscious
and

personality
by

to

surface

or

to

suggest

positive

Secondly,

ects

the

of

changes.

above

account

the

traits

are

phenomenon

for

the

the

latter's

presence

characteristic

of

the

an expanmaterial

the

state

asp-

characterizes

feature

central
or

emer-

psychological
LEB which

the

the

self-actualized

typically
of

the
of

the

of

in

into

allowing

personality
Maslow's
features

the

aiding

material

such

receptivity

Thus,

may

by

the

root

hypnagogia.

and

to

directly

(ii)

simply

utilizing

listed

personality

by

either

1959).

facilitating

by

with

combined

Luthe

contribute
(i)

material,
integration
of

utilized
relaxation

when

and

indeed

self-actualization

acceptance
ding

Schultz

may

be

also

especially

(e. g.,

practices

may

psychophysical

of

effects
1929,1970),

Jacobson

autogenic

hypnagogia

of

of

LEB

the

of

emergence-development
creative,

self-actualized,

individuals.

Summary

In
and
of

this

hypnagogia
the

respects
to

state

carried

tant

the

was

mental

was

shown

dynamics

gained

through

ommodates

both.

individual

was

of

the

conditions
seen

that

found

these

the

study
It

was

to

two
of

creativity
an

so,
in

the

necessary

in

agree

of

or

hypnagogia

suggested

most

proimpor-

hypnagogia
sometimes

was
all

creativity.

creative

states

and

analysis

creative

Conversely,

mentation,

schizophrenic
of

understanding

and

all

further

with

the

doing

In

hypnagogia.

with

contain

was

of

between

relationship

discussed.

out

sufficient,

It

the

chapter

cess

of

Conclusion:

and

that

thinking
and

that

conditions
which
this

many

shares

a greater
can

be

typically
understanding

acc-

373
be

could
those

of

is

tial

act

ination

the

of

part

the

to

of

creation

or

insight

it

does

gogia

not
it

lead

causes

can

creativity,

viewed

as

functions

be

can

from
to

sleep

and

the

latter

to

that

it

the

is

an essen-

often

the

infrequently,

hypnagogia,

constitute

and

indeed,

not

of

hypnagogia

that

process,

itself
is,

said

like

hypnagogia.

of
it

creativity,

creative

phenomenologically

of

feature

it

conclusion,

phenomena
are

a defining

conducive

state

the

schizophrenia,

LEB which
In

if

achieved

moment

contains
of

illum-

indistinguishable
for

save
when

terminate.

it

the

fact

occurs

in

that
hypna-

CHAPTER 14

OTHER AREAS OF EXPERIENCE:

Under
number

heading

this

of

other

share various
features
with

discuss

shall

states,

and experiences

processes,

phenomenological
hypnagogia.

briefly

very

which

and cognitive-affective

Epilepsy:

his

In

Cavendish
to

attention
in

epileptics

solitude"

and

themselves
is

freed

to

that

they

to

occurred

one

of

are

far

bed.

As

them

were

they

from

and

is

his

patients
in

in

the

frequently

most
wore

(p. 4).

sleep,

he

to

life

brain

the

when

and
(p. 5).

state"
his

that

noted
or

he was

show

solicitations

afternoon

he was

in

prone

a transitional

adult

while
Of

invariably

external

as

in

off

experienced

of

drew

states

mental

particularly

invasion

occasionally

by

"almost

on

degree

control,

dreamy

that

come

the

a large

to

Referring

"and

tend

(1895)

Crichton-Browne

observation

"during

volitional

to

the

lecture

early

evening,
to

undressing
the

last

drowsy

attacks
to

go

of

vestiges

and

just

falling

he wrote:
patient
Objects
intently
at which
she gazed
sometimes
disinto
grew smaller
and smaller
and receded
tance,
followed
and this
experience
was always
by a feeling
for
of sleepiness
a few minutes.
When just
falling
hear
asleep
she would
often
a low murmuring,
crooning
noise,
as if
someone
were sneering
at her -a
sound which
was horrid
and created
alarm,
that
and was so real
she was
to jump up in bed and rub her ears.
obliged
At
times
other
have
when falling
asleep
she would
dinging
in her ears,
a loud
and while
still
but
lying
awake,
with
closed
eyes,
she often

sleep"

another

figures
saw long black
dumpy white
ones.

young

which

changed

(Crichton-Browne,
Crichton-Browne
on

"almost

in

a meditative

company

also

invariably

and

in

mood,
when

noted

that
solitude"

whereas

attention

epileptic

is

-374-

they

little

into
1895,

attacks
the

and

when

are

prevented

engaged

actively,

p. 5)
come
is

patient
when
that

in
they

375
can be induced
face
at one's

by autohypnotic
in the mirror),

(e. g.,
they are

practices

and that
loss of personal

gazing

usually
identity.

by a feeling
of
loss of orientation
As in hypnagogia,
is another
known
features
phenomenon occurring
also in epilepsy,
some other
being hallucinatory
of the latter
smells
such as those
fat or burning
of rotting
vegetables,
rancid
rubber,
hypnagogic
dej vu experiences
visions,
sounds and voices,
accompanied

-known collectively
as "intellectual
ings,
"sexual
smells",
and "erotic
(Sedman 1966) are also not
talia"
visceral
of

Epilepsy,

like

alterations

of

In

they

may

and

white

described

the

somehow
Perot

from

flashes
to

(Beck
of

in

often

of

light

his

in

the

not

part

(1963)

appear

or

is,

louder

One patient
pictures

the

occurrence

experiences

or

clearer,
are

experienced
(Sedman

to

perceptions

hypnagogia,

and

control"
to

refer

that

him

of

in
nearer

distorted

attack,

appears

"'cartoon-like'

attack

modali-

a yellow

that

1956).

Guthrie

take

all

to

prior
(e. g.,

scene

or

epilepsy

appear

and

a complete

and

in

his

evocation

illusions",

visual

sphere,

halluci-

hypnagogic

The

noted,

dis-

minor

mind's
eye,
projected
as if
him and which
he could
his
see with
eyes
he saw them in his
Although
mind's
eye

of

in

geni-

the

spectrum

full

elements

just

as

visual

part

front

his

and,

strip

appeared

and

in

epileptic

from
to

consciousness.

flickering)

as

closed...

of

develop

which

sounds

feel-

a wide

quasi-hallucinations

forms

a comic

and

of

ranging

quasi-perceptual

on various

beyond

atypical

contains

consciousness

loss

and
hypnagogiclike

ties.

hypnagogia,

and

nations

were

sensations

Queasy

sensations.

orientations

as

aurae".

as
1964).
of

in

open

or

they

being
Penfield

"interpretive
for

which,
or

just

more

instance,
distant,

(paliopsias).

As

hear their
names
often
being
hear nonsensical
called
and may,
comments.
Thus, Sedman (1964) reported
heard
of a patient
who "often
from
her :name called
'Edith',
behind
which seemed to comeAjust
her,
like
usually
a whisper
voice".
and in her father's
"heard
Another
'She
patient
a voice
which commented thus
does

look

queer

epileptic

she's

patients
likewise,

not

working".

Sometimes

the

376
are

experiences
voices
or

men and

of

of

are
have

"clearer

their

(Sedman

The
seeing

remarkable

oneself

saw myself
looking

at

myself,

clearly

was

drawn

a mirror

if

as

if

as

I
it

1966,

pp. 6-7).
and

1964).

include:

is

punctuation
thoughts

and

common

with

epileptics.

the

gorizing

patient
as in
1959).

problematic,
Navratil

and

that

observation
ional

to
in
An

is

also

McKellar

the

feeling

neologisms
in

speech

which

1966,
in

other

relatively

schizophrenic-like

sometimes

so

of

or

van

is

(1966,
"a

going
of

1958,

that

p. 8)
delusor

atmosphere,

a feeling

a sense

becomes

Riese

epilepsy

delusional

unnatural
of

(see

Gogh

in

cate-

epileptic

Sedman's

occurs

there

that

strong

pp-8-9)
the

the

mood,

or

thought

Further,

case

which

McLean

e. g.,

each

in

occurring

apparently

Furthermore,

mysterious

something

tered

the

(Sedman

there"

are

sometimes

in

Wahnstimmung)

do

-I

(Sedman

succeed

me

don't

answers,

schizophrenic

as

(paranoid

mood

related

are

to

and

absent

like

was

experience

(see,

and

suddenly
from

withdrawal

that

it

those

allusive

by

away

standing
like

of

"I

my body

at

epilepsy

visions

epilepsy

i. e.,

feet

actual

Thoughts

words

hypnagogic

in

stood

a few

entirely

almost

that

during

reported:

my body

thought

manner

aspects

in

1963).

and

and

reported

from

disorders

blocking,

Beard

and

control"

occasionally

somebody

occur

thought

and

autoscopy,

looking

and

speech

also

These

of

The

like

schizophrenia

(Slate

was

dead

just

Thought

intrusion,

away

outlined....

is

speak

visions
Some

understanding"

a patient

-I

were

and

1963).

al

power

relation-

1966).

instance,

For

epileptics.

of

phenomenon
is
a double,

as

sexual

et

a clearer

and

patient

voices

(Slater

the

the

patient's

a "sense

head

attacks

the

character

experience

kill

infrequently,

Not

a religious

epileptics

to

as

hearing

as

to

threatening

women

1964).

(Sedman

such

psychotic,

insinuations

making

ships

clearly

there
may be

on",

is
closely

encoun-

significance

hypnagogia.
interesting
linked
(1957,

with

phenomenon

that

hypnagogia

is

p. 54)

found

that

occurs
the

dej

deja
vu

in

epilepsy

vu

experience.

experiences

and

377
occurred

in

they

quite

are

p. 111)
more

often

fail

to

dej

siders
the

has

person

before'.
who

visits

knows
such

and

illusion

the

feeling

and

such

between

visual

deja

given

by

McKellar

going

to

happen

(1957,
a moment

I
ion

a whole

before

it

reported
dence

(r=.

auditory
(1972)

in

ficant

positive

imagery

his

but

"oral

Earlier,

the

(ib.,

p. 336)

knows,

(r=.

in

exactly

the

is

inci-

and
Holt

hypnagogic

subject
to

vu

dej

hypnagogia,
dej

knows,
happen".

vu,
or

pp. 18vu

is

(1938)

Isakower

between

of

(ib.,
dej

that

and
In

experience

going

dej

claimed

feeling

in

what

35)

between

and
had

hypnagogia.

"the

p. 151)

synviz.,
experience,
hallucinations,
body image

in

argues,

my mind

of

hypnagogia,
of

(r=.

occas-

91 student
sample.
found
signia near

32)

types

(1897)

similarity

and

their
students

images,

Ellis

cathexis"
aura

in

one

between

visual

hallucinations,

experience

leptic

and

on

feel

case

(1967,

correlations

also-

through

Geers

and

is

what

does

flash

to

is

latter

know

often

example,

the

of

said,

28

of

above

latter

correlation

negative

a common
related

sample

recurrent

changes,
20).

vu

the

the

imagery
dej

is

In

"miscellaneous"

and

aesthesia,

27)

is

actually

positive

hypnagogic

of

there

it

Buck

significant

left

before

seemed

spoken".

he

feel

is

is

and

knowledge

the

"I

conversation
was

time

P. 55):

is going
to say.
a person
know each sentence
before
it

a person

e. g.,

case

what

this

place,
the

in

as

A typical

vu.

of

A distinction

vu,

it

in

case

first

the
on

house.

or

con-

through

and

turning

a shop

the

the

of

or

experience

lived

familiarity

of

second

deja

auditory

for

vu

recognition:

be

would

dej

psychology

'having

of

structure

the

at

of

place

a feeling

the

Cognitive

example

topographical
that

drawn

an

be

a particular
by

the

it".

(1972,

Reed

experience

discount

to

to

A typical

inundated
of

vu

we do

that

suggesting

individuals.

but

we think,

attention

subjects,

normal

"perhaps

that

than

pay

in

common

proposes

his

69% of

than

more

vu

and

in

the

Isakower
thinks

he

epi-

378
isolation

Perceptual
first

At

the

sight

between,

or

deprivation

experiences
and Greenblatt

Freedman

deprivation:

and sensory

for

positive
relationships
hypnagogic
with,
and sensory
is conflicting.
For instance,

evidence

equatability

(1960),

Freedman

al (1962),
hypnagogic

et

(1956) argued for the presence


and Lilly
of
imagery
in sensory
deprivation
Zuckerman
experiments.
(1964)
and Cohen's
reports
argued for reported
visual
(RVSs) occurring
(see also
sensations
only in wakefulness
Bexton et al 1954),
(1960) reports
conand Leiderman's
tained

RVSs both

The

confusion

important

in

"visual"

and
"hallucinations"

various

bound

(n. o. b)

1962).

experimental

(Myers

is

of

reduction

of

the

loosely

al

1954),

et

al

1958),

a kind

Scheibel

and

deprivation"describing
or

marked

for

stands
is

reduction

of

the

term

with
invariant

(Brownfield

stimulation

hypnagogic

given:

et

exchangeable

settings
of

been

(Scheibel

absence

which

experimental

components

one

syndrome,

or

1965).
of

and

so

the
is

But

necessary
marked

stimulation.

Arguing
sensory
following

of

phenomena

"reported
al 1962),
1962),
"non-object-

et

Murphy

and

term"sensory

conditions

invariance

Vernon

phenomena"

the

sensory
stimulation
"perceptual
isolation"

relative

1966;

(Freedman

sensory

Further,

monotonous

images"(Bexton

imagery"

sensations"

have

they

an

plays

these

of

names

(Vernon

drowsiness.

RVSs are

exactly

what

interpretation

"auditory

"hypnagogic

visual

to

the

the

and in

wakefulness

as
in

part

illustrated

of

in

against
deprivation
Zuckerman

the

equatability
imagery,
Schacter

and Hopkins'

of

(1966)

hypnagogic

and

p. 464),
that
argument

(1976,

if

RVS - hypnagogic
then persons
parallel
were valid
who
frequently
doze and sleep
have
during
isolation
should
more RVSs than persons
who remain
evidence
alert,
presents
from the Goldberger
(1958)
and Holt
study
showing no
between RVSs and time spent sleeping
correlation
and the
the

(1961) investigation
a -. 66
and Goldberger
showing
He also cites
the Zuckerman et al (1962)
correlation.
findings
between sleep
that
showed a -. 71 correlation

Holt

379

and RVS complexity,


and the
(in Zuckerman and Cohen 1964)

ratings
Smith

Murphy,

frequent
who reported
episodes
less complex
RVSs than did alert
reported
Schacter's
first
is invalid
argument
incidence
assumes that
of drowsy episodes
correlate

ignore

subject

subjects,

the
in

sensations
experimental

than

often
hypnagogic

hallucinations

differences

vidual
cular

sense

is

the

import.

In

acting
and

addition,

These

In

observation
iences,

the

that

scenes.

Zuckerman

It

is

study

majority

in

sensory

(1964)
of

in

have

emerged.

sing

was,

reported

that
making

which

case

The

unfortunately,

be

1964)

the
exper-

1954,
from

integrated

literature

the
and

complex

autosymbolic

think

sensa"unstructured".

were

to

found

auditory

in.

considered

to

patterns,

and

efforts

not

drawn

second

stretching

objects,

effort

inter-

experiences.

geometric

"alert"

results

confinement

(Hebb

complexity

visual

of

hypnagogic

visual

simple

and

Schacter's

must

of

of

other

of

the

experiments

parameter

the
to

to

apply

being

type

also

duration

reviewing

deprivation

for

stood

and

is

subject

of

isolated

unlikely

not

lightly,

lines

to

of

the

the

deprivation

like

the

of

influence

may

shift

Zuckerman

patterns,

the

just

a parti-

meaningfulness),

attention

1962,

lights

state

and

also

degrees

in

Murphy

and

will

indi-

attentional

also

kind

as

visual

more
for

classification

RVSs,

and
'wallpaper'

tions

sensory

addition,

appear

dots

that

in

are

objections

argument.

Myers

attentional

asleep

besides

experience,

such

for

the

fall

have

latter:

complexity,

interpretations

criteria

and

it

sense

non-

predilection

as

of

(e. g.,

conditions

show

'actual

emergence

drowsy

the

import

great

involved

their

may
the

experience
modality

and

of

the

of

visual

that

in

necessarily

than

modality,

individual
latency

do not

other

somaesthetic

People

feel

that

the

of

in
and

to

appears

state

sensations

1960).

others

and sleep

assumption

kinesthetic

situations

more

of

Leiderman

subjects.
in that
it

attentional

occurrence

particular

(see

This

the

variables,

and

modalities

RVSs.

with

and

showing that
of drowsiness
also

study

subjects

should

flyers,

the

Murphy

phenomena
in

al

drowsing

while

to

et

think
this

while
study.

might
drow-

380
in

Findings
history

prior

imagery

(1962)

found

However,

the

method

of

"highly

1961)
was

the

applied
that

the

of

all

et

29).

points

out,
by means

assessed

(1959,

Goldberger

neurotic

under-control
imagery

with

interpreted

(1966)

al

deprivation

oversimplification

fre-

"reflections

as

freedom

emotional
reaction"

reminifindings

personality

phenomena

as

hypnagogic

(1976)

contention

images,

Reviewing
by

argument

phenomena

hypnagogic

justified.

(1964)

Schacter's

nor

deprivation

fantasies,

be

(r=.

and

"adaptive

an

Holt's

neither

sensory

sensory

for

and

of

Foulkes

Further,
to

Holt

flexibility
part

(p=. 05),

questionnaires.

by

were

al

in

hypnagogia.

to

respect

was

correlations

obtained

forming

clusters"

imagery

scale

negative

intellectual

the

scent

MMPI

were

rightly

studies

et

correlations

unreliable"

two

Block's

where

quency
of

in

Freedman

p. 465)

of

depri-

correlations

(1976,

hypnagogic

incidence

sensory

Whereas

insignificant

of

Interestingly,

and

positive

Schacter

history

prior
of

found

as

images

conflicting:

significant

(1972)

Holt

are

in

correlations

hypnagogic

of

vation

to

respect

are

a potpouri

and

dreams,

literature

the

that

refer
is

an

that
daydreams,

of
are

one

to

properly
help

cannot

but

the

phenomenological
richness
of hypnagogia
whose boundaries
within
are encountered
all
of those
phenoin sensory
deprivation.
occur
mena that
Moreover,
a careful
of the conditions
examination
of hypnagogia
reveals
struck

both

that
the

spontaneous
is

state

clearly

1895

in

for

the

of

nature

first

intensified

of

the

following

the

hypnagogic

and

time

to

the

experiences,
both

and

during

the

sleep

noted

by

earlier,

of
a

isolation.

states:

Morgan

initiated

(1896)

similarities
in

of

systematic
of

of
Other

drew

the

mescalin

attention
and

mescalin
to

particular

tendency
onset.

the

properties

Mitchell

and
to

as

hallucinogenic
year

induction

experimental

perceptual

induced

Prentiss

investigation
and

of

drug

Hallucinogenic

as

achieved,

degree

considerable

In

as well

the

former

workers

autonomous
to

since

become

381
1928a, 1942; Rawcliffe
(e. g., Hollingworth
1911; Klver
1952; 1111cKellar and Simpson 1954; Ardis
1956;
and McKellar
1968) have confirmed
Mitchell's
Caldwell
observations
additional

and exposed

(1928a,

Klver
that

he noted

that

variety

usual

saturation
lack

of

tic"

Kldver's

putian"

Images

when

cases

most

image

cular

interesting

A very
what

that

experience,
incompleteness

hidden

of

sense
This

or
in

cold

parts

of

melting

away

contractions

body,

to

yet

the

his

body"

e. g.,

may
subject

the

sounds accompanied
In some cases the

hearing
by the

drug

appears.
the

the
the

and

feeling

take

of
in

place
doubt

p. 95);
of

limbs,

that

rhythmically

may cause

of

so

are

of

hot

or
olfact-

also

distortswelling,

"irregular

the

parts

muscles

are

also

presented

grey circles.
a "marked depression

small

such

signi-

different

synesthesias

seeing

irre-

and

are

body;

whole

apparently

body-schema

and
the

by

and

There

lengthening
of

of

dimensions.

sensations

body).

the

vu-

Presque

cosmic

importance

(e. g.,

of

occurrence

hallucinated,

may

(ib.,

a parti-

accompanied

hallucinations
or

visualize

minute

sometimes

sensation

(polyopsia).

themselves

of

central

"gigan-

latter

the

distorted

a vision,

of

and

although

appear

of

often

micro-

may be

of

called

experience

un-

continuous

solely

is

seq. )

et

result

shortening
or

muscular

reported,

the

haptic

e. g.,

belong

views

kinesthetic

shrinking
the

one

are

various

and

ions,

the

acquiring

Voices

tactile

is,

be

details

ficance.

p. 56

(6)

seen

one

illumination,

(8)

to

related

significance

often

may

levant

ory

as

tries

(1)

(3)

micropsia)

of

observation

(1928a,

Klver

and

multiples

or

brightness,

objects

sometimes

addition,

by

characterized

were

figure,

In

spiral.

autonomy,

a subject

a similar

fretwork,

localization",

(7)

in

and

constants"

cobweb

sourceless

egocentric

objects

(dysmorphopsia)
In

(4)

experiences

of

(d)

intense

of the
size
(macropsia

personal

kind.

(2)

detail,

The

"lilli

or

(b)

are

colour,

exact
of

change.

rapid

lattice,

visions

of

clarity

grating,

vessel,

colours,

"an

of

scopic

alley,

mescalin

large

"form

chessboard-design,

funnel,

tunnel,

identified
(a)

viz.,

honeycomb,

filigree,

(5)

pp. 36-39)

both,

in

occur

(c)

similarities.

of

382
of

the

to

stand

system"

muscular

The

up.

abstract

sory

becomes

subject

details,

to

and

to

the

the

with

unable

organize

and

Although

experience

details

these

identified

subject

disappears.

or
down

narrowed

imaginal

and

think

diminishes
is

the

render

to

ability

material

consciousness

to

as

of

expand

the

and

(ib.,

object

sen-

pp. 104-

105).
hypnagogic

As with

from

progression

1963),

Leuner
to

from

clouds

figures

geometric

and complex
Klver

to

simple

colour

and patterns

by Ardis
was reached
the phenomenological
confirmed
two states
emphasized
earlier
(1969)

Richardson

hypnagogic

of

iencing
this
found

a zero

and

previous

and

Simpson

that

were

experience
(1954)
and

their

of

photic

Smythies

(1972)

Holt

intensity

of

LSD imagery

imagery.

(1960)
drugs

stimulation

the

found
during

McKellar
that

subjects
depri-

sensory

in

facilitation

experienced

RVSs.

Photic,

pulse

Experiments
(Costa

1953;

externally
1959,1964;
lation

current,

and

direct

electrical

of photic
stimulation
Smythies
1960; Freedman

of

with

excitation
of the
temporal
attached
electrodes
Knoll
direct
et al 1962),

the

visual

Penfield

1958;

cortex
Ishibashi
et

Horowitz

1973)

have

ranging

stimulation:

stroboscope
and Marks 1965;
brain
by
means of

1967),

Horowitz

gogia

between

tested,

hypnagogic

hallucinogenic

given

and

vation

between

correlation

The same con(1956) who also

previous
experfacilitate
the experimagery.
Although

should
hallucinogenic
been

of light
faces,

that

imagery

yet

1928a;

similarities
by Klver.

hypothesized

of meaningful
hypothesis
has not

also

and hypnagogic

and McKellar

clusion

here

and sparkles
to landscapes,

scenes.
(1942) concluded
that
mescaline
involved
the same processes.

experiences

ience

(Klver

complex

of

is

there

experiences

from

yielded
flickers

(Penfield
al

1964;

all

the

of

light

(Knoll

and Kugler

stimuelectrical
and Rasmussen 1950;
Horowitz

et

phenomena of
(Knoll
et al

al 1968;
hypna1962)

383
to

more

and

'objective'

meaningful

(Penfield

reminiscences

1958;

1978).

Horowitz

that

rhythmic

for

alpha

the

animals
Penfield

has

observed

a few

in

rhythm

as

1950;

(1960,1962)

stimulation
of

such

Rasmussen

and

Oswald

photic

disappearance

the

phenomena

seconds

EEG of

causes

the

sub-

ject.
(a)

Further,
imagery

of

during

category

as

those

imagery,

and

are

artistic,

1966;

of

1969),

(c)

Goldberger

hypnagogic

external

in

a dark

"induces

stimulation
more

probable

will

prevail"

to

i. e.,

and

of

those

(Mahl

et

and

pulse

which
with

electrical

consciousness

which

modes

1964,

al

to

Richardson

a bed

on

et

rhythmic

under

(d)

primary-process

(Holt

naturally

in

photic

room,

is

related

1965,

lying

quiet

a state

that

of

an

Foulkes

be

to

Marks

of

of

experienced

and

hypnagogic

1961;

history

found

was

same

imagery

Holt

prior

similar

occurs,

the

which

includes

conditions

are

imagery

eyes

closed

(b)

imagery

visual

into

concept

and

imagery

stimulation

current

self
that

(Freedman

the

fall

creative

1969),

amount

a great

freely
experience
by the possession

a syndrome

hypnagogic

stimulation

p. 36;

function-

of

see

makes

also

1978).

Horowitz

imagery:

Eidetic

look

A close
(Galton

1880;

1932;

Jaensch

Morton

1936;

reveals

or

Teasdale
1975;

Luria
striking

(a)

(b)
(c)

imagery

and

imagery

may occur

Sheehan

1968),

Haber

and

clarity

relatively
(d)
in

other

as with

Purdy

1936;

Meenes

Haber

1964,

Doob

of

detail

of

localization

clear
like

1926,1928,1930,

between

externality

memory,
(e)

1934;

the

imagery

eidetic

Klver

similarities

imagery:

shut,

on

1924,1928;

1930;

dimensionality,

literature

the

at

Allport

some

hypnagogic

open

and

1959;

incidence

ing

that

to

photic

it

people

Richardson

occurring
the

stimulation

characterized

relate

Goldberger

and
al

to

experience

photic

sensitive

found

that

subjects

threewith
from

distinction
hypnagogic

kind

eyes
after-

eidetic

(Purdy
modalities
hypnagogic
there
imagery
sense

1965)
and

eidetic
and

and

1936,
are

384
"strength"

"degrees"

of

they
ally
percept-like

may both subserve


an earlier,
form of cognizing
(e. g.,

1964,1965;
But

Siipola
there

are

(b)

scanned,

Doob

1965),

(c)

tions,

(d)

their

(e)

often

greater
is

this

although

A number
1883;

1924,
of

F. W. H.
1925;

Leaning
1948;

drawn

have

1903;

"cerebral

1954;

McKellar
to

is

p. 298)

one

a background
the

from

it

guish

this
latter

(Richardson

effort

to

grounds

that

intense

stimulation,

tend

to

are

be seen with

(a)

has

object

day,

and

shut

chapter

(1969)

have

former

images

occur

on

long

the

retina,

in

very

in

an

the

after
in

or

stimul-

retinal
the

its

that

grounds

and

argued

distin-

to

attempt

4).

of

category

intense

an

against

(see

the

the

located

eyes

(1925,

Leaning

the

eidetic

images

1962)

"persev-

some

an

and

from

(b)

to

in

on

Vihvelin

hypnagogic

images",

Richardson

pp. 21-23),

recurrent

1933;

sensations",
images",
"delayed

onset

in

Ward

1921;

spontaneously

imagery

it

Warren

Oswald

or

sleep

"prolonged

distinguish

alter-

1848;

common

scene,

writer

1969,

plausible

Leroy

memory

phenomenon

hypnagogic

ation"

(c)

and

requires

production

1929;

place

(1954)

the

after-images,

1916;

during

at

them,

Mller

according

takes

of

placing

of

darkness"

Hanawalt

Both
for

of

1813;

attention

reproduction

absolute

and

"recurrent

"some

which

perceptions,

over

normal

"recurrent

concentrated

engaged

exerted

percep-

1930).

phenomenon,

in

be

1960,

original

apparently

"visions
This

the

eidetic

former

definite

1957,1979b;

the

after-images",

erations".

on

Downey

variously

after-sensations",

from

Titchener

and

called

(Luria

(Ferriar

attention

phenomenon

longer

Gengerilli

Goodman

Hanawalt

much

to

writers

Myers

the

can

restricted

(Allport

ations

latter,

result

control

between

the

depends

size

function-

easier,
concrete,
Luria
1975; Doob

differences

unlike
always

(f)

1965).

striking
persist

they

imagery,

eidetic

and Hayden

are also
images:

and hypnagogic
(a)

in

and

dim

light.
The first
dence

which

after

a short

in

both

arguments
shows that

recurrent

attentive

glance

by evicases is countered
images may emerge only
1948, p. 368).
(e. g. Vihvelin

385
The
is

only

"an

being

the

other

for

a more

Hanawalt

types:

(1933)
visions

background

to

made

a succeeding

eidetic

light

formation

the

on

hypnagogic

(1962,

drawn

be

(a)

may

Meenes

eidetic
the

with
(b)

and

"idealized"

with

throw

some

perseverative

that

suggests

need

place

the

subject

the

unlike

may be

for

the

in

in

no

distinction

sharp

eidetic,

and

sensory

(1955),

Tyler

deprived
catnaps
"falling

of

eyes

fall

authors
dreams,
"have

in

stay

have

(1949),

state

even

(Bliss
group
and

common

and
and

together
sleep
the

out

of

Clark
"the

sleep

slightly

inattention

or

1962,

p. 103).

visions
on
of

semi

of
the

take

aware

of

"the
with

consciousness

deprivation"
elements

(1962),
(1962),

Clark

standing,
sometimes
not being
(Oswald
1962)
having
and often
in

(1967),

Clark

and
and

of

among

Kleitman

Bliss

lapses

by,

noted

(1883),

that

observed

not

Hypnagogic

been

Bliss

in

awake

intermediate

(1959),

into

floating

open"

to

effort

Galton

al

have

while

asleep"

sensation

et

(1962)

even

the

deprivation

Bjerner

persons

a condition

hypnagogia.

(1859),

Bliss

Oswald

as

a vacillating

sleep

(1962).

Oswald

considered

occurring

de Boismont

others,

and

sleep

naturally

experiences

they

which

projected,

hypnagogic,

deprivation

which

states,

by

On

imagery.

Sleep

latter

two

deprivation:

Sleep

their

p. 96)

between

deprivation

and

the

into

out

respectively,
the

to

(p. 174).

a whole

were

of

open

image

carried
(1965)
in

into

vision

chapter

vision.

Oswald
can

they

argument

those

combine

which

onto

(see

Interestingly,

Hayden

and

perseveration,

visualizations"

like

studies

Stiipola

were

and

"idealized"

are

reproduction"

leaving
the
paper
breaking
up the eidetic
images

third

and

hypnagogic

of

his

hand,

and

images

argumentation).

recurrent
other

kind

one

the

and

Richardson's

recurrent

absolute

detailed

closes
"of

possibility

to

only

refers

unsupported,

Further,

that

argument

images

likewise

true.

partially

Hanawalt's

the

is

argument

second

The
hypnagogic
grounds

somnolence

that
and

386
altered
electroencephalographic
The motor behaviour
of
(Tyler

erratic
their

1955),

speech,

topics

for

uires

effort

(1962,

apparent
or

p. 185)

deprived

during

alterations,

time

1960),

(Bliss

(Tyler

1955;

ditions

of

p. 186)
friend"

ECoohch".
had

to

unusual
forward

Bliss

of

comment

et

statement"

"Owes

the
his

EEG
girlforward

"Leant

letters.

unmarried

(1959)

con-

(1962,

about

the

al

in

kissed

writing

room

hallu-

Oswald's

thoughts

upon

the

auditory

and

by

from

phenomena

One of

a "profound

irrelevant

in

not

a kiss

plant

1960),

al

standing

experience

A subject
written

Dream

that

reported

whose

ending

was

$8.00".

scintillations:

Various
1966;

Adams,

observed

llations"
succession
difficult

what

described

and

have

images

of

remember"

experiences
them

1949;

Rutkin

come

"flickering

or

to
these

(e. g. Forbes

workers

Horowitz,

have

that

his

recorded

et

women

deprivation.

sleep

downwards

the

are

Morris

rising

and

Banks

1959;

smoke

1959),

subjects
who had bent
having
"dream-like
while

paper

he

1955)

al

weight

and

seeing

West

and

and

(Cappon
et

sleep-

sheer

(Morris

as

1959),

al

Brauchi

(Tyler

cinations

such

of

Body-schema

hallucinations

et

behaviour

(Bliss

req-

Oswald

drunkenness:

of

micropsia

tactile

floor

the

and

and

that

1960).

distortion

space

hallucinations

visual

that

slur
change

task

al

the

of

and

jargon,

any

et

drowsiness".
and

macropsia

al

"much

that

ramble

avoid

is

subjects

use

(Morris

resembles

incompetence

et

repeat,

reason,

notes

and

mumble

attention

persons

1960),

they

mispronounce,

no

(p. 105).

activity"
sleep deprived

to

1967;
be

images",
which

may

last

is,

upon

up

to

"a

Horowitz
1978)

"dream

called

1978,

1965;

Horowitz

that

intrude

(Horowitz

Saul

scinti-

rapid
and

awareness
p. 16).

half

an

Saul
hour,

thus:

One feels
he has just
had a dream which
as though
he is trying
hard
to recall.
to
He keeps
trying
it,
but while
thus
recall
that
in vain,
striving
he is trying
to recall
which
seems to change.
Then the realization
dawns that
to
this
effort
the dream is itself
grasp
part
of a dream state,

are

noted
and

387
dream,
a dream state
which goes on like
a real
but while
shiftingly
and distractingly,
one is
fully
awake and in full
command of his behaviour
and feelings
so that no one else could
observe
it is a
or suspect
anything
unusual
unless
distraction.
slight
(Saul
Dream
but

scintillations

in

the

absence

types

of

dream,

onset

of

sleep

he pointed
examples"
visual

of

he

recall

or

mostly

fragments

of

Forbes

feeling,

at
first

and

they

kept

on

coming

that

feeling"

his

deciding

what

names

and

words

"I

experdid

time
dream
in

figures

a rapid-fire

during

the

time

memory

was

confused:

day

it

were

On one

unfamiliar.

recent

events.

no

the

of

of

recounts,

but

striking

contents

actual

like

in

looked

The

the

day",

the
were

were

dreamy

familiar

viously

in

(p. 160).

three

"at

occurring

dozing

bits

and

He noted

difficulty

had

that

They

(p. 160).

"strange

this

were

dreamy

dozing

ordinary

exertion

between

scintillations'

occurrences,

doze...

physical

a distinction

was

type

dreams

a strange

after

transient

latter

these

sequence"

which

"'dream

that

forgotten

actually

of

experiences

Throughout
ienced

drawn

during

or

the

of

long

or

having
one

out

appear

p. 286)

drowsiness.

of

(1949)

Forbes

these

often

1965,

was,

he

and

had

pre-

impossible

either

he

occasion

to

reported:

About 12: 30, when dream flashes


were about maximum,
long letter
I dictated
a fairly
to a friend.
At
4 p. m., reading
over before
I noted that
signing,
much of it seemed strange
The
and unfamiliar.
letter
said what I wanted to say, but I didn't
recall
using
some of its
I was surpriphrases.
sed at reading
what I had dictated.
(Forbes
The phenomenological
llations
and hypnagogic
as Forbes points
of the latter.

over,
ples"
cing

of

the

"flickering
take

images"

place

event
a minor

could

when
be

variant

the

no stressing.
former
are "striking

the
out,
(1966)
Horowitz

on

the

person
temporal

grounds
is

not

change
lobe

that
asleep
in

scintiMoreexam-

the replasuggested
that
of
with

scintillations"

a transient
of

p. 161)
between dream

similarities
imagery
need

"dream

term

1949,

these
and

experiences
"because

consciousness

epilepsy

or

the
due

to

388

the

of

falls

however,

ges",

1978,

(Horowitz

migraine"

is

the

ima-

mental

state
in

change
by

conveyed

accurately

more

"flickering

term

"transient

a dreamy

which

sciousness",

The

conveying

of

short

viz.,

subject,

p. 17).

con-

the

older

term.

In
to

this

of

it

states,

ral

autohypnotic

7.

In

and

dependent

on relative

arity
ting

affects.

orbed

the

experience
of

expectancy

Further,

they

time

appears

ories)

as

be

in

and

or

regul-

the

subject

from

distracby
to

regression
the

abspreto

tendency
dissolution

oneself,

(including

everything

immediacy

the

both

are

characterized

of

with

endowed

and

they

him

by

part

i. e.,

barriers,
to

both

typified

environment

time

and

induce

LEB

processes

is,

and monotony

are

chapter

psychophysical

freeing

attention,

in

rel-

a natu-

hypnagogia

That

that

stimuli

secure

ideational

logical

their

immobilization

fascinated

and

in

aspects.

is

noted

that

both

other

In

hypnagogia

out

fur-

and

phenomena.

already

pointed

was

intensity

and

relaxation

-a

hypnagogia

of

experiences,

that

point

experiential

low

and

seen

was

each

induction

of

it

it

resemble

relationship

hypnagogic

of

state

particular

hypnosis

the

processes

hypnosis

to

TWO:

PART

examined

my analysis

expanded

ating

part

a number

ther

OF

CONCLUSIONS

AND

SUMMARY

memthe

of

present.
In

hypnagogia

relating

that

the

former

contains

from

the

latter

both

iential
a variety

types

ject

may retain

ness

of

did

'awake'
dreams

that

them

take

not

experiences

types

of

activities

dream
of

fact

are

are

not

hypnagogic

inferences

general,

and

hypnagogic

may

be

structures,

that

and

further

con-

statethat

experiences

hypna-

that

suggested

and

correlated
thus

aware-

the

against

about

sub-

and/or

environment

experiences

encompass

inter-dormitum

the

argues

exper-

to

appears

was

particular,

subcortical

his

their

and

as

that

a dream

mere
It

in
in

of

in

place.

gogic

physiology

as well

the

found

was

indistinguishable

hypnagogia

awareness

being

about

ments

their

dream

of

Further,

experiences.

tention

in

it

dreams

sleep

experiences

Moreover,

aspects.
of

to

being

other
with
in

the

389

ssive'

to

respect

hypnagogia,
same

it

to

was,

leading

to

thought

and

the

linked

the

that

argued

also

gogia

and

state

of

that

the

satori

or

Some psi

in

hypnagogia

to

lead

in

psi

states,

analytic

and

to

mentioned
from

uishable
and/or

the

Hypnagogic
the

bances

features
such

as

thinking,

thoughts

spoken

the

in

that

direct

result

and
the

take

further

of

the

tend

encountered
non-

examination

of
the

that

disting-

only

set

beliefs

of

place.
to

contain

of
in

dis-

ideas,

conceptualization,
body

delusions,
it
facilitates

most

distur-

schizophrenic

association

LEB which

they

typically

found

phenomena,

were

states

are

hallucinations,
These

be

shows

subject's

they

was

of

is

processes

over-inclusiveness

alterations.

clair-

to

mentation

a close

characterize

aloud,

into

i. e.,

parameters

which

loosening

psi

hypnagogia,

by

mentation

sociated

schema

states

setting

hypna-

to

was found

nature,

Indeed,

hypnagogia

It

ecsomatosis
and some
to be closely
related
induction
and their

the

psychological

psi

of

some

telepathy,

while
in

of

regressive.
and

feeling

out

viz.,

activities

that

the

lead

to
breaks

psychophysical
hypnagogia

Furthermore,
like

states,

enlightenment.

hypnagogic

sleep.

physiological
above

be

to

seen

clearly

both

immediacy.

tends

psychometry,
also been found

psi

percep-

'chemically'

temporal

of

and processes,

to

conducive

(non-

describe

to

sometimes

mystical

Further,

phenomenology.

attention

of

being

of

inability

sense

their

psycho-

receptive

sensations,

feeling

latter

states

range,

characterize

meditation

clairaudience,
have
trance

voyance,
forms of

to

the

the

experiences,

hypometabolic

organization

the

world,

relaxation,

Non-analytic

unusual

of

realness,

with

highly

abandonment,

found

was

presence

intense

was

theta

'regressive-primitive'

as were

of

ego

the

and

the

share
viz.,

and

absorption-fascination.

cortical),

these

EEG to

of

meditation

induction,

of

'regre-

the

these

that

predominance

lowering
withdrawal,

tion

found

again,
factors

logical

between

relationship

parasympathetic

processes,

to

the

psychophysical

shift

of

dreams

of

nature
In

for
and data arguing
and dreamy states.

theories

with

agreement

is

argued,
the

are

390
breakdown
normal,

waking

ground

and

neologisms,

of

with

Hypnagogia

was

and

imagery

concepts

from

combined,

or

or

funny

other

of

concepts

found

figureemer-

often

remarks

results
the

and

basis

the

on

like

modes

level

and

Moreover,

since

mentation

are

facilitates

a sense
is

clearly

understanding

of

in
of

LEB

which

reality

and

connected,

however,

can

character

an

un-

be made
hypnagogia.

of

further

characterized
tolerance

of

thinking
in

by

on

loosening

encountered

itself.

effected

sensitivity,

creative

creative

FsOR are

are

openness,

latter

the

creation

by

which,

creativity

both

of

mentation

preconscious

self-acceptance,

ambiguity,

the

of

this

of

of

be

creati-

characterized

unrelated
Much

subjects'

act
is

act

to

conducive

part
the

apparently
fused.

be

to

accompanied

- nonrational
through
the

of

of

Schizophrenics,

essential

earlier
is

conscious
hypnagogia
Both

lysis

poetic

creative

to

emerging

their

FsOR which

containing

the

regression

by

of

similarities.

an

often

Specifically,

conscious,

the

simultaneous

a number

also

constituting

and

the

in

individuals,
and absent-minded
appear to
to an internal,
imaginal
FOR.
primarily

responding

process

a loss

to

allows

each

tenuous

of apparently
hypnagogists

vity,

and

punning,

identification

leads

This

state.

crossing

operating

mechanism

relationships

gence
in

filter

the

of

ego

and

hypnagogia,

of

strictness.

schizophrenic

the

present

ana-

dynamics

reveals

common

both

schizophrenia

and

and

creativity.
In

epilepsy,

the

occurrence

hypnagogic

orientation,
deja
in

those

Further,

are

present

reduction

conducted
in

the

naturally

and relative
hallucinogenic-drug

loss

and

disturbances,
are

also

isolation

conditions

found

experivery

similar

hypnagogia,

occurring

induced

of

gustatory

thought

invariance

are

aurae",

phenomena

under

many

which

olfactory,

perceptual

to

conducive

identity,

personal

Hypnagogic
or

be

during

experiences,

deprivation

which

of

hypnagogia

"intellectual

as

auditory,

phenomena.

sensory

i. e.,

loss

quasi-perceptual
vu

ments
to

visual,

to

attacks

known

phenomena,

found

was

epileptic

e. g.,

between

relationship

former

of

present,

other

the

the

and

also

to

regards

of
states

stimulation.
are

populated

391
with

quasi-perceptual

features

which

are

hypnagogia

conditions

involve

current,
In

also

the

is

experiences

and

striking

begin

In

theta

in

rhythms
have

dominance

in

the

weakest

were

clearly

two

important

function

produced,
of hypnagogia

function

of

of

constitute,
The

paper.

has

gogia,
because
sider
not
Three
the

the

the
an

which
state.

study
now

of

almost

study

of

deals

the

preboth

two,

the

states

internal

an

FOR,
least

major
i. e.,

phenomenon
the

This

will

with

the

brain

reason

for

this

of

nature
be

aims
the

LEB,
of

is

that

and

the

studies

this

of

hypna-

of

almost,
I

which

con-

hypnagogia,
in

undertaken

mechanisms

and

nature

nature
say

pro-

nature

These

completed.

of

the

on

processes.

the

of

the

of

the

and

states

study

former,

been

'dreaminess',

of

these

and

the

spheres.

of

light

the

in

at
contains
hypnagogia
comprises

shed

the

to

regards

striking

primacy

which

one

to

shift

observation

will

the

phenomenology

In

a degree

by

aspect

offered.
The

and

course,

important
been

yet

above

indistinguishable

a parasympathetic

one,

mechanisms

hypnagogia,
strong

cognitive-affective

and

ob-

states,

of

latter,

were

This

are

above

are

noted.

implications:

psychophysical

to

cases,

present.

as

general

contain

their

the

to

withdrawal,

psychological

cesses

of

or

in

similarities
the

considered

the

some

both

EEG and

and

-hypnagogic

two

of

into,

especially

the

quasi-perceptual
Even

the

of

a measure

Indeed,

respect

been

phenomenology,

all

lead

with,

Sleep

paper

possess

experiences

physiology.

the

First,

hypnagogia.

exter-

imagery.

of

part

made.

detail,

of

three-dimensionality.

hypnagogic

experiences

and

clarity

are

this

hypnagogic

similarities

scintillations

and

from

strong

dream

processes,

of,

phenomena.

occurrence

of

pulse

and

the

be

features

as

both

experiments

states

displays

in

that

Photic,

to

can
they

likely

stimulation
l-ike

and

encountered

conducive

concluding

is,

those

processes.

such

servations
that

than

more

and

examples

In

is

imagery

localization

deprivation

to

same

imagery

phenomena

similar

hypnagogic

eidetic

of

cognitive

electrical

yielded

hypnagogic

nality

it

direct

addition,

with

very

indeed,

and

have

and

and

has

Part

function

LEB partakes

of

392
both

the

of
both

it

nature

constitutes

(hypnagogia

is

basis

the
ysis

should,
the

of

above

The

course,

states

second

discussions

and

among

Part

Two

the

various

other

hand,

individuals

have

been

epileptics

categorized

as

factors

freedom",
been

induced

have

and

mysticism

most

been

interrelationships

their

share

or

process,

us

back

nature

to
and

mental

the

of

all

in

nature

namely,
the

function
life.

to

Since

been

have

been

fits.

and

"emotional

individuals,

have

to

the

emergence

deprivation

psi,
last
these

strongly

related

strengthen

the

function

hypnagogia

underpins

have

others

and

Hallucinogenic-drug

these

significance

schizo-

creative

epileptic

sensory

related

and

of

moods

susceptible

another.

severally,

are,

processes

one

phenomena

of

creative

schizophrenia:
to

related

the

onset

For

processes.

whereas

experiments.

states

and

flexibility"

phenomena

stimulation

photic

been

the

of

subjects

function

out

some well-known

"intellectual

hallucinatory

of

of

in

anal-

possible

Meditative

to

characteristic

found

and

at

of the
interrelationships

the

schizophrenic.

of

study

rising

states
may display
all

conducive

lies

and

the

on

concerns

On the

The

Its

observation

phrenia.

be

presence)

processes.

epilepsy

to

its

light

instance,

found

is,

that

phenomenology

role.

shed

general

in

existing

by

evolutionary

of

its

of

charcterized

hypnagogia,

of

an aspect

its

of

function

and

of

of

creativity,
four

have

states

and

to

hypnagogia,

view

that

one

central

conclusion
-a
hypnagogia
as
some

very

also

they
state
takes

that
a state

important

whose

aspects

PART

BRAIN

MECHANISMS

THREE

AND FUNCTION

OF HYPNAGOGIA

INTRODUCTION:

In

the

hypnagogia

of

structures

as

this

with

data

tionary

lating

it

will

of

hypnagogic

constituting

the

and

readiness
be

not

gogia

than

the

totally,

and

of

dreams

and

the

correlating

Thus,

the

be

taken

is

only

'regressive
human

for

adults

The

rationality.
of

mentation

of

becoming

by

means

and

dream

is

endows
an

of

activities

here,

that

the

mind

is

that

hypnagogia

it

with

the

one

that

additional
a really

by

so-called
employed

mode

those
can

used

at

aimed

ride

both

by

modes

significance
"special

into
wakefulness
may be carried
be brought
into
wakefulness.

-394-

not
is

suggests

than

fact

state,

a further

practised

other

with

consciousness)

that

also

a living,

purposes

integrative

which

indicates

a biased
but

thinking,

mentation'

has

further

'regression'

term

the

experiences

with

which

sleeping

concomitants

(and,

co-extensive

and

state.

it

speak,

cortex,

rational

cortical,
by

the

to

hypna-

that

consciousness

structures

implication:
so

indicate

hypnagogic

of

experiences

experiencing

dreaming

waking

subcortical

being

as

full

the

the

merely

of

harmful

the

i. e.,

it

waking

of

some

mind,

below

'centred'
not

without

of
activities
most important
of

both

of

roles

that

to

evidence

its

to

and

dreamlike

modes

relinquishing

necessarily

'seat'

i. e.,

is

being

however,
This,
cycle.
hypnagogia
is merely

that

older

of

hypnagogia

and

corre-

activities

Oneirosis,

24 hour

to

There

fulfill

sleep

dreams

implying

as

a regression

without

to

claims

the

wakefulness

of

the

the

to

and

sleep

have

to

taken

cognizing.

and

these

arguments,

both

'regressive',

constitutes

the

hypnagogia.

of

with

exemplification

necessarily

can

these

points

throughout

periodically
should

from
experiences

older

evolutionally

and

subcortical

substantiate

transpire

structures

subcortical

and

and

scheme.

As

need

states

to

correlates

nature

then,
the
and,
arguments
examine
in a wider,
role
and its
evolu-

and

hypnagogia

of

other

reference

first,

shall,

specific

to

brain

the

the

examining

relationship

being
I

in

parts,

occasional

made

part

function

its

and

processes,
In

two

preceding

state"
dreams

CHAPTER '15

CEREBRAL CORRELATES OF HYPNAGOGIC VISIONS

Neurobiologic

influences
(1883,

Galton
visual

imaginal

easily

conceivable

change,

that

of

his

discussing

very

some

a really

slight

morbid

"it

that

suggested

limited

own

is

most

physiological

character,

would

enhance

vividness".

Indeed,
ance

lifting

of

another

he

occasion,

have

after

place"

(p. 206;

(1948)

"synesthetic

instigated

by
for

subjects,

each
see

also

forearem

part

image;

the

of

the

corresponds
Archer
p. 372).
he

ulation

believes
and

right
to

the

(1935)
were

elaborated

me to

time

are

of
-

forearm

shape
describes
clearly
by

Vihvelin's

the

of

Connection:

the

in

the

imagination.

to

vision"

the

(ib.,

experiences
by

For

sensory
example:

dream-scenery
To-night
I caught
in the act
of
from the spots
that
evolving
and patterns
one
the closed
always
seems to see under
eyelids.
in my deck-chair
I was lying
dinner....
after

-395-

of

fore-

observer's

hypnagogic
instigated

the

congestion

corresponds
of

seen

his

hypnagogic

outlines

which

be

to

following

position

its

takes

One of

the

swal-

am supposed

thought

conditions.

appears
and hand,

p. 102).

too,

to

am about

one

1962,

reports

swallow

which

another

Oswald

characteristic

arm

which

swallow

On

a rhinolaringitis

bottle

a water

physiological

naked

have

Each

visions",

experience:
that

appear-

help.

someone's

forces

which

of

example,
"An image

right

"I

Sol:

a picture

swallow;

with

reports:

irritation

Fever.

steadily.
I

the

relating

phenomena to physiological
for
"somatic
phenomena",

high

a table

a painful

low

(1965)

reports

how physiological
show clearly
might
conditions
for the appearance
stimuli
of a hypnagogic
On one occasion,
in the state
of hypnagogia,
while
takes
a deep breath
and has the hypnagogic

vision.
Silberer

with

are several
of hypnagogic

Silberer's

provide

vision

there

increase

or

sources.
instance,

to

p. 115),
experiences,

short

their

instigations:

or

stim-

396
Perhaps
the eyelid
patterns
were particularly
because
that
vivid
I was facing
of the fact
towards
band of brilliant
a broad
moonlight
I was perfectly
fully
on the sea.
awake,
conscious
of my personality
and my surroundings;
but I gradually
became aware
that
I
seemed to be contemplating
an Eastern
scene an army of men in turbans
the
moving
against
light
It was vague - no indiof a dim sky.
figure
vidual
or detail
stood
out distinctly
-

yet it
beauty,

was quite
or so I

and had even a certain


That it was built
up

pictorial,
thought.

out of the eyelid


I am quite
patterns,
sure.
The moment I became
fully
conscious
of it
as
it
back into
an illusion
the shifting
passed
before
shimmer,
that
so to speak,
the
wavers
closed
eyes.

(Archer
further,

He,

describes

that

city"
the

sun

his

closed

more

took

ductive

and

1921;

Dallenbach

his

1933;

stimulus,

every

cerebro-nervous
in

generated
arily

by

eously
that

the

organism

action

of

too,

that

images

In
in

sleeping

organism.

of

thus

fact,

leaves
the

all

afterwards

on

in

this

have

the

sense-organs"

are

mistaken

Aristotle

for

in

revive

tempor-

or

spontanout

points
to

relation

p. 461b)
in

[some
true

the

motions

obscure

basis

their

nervous

a trace

(1931,

Aristotle

basis

"every

She

causes".

Warren

1957)

their

consciousness,

unknown

dreams

in
persisting
'perseveration'?
] which

movements

idea,

may

remarked

dreaming.

nocturnal

and

impulsion

Aristotle,

argued

or

system,
the

under

sensation

(e. g.,

McKellar

that

argued

repro-

1916;

as they seem to have


(sensory)
stimuli.
p. 233)

the

all

Titchener

1954;

upon

"became

he

as

phenomena

Hanawalt

with

straight

Also,

1924;

(1897,

the

dozing

window

p. 42).

a "sunlit

of

lay

disappeared

Slight

be included
here
might
in intense
physiological
De Manaceine

he

as

hypnagogic

1924;

Leroy

vision

bedroom

vision
(ib.,
awake"

perseverative

1925;

morning

The

eyes.

completely

Leaning

one

through

pouring

pp. 40-41)

hypnopompic

the

place

1935,

by

"the
form
the

continues:

That
is true,
i. e.,
what we here urge
there
that
are such presentative
in the
movements
sensory
organs,
himself,
he
any one may convince
if
to and tries
to remember
attends
the affections
we experience
into
when sinking
slumber
or when

of

397
being
in the
He will
awakened.
sometimes,
the images
moment of awakening,
surprise
which
themselves
to him in sleep,
present
and find
lurking
that
but movements
they
in
are really
the organs
of sense.
(Aristotle
is

Aristotle

thus
(a)

experiences
dreams,

turnal
being

the

pompic)
ject

appropriate
of

Cane

(1889)

ditions

such

more

of

and
(c)

and

that

various

hyperaesthesia

or

of

numerous

as
(hypno-

consequents
as

affording

a subfor

the

formation.

argued

set

noc-

(b)

conditions

psychophysical

dream

as

nerves,

cause

dreams,

with

movements",

(hypnagogic)

nocturnal

observation

instigator

a common

"presentative

viz.,

precedents

of

the

having

as

p. 462a)

hypnagogic/hypnopompic

to

pointing

1931,

nerves,

con-

dysaesthesia

of

branches

might

experiences

and

or

subjective

neurobiologic

or

one

be

the

hallucin-

ations:
in the optic
these
nerve
cause
photopsia
conditions
flaries,
or flashes
of light,
sparks,
and stars.
buzzing,
In the auditory
nerve
we have humming,
singing,
ringing
of bells,
violent
explosions,
In the oland even words
or conversations.
factory
nerve
and nerves
of taste
we have odours
Many of these...
are
and flavours.
phenomena
the hyperaesthetic
up the
simply
nerves
picking
physiological
sights,
sounds,
and sensations.

(Cane
During

sleep

and

"intelligism

is

further

Cane

reactions

involved,

physiological
to

believe

body

that

there

(mainly

itself"

acid),

and

the

aspect

of

On a rather
phenomena
constitute
anism"
ical

part

energy

and
of

Baker
that

this
and

produced

to

refer
relaxed

1980).

They

becomes

released

is

as

brain's
are

to

the

within

account

call

and
for

hypnagogic

"thought-forms

a form
"a

of

which
mech-

excretory

from

reason

states.

yogis

them

good

currents

electrical

Indian

note,

the

light

dreamy

from

and

we have

light

their

test
chemical

facts,

by

dreams

occult

vrittis

(D. M.

that

the

analogy,

actual

produced

phosphoric
visual

is

"from

biological

pathological

to

means

that

the

continues,

full

argues
from

and

its

of

p. 1331)

he

states,

adjacent
deprived

nature".

1889,

psychophys-

fatigued

body

398
that
(1976,
the

p. 131)

awareness

calves
begin

don

Juan

and

memories

thighs,

and

in

back

and

moment

death...

of

in

stored

shoulders

expand
and disintegrate".
(1883,
Galton
p. 122) hypothesised
presentation

of

tracks

certain

sensitiveness
cess

being

while

the

from

and

others,

very

stages

individualism

to

our

neck,

factor
for
causative
(see McKellar
1979b).
is

relevant
(1969b)

Deikman
in

meditation.

perceptions

during

study

in

which

initiation

the

mention

in

connection

the

to

a shift
an

infer

personality

split

advanced

results

of

subjects'

he

experiment,

pro-

organism

the

his

under

consciousness

a hypothesis
with

Referring

a mental

might

of

here

to

in

the

one

of

the

and

suggesting

dividualism
from

action
in

unfelt",

condition

over-sensitiveness

stages

vividly

are

suggestion

the

brain

of

certain

represented
other

It

domains

"a

that

in

lies

visions

or

of

interesting

by

the

Castaneda's

perceptions

and

our

"at

that

says

lines,

similar

to

the
of

Along

rapidly".

relaxes

reported

says:

the actual
as anyone
as far
can tell,
substance
is the electrochemical
of the perception
actithat
vity
constitutes
perception
and thinking...
back
If
awareness
were turned
upon itself,
as
for
translation
(the
postulated
sensory
perception
of psychic
action
repression,
- conflict,
the relatively
attentiveness,
and so forth
- via
unstructured
sensations
of light,
colour,
movement,
force,
sound,
this
smell,
or taste),
electroitself
be experienced
activity
chemical
might
the outer
as a truth
about
than
world,
rather
the inner
one.

(Deikman
Similarly,
be

one

psychic

through

actions
the

colour,

shapes

in

the

pondents
to

into

of

sensorial

sound,
subject's

etc.,
highly
(1925a,

Leaning's

suggested

that

argue

structured

utilization

light,

One of

could

that

visual

1969b,

that

p. 39)
images

hypnagogic

might

pseudo-sensations
such

elements
emerge

suggestible
p. 152)

into

recognizable
mind.

hypnagogist

hypnagogic

as

images

corresare

due

some disturbance
of the optic
pointed
nerve,
another
indigestion
their
as having
much to do with
appearance.
The latter's
is exactly
the same as that
remark
made by

to

399
(1973)

Herodotus
is,

This

in
very

also,

findings
eases:
the

figure

the

hallucination

was

sitting

"All

relevant

on mental
"Usually

that

sensations

activity,

do not

which

conditions,

to

come

That

barrier

life

and

in

the

that

the

of

from

-.

In

with

surface...

Reason

patient
p. 354).

visceral
under

broken

normal

displaced...

is

between

sets

has

viscera...

the

(ib.,

room"

consciousness

see

cases

when

associated

mind

to

other

in

normal

dis-

sleep

evening

lighted

are

exist

the

which

the

(1901)

Head's

visceral

up

bed..

a dimly

in

to

accompany

his

appeared

dreams.

nocturnal

related

wakes

beside

quietly

those

that

patient

face

some

when

changes

the

or

to

respect

conscious
(ib.,

down"

p. 401).
(1897,

De Manaceine
ted

"to

that

blood

of

amount

some

p. 122),

too,

absence

of

p. 286)

of

pompic
p. 197)

pointed

tion

the

of

tion",
and

to

"for

noted,

tonus

in

the

walls

sequent

inertness"

Sigwald

1941

as

on

joy

or

when
anger

tion

of

ideas

not

have

this

ideas
were

and
effect.

of

"The

system,

and

p. 215
in

out

to

see

that

emotions

of

emotions
The

of

to

anaemia"
hypno-

the

(ib.,
the

on

be

different

anomof

a want
their

con-

Lhermitte
In

subjects

hypno-

the

from

woke
type

exciting
whereas

and

experiments
in

subjects

a depressive

condi-

half-awakening

also

an

condi-

of

and

them

explanation

con-

doubtless

especially

on

"a

is

it

important

most

noted

suggested

and

state

hypnagogia).

carried

or

(1897,

consciousness"

blood-vessels,

the

"the

the

to

brain

this

of

the

Ellis

viewing

state

to

that

suggestibility

development

de Manaceine

state,

that

found

vagotony
she

and

we have

(ib.,

suggestibility

enfeebled

(1897),

the

of

"an

sugges-

(1883,

due

blood.

irregular

of

system.

vascular

state

and

is

with
is

a dependence

the

this

supplied

a "weakened

of

pompic

dreams"

De Manaceine

alies

on

during

a condition

suggestibility

of

proposed

feebleness

vascular

she

sleep,

consciousness"

as

state

to

of

p. 285).

(ib.,

Galton

hypnagogia

with

correlated

due

is

phenomenon
brain".

that

mental

hand,

other

the

reference

sense
imperfectly

state

dition

to

common

argued

impaired

flowing

the

on

this

extent,

with

being

brain

p. 243),

the

suggesdid

character
offered

is

such

that

400
emotions
such as anger and joy
by a flow of blood
towards
the
increase

this

hypnopompic
In

1903,

from

related

to

Van

inner

experiences
dioxide

in

breathing.
to

healthful

the

presence

way

the

blood

sleep,

involving

and

his

due

to

increase

sleep

and

other

up of
down

slowing
"The

on
to

natural
importance

the

state

a technique

the

of

Swedenborg's

from

onset

causally

congestion.

building

writing

suf-

are

hypnagogic
the

of

subjects

that

attention

offers

strength

blood

cerebral

resulting

a normal

the

phenomena

of

draws

1848,1878,

to

suggests

the

wakefulness.

on

respect

(1962)

Kelly

sleep"

to

requisite
tion

partly

of

Maury

and

was

C. P.

e. g.,

hypnagogic

pp. 19-20)
intensification

terminates
to

in

hyperaemia

accompanied
p. 200) and

subject
mainly

(1975,

Dusen
and

carbon

latter

brain

the

former

that

chorea,
brain

induction

to

workers,

the

and

always
brain"
(lb.,

the

the

argued,

fering

of

other

data

personal

flow

bringing

state

contrast,

Guyon

of

blood

of

"are

as

for

a pre-

its

blood's'carbon

induc-

dioxide

breathing.

through

shallow

Retinal

arguments:

1879;

(Gruithuisen
1812; Purkinje:
writers
1933, p. 74; Mller
1826; Maury 1848,1878;
Ladd 1892; Binet
1894; de Manaceine
1897;

Ellis

Hicks

1924;

1935;

Numerous
Leroy

McKellar

and

hypnagogic
rises

out

Simpson

the

in

bodies,

electric

the

list

of

by

formed
blood

the

spectra

in

pressure
from

arising

through

Levatin

1962;

Horowitz

1978).

was

convinced

that

that
it
Of

eye.
pheno1897,

general
by

retina

pressure

p. 300)

entoptic

corpuscles

pulse,

the

de Manaceine

the

on

is,

of

hallucinations

1911;

argued

that

chemistry

blood

(1892,

and

origin,

increased

and

Archer

data

and
(cited

entoptical

phenomena,

Ladd

is

visual

of

in

entoptic

shadows

1927;

presented

Hyslop

to

the

capillaries,

is

by

movements

as

1954)

respect

regard

includes:

which

Griffiths

physiology

this

compounded

p. 238)

White

of
in

mena

1921;

imagery

interest

such

Warren

by
cited
Radestock

in

the

and

opaque
retinal

phosphenes,
internal
retina
there

causes
(see

was

also

no

401
known

shape

him by perception
earth
or above the

to

on the

things

been

had not

that

organic

images

Like

before

interest

in

the

"luminous

dust"

birth

formation

and

As argued

of

act

might

which

as

sometimes

More

stimuli".

the

body

produces
("intradeal

a great

factors
Cane

in

the

for

accounted

he

specifically,

of

"all
by

the

the

auto-

body...

the

within
by

light,

of

creation

that

posited

modified

and

in

played

the

developed

increased...

a great

images.
(1889),

fully

are

part

particular

physiologically

sensations

and

in

intra-

light",

sensations

Indeed,

dreams

of

phenomena

its

Cane

causative

images.

hypnagogic

and

waters,

eminent

took

"ideo-retinal

proprioceptive
and

other

the

of

by the
of

Ladd

hypnagogic
by

stimuli"),

organic

of

of

earlier

number

a vast

him,

Eigenlicht

or

of

a number

conditions

on the

or

influence

the

after

and

whether

represented

under

stimulation".

psychologists

earth

"schematically

retinal

changing

by fancy,

or

impressions

external
pointed

that

out

in a dark room with


our eyes closed,
we see
'the proper
field
that
called
area of dim light
dim
the
which
many
across
retina',
and
see
of
blend
figures
of
colour,
shades
and
which
moving
fantastically.
field
This
gets
and dissolve
longer
brighter
from
the
we abstain
gradually
light.
actual
viewing
(Cane
(1826)

Mller
images

which

(ib.,

p. 20),

tasms

which

to

the

tially
patterns

black
and

blood

p. 79)

but
forms

is

of

of
of
in

the

rather
continually

"a

p. 49)
in

phangoing
which

and

particular

taking

place

in

he was

often

able

image,

due

nerve,

into

optic

(1883,
dark

vision"

before

a luminous
the

"with

luminous

the

(ib.,

that

Galton

view

that

field

substance,

supply

said

figure".
of

sleep

stimulation,

in

coloured
onset

than

closed"

excitement

field

one's

are

at
the

else

visual

passing-over

defined

clearly

the

eyes

(1878,

"the

apparently
that

our

changes

Maury

establish

in

see
of

"nothing

intra-organic

in
the

eyes.

being

as

to

p. 1331)
brilliantly

these

darkness

the

appear

originate
through

in

when

sleep,

failed

never

and

eyes

closed

to

he

to

referred

1889,

is

p. 114)
by

kaleidoscopic
going

on".

no

the
to

a
out

pointed
means
change
Ladd

essenof
(1892,

402
p. 300)

talked

multitude

of
(1890,

James
licht

yellow
p. 46)

mass or wall...
dancing
about

spots

with
a great
its
surface".

principle

made a general
"any objective
that

by noting
must be strong

ceived

inspection

to

stimulus

Eigen-

the

of

to

be perincrement

give a sensible
light".
the ideo-retinal

enough

over and above


"even in conditions
of full
dust
luminous
will
reveal

of sensation
And, although
ful

"a black

of

daylight

care-

effects,
an
(McKellar
haze"
1957, p. 83),
mottled
achromatic
atmospheric
for observing
ideoit is clear
that
the optimal
conditions
during
or twilight
retinal
phenomana are those of darkness
"increment"
is "wholly
or mostly
which James'
absent"
(ib.,

p. 82).

logical

and

noted

that

stuff'

of

hypnagogic
Mller

their

in

marked
in

blood

the

low

the

Whereas

Mller

All

retinal

and

Maury

drew

Ladd

set

himself

the

into

the

retinal

Eigenlicht

able

to

and

catch

himself

those

largely,

led

by

all

which

if

wholly,

intra-organic

explains
the

increased

him

that
time

to
occur

due

soon
to

in

the

sensitiveness

body

acquire
of

the

"the

of

which

His
'stuff'

visual
asleep
the

is

retina

take
due

prominence
owing

dozing

of

He further

p. 301).

soul

thus,

disappear.

to

changes

obserfading

He was,

excitement

lively

images,

falling

after

(ib.,

intra-organic

by

minutes

that

conclude

form

very

latter

the

began

they

as

hallu-

"any

hypnagogic

a few

fol-

p. 300).

p. 300).

after

stimulation"
the

to

observing

this

visual

conclusions

(ib.,

just

dreams
not

of

fully

images

introspections
of

task

the

conducive

into

turning

phantasms"

variations

to

that

their

scheme

ability

(ib.,

many

in

agree

phantasms"

"retinal

the

three
is

the

chance

into,

or

excitement

ving

wake

to,

up

dream-life".

the

in

their

'the

into

confidence

upon

p. 299)
"that

made
by

their

based

phantasms

among

activity

material

that

and

cerebral

unusual

the

of

theorised

phantasms'

chiefly

retinal

cinations
of

supply",

of

both

physio-

(1892,

Ladd

originates

'retinal

the

"was

hypothesis

or

this

formation

the

had

dream-images,

visual
out

Maury

dreams

for

took

images.

visual
and

certain

basis

the

as

(1911)

Ellis

and

phenomenon

dream

of

(1892)

Ladd

Both

to

the

place

to

the

raised

403
threshold
external
dreams,

on

the

dreams

and

superior

borates

freed

waking

consciousness"

victim

to

the

onset

their

there

is

change

waking

"change

fixated

in

in

the
things"

holds

commerce

in

arguing

for

imagery

Delage

visual
tive
he

lights.
the

rubbing

one's

ling

and

red

clouds;

lights

which

one's

(1903)

first

second

emerge

in

and

he

implicates

in

normal

in

involved

Like

In
in

addition,
the

recognition

of

the

components
"mind's

In

(ib.,

p. 304).

hypnagogic

of

between

objec-

latter

group

the

phosphenes

and

(c)

en-

physical

of
of

of

eye"

state

pressing

consecutive

or
phos-

of

phenomena.
Ladd,

he

observation

(e. g.,

conditions

dissolving

images

feeling

figures,
of coloured
whir"tapestry"
and coloupatterns
distinguishes
between
entoptic

emergence

subjects.

hypnagogic
colour.

the

the

origin

ingestion

ideoretinal

spontaneous

in

after-images

near-morbid
fever,

changes,

and

consist
he

third

from

p. 304)

as

geometric
the

(ib.,

the

a result
(immediate
and

eyeballs

animated

dream

distinguishes

are

muscular

from

dreamlike

or

ideo-retinal

the

The

arising

pressure

are

a dream

respectively)

phenes

of

with

images.
retinal
subjective
(a) chance
images,
(b)
subsumes

objects;

ved

as

that

the

and

field

to

passing

to

necessary

and

toptic

and

on

Cane

out

of

sensations

retinal

fanciful

character

eye

muscular
is

those

In

the

and

means

points

consciousness"

attention...

schemata

Ladd

the

of

full

falls

one

shifting
(see also

its

of

in

action

thus

and

ela-

being,

its

images

in

combines,

time

rapidly

addition,

movement

the

p. 303)

1967

al

explains,

control

deprived

is

marked
to

this

1892,

ideoretinal-born

In

consciousness

which

et

which

for

irrational,

nature").

and

adjustment

laws

(Ladd

"intelligism

"a

Ladd

states,
is,

causation

Ornitz

and

data

the

on

mechanism

the

strange,
of

the

test

the

dream

from

intermingling

of

hypnagogia).

interprets...

partially

that

of

psychophysical

and

1889:

1921

to

susceptibility

1931

Aristotle

Arnold-Forster

and

sensitivity

In

regards

as

(cf.

stimuli.

of

"the

consciousness

of

hypnagogic

of

Delage
into

contended
of

substances)

certain
It

blood

is

the

latter

visual

(1903,1920)
spots
that

hypnagogic

images
obser-

and'patches
eye

movements
visual

404
images.
(1925,

As Leaning
hypnagogic

visual

movement,

colours,

circularity
given
the

pictures

observed
health

of

the

blood

fact

form,

"there

is

or

exhilaration,

and

currents",

all

retaining

of

a
in

change
sometimes

that

in

respect

a state

of

over-

fever,

in

to

physiological

point

the

exactly,

being

to

of

as

it

indication
factor

a common

of

latter

the

the

and

well

incessant

the

of

as

repeating

points,

the

they

as

shapes,

elements

bright

of
and

fatigue,
of

of

rapidity

impossibility

the

features

brilliancy,

cloudiness,

combination
frequency

is,

to

respect

'perceptual'

the

all

in

out

pointed

that

form,

of

the

to

imagery,

hypnagogia,

in

present

p. 388)

the

velocity
explan-

ations.

involvement:

Central

it

Nonetheless,

that

we accept

some

pretation

involving

centres.

Thus,

for

the
the

is

shapes

of

our

without

to

dreams"

of

"the

intra-organic

most

process"

elaborate

retinal

visual

excitement',

quasi-

onset,

even

their
the

the

of

of

result
higher

"that

go on

we must

look

of

the

neither

see

the

retinal

changes

and

assocvisual

nor

imagine
in

the

pp. 301-2).

cit.,

dreams

inter-

which

"we

(op.

in

cerebral

elaborated,

character

if

genesis

processes
us,

con-

of

of

tells

although

participation

have
are

occult

memorable

psychophysical

complex

they

antecedent
and

gamut

sleep

them

of

researchers

participation

Ladd

physiological
meaningful

Hence,

all

all

whole
at

still

cerebrum",

iated,

aught

or
the

"it

the

occurring

sources,

physiological

within

that

phenomena

perceptual

by

conceded

issue

the

with

cerned

is

may originate

since

in the shape
dashes,
the variety
of material
of dots,
lines,
by
furnished
and angles
splashes,
which
are
is infinite,...
Eigenlicht
the retinal
manner
of
all
inanimate
things,
of animals,
plants,
and human
beings,
themselves
seen in dreams,
may resolve
into
field,
the phantastic
schemata
of the retinal
if we can only
these
manage to surprise
schemata
with
an observing
critical
consciousness.

(Ladd

1892,

p. 302)

in

405
we can choose and determine
"idea
dust since
ideo-retinal

Conversely,
see in

to

the

their

with

received,
(1954,

p. 274)

provided

on

the

p. 31).
by

basis

the

of

but

dust,

past

perceptions
p. 81).

1957,

those

glimmerings"
Simpson

and

outline

luminous

such

McKellar

also

"the

that

concluded

to

McKellar

Similarly,

thus

suggestions

pictures

mental

glimir. -

entoptic

the

on

acting

superposes
1911,

"supplies

concurs,

brain,

the

(Ellis

(see

Ellis

eye",

is

and volition,

cerebral
processes,
psycho-physical
determine
the condition
of
a certain
extent)
field"
(lb.,
p. 303).

and

erings,

these
as

are

activated"

(Hicks
on to

He went

in

as

hended,

the

as

grouped

is

no

doubt,

p. 142)

pivot

around

and

hence

interpreted

in
the

which

appre-

confusedly

intra-organic

the

sense-

given

and

imagi-

in

that

actually

vaguely

part

'phosobjecdreams.
to
life.
fixing
field
clus-

in

nature,
'imag-

suggested

fashion"

objective

p. 144).
(1921,

p. 455)

fact

the

strongly...

origin".

retinal

these

obtained
concentrating

form

to

vouring
into

a real

indefinite
help

becomes

scene.
light,

retinal
of
vividly

specifically,
as

attention

pictures

imagination.
real

for

wish

appear

visualizations,
the

"I

on

he

the

of

what

At

first

which

Then

all

an

instant"

to

emphasize

unmistakably

of

he

that

he

them,

"by

said

called

retinal

out

his

with

connection

images:
they

that
More

in

wrote

hypnagogic

(perseverative)

the

1924,

probability

there

most

often,

serves

Warren

them

"the

perception

and

is

for

argue

for

material,

ery'
(ib.,

had

too,

be any question
that
there
can hardly
such
do supply
the
or 'ocular
spectra'
phenes'
imagery
in certain
tive
nucleus
of visual
likewise
And I know not why they
should
not
be operative
even in the waking
some extent
by
Indeed,
one can in a state
of reverie,
little
in the
objects
upon these
attention
the way in which
imagery
watch
of vision,
them.
ters
round

which

interpreted

are

(1924)

Hicks

images

the

of

that

contended

nation

we wish

correlated

can (and to
the retinal
"The

what

see,

field,

endea-

and

projecting

see

only

the

weave

into

a picture

at

once
(Warren

the

play

of
with

picture
1921;

see

also

406
1927).

Griffitts

imagery

visual

He says
is

object

to

relative

to

and

and

ent-

cortical

representation

cortical

retinal

position

of

substratum"),
precise

the

the

correlation

its

element,

element,

intensity

joining

the

strong

its

and

to

stability

of

the

of

(p. 245)

two"

However,
the

cate
are
if

"the
"its

that
due

externalization
and

form

hypnagogic

considered

an accidental

(which

imaging.
given

be

to

lights

optic

(1903)

Delage

in

cortex
totally

not

be

hypnagogic

imagery

1909).

of

hypnagogic

to

peripherally

be

case

entoptic

phenomena

imagery,
argue

the

instances,

as

Galton

contended,

hypnagogic

images

form

consciousness

to

the

relaxing

rest

the

Alexander

cf

between

occurrence
of

of
does

evidence

in

that

Ladd

possibility
(1892)
and

Delage

themselves

too

be

to

able

the

of

correlation

piece

against
(1833),

for

no

and

this

although

the

etc:

found

with,

instigated

with

tactile,

(1972)

Holt

necessarily

indeed
the

visions,

To begin

criticism.

(auditory,

Moreover,

awareness

from

are

shown

when
hypnagogic

of

impli-

they

even

production

visions

same must

not

the

exempted

hypnagogic

the

theories,

oculo-retinal

most
(1903)

quickly
their

observe

formation.
Although
1903;

Delage

hypnagogic
(e. g.,
1925;

(e. g Gelle

some writers
1933)

Leroy
visions

Herve
Tournay

form

may

de

1941;

Rouques

is

unessential.

As Alexander

"there

is

no

between

tion

sions

its

in

mental
sensation,

Leroy

that

1946)

contend

is,

Leaning

they

are

oculo-retinal

indeed

neither

and

sense,
end

the

perceptions

they

rela-

conceivable,

are

objects

or,

mental
to

materializations
rather

than

illu-

nor

distinctly

externalizations,

they

others

or even entirely
it:
pp. 629-630)
put

stimulation

are

are

that

that

some

importance

nor

common-speech

facts;

1909;

sensations;

[they)

constructs,...

Alexander

(1909,

[retinal]

images

inchoate

nor

word

such

1867;

secondary

discoverable,

The

perceived.

of

that

concede
lights,

and

in

Janet:

entoptic

of

initiated

participation

to

willing
out

Saint-Denis

centrally

essentially

are

1903;

use

the

of
begin

acquiring
a kind
of phantasmal
reality".
(1933,
hypnagogic
p. 64) points
that
out

in

visions

407
and

entoptic

the

fact

of

short
ions.

latter,

complete,

and

not

formed

images

are

(1903),

Gelle
Leroy

(1933)

arily

imply

in the

perception

in

ear

all

used

to

in

front

i. e.

be placed

argue

that

ocular

to

response

of
pursuance
ear in front
are

Delage

our

a moving
of

always
of

anywhere

imaging

and

Zikmund

1972;

Even

of

rev-

are

eyes
app-

simply

that

in

eyes
they

app-

"because

be

we

vision",

of

to

related

fact

in

can

visions

truly

not

the

our

line

the

necess-

not

may

only

hypnagogic

and

of

fact

seeing

whereas

do

moving

the
in

the

1980).

Finke

image

is

a reinstatement

it

would

be

reasonable

movements
Zikmund

(1972,

ilarity

between

If

our

1966;

Hebb

Hebb

right

in

imaging,
points

the

physiological
those

perceptual

is

there

out,

perception

and

vivid

visual

imagery

takes

place".

imagery

complex

visual

and

of

visual

vivid

of
would

visual

retinal

complex

or

of

part

then

impulses

centrifugal

mechanisms

perception

appear

the

which,

visual

while

that

vivid

from

the
in

brain

may
may

through

that

process

then

oculomotor
As

certain

simvis-

underlying
experi-

sensory
Thus,

"during
compon-

oculomotor
reactivated".
images

visual

turn,

pathway

are

1968;

visions.
"a

processes

occurring

of

saying

of

hypnagogic

e. g.,

p. 379)

is

involvement

expect

more

similarities

Sheehan

the

from

comes

functional

of
to

visual

contentions

to

(e. g.,

perceiving

in

above

respect

an

It

habit

natural

they

pp. 247-8),

they

objects

in

arguments

recent

ents

other
thus

and

movements

might

for

Some support

ence

by,

space.

optical

ual

1903,

argues,

as

they
spots.

entoptic

to them

visions:

object.

us,

i. e.,

replaced

Janet

us,

vis-

suddenly,

participation

active

hypnagogic

of

them

70-71).

(in

or

be

or

Janet

essential

appear

on

related

(pp.

links

no entoptic

eal

leaves

recognizable,

into,

visually

not

may

imagination

nature

hypnagogic

of

notes,

eye
The

that

appearance

of

a play

condi-

same

eyes.

such

immediately

not

by

the

may develop

which

is

further

he

yet

they

Further,

for

the

of

for

except

congestion,

cerebral

he argues,

accounting

The

of

the

under

closing

sleep,

in common

nothing

appear

state

lights,

entoptic

are

for

need

to

tend

a light

i. e.,

fatigue,
of

they

that

tions,

may have

lights

acting
the

stimulate

involve

the

whole

as
oculo-

408
feedback

movement
can

(1980,

In

Finke's

be

functionally
at

levels

that
be

might

levels

to

the

of

to

become

the

of

this

source

(p. 130).

activation

cause
is,

the

not

and

argues

That

activated.

and
those

even

how objects
formed,

once

images

objects

system,

He further

themselves,

mechanisms

physical

visual
by

conceptualized".

"mental

visual

view,

uninfluenced

are

images

mental

p. 114)
equivalent

many

events

mechanisms.

events

that

the

the

visual

"images

product

are
it"

of

He continues,

images can stimuto this


According
mental
view,
late
directly.
Thus,
visual
mechanisms
processing
images are formed,
these mechanisms
when mental
in much the same way as they do when
would respond
in the
and events
objects
are observed,
resulting
that
sensation
an image can be 'seen'
as if it
were an actual
object
or event.

This

view

and

Segal

with

visual

berately

formed

ongoing

hypnagogic
the

using

same

of

showed

of

the

former

visual

fact

not
were

imaging

was

stressed

that

deli-

blend

with

presumably
both

for

system
latter

the

whereas

do

(1968)

mental

1953)

images
the

p. 130)
Brooks

the

and
Collard

mental

visions:

imaging

and

ceiving

findings

which

(e. g.,

visual
level

1980,

perception

hypnagogists

various

the

(1970)

Fusella

and

interfering
by

both

may explain

(Finke

perdifferent

using

levels.
A source
that

involve
of

images

the

imagery,

'projection'

their

of

occurrence
deliberate

reported

Manaceine

(1863,

James

1890,

may

1897;

1840

de

Manaceine

Klver

Oswald

(1957a,

(1928),
1957b,

and

dreams
(1885),
(1894,

Jaensch
1959a)

hypnagogic-hypnopompic
and

1897;

Meyer

Alexander

hypnopompic
(referred

reported

the

on

reporting
(1930),

1874:

Strtlmpel

and

reports

are

(Gruithuisen

writers

or

activate

visualizations,

Meyer

from

initiated

retina,

from

Various

Fere
p. 337),
Binet
p. 67),

Ladd),

the

after-images

that

centrally

secondarily

e. g.,

conscious

after-images

Wundt

primarily

receptors,

peripheral

hypnosis.
with
ments
1839;
p. 256; Burdach
by de

are

hypothesis

the

supporting

evidence

hypnagogic

visual
and

of

Weiskrantz
after

images

experi1812,
cited
1904)
visions.
to

by

work
(1950),
on

of

409
the

opening
image

eyes

with

closed
to

suggested

Erickson

and

the

imagery

rent

from

Erickson

1938).

experienced

it

found

that

1904).

Alexander
experiments

are

of

a vivid

or

image

may

involved

and

that

(Oswald

opening

his

image

as

in

the

a purely

projected

a subject

with

Weiskrantz

p. 98)

of

also
his

own

that

says

phenomenon,
complementary

that

the

the

same

construction

stimulus,

real
to

addition

a real

as

neurones

the

the

may experience

a quality

of

of

a similar

in

with

results

in

of

of

p. 115),

case

central

many

colours.

(see

after-images

involve

closed,

Law

(1957a,

perception

eyes

the

diffe-

not

after-image

Emmert's

hallucinations,

1957b,

the

the

from

spontaneous

images

are

on

occur

cases

eyes

cases.

subject

Oswald

is

eyes

always

closely

others,

can

there

colours

one

1906;

complementary

hypnotic

Concluding

and

after-images

of

with

(e. g.,

eyes

the

with
in

their

hypnopompic

the

opening

and

followed

visualization

their

most

nearly

visualizations

(1950)

that

is

phenomenon

voluntary

In

appears

in

Bechterev

experienced

sometimes

latter

1901;

on

being

that

although
The

Downey

a mental

visions

resulted

on opening

1898;

Fere

and

of

mental

hypnosis

under

after-images

visualization
ilarly,

Si

eyes.

subjects

experiencing
Binet

intense

after

above,

original

sensation.

Further

for a hypothesis
support
of non-peripheral
imagery
origin
and formation
of visual
comes from some
to the dreams
old investigations
carried
out in regard
of

1894:

cited

that

when

loss

the

visual

sight

was

seven
when

(e. g.,
Heermann
by de Manaceine

blind

the

distinctly

of

eyesight

than

particular,

Heermann

noted

experienced

after

time

the

More

recently,

dence
is

suggestive

lost

Also

nerves

in

later

supporting

and

of

Yeager

retention

of

became
In

were

visions
have

and

objects.
by

blindness,

must

of

age

visions

seen

dream

that

optic

of

dream

showed

retained

often

physically

years

Walter

was

Hitschmann

which

the

after

lost

twenty

patient's

pp. 302-308)

ability

vivid

more

1897,

partially

1888,

Jastrow

occurred

dreaming
only

1838,

had

(1956)

found

visual

imagery

still

which

atrophied.
some
if

evisight

life.

the

theory

of

"central

initiation"

of

410

in

experiments

of

geometric

et

al

patterns

(1962)
through

applied
subjects,
the

tation

pathway

excitation

electrical

(Penfield

centres

Knoll

et

to

tend

electrical

al

1962

et al
forms

found

of

However,
has

follow
the

lobe...

more

will

the

that

which

yielded

lated

produced
(1968)

are

surgical
specific
no
led

are

and

bright

and

repor-

dots
(see

other

means

and

comparisons)

research

other

studies

various

recent

of the
(Ishibashi

geometric
colours
and simple
in deep structures
of the
during
stimulation.
electrical

it

does

directly

et
of

stimulation

modes
and

removal

of

memories

those

when
loss
that

of

(1964,

al
the

of

Jasper,

makes
functioning

1954)
areas

cortical

stimu-

electrically
memory.
"possibly

tem-

which

consciousness

(Penfield

for

responsible

primary-process

postulate

necessarily

not

As Mahl

of

cortical

of

stimulation

phenomena.

detectable
to

horses

e. g.,

imagery

Penfield

prevail".

1958)

structures:

a state

that

probable

direct

the

Penfield

stimulation

"electrical

out,
induces

noted

al

such

exci-

pattern

to

electrical

areas

of

pointed

poral

even

visual

these

occurrence

p. 361)

more

the

'memory'

review

phenomena

net-

cortical

and

subcortical

elicited

that

1950,

of

or

comparison,

temporal

historical

although

the

patterns

to

implication

By

was

ganglion
cortex

Although

originate
lobe
temporal

are

non-dominant

areas

for

these

ascribe

retinal
in

stimulation

Knoll

forehead

the

temporal)

scintillation'

by

to

phenomena,

ganglion
cells,
1964) shows that

retinal

the

results
stimulation

the

reminiscences.

and
animals,
'entoptic
ting
produced

electrical

the

'objective'

more

yielded

1962)

al

of

Rasmussen

and

et

The

p. 67).
of

excitation

reported.

participates

(ib.,

phenomenon"

visual

experiences

attached

not

and

(Knoll

"besides

(but

visual

the

of

p. 10)

of

subjective

which

that

a number

various

electrodes

visual

primary

The

in

suggest

work,

as
are

study,

1950,

electrodes

as well

of

stimulation

Rasmussen

temporal

flicker

results

electrical

and

by

brain

the

whereby

it

direct

the

are

general

(Penfield

cortex
of

in

imagery

visual

Horowitz
the

et

posterior

411
areas
to

the

regulation

p. 275).
of

hippocampal

the

of

evidence

arguing

does

cortex

Braak

ter

1967;

Weiskrantz
Braak

ter
1973;

et

Sanders
Klver

whose

striate

sides

the

uously

present,

stimuli,

could

later

reseachers

present

after
total

that

a field

but

discriminate

both

(1971,

"produced

contrasts

in

ablation

the

accuracy

no

visual

awareness

of

and

equally
by

('passive')

[are]'

et

still
even

and

cortex

found

(1974)

al

visual

with

stimuli

aspects

certain

even though
blind
his

in

'seeing'

the

of

movement

distribution

spatial

contin-

certain

differentiate

and

respond

obtained
and humans.

field

visual

localize

and

had

patient

the

Sanders

could

orientation

by

the

of

been

that

stationary

animals

found

p. 141)

movements

defect

with

to

were

large

have

results

both

a sudden

which

equally

al

on

could

perfectly

two

et

monkeys

involving

lights

to

also

working

al

considerable
the

light

lights,

situations

decortication".

after

their

only

in

positively

two

of

to

not

Similar

et

optokinetic

brighter

the

1969;

al

removed

respond

and

Poeppel

that

completely

1941;

Klver

et

1972;

al

visual

Humphrey

Pasik

found

still

discriminate

stimuli.

of

1963;

et

been

had

the

(e. g.

1969;

al

Schilder

could

bright

majority

et

1978,

accumulation
of

Weiskrantz

could

to

of

appearance

of

blindness

1971;

animals

Braak

total

cortex

differentially

Ter

to

et al 1974).
(1941),
for
instance,

light,

single

destruction

Brindley

al

a considerable

the

1963;

Vliet

devoted

relatively
(Horowitz

that

lead

not

and

is

there

are

formation"

image

of

Moreover,

formation

field.

and his
the striate

Weiskrantz
loss
with
his brain
not

of
had residual
by

served

the

trouble

discriminating

tations

and

in

blind

the

half

vision

striate

noughts
field

was

performed

(Lewin

1975).

In

monkey

whose

in

earlier

striate

the

the

cortex:
between
lines

and

a rhesus

in

cortex

field,

normal
tests

between

found

collaborators

of

had

patient
different

of

and

crosses,

very

close

well

in

his
to

colour

experiments

cortex

a patient
hemisphere
of
his eyes

right

part

the

that

little
orien-

visual

that

in

acuity
the

discrimination
with

was surgically

Helen,

412
on both

removed
"could

around

run

into
see
In

or

could

climb

experimental

an

25 currants

in

obstacle
less

touching

or

even
(Lewin

1975,

visual
is

vision

the

of

she

bumping

was

scattered

on

Helen

could

floor.

the

up

pick

in

placed

to

able

knocking

without

obstacles

animal

over
her

way"

p. 54).

have

Such experiments
"two

a minute

the

without

and

course,

than

any

trees

2mm across

only

objects

small

that

a laboratory

a field

She

objects.

found

Weiskrantz

sides,

led

hypothesis

systems"

by the

subserved

formulation

the

to

'focal'
which
and 'ambient'
(see
mid-brain
to

according

visual

the

of

cortex

by the

superior
of the
colliculus
1968; Perenin
Trevarthen
1975; Lewin 1975).
and Jeannerod
in ambient
It would appear that
vision
one's
visual
space
in the sense that
is subjective
in
is located
everything
vision

body;
to one's
it is also unconscious,
relation
as witnesdenial
sed by the subjects'
of 'seeing'
a stimulus
although
it accurately.
in
they can locate
As Humphrey remarked
to Helen "in one sense she sees everything,
and
reference
(Lewin 1975, p. 54).
in another,
Of particular
nothing"
interest

psychological

blind

cortically
Warrington

between

test
the

or

something

noughts
by

known

be

to

Another
the

comes

source

visual
from

cortex,

front

open

in

ging

checkerboard

evoked

this

response.

time

(1982)

Schatzman's
of

the

body's

lessening

the

subject,
screen
that

patterns
by

to

respect

importance

hallucinations,

with

an

which

displayed
normal

apparition

unusual

with

sit

an

is

movement.

would

elicited

producing

and
latter

the

in

hypo-

vision,

since

experiments

a television
Then,

in

with

could

the

strengthen

colliculus

information

Schatzman's
Ruth,

subject.

of

he

said

p. 55).

concerned

test

jagged,
something
haptoThis

structures

superior

especially

he

further

would

deter-

how he

of

1975,

subcortical
the

particularly

crosses

"'feeling'

(Lewin

and

discrimination

pattern

and
the

"feeling"

involving

thesis

the

Weiskrantz

describe

to

of

reports
'see'
the

way they
when

patient

smooth"

kinaesthetic

the

of

in

difference

tell

of

their

difference

introspective

instance,

For

asked

the

mined
the

patients

stimuli.

various

the

are

eyes
chan-

visual
of

her

413
daughter

and placing

blocking

the

responded

evoked

would

blocked

in

before
in

or

vities

on

a real

did

not

activities

reached

which

she

show

cortex

except

One is

forced

to

indicates

blocking

that

conclude

and thus

point

cortical

pathway

Of

interest

of

how

to

she

to

to

apparitions

to

want

like,...

And

involved

remember
the

produce

cortex
the subthalamus.

explanation
"I

says:

stop

decide

me.

the

what

whose

person

(Schatzman

person"

in

the

and

She

around

make.

it.

and yet

Ruth's

also

the

on

imaginal,

apparitions.

everything

and

reaching

have

is

res-

effect

colliculus

superior

her

produces

evoked

retina
and visual
the implication
of

discussion

this

attention

paying

the

acti-

presence

stimuli

must

to

strongly

the

Ruth's

turn

imaginal

direct

no

other

to

visual

that
had

real,
activities
lying
between
pathway

visual

her

were
In

cortex.
these

on

while

eyes

apparition

light,

very

a sense

her

effect

for

her

visual

caused

apparition

visual

looks

any

turn,

the

of

the

light

apparition.

entering

imaginal

or

the

of

stimuli

from

stimuli

production

they

in

This,

ponse.

she would
to completely
disappear.
her retinas
showed that

external

that

imaginally

thus

field

visual

response

the

suggest

experiments
off

to

normally

her

of

recordings

she was engaged


This

front

her

from

screen

cause her visual


Electroretinographic

in

it

1982,

p. 256).
In
(1975,

to

contrast
p. 77)

describes

internal

or

colours

of

"a

commented
and
fully

with

this

the
vision

and

objectified
the

visions
subcortical

who

the

under

evidence
are

in
crack

of

towards

room

"with

the

presented

activities.

"an

is

entirely
light

represent

felt

the

a pepper

presence
salt

and

the

door

the

sofa".

and

of
to

suit,
moving

James

feelings

attached

exteriorized

basically

day

man,
...

cannot

one

directly

outwardness

spatial
From

gogic

that

and

of

[who]
and

man dressed

floor

the

a blind

of

imagery

himself"

to

case

James

visualizations,

reporter

visual

grey-bearded
himself
squeezing

across

the

intelligent

exceptionally
without

deliberate

Ruth's

reality

it"

was

"a

'idea".
I

'central'
They

would

that

argue
phenomena

may rise

hypna-

correlated

initially

at

414
level

any
gated

the

of

at

a retinal,

they

are

when

present,

in

in

the

cortex

absorption

hypnagogic

present.

It

has

is

of

physical

the

retina

jects

that

like

they

hypnagogic

to

ideoretinal

Added
respect

to

argued

that

with

system,

sensory
et

of

sensory

may also

non-cooperative

Short

Walter

and
In

hallucination-

vivid

p. 113)

found

to

static

visual

rhythm

providing

perceiving
Jasper

that

1954)

and

experiments
visions

are

in
arguments
(1948, p. 107)
Golla
would appear to be

of the
stimulation
be taken as evidence

state
is
that

state

of

of the neurones
the basis
of
1943).
Walter
and
in

(1939),

Williams

(1953),

Short

relation
include

attention

(1937),

Golla's

argument

"subjects

could

images

the

images

and

(1954),

Walter

(1956).

Yeager

contrast

sub-

nature.

rhythm

(1951),

Mundy-Castle

These

and phosphenes)

alpha

Bagchi

of

all.

memory

rhythm.

(1935),

al

the

hypnagogic

of

alpha

and

there

may come from

my claim

stimulation

will

of

hypnagogic

in

the

production

mental
processes
imagery"
(see also Golla,
Hutton,
this
workers
who have studied
problem

Jasper

and

or

strongly

Schatzman's

lights

an absence
its
presence

an arrested
the
subserving

to

from

nature
of
"just
as the

of

visual
Other

data

the

are

at

more

ordinary

cortical
to

strength

associated
visual

nor

they

that

the

reports

fully-formed

that

retinal

neither

in

their

and

independent

with

the

involved

the

mix

argue

(as opposed

be

not

in
without

foregoing

the

hand,

other

with

and

Ruth,

entirely

visions

visualizations,
with

sight

cannot

initiated

features

in

any

psychological

visualizations
two

but

develop

and

withdrawal

need

together

observations

do not

faint

shown

On the

cortex.

visions,

been

components,

retinal

visions

these

when

The

hand,

psychological

insti-

level

absorption

remain

become

visual

of

may be

they

subcortical

they

other

will
and

a form

*riature.

absence

On the

withdrawal.

or

incidental:

are

is,

that

system,

cortical,

subcortical

further

visual

visual

that
images"
also

without

any

'difficulty

above,

was

not,

(my underlining).
found

that

changing

experience
blocking

Einstein

(1957b,

Oswald

of

the

or

alpha
in

ex periericed
Jasper
displayed

(Penfield
a

415
fairly

continuous

section

on
in

tion
of

'Creativity',

But

than

rather

Conscious,
the

to

EEG appears

alpha

effortful

as

be

will

reports

were

mental

image

the
better

in

in

body

to

advanced
hypnagogic
general
an

possess

yet

is

concerned
be

to

are

the

then
for.

that

with

ambient

correlated
sharp

both

visual

the

circumstances
to

be

supplied

In

the

hypnagogia,

sub-

in

and

retina
locating

severance,
cortex

might

the

phenomena
that

fact

the

as

seen

detail

sharp

is

colliculus
and if hypnagogic
visions

ordinary

signals

from

to

the

has
only

fact

of

most

visual

sleep

of
cortex

the
-

dreams,

and

vision

the

and
these

under

through

colliculus,

accounted

apparent

retinas
that

structure

be

to

wakeful
the

primarily

visions

this

of

is

in

in

of

with

of

as well

these

superior
to

be

from

visual

activities

and

deprived

might

functional

the

that

fovea,

in

involved

activities

however,

receives
the

especially

it.

of

subject's

superior

vision
with

fact

the

cortex

mation

the

detail

becoming

phenomena

are

perspective.

contradiction,
to

come

if

true

This

due

and

13

and

vivified

and

stage

on

becoming

This

visions

depth

4,11,

character

hypnagogic

taking

concerned

hallucinatory

cortex

latter

the

retina

alpha.

dissociated

severed

space.
from

of

on

primarily

external

initiated

concentration

functionally

the

explain

It

of

related

deafferentation,

and

has

if

are

be

how

the

These

imagery.

visual

chapters

image.

of

indeed

the

absorp-

visual

kinaesthetically

and

of

intensified

to

or

sleep

the

suppression

increasingly

the

in

effort
of

of

becomes

the

which

cortex

also
of

to

of

role

in

compli-

suppression

cause

in

the

the

to

may

the

result

structures,

one's
or

would

understood

visual

degree

Thus

describing

absorbed,

cortical

a high

presence

thus

that

presented

character

the

becomes

recalled

leading

and either
'fascinated',

to

in

own as it
of its
a life
from the cortex.
It

related

imagery

the

and

be

and
sets

absorption

diminishes

we saw

vizualization

cortex

visual

as

imagery.

visuo-kinaesthetic

vizualizing

at

involved

in

engaged

which,

operations

mathematical

cated

while

rhythm

alpha

evolution,

focal

retinal

most,

but

and in

infornot

states

all

of

416
intense

visual

becomes

functionally

visual

internal

system

need

have

gogic

hallucinations

blind

are

more

mainly

they
almost

As

by

This
to

the

of

activities

of

point

1965)

as with

by means of
blind
cortically

'felt',

colours

of

are

that

or
to

emerge

state.

related
only

structures

as

brought

in

1924),

(Romains

"dermo-optic

sense"

for
In

visual
"smooth",

at

theories

encompassing

account

skin.

subjects,

perceived

they

strongly

sight"

1964)

one's

defini-

by

are

may be

that
is

developed

instigation

the

is,

histo-

and

colliculus.

"eyeless

(Ivanov

vision"

is

subcortical

research

discussion

vision",

(Novomeiskii
'seeing'

of

the

of

"paroptic

"eyeless

area

in

that

argue,

be

must

psychophysical

of certain
the superior

is

which

One other
this

further

I shall

call

we would

visions

a particular

the

of

habit

part

state-bound,

out,

point

subcortical

evolutionary
their

see

cortex.

animals

powerful

hypnagogic

experience

state,

one of

both
may play

presence

the

more

these

if

as

to

come

ablation

which

of

behave

p. 141)

reptiles)

sub-

task

visual

(1971,

in

the

first

their

us

however,

they

a state

relatively

Moreover,

visions.
by

1971).

al

while

to

at

al

'vision'

that

the

et

produce

However,

and

et

reveals,

lost

they

(birds,

connections

tion
in

not

so

structures".

of

the

provides

relegated

training

with

animals

'blindness',

logical

Braak

vision

research

Braak

ter

as
does

achieved

hypna-

and
in

which

although

before

as

lower

forebrain

recent

blind,

as well

the

persons

dreams

focal

our

mainly

animals,

totally

Furthermore,
"in

blind

ter

e. g.

cortex

of

are

blind

are

This

hallucinations

visual

amount

vision.

cortically

other

the

structures

ambient

and

vivid

the

of

activated.

more

see

the

on

greatest

cortical

rest

in
visual
cortex
may play a part
This
of at least
some of these visions.
due to the fact
learn
that we naturally

may be partly
the

and

the

cortically

(although

above,

instigation

with

that

infrequent:

not

As noted

rely

numerous

cortex

colliculus

especially

imply

visual

from

superior
are

necessarily

would

to

the

strutures

not

the

disconnected

while

subcortical

the

absorption

the

these

phenomenon

phenomena,

perception

is

"sticky",

or

417
"rough"

(Novomeiskii

paroptic
one

vision

could

although

tude

of

as

in

was

accommodation",
of

side,

clairvoyant

vision.
to

phenomena
complete

visual

retina

and
by

involve

not

nasal

involved
colour

the

possessed

this

'ocelli

of

in

into

"umbels

centre

type

or

which

but
ocellary

epidermis

composite

was

'visual'

of
body,

the

and

eyes

likely

very

on

characters

refracting

situated

the

wider

rudimentary

comprising

in

was

same

the
atti-

mucosa

perception

He ascribed

fibre

a paroptic

did

it

it

organs

optic

it

is,

that

spherical,
"cerebro-visual

presence

themselves

grouping
led

the

even

that

argued

an acquired
its

colours,

ultraviolet

or

directions,

all

(1924)

Romains

circular,

there

perception
the

was

see

eyes

1965).

control-

situated

extra-cerebrally.
Although
these
to

will

theories
fact

the

although

would

that

from

refrain
make

the

purportedly

a point

visual,

are

kinaesthetic

and

typically

characterize

the

have

referred

being

concerned
in

studies

modalities,

which

He noted

that

often

"a

vital

event

tive

state

The

second,

tion,

it

tiated

and

first

is

"less

is

emotive

sensation

to

perception,

emotions

into

detailed

aesthetic
which

stage
give

objects"

Thus
acquisition,

the

to

p. 468)

most

and

two

types

in
not

of

sensation,

primitive,

developed

shows

concluded

patterns".

are

a more

subjec-

which
yet

separated".
func-

sensory
differen-

a highly

is

an evolutionary
ascent
a "development
of diffuse

perceptions,
a stage

impression

of
of

ascending

differentiated
a world

from

configurations

containing

characterize

which

are
higher

a later

constant

evolutionary

mammals,

from

a syn-

(pp. 468-9).

perceptions,

his

of

different

of

an emotion,

There

objectivity".

colliculus

a result

between

consciousness

perception,

As

argue,
struc-

superior

sensations

and

resembling

object

subcortical

shall

intersensorial

create

The

of
the

distinguished

Werner

(1935,
by

syn-

which,

movement.

produced

function.

sensory
is

is

to

Schiller

synaesthesia

"perception

that

bodily

with

explain,

characteristically

activities

of

attention

to

seek

phenomena

already

details

the

drawing

of

they

experiences

aesthetic
tures.

discussing

and especially

418
humans,

they

recent

localized

are

'stabilizing'

and

should

and

thus

is

synaesthetic
found

be
in

the

its

fish.

are

is

the

of

in

of

concerned
By

sensations.
evolutionally
form

strongest

activities

case can be seen


Be writes:

the

they

stage

in

is

which

'objectifying'

and

the

contrast,

cortex

development,

evolutionary

with

on the

old

in

older
lower

brain.

Schiller's

animals

That

this

with

experiments

(Phoxinus
laevis)
have trained
fish
to
I myself
discriminate
between
chamber.
and a dark
a bright
had to choose
the
In the first
the fish
series
the
bright
series
chamber,
and in the second
had learned
dark
to choose
After
the fish
one.
between
light,
two
them choose
the right
I let
different
odours,
unilluminated
containing
chambers
indol.
Musk gives
the other
a bright,
one musk,
indol
impression
The fish
to humans.
a dark
light
the bright
to choose
which
were trained
those
the brighter-smelling
musk;
also
chose
had learnt
the dark
to choose
which
also
chamber
indol.
Neither
was preferred
of the scent
chose
before
learning
to discriminate
to the other
between
the lights.

p. 469)
had established
that

(Schiller
In

earlier
humans the

experiments
"so-called

impression

than

hypnagogia,

In

instance,

For

the

following

Schiller
'light'
'heavy'

odours"
(1911,

p. lO1)
during

experience

uncommon.

not

are

synaesthesias

strong

in

give a brighter
(pp. 466-7).

odours

Fiollingworth
hypnagogic

1935,

the

describes
a concert:

day at
'Wedding
The orchestra
Grieg's
played
bar there
Hegstad'.
In the last
were three
finishing
I had
blasts
full
with
orchestra.
drowsy
blasts
become very
seemed to
and these
came
of some huge bug which
me to be movements
from behind
the wings,
alighting
suddenly
sailing
then
feet,
first
on the two hind
on the stage,
the
bringing
down the middle
pair,
and finally
feet
blast.
two front
the final
with

(Hollingworth
Other

examples
turning

sensations
(e. g.

paper
on
that

his

Silberer

experiments
in

between

these
different

involving
into

visions

1965;
with

phenomena
senses".

tactile,
are

Vihvelin

fish

quoted

"there

is
In

the

p. 101)

1911,

and heat

pressure
1948).
above,
a transfer
case

this

throughout

given

of

Commenting
Schiller
of

states
training

Romains'(1924),

419
(1964)

Ivanov's

(1965)

and Novemeiskii's
'see'
their
with

subjects

who

to
were trained
skin I would paraphrase
Schiller's
in such experiences
comment and say that
there
is a training
between the senses,
of transfer
or perhaps
even
out

a re-learning
of
of which developed

and

perceptions.

such

transfers

iences
the

of

that,

be witnessed

in

inside

and

point

in

next

been

mainly

the

visual

pathway

during

or

activated
latter
are

subcortical

control

the

of

with
may be

visual

shall

nature

cortex.

and

the
primarece-

may

still
the

perceive
to

this
I

chapter
that

and

become

experiences,
beyond

have

although

instigated
cortex

hypnagogic

visual

act-

to

return

out

visual

both

distant

present

peripherally

exper-

with

this

the

the

sense,

before

pointing

and
in

LEB,

pointing

presumably

In

chapter.

concerned

correlated

a nuclear

them.

the

strengthening

and

infants

way

outside

visions

eyes,

structures

evolutionally,

the

world

the

is

character,
existed
developed.
Ontogenetically,

were

hypnagogic

thus

in

tactile

to

mainly
Moreover,

imagery

subcortical

possibility

ptors

hypnagogic

sense

sensations

due

spontaneously.
kinesthetically,

felt

that

ivities

hypnagogia,

one nuclear

occur

are

view

rily

In

through
sensing
and differentiated

the

involved
these

active

CHAPTER 16

CEREBRAL CORRELATES OF HYPNAGOGIC NlENTATION:

In

the

visions

In

with

hypnagogia

as

is

in

state.

processes

from

p. 33)

a depression
is

6 c/s

in

theta

temporal

regions

definitely

and

with

the

cortex

and

Lhermitte

the

Dovey

al

about
that

out

parieto"are

disturbance

the

of

to

and

hypnagogia

a subcortical

hallucinations

involve

points

from

(1926)

Adie
the

related

and

between

relations

Similarly,

structures".
(1927)
Tournay

and

to

at

further

of

perturbation

et

subcortical

of

recorded

with

Davis

activity

basal

and

hypnagogic

Walter

the

on

released

seems

characteristic

correlated

particularly

state".

p. 240)

that

argued

being

involvement

rhythms

revealed

have

"'floating'

(1948,

Walter
c/s

drowsy

"electrical

with

corre-

effect

activity".

that

noted

activities

physiological

processes

the

that

subcortical

inhibitory

an

argu-

propose

p. 794)

(1957,

cortical

those

processes

that

associated

4-7

the

visual

remarked

structures".
the

the

of

p. 63)

(1944,

to

related

have

inhibition

this

(1935,

further,

constitute

processes

subcortical

pursue

shall

and,

McGregor

and

higher

visual

of

unconscious-paralogical

Costello
"the

a whole
latter

of

chapter
data

latives

this

this

hypnagogic

that

argued

activities

additional
the

that

and

to

related

structures.
ments

chapter

previous

are

of

occurrence
pertur-

cortico-subcortical

bations.
These

discussion

present
paper

has

gogia

is

have

been

the

totally

Bremer

(19371

latter

term

of

since

one

claim

that
to

related
upper

is,

of

supremacy

used

there

-420-

is

tenets

major

of

occurrence

to

in

or,

it

at

hypnawhich

their

synerhave

times,
in

resulting

what
The

deafferentation.
from
enough

the

of

viewpoint
evidence

the
this

of

activities

speak,

cortex,

cortical

course,
but

the

from

called

the

of

so

the

dissociated
has

especial

subcortical

hand,

with

relationship

become

cortical

the

closely

gained

getic

are

observations

to

importance

to

argue

421
that

the

tures

than

the

is

cortex
the

other

way

of

theta

relationship

tures,

the

electric

alpha

in

activity
by

Moreover,

facilitation

total

in

of

abolition

through

of

manipulation

of

(Morris

rhythms

subcortical

fast

produces
this

area

1943).
the

concerned
of

Kennard

and

Kennard

1943;

1947).

Le

brain

p. 157)

regarded

and

valent

of

Walker

(1938,

to

be

become
cal

the

"the

"the

that

versa"

p. 277)

centres...
that

much

goes

Penfield

distributed

The

thalamus

shown

in

have

equal

hemispheres'.
be better

system

system
to

(1954,

Jasper

the

They
understood

which

higher

in

Penfield

cortex,

"from

is

and

not

cerebral

(p. 407).
seems
and

congregate

the

and

cortiof

secret

cortex".

p. 156,

footnote)
defined

they

stem

relationship
"cortical
of

vice
equi-

subcortical
holds

be

to

thalamus

the

to

that
terms

in

view,

stimuli...

brain

functional
added

all

1942;

Dempsey

consciousness"

thus

the

on within

a centrencephalic
neurone

which

1942;

anatomical

that

thala-

electrical

the

of

the

of

and

and

is

the

of

Jasper,

thalamus

concluded
to

mediator

modified

point

threshold

very

by
that

the

thalamus.

Droogleever-Fortuyn

and

quoted

thalamus

and

on

effects

Morison

and

of
Obrador

e. g.,

the

of

Jasper

of

destruction

nuclei

emphasized

a dependency

as

hypothalamus

the

Morison

functional

and

Also,

hypothalamic

through

(1932:

achieved
Gerebtzoff

(see

the

1942b;

Clark

a developmental

while

regulation

1947;

Adrian

1954,

cortex

(e. g Dempsey

1942a,

Nims

Gros

Jasper

the

be

the

intralaminar

the

with

the

activity

and

that

p. 238).

rhythm.
of

be mediated

1976,

abolition
of cortical
the
and by destroying

nuclei

and

or

structures.

potentials

striate
to

argues

the

normal

the

seem

Evidence

in

rhythms

Both,

are

posterior

abolishes

cortex

mus

the

paced

suppression

can

in Walter
1948) produced
cited
by stimulating
the striatum,
rhythms
latter
he produced
an excess of theta
of

and

activity

(1941:

stimulation

bio-

dendrites,

thalamus"

cortical

struc-

"represent

to

cell

slow

besides

subcortical

appear

the

struc-

instance,

to

rhythms
too

subcortical

For

cortical

centres

on

round.

rhythms

regulated

or

dependent

more

their

postulated
"that

as

which

can
with

functions
interrelationship

be
the

two

may

422
structures".
subcortical
1954, p. 179) further
Jasper
controlling
are found centres,
vascular

and

Magoun

and

bulbar

reticular

on motor

also

upon

as well

the

'aura'

tic

in

and

effect
induced

cortically
and
stem

to

respect

hypnagogia,

to

phenomena

mesial

Lindsley

al

et

upwards

acts

cortex.

cerebral

Significantly,

to

inhibitory

and
(1949)
brain

the

that

the

powerful

Magoun

and

shown

that

reflexes

spinal

Moruzzi

have

has

stem

posture

He refers

findings

formation

centres,

movements.
1949)

(1946)

Rhines'

brain

the

and

a whole.

as

and

cardio-

respiration,
functions

body

the

of

Penfield

on the

that

notes

gastrointestinal

tone

the

and

(in:

Jasper

with

epilep-

my relating
Jasper

that

remarks

The appearance
epileptiform
cortical
of focal
highdischarges,
or
sustained
spikes,
either
does not prove
that
voltage
rhythmic
activity,
They
discharges
in the cortex.
these
originate
epileptic
or secondary
may be evoked
potentials
in response
to intense
activation
of the cortex
bombardment
pathways
projection
specific
over
from
Experimentally,
subcortical
structures...
in numerous
we have observed
such discharges
temporofrontal,
cortical
areas
sensorimotor,
in
and monkeys
cats
parietal,
and occipital
following
local
of
stimulation
electrical
the
in the thalamus...
If
specific
nuclei
discharge
is sufficiently
thalamic
prolonged
discharge
cortical
and intense,
a self-sustained
disdevelops
the
thalamic
which
continues
after
has ceased.
charge
(Jasper:
He further

to

brief

lapses

of

from

considerably

to

to

Penfield
1947;

states
and

Cairns

the
only

the

of

weight

its

and

adds
this

relates

which

evidence
(p. 224;
consciousness"

epilepsy

electrographic
system

reticular

of

1941;

mal

petit

of

see

also:

Droogleever-Fortuyn

Jasper

and

Jasper

(1949)

1952).
Hunter

stimulating
thalamus

the

thalamic

Erickson

Furthermore,
of

consciousness,
the

between

relationship

complex

pp. 222

1954,

jasper

and

specific

wave-and-spike

reproduction

system

Penfield

"the

that

adds

bilateral

the

in

electrodes
of

cats

electrographic

and

and

within
monkeys
picture

the
were
but

portion

mesial
able
also

implantation

by

to
the

produce
clinical

of
not
form

423
of

both

mal

petit
(Penfield

Jasper
separated

homologous

areas
from

triggered

motor

stimulation
involving

the

globus

be

can

thus

footnote).

elicited

by

electrical
tegmentum,

subthalamus,
formation

reticular

in

and

(p. 225,

pallidus,

without

instance:

For

cortex.

widely

occipital,

be

can

bulbar

the

of

portions

pacemaker"

seizures

the

of

to

hemispheres,

two

a common

Additionally,

and

the

of

"in

concludes,

frontal

areas,

"Discharges",

epilepsy.

1954)

Jasper

and

cortical

mal

grand

and

it
is possible
to elicit
From the subthalamus
bilateral
In animals
myoclonic
movements...
bilateral
these
after
movements
can be obtained
removal
cortex
and frontal
of the sensorimotor
lobes.
do not seem to be
Cortical
circuits
involved
in their
They may be accomelaboration.
by changes
in cortical
electrical
activity,
panied
but this
to their
more
seems to be secondary
direct
downstream
centres.
upon lower
motor
action
(Jasper:
On the
Horowitz
in

very

of

gogia
(1978,

the

meaning

and

aphasia,

sleep-talking,
described

lation
(p. 272).
produce

The
an

cognition
or

to

was

and

ranged

from

and

to

complete

scenes

Some of

the

latter

constituted

pictorializations

ideas

motives.

and

And

yet

the

of

"seemed
but

to

compre-

his

verbal

One

speech".

stimu-

electrical
but
memory
my
in

formation

276).

The

which

was

and

humans.

memories

and

others

the

others

patient's
were

prothe

geometric

animals

with

lexical

enhanced

of

contents
and

to

primary

of

lights

can't"

tended

notes,

in

found

those

influence

hypna-

Horowitz

a patient,

with

image

of

elicited

stimulating

on

questions,

sparks,

figures

condensed

reported

in

consciousness

increased

(pp. 274

prevailed

experiences

and

structures

has

Horowitz
of

also

patients

hypnagogic

hold

state

reduced

disinhibited,

cess

the

stimulations,

altered

deep

subject

experiences
grab

the

resembled

or
his

"trying

as

the
of

see

instance,
of

inflections

tonal

contents

patient

those
For

that

reports

of

to

hippocampus

posterior

some

epileptic

subjects.

p. 267)

hend

of

(1978;
of

p. 225)

1954,

Jasper,

and

Horowitz's

similar

normal

left

Penfield

stimulation

system

experiences
the

1968)

al

limbic

the

hand,

other
et

in

images

current
and

were

424
hallucinations

Sometimes

experience.
which

his

on

p. 275)

suggests

that

the

hippocampus
is

MacLean's
posterior

the

hippocampus,

onset

the
if

But,

time

hippocampal

tained,
then

or

imagery

may be
with

confused
degree

of

ness')

is,

external

of

what

indicate
of hypnagogia
ters
of the state.
(1925,1932)

Lhermitte
lesions

that

of

phenomena,

cinatory

the

lation

of

Milner

1954;

van

Bogaert

upper

Reimer

and
brain

Tournay
have

may be

minimum
alert-

experients

and

important

most

showed

or

stem

core

(e. g.,

Olds

and
(1938),

Tournay

(1941),
related,

Rouqes
and

some

hallu-

produce

lesions

Lhermitte

charac-

(1927)

Bogaert

Lhermitte

stem,
of

do

1958).

(1927,1968),

(1970)

so

main-

('passive

tegmentum

mesencephalic

Roberts

Sigwalas(1941),
and

the

van

into

brain

imagery

investigators

and

is

the

thinking

the

diminish.

firing

A certain

as one of

sleep

a regulator

Internal

active

into

also

arousal

as

perception.

course,

at

in

hippocampus

without

arousal

that

cortical

minimum

upset.

severely

fires

considerably

initiated,

the

of

and

into

turn

would

of

a certain

deliberately

even

function

the

firing

diminution

of

gyrus

is

activity

cortical

Pribram

fires

cortex
in

of

actual

of

conjectured

cortico-hippocampal
this

at

be

might

general

when

reduced

it

from
view

which

gyrus

suggestion
maintenance

arriving
In

func-

the

on
the

in

formation".

image

the

with

the

that

is,

area

is

to

pathways

literature

man there

Cuenod,
(1978,

visual

of

the

MacLean

of

1953;

"this

or

imagery.

findings

for-

were

Horowitz

are

images

hippocampal

the

1966)

concerned

internal

and
(1953)

(p. 273).

MacLean

and

of

between

in

a way

those

on

regulation
in

hippocampus

perceptions

and

gyrus
the

prior

occurrence.

"there

review

distinction

the

the

in

(1967)

the

of

hallucinations

either

involved

Douglas's

these

MacLean

hippocampal

some way,

self-perception"

Pribram

1965;

in

seen

by

findings

own

that

posterior

was

self

in

seen

actually

their

of

MacLean

and

tion

of

(e. g.,

co-workers

Casey,

In

many
minutes

within
Drawing

the

the

possible

hypnagogia,

gotten

and

be

not

would

in

As

"never

probably

stimu-

electrical

(1927),

Lhermitte

(1946),
of

and

them

Ey

and
(1957),

identified,

425
hypnagogic

hallucinations

brain-stem

perturbations.

p. 236)

hallucinosis

cular

the

the

and

that

in

real

life

the

whims

of

and

ations
loss

implicated

in

Huntington's
to

wax

and

tigators

indicating

thalamic

nuclei,

the

to

function

"the

that

the

of

is

in

ably
oxygen

the

sleep

be

one

to

1978,

metabolism

of

and

psychosis

"perhaps

that
as

a dream

than

brain

the

hospital

stem

the

worthy
been

previously

p. 71)
both
lesion

population"

found

"an

(1933)

absolutely

person

of

fifty

more

in

the

of

literal
(pp. 454-

supposed"

and

concluded
schizo-

wakeful

excess

blood

hallu-

of

normal

relax-

notice-

low

causes

of

it

with
most

characterization
is

pulse,

respiration,

further,

but
the

slow

and

Hoskins

to

posterfound

increases

the

resting

state

(1966,

Davison

and

had

the

the

of

to

sleep;
of

respect

also

1935),

p. 248).

similar

strikingly

acceptance
5).

of

patients.

either

pressure,

dioxide

hours

(Horowitz

is

phrenic

two
known

also

cination
that

first

or

respect

Priestly

and

of

a characteristic

blood

carbon

inves-

in

Hoskins

In

also

system,

findings

showed

low

alveolar
Haldane

the
is

a group

1903).

various

suggest

gland".

been

may

stem

diencephalon

consumption.

that

(e. g.,

ation

the

(p. 451)

oxygen

known

of

as

hypometabolism"
reduced

schizophrenics

pituitary

patients

p. 450)

of

have

reticular

brain

and

(1933,

phenomena

of
the

of

further

may

(Guyon

findings

the

to

hypnagogia

to

disturbances

volume

urine

lobe

by

Hoskins'

"disturbed
ior

here

latter

illness

schizophrenia

or

hallucin-

phenomena

the

with

diencephalon

instance,

For

these

where

unfurled

restraint

hypnagogic

of

note

narcolepsy,

The

production

wane

of

support

extra

tonus.

chorea

My relating
gain

the

are

all

of

in

abandons

hypnagogic

components

as

subject

from

their

of

They

wherein

relate

also

mesencephalic
in

be

a world
free

They

cataplexy,

of

observed

into

"the

pedun-

located

region.

peduncular

imagination

an

(p. 236).

support"

the

descends

and

dint

system

disturbances

mesencephalic

and

by

related

regulatory

sleep

mesodiencephalic

experiences

strongly

in

(1941,

Sigwald

and

hypnagogic

are

with

connections

Lhermitte

that

out

pointed

hallucinosis

peduncular

with

of

diencephalic

relative

schizophrenic

to

patients.

426
He also

noted

more

sis

both

Further,
1969)
of

diencephalic
in

cated
the

and

the

onset

often

the

continued

Similarly,

Fish

(1961)

marked

anxiety

he

latter

which
phrenia

is

which

vidual

is

and/or

external

filter

mechanism

claim

that

showing
form
in

and
felt

amphetamine

ated

the

Indeed,

1954;

de Vito

n. o. b.
general.

the

subjects

indistinguish1958)

Connell
is

always

nearly

my hypo-

experiences
in

reticular

al

et

supporting

associ-

are

has

(1957)

amphetamine

animals

below

system

plasticity
in

brain

the

may be

structure

1955;

to

and
suggest

implicated
hallucinatory)

(non-object-bound:
point

al

out

of

(see

Scheibel

(1962)

of

modes

core

et

1958;

Scheibels

They

stem

Scheibel

Fujimori

and

cortical

normal

(Mayer-Gross

that

complexity,

the

of

centrality

led

evidence

Bradley

sophistication

organization,

have

in

Fish's

circuits".

clinically

related

the

of

the

level.

midbrain

Eldred

and

indi-

a breakdown

in

activities,

activity

stimulates

internal

and

suggesting

evidence

produced

of

experience

Significantly,

subcortical

with

quantity

quality"

hypnagogic

that

thesis

the

(e. g.,

subjective

a dream-like

have

that

experimental

schizophrenia

"the

p. 300).

1969,

is

system

saying

overdosage

which

paranoid

which

to

by

supported

a psychosis

produces
able

be

severe

schizo-

the

the

of

reticular

cause

in

"jamming

in

or

extreme

of

resulting

stimuli

to

seems

a great

with

the

views

of

associates

the
of

way

another

presented

be

to

considers

result
existence

of

over-activity

al

impli-

Labhardt

the

as

symptoms

et

may be

symptoms.

threatening

personality.
with

functions

psychotic

these

Mayer-Gross
a disturbance

that

propose

a psycho-

(p. 73).

by

cited

mesencephalic
of

of

appearance

stress

and

(1963)

Labhardt

and

(1944:

Staehelin

induced

lesions"

hemisphere

than

quickly

lesions

brain

"basal

that

in

structural
and

activity,

e. g.,

Amassian

Brodal

1957;
1958)

Scheibel
that
the

this
production

phenomena

that

sensory
every
virtually
of collaterals
numbers
this
into
tract
systems
the individual
reticular

sub-

large
system
projects
from
its
centripetal
field..
central
neuropil
cell
receives
usually

in

of

427
impulses
from a number
afferent
of heterogenous
Several
of evidence
sources...
suggest
avenues
that
axonal
extensions
of reticular
cells
may
themextend
as far
as the receptors
peripherally
selves,
and as far
as the cerebral
cephalad
cortex.
have been traced
into
Extensions
virtually
identifiable
the central
every
nuclear
area within
nervous
system.
(Scheibel

(1955)

Granit

and
that

respectively
or

by

inhibited

the

of

portion
of

in

potential

Scheibel

intimate

and

terminals

bably

all

and

single

cells

can

retinal
in

the

of
end

of

(1962)

Scheibel

that
core indicate
in the following:
present

that

stimulation

Eldred

and

Fujimori

to

muscles.

projecting

p. 23)

Golgi

of

receives
stem

collaterals
that

and

pro-

from

projections
reticular

on

axonal

the
Scheibel

core.

data

latter's

the

axons

nuclei"

the

indi-

preparations

reticular

nerve

"throughout

that

report

our

summarizing

stem

tegmental

mesencephalic

nucleus.

stem,

brain

the

facilitated

auditory

cranial

cortex

be

of

(1962,

all

studies
of
have shown

depression

participation
in

the

which

and

feedbacks

brain

p. 18)

in

results

cochlear

the

the

formation,

reticular

Scheibel

of

cate

anterior

Hernandez-Peon

reticular

and

length

the

to

stimulation

the

found

further

1962,

point
(1955)

tegmentum

midbrain

(1953)

(1962)

Scheibels

The

Scheibel

and

the

brain

are

elements

first,
if
at most,
not all,
sensory
receptor
second,
areas;
at all
relays
at successively
'higher
levels'
of integration
and differentiation;
third,
if
at virtually
all,
not all,
cortical
sites;
and fourth,
presumably
at all
intermediate
and terminal
spinal
along
stations
effector
pathways.
(Scheibel
Thus,

brain

the

system
cally

that
and

activity

can

core

demonstrated

to

physiologically

at

each

appears
be
or

p. 27)

1962,

Scheibel

reticular

stem
be

and

to

involved
all

levels

be

the

only

anatomiof

(p. 30).

The most anterior


part
of the brain
stem core,
the so-called
thalami,
nucleus
reticularis
sits
diencephalocortical
athwart
all
and corticodiencephalic
and receives
systems
collateral
from both.
A cell
this
ensemble
neuropil
within
field
both
projects
multiple
rostrad
axon systems
The unique
and caudad,...
position
geographical

neural

428
is known of
and what little
nucleus,
of this
it
that
its
trajects,
may serve
suggests
axonal
functions
to the
in a way similar
to control
in a vacuum tube.
grid
screen
(Scheibel
The

control

body-posture,
may

to

induced

in

make

the

felt

the

ordinary

initial

stages

may be
being

in

a rhythmical

pulsating

a "pandemonium

of

bizarre

familiar

sounds"

(p. 51).

medulla

oblongata

control

respiration
in

out

as well

as

this

With

production

the

loss

of

breathing

'psychics',

practitioners

meditators

(see

patterned

breathing
these

"disturbance
of

during

critically

loss

there

is

the

occult,

chapters)
achieve

speak
paranormal

psi

and

important

an

p. 127)
oblongata,

of

consciousness...

equally

some

Again,

circulation".

of
to

is

mystics
of

and

employing
In

effects.

instance,
for
Swedenborg
as with
cases,
instead
of breathing"
of accompanying
may

consciousness

latter

or

relevant

that

medulla

produce

the

state

lead

to
of

an

intensification

hypnagogia.

in

nerves

latter

the

the

(a)

may play
(1952,
Cairns

consciousness

of

of

can

pons,

by

that

hypnagogic

of

accomfloating,

structure

"disturbance

that

body

far-distant

known

the

results

or

followed

is

both

both.

of

occurrence

disturbance

some

brain

old

medulla

the

certain

(b)
of

the

seemingly

found

that

and

this

of

be

pressure

causes,
of

it

since
to

are

the

experiences,
in the
role
pointed

Further,

(Muldoon

sensations

and

the

ecsomatosis

in

head-pulling"

"somewhat

of

he

during

tremendous

pressure

or

hearing

involved

"a
head,

the

This

and

a "pull"

of

conscious

of

of

Fox

Muldoon

feeling

zigzagging

hypnagogic-

oblongata

shaking

vibratory,

learned

subjects

some

mention

that

(p. 51).

some

OOBEs.

as

cataplexic

medulla

back

the

induced

"exteriorizations".

reports
the

respiration,

things,

such

"projections".

his

region"

by

the

of

by

exerted

panied

specific

1965)

preceded

oblongata
in,

made

of

Carrington

and

achieve

p. 26)

cortically

other

that
and

to

region

even

among

"Psi"

on

stem

phenomena,

both

pp. 126-7)
at

psi
on

states

and

on,

chapter
of

use

hypnopompic
(1962,

light

shed

hypnagogically

brain

the

reflexes,

spinal

movements,
We saw

by

exerted

1962,

Scheibel

and

of

the
loss
the

429
The

hypnagogia

in

eously
sheer
himself.
was

to

understand.

that

aware

Later

in

life

followed

Muldoon

by

hypnagogia.

the

case

a victim

of

meanq

to

locate

(p. 50).

these

phenomena

with

the

produced
epilepsy

"became

gifted
time

same

(p. 104;

epilepsy"

seem

a deliberately

who

see

the

experience,
not

me"

phenomena

about

such

could

tell

of

a woman

powers

by

induce

to

these

of

clairvoyant

became

by

accompanied

one

not

spontan-

unable

where

would

He connects

reports

unusual

but

learned

ecsomatosis

is

describing

existed,

My memory

occurring

and
but

exists

putit in

Muldoon

preceded

one

As Muldoon

"I

and

are

that

awareness

by

described

phenomena

with

when

she
1968b,

Green

also

p. 214).
The

by

suggested

the

that

reports
Eusapia

that

"in

taste

and

smell

a telepathic

most

"visceral"

rightly

remarked,
its

most

vital

senses,

as

primitive

that

is,

fits

that

states

"psi

in

knowing

of

psi

there

being

smell
(1978,

p. 61)

remarks

as

within

vague

presen-

disorientations".
to

are

coen-

a depressing

weeping,
or

the

that

arising
of

the

p. 284)

known

sensations

hypnagogia

of

agents

may produce

confusions

my relating
to

of

being

sensations

to

premonitions,

Supporting
and

telepathy

including
rise

senses

Koestler

(1948,

form

p. 67 on
pp. 52-53)

the

structures

Warcollier

may give
or

vities

the
oldbrain

organs,

it

timents

functioning"

disturbances,

esthetic
type;

was

brain'.

'visceral

keen

they

1977,

Huson

experiment
me as

by

when

(1941,

state
of

better

Garrett

serving

structures

strengthened

(see

sitters

telepathic

were

be

oldbrain

function

to

Further,
the

that

the

their

of

further

may
tend

Palladino).

notes

"in

above
by

on"

involvement

the

psychics

"turned

are

for

argument

acti-

subcortical.
to

reports

the

in

has seemed more consistent


animals
in humans"
(Morris
than
1976,
in
that
p. 241)
suggesting
humans there
by cognitive
may be interference
eleboration
effect

and

distortion

Tart

1977).

obtained

(For

from

higher

Moreover,
from

precorticate

more detailed

J. R. Smythies,

some

centres
of

in

these

animals

the

have

results
(e. g.,

argumentation
along
'Science
ed.,
and ESP',

(see

brain

Reik

also

been

1949).

these

lines

1971,

and in

see

430
Hardy's

particular
In

in

tures
not

wish

can

be

or

the

ignore

to

loss

that

work

harness,

between
is

which
and
It

is

here

not

achieved,
dominance

becomes

and

1969;

Bogen
1974)

Galin
features

correlated

creativity,
linear),,

Gazzaniga

are

general,

with

right

have

independence
by

thalamus

the

hypnagogia.
is

independence
brain

that

lateralization
1969a;

Bogen
1970;

holistic

approach
activity

and
the

that
and

to

those

exactly

the

Bogen

Galin

(or
following

To begin

claims.

artistic

normally

ever

pre-

subcortical.

hemisphere
I

such

and

independence

of

but

to argue
appear
to hypnagogia,

activities.

against

1969;

al

might
in

sub-

dis-

be

they

this

complete

hemispheric

ascribed

phenomena

side)

et

by

arguments:

for

Sperry

1968;

some

stem

during

desirable,

for

can

the

crude

controlled

'irrationally'

clearly

hemispheric

Evidence

is

do

by

known

degree
It

that
is

it

that

or

Against

a fair

But
can

of

brain

the

in

result

emotion".

although

structures

claimed

out

loss

are

of

thalamus.

subcortical

other

points

followed

been

that,

declared

probably

p. 141)

consciousness

level

is

there
and

cortex

that

and

thalami

be

wakefulness

known

also

has

directly
wealth

can

by

or

be

their

and

may

It

phenomena
However,
even in

still

the

of

memorizing

any

at

is

It

thalamus.
in

reason

do

these

on

lobes

addition,

and

lesions

by

turbed

data

frontal
will,

and

sleep

'centres'

cortical

may
(1952,

(pp. 141-2).

consciousness"
now

of

of

level.

the

struc-

phenomena

some

"destruction
in

subcortical

Cairns
both

and,

profound

that

given

of

that

thing

same

on

structures

of

notes

also

time

cortical

disturbance

profound

most

the

organization.

"destruction

the

fact

involved

indirectly

that

the

subcortical

cases

structural

he

at

and ESB').

hallucinatory

of

production

elicited

these

importance

primary

placing

'Biology

on

article

with,
(as

(e. g.,

(e. g.,

Sperry

1969b;

Bogen
1972;

Ornstein

psychological

hallucinatory
to

claimed

nondominant
to
points
such features

opposed
spatial,

to

be

brain
make
as

sequential-

musical),

431
unconscious
perties

of

the

related

to

subcortical

(1974,

Galin

during

sphere

verbal
hemisphere

the

has

task

hard

is

clusion

in

hypnagogic

(visual)

easier

energy.

receptive

state
less

expends
be

of

than

the

dominant
and

such

to

the

the
an

expenditure

the

general

passiveAre

onset.

one?

How can

evolutionally?

By

lessened

of

brought

are

structures

we

hemisphere

nondominant

states

states)

subcortical

features

The
are

those
be

not

this

expenditure
on by

the
sleep

controlling

of

trary,

we speak
to

refer

sters

(Puech

known

to

as

such
et

al

in

1947;

(Cairns

1952,

nondominant

through

older

and

in

as we )saw above,

such

as the
out

only

and

devel-

existence

of

which

On the
when

con-

we
Decor-

evolution.

and

hydrocephlic

Sedgwick

mon-

1949)

are
being

a babyish

way,

when

Clearly,

here

we do

p. 113).

hemispheric

temporal

neocortex
to

respect

there

the

evolution?

Nielsen

"pleasure,

have

hemisphere

anencephalic

display

to"

features,

paleocortex

anatomy

sung
Further,

grew

of

brain

humans

ticate

showing

sets of
a 'right'

hemisphere

'left'

the

two

having

hemisphere

nondominant

phylogenetically
dominant
Should
one.

correlations

these

animals

the
and

to

ascribed

anatomical

opment

to

ascribed

ontogenetically

clearly

than

the

in

switching

sleep

whole,

operations

wakefulness.

and

of

at

con-

bilateral

Workers

with

the

that

This

requiring

organism

(trophotropic

activities

of

well

physiologically
we know

energy

of

on

energy

explained

contrast,

spoken

In
engaged

showing

1954).

mode

the

of

less

rhythm".
data

alpha

tasks.

mathematical

Jasper

accords

hemimore

be

to

idling

often

This

that,

suppose

spatial

cognitive

less

to

the

with

and

have

area

during

expected

alpha

right

relatively

intricate

Penfield

the

and

reconcile

during

alpha

continuous
(Jasper:

of

to

in

higher

tasks,

the

of

more

being

laterilization

over

hemisphere

the

words,

other

idling)

of

instance,

"relatively

reported

the

left

the

over
in

p. 573)

hemispheric

to

respect

pro-

to

opposed

For

structures.

(a measure

amplitude

as

be

to

shown

hemisphere

nondominant

in

experiments

clearly

not

are

processes,

of

appreciation
cortically

blind

not

music.

humans

and

432
animals

been

have

were

able

monopolised
by

'driven'

gogia

spasms

myoclonic
level.

whole

be

functional

in

out

an

initial

of

expanded

Sterman's

(1972,

decerebrate

also
4-7
even

the

baby

pointed

out

cerebral

drawn

attention

theta

called

waves
alpha

subcortical

struc-

on

been

if

to

the

are
states

nondominant
both

with

laterali-

a development

like

that

a point
Furthermore,
to

infants

of

has

place

Walter
fact

predominant.
"decorticate"

pass

without
and

that

com-

Cairns

babies

growing

since
been

often

Similarly,

takes

the

my hypothesis

to

child.

the

intui-

hemisphere

mentation

cortex.

and

candi-

natural
to

looks

which

above.

position

connections

support

that

cortex

discussed

the

chapter.

or

the

holistic,

likening

more

the

cps

next

the

of

(Penfield

laterlization,

pp. 194-5)

consciousness

of

cipation

has

that

of

fact

hypnagogic

p. 113)

a state

in

lends

cat

'regressive'

(1952,

that

equal

hemispheres

ascribed

suggest
this

has

stem

ser-

More-

geographical

axonal

solved

monopoly.

them

subcortical

be

to

their

their

then

which

exert

has

sometimes

hemispheres

zation

could

'regressive',

Further,

a fact

of

two

they

render

features

etc.,

is

the

that

argue

are

of

independence

'primitive',

the

cerebral

have

control

'seniority'

for

pared

the

to

further

hemisphere.

the

significance

in

problems

a hemispheric
brain
the upper
the

stem

'Creativity',

none

with

floating,

brain

the

at

composed,

heard,

hypna-

dizziness,

on

The

relative

evolutionary

will

as

earlier,

regard

would

tive,

are
is

of

1954).

their

date

chapter

relationships

Jasper

tures

the

poems

thought

noted

as

over

controlled

speech

meaningful

iously

and

in

As we saw

hypnagogia

and

are

all

spont-

during

respiration,

of

the

areas

Certain

appearing

phenomena

by

these

hemisphere.

particular

decrease

as

such

from

is

brain

the

witnessed

emerging

rhythms

physiological

aneous

and

any

as

structures

7 cps

from

hypnagogia

in

that

subcortical

predominating
not

do so if visuo-spatial
appreciation
hemisphere.
by the nondominant
to

we know

By contrast,

and

visual
stimuli
and move
beings.
They would
sighted

accurately
like
environment

their

about
not

to

may respond

in

Dovey

through
parti(1944)

childhood

Fischer
states.

(1975)
In

433
Luria

addition,
"the

when

(as

association
It

and

use

making

of

(old
to

also

return

both

in

regards

ence

to

the

and

data

and

latter's

schizophrenia,

further

points

made

nature

of

relationship
and

expand

creativity.

In

this
to

epiland

paleocortex
I

this

shall

chapters

earlier

hypnagogia
with

on

relating

doing
in

hypna-

also
activities.

between
In

the

by'sound

hypnagogic

but

arguments

dichotomy

inhibitory

childhood.

only

subcortical

new brain).

certain
to

to

shall

functional

the

not

of

-- a punin

experiences

chapter

words

and

that

concluded

related

are

an

association)

hypnagogia

quasi-perceptual

following

neocortex

cism,

be

mentation

and

in

into

to

responded

that

showed
dose

put

was

to*sense

common

thus,

may,

visions

epsy

he

p. 90)

appropriate

cort'ex

opposed

phenomenon

ning

theme

the

(my underlining)

state"

the

and

the

given

was

hydrate,

chloral

gogic

and

subject

(1959,

Vinogradova

and

meditation,

in

refermysti-

CHAPTER 17

THE OLD VERSUS THE NEW BRAIN:

In

to

respect

(1964)

McLean

epilepsy,

writes:

limbic
From animal
epilepsy
on
experimentation
has become
it
by electrical
(induced
stimulation)
induced
in the
that
seizure-discharges
evident
in their
lobe
to be confined
limbic
tend
spread
Such experiments
to the limbic
provide
system...
the most striking
of a dichoavailable
evidence
has been called
(or what
tomy of function
a'schizolimbic
the
systems).
and neocortical
of
physiology'
limbic
may
Patients
epilepsy
with
smouldering
the
the symptoms
of schizophrenia:
all
manifest
is possibly
in question
relevant
schizophysiology
disease...
From the
to the pathogenesis
of this
lying
the
the
on the couch,
patient
of
standpoint
is
consideration
signiunder
schizophysiology
indicates
because
it
that
the lower
ficant
mamdegree
function
brain
is
to
to
some
able
malian
The primiindependently,
to make up its
own mind.
by the limbic
tive,
provided
cortex
crude
screen
be imagined
as portraying
a confused
picture
might
world.
and the outside
of the inside

(McLean
the

In
tant
to

above

the

both

correlates
I

shall
to

as

ations

feeling

the

of
chapters

cortical

structures'
the

meaning
as

that

of
term

a convenient

connotations:
cortex

which

McLean's
leptic

it
is

the

to

stand

level.

cortical
is

used

is

in

nature

'oldbrain'

relevant
discharges
tend

older

shall

'sub-

structures

bearing

term

its

In

the
be

same

using

phylogenetic
than

the

cerebral

limbic

epithe

acquisition.

remarks
to

brain

of

collectively

a mammalian

term

and

hypnagogia.

in

which

because

consider-

consciousness

of

all

chapter.

previous

self-explicit
for

brain

the

include

to

in

hypnagogia

of

the

and

out
them

regarding

Another

and

them

features

experienced

certainty

relevent

discussing

to

my view

and

highly

are

impor-

of

a number

point

expressed
on the latter

genesis

previous
below

to

and

shall

experiential

expand
the

makes

which

chapter

hypnagogia

of

Indeed,

the

states

adjacent

and

of
I

this

of

rest
to

relation

three

discussion.

my current

devote

least

pp. 10-11).

McLean

quotation

at

remarks

1964,

are:

confine

-434-

First,
themselves

to

both

435
limbic

inside

the

second

system;

dichotomy
systems,
'deciding'

'oldbrain'

the

tends

to

confuse
is a
there

third,
world;
and the outside
limbic
between
function
and neocortical
of
being capable
the former
and
of functioning
degree independently
to a certain
of the

neocortex.
discussing

In
in

that

mind

selves

not

the

to

mpanied

by

ences.

Indeed,

by

limbic
of
that

cating
may

in

of

effect

and

behaviour,

sex

or

and

under

ved

to

have

surgical
lobe

to

inability

of

cases
the

Miller

seizure,

due

concomitant
it
may be
area;
the
the

level

result

to

of

to

the

related
oldbrain)
life

defend

On the

an

other

or
itself
hand,

defunctionalization

is

fear

is

of

fear

and

against

perver-

or

habits
in

is

a particular

a mere
limbic
(at

cognition

seizure
in

may
the

surgical

terminate
of

event

during

experience
to

those

accompanies

fear

a predator
(akin

anger,

and

that

of

limbic

the

and/or

it

mystical

obser-

are

parental

instinctive

incapacitate

with

context

dogs

loss

the

the

combine

a wider

of

of

that

in

experience

parts

precedes

an

experi-

Conversely,

emotion

to

indi-

a spilling

may

possible

excitation

is

states

loci

and

mating,
It

to

there

of

of

situations,

experienced

the

organism's

having
fit.

of

abolition

where

the

there

to

1960).

al

epilepsy

results

that

certain

feeding,

et

the

various

which

painful

avoid

instinctual

of

(e. g.,

lead

excised

are

sion

in

ablations

remark

system

cognitive

feeding).

during

erections

experi-

confined

and

of

acco-

his

limbic

babies

circumstances

normal

areas

epilepsy

behaviour
aggressive
(Interestingly,
in

e. g.,

pre-

cortex

be

'abnormalities'

in

activity.

oral

show

which

resulting

to

by

stimulation

animals

tend

emotional

supported

electrical

oldbrain
over

is

This

qualify

the

within

of

a number

result.

ments

discharge

the

the

subjective

limbic

in

However,

the

to

careful

discharges

limbic

system.

a spread

is

McLean

in

oldbrain

of

related

of

occurrence

that

saying

the

the

of

parts

on various

them-

confine

As we saw

stimulation

electrical
clearly

reflect

may

discharges

level.

bear

we must

observation

'oldbrain'

all

subcortical

chapter,

vious

first

McLean's

may

the
be

the

ablation)

436
parts
of certain
(in addition
to

the

of

and stimulation
of
the higher
cortical

oldbrain
of

a suppression

others

centres).
in

As we saw

and

achieve

1-5

of

maximum
fear

of

the

physiological

and

receptive

(e. g.,
but

meditation
denied
often
sublimated

in

as

one

the

"realizing

how

limated
the

to

However,

the

tent

meditation
unlikely

are

their

is

supported

other

to

have

nervous

declare

permanent

is

that

of

symbolizing

the

their

experiences

the

ouroboros,
The

with

boundaries

the

Absolute
that

the

Cosmos",

tempting
has

the

and

the

choice

of

by

argument
of

with
symbol
bites

a form

them
in

mysticism

its

own

tail,

perhaps
or

unconscious
abolition

who

mystics

(and

internal

mystics

'conditions'

unconscious

an

that

persis-

'physiological'

the

argue

reality.

long

that

see

sub-

to

permanent

to

and
to

practised

suggests

distinguish

"becoming

representing

The

snake

return

reports

difficult

reports

the

be

to

expressions

all

carry
important

the
to

return

autosexuality).

union

An

are

sought

(pre-ablated)

experiential

mutation.
the

is

created
This

in

"expanding

at

exercises

system.

by

that

of

of

and
not

in

to

pre-mystical
is debatable.
issue

being

with

animal,

the

positions

union",

symbols

ablated

avoided:

instincts

with

one

It

the

unlike

returning

as

not

Interestingly,

not

instincts.

oldbrain

mystic,

is

stand

near

supplanted

are

oneself",

It

expressions

such

and

replete

within

are

mating

"divine

World".

the

embracing

and

"becoming

Cosmos

the

to

are

abstinence.

Absolute",

by
system

attention

instincts

are

go are

partly

crosslegged

ignored,

marriage",

the

with

from

pain

experiences
"divine

leads

expression

ascetic

to

sympathetic-adrenal

feeding

'normal'

conquered

that

Also

(stages

emotions

likewise,

simply

noise,

parasympathetic

situations,

elsewhere).

mystical

are
the

characteristic

exercises:

such

to

all

avoided

directed

of

switch

a process

ignored

are
not

they

Painful

features.

is

anger:

mode,
of

elimination

first

make

internal

withdrawal

the

to

seeks
and

external

Two of

and

meditator

psychological

meditation).

those

they

desires,

emotions,

with

away

10 the

chapter

or
from

the

weakening
the

437
(proprioceptive

external
the 'I'

from

sensations)
and exteroceptive
(loosening
of ego boundaries).

'It'

the

as we saw earlier,
They are also
of hypnagogia.
"in
As Sedman (1966, p. 2) observed,
turbance
which leads to a change in
there

sciousness
in

change

states
in

and/or

self

ness

just

experienced

are

start

experiences
control

things,

clearer

head

(Sedman

1966,

setting

in

of
of

see

As

in

the

of
the

and

reality

aware-

Sometimes

epileptic

power

ability
I have

and

an
heavens

ecstatic
hear

open,

transfigured,

or

one

reported:

epileptic

to

everything"

of
in

the

acco-

however,

expectancy,

"occur

may

is

a sense

understanding

feel

(p. 3).

often.

a sense

epileptics

God"

either
by

of

feeling

They

Others

this

sense

a clearer

p. 3).

God speaking.
themselves

is

there

which

of conindeed
inseparable

unreality
i. e.,

as

"a

with

and

of

a strong

of

level

patients

derealization

and/or

feelings

any
the

some

environment",

depersonalization
obverse

In

a sense

of
the

epilepsy.
disepileptic

be a concomitant,

will

awareness.

self

by

mpanied

feature

are characteristic
to be found in

These,

feel

even

they
Everything
more vivid,
as though
appeared
I felt
I was
as though
were in technicolour.
the experience
was so lovely
of it...
part
to anything
I
I didn't
pay attention
else...
I can't
had so many visions,
pick
out any one,
by
like
replaced
another
was
vision
every
beautiful
Our Lady...

a continuous
Joseph
and

the time,
all
There was the
beautiful

I
to

picture.
I seemed

them everything
with
seemed placid...
sound of lovely
music - so
describe

couldn't

it.

(Sedman 1966,
(p. 4)

Sedman
but

In
to

respect

confuse

further

with

associates

often

also

of

to

his

the inside
remarks

by

reported

the

merging

that

the

is

rule,

states

of

elated

always
together
the

with

Changes

in

with

environbody

schema,

depersonalization,

epileptics.

observation

with the

pp. 3-4)

mood

phenomena".

visual

Sedman

which
are

the

or

ment

is

tranquility
experience

a pantheistic

"the

that

comments
of

a sense

saw Saint
be in it

outside
clinical

that

the

world,
impression

tends

oldbrain

McLean

(1961)

gained

is

438
patients

the
regard
themselves.
ded

the

children

and

resemblance

to

by

1978,

Koestler

of

is

internalization

hypnagogia,

p. 289)
the

an epileptic

of

funny

in

taste

my mouth

internalization
translation

or

into

another,

tactile
and
thetic

by

shared

(Galton

state

in

pathological
(e. g.,
gogia
they

McLean's

may

along

further

that

the

limbic

strengthen

the

states.

As

internal

the

world,

outside

and

for

images,
from

over
form

is

of

one

modality

in

which

is
and

mild

in

the
forms
in

and
1948)

hypna-

where
exper-

a dichotomy
the
of

of

neocortex,
to

a switch

and

related

remarked,

central
with
initiating

kines-

"aura-like",

there

p. 286)

sensations

kinesthetic,

exaggerated

hypnagogia

a strategically

correlating

on

possibility

(1978,

Koestler

data

individuals

system

during

only

tactile

input

"a

a crossing

another

other,

observation

predominance

occupies

with
p. 70).

oldbrain
brain

take

1957,

between

function

it

(e. g.,. Luria


1975)
1911,
Vihvelin

Hollingworth

(McKellar

iences

also

phenomena

normal

1883)

states

reported

are

in

encountered

are

waking

These

another.

not

crossing

is

another
information

dissolution:

boundary

forms

into

having

perceptual

with

into

walked

auditory,
into
visual

This

(1978,

Koestler

shows

of

turn

sensations.

modality

sense

one
is

other

and

in

meditation,

of

but

carries

often

by

sun",

group

sensations

imagery

and

experience

hypnagogia

as in

and other

visual

one

onto-

characteristics

a child

environment

of

just

as

the

of

the

of

over

the

of

we observed

quoted
who

girl

reported

and

sunlight

The

a
(quoted

suggestion

hypnosis

An example

is

peoples"

clear.
in

as

there

respect
The

it

in

sensed

experienced

incorporability

through

present.

is

primitive

quite

and
and

also

are

this

pp. 288-9).

regression

genetic

otherwise

world

In

were

or

outside

inside.

it

though

heard

seen,

that

a way

such

is

what

with

"show

tendency
to
an exaggerated
it were part of
external
as though
world
feelings
internal
In other
words,
are blen-

these

that

the

position
perceptions
appropriate

oldfor
from
action

439
according

own
it

emotes

in

McLean

to

primitive

that

says

who

thinks

and

(ib.,

concepts

verbal

has

it

i. e.,

lights,

processes:

mental
not

its

to

the

although

own

though

p. 283).

its

He quotes
may be

oldbrain

too

language

analyse

it
have the capacity
to partimight
yet
in a non-verbal
type
of symbolism.
cipate
implications
have significant
This
would
the emotional
as symbolism
affects
as far
imagine,
One might
life
of the individual.
brain
the visceral
for
though
that
example,
to conceive
of the
aspire
never
could
word
of a three-letter
red in terms
colour
it
of light,
wave-length
or as a specific
the colour
symbolically
with
associate
could
blood,
fainting,
diverse
things
as
such
flowers,
fighting,
etc.,
- correlations
leading
to phobias,
obsessive-compulsive
the help
behaviour,
Lacking
etc.
and
its
impressions
of the neocortex,
control
be discharged
without
modification
would
into
the hypothalamus
and lower
centres
behaviour.
Considered
of affective
in the light
psychology,
of Freudian
have many of the
the old brain
would
id.
of the unconscious
attributes
however,
that
One might
the
argue,
is not at all
brain
unconscious
visceral
(possibly
not even in certain
stages
but rather
the
eludes
of sleep),
because
its
grasp
of the intellect
structure
and primitive
animalistic
impossible
to communicate
makes it
in verbal
terms.
(McLean:

We have
is
that
by

'paralogical'.
the
the

level
not

In

notion

of

notion
of

of

of

mere

implying

only

but

a shift

shift

also
of

is
both

sameness
and

on

the

functioning

to

the

on

of

of

oldbrain

often
the

conceptual

weakening

a reduction
to

it

higher

has

mentation
been

totally

observed
replaced

quasi-perceptual
level.

This

consciousness
cerebral

is

activity

An extreme

activity.
oldbrain

p. 287).

1978,

Koestler

hypnagogia

particular,

similarity

imagery

a matter

in

that

seen

already

by

quoted

may

lead

to

one

or

440
the

(or

other
both)

to

two

of

truction,

linked

system

the

when

to

the

the

considerable

(a)

des-

Koestler's

use

terms,

tendencies,
sympathetic

In

respectively.

is

shift

to

integrative

and

cases,

activities:

or,

preservation,

physiologically

sympathetic

pathological

of

groups

tendencies

self-assertive

extreme

really

polarized
(b)

and

may be

in

even,

either

which

and

however,

case,
logic

resulting

para-

is

to the locus of excitation.


For instance,
peculiar
limbic
the attack
is known
in many epileptic
seizures
by fear or anger suggesting
the
to be accompanied
limbic
locus
of
a
particular
correlated
excitation
feeling"
the "lost
that
emotions;
usually
this
type of attack
can only manifest
accompanies
that
itself
one is 'cut
as a form of realization
off',
in danger of dissolving
isolated,
and losing
one's
(self-assertion)
implying
identity
identity,
that
is
these

with

important

to

tendencies

in

half

lower

the

tendencies

1978,

p. 292).

careful

not

the

animal

have

wider

self-preservation

the

limbic

be

to

in

species"
too

in

kingdom,

as

human

aspects

than

those

in

mind

drawing

of

be

must

with

parallels
and

cognitions
bearing

between

(self-transcending)

integrative

one

animals;

dichotomy

the

(Koestler

part

level

emotions

"preservation

the

upper

human

those

and

with

the

the

on
literal

instincts

system

concerned

However,

qualification
and

of

the

of

mystic's

everything
manifests
to a different
limbic

and

instincts

and

welfare

and

one with

the

correlate
of his experience
of
in respect
to animals,
McLean

drives

localised

has

hand,

other

and points

as the cerebral
Interestingly,

bliss.

On the

patient.
of being

feeling

ecstatic
integrative
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aspects

the

self-

assumption

perhaps,

(a)

to

as

and

tendency

viz.,

us

latter

the

latter

hypnagogia,

of

the

function

abandonment,

(or,

self-awareness

of

relinquish

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with

merge

and

features

implicit

the

nature
of

LEB,

inimical,

not

the

integrative
viz.,

only

neocortex.

to

above

tendencies,

transcending

and perhaps

my description

by

characterized

fear

by the

the

of

relevance

oldbrain,

and
its

upper
the

other

noted,

cere-

correlative
brain

RAS and

stem
its

is

reci-

structures.

oldbrain

"it

'self-

is

now possible

448
identify

to

a thalamo-cortical

inhibition,

capable

partially

for
is,

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and

those

of

system

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reticular

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medial
that

of

in

activity

alpha
higher

brain

the

frequency

fact

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ting

afferent
deal

which

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sensory

signals

do with

to

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cular

neurons

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PGO spikes

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paradoxical

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(The

subject

dealt

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of

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fact,

blocked

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station

may have
hypnagogia.
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system

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(NREM)

sleep.

thought

the

sleep

in

the

cat.

and

dreams

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chapters
'localization'

of

reti-

production

in

sleep
to

in-

to

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in

(REM)

with

in

cerebrum

implicated

detail

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spindling

a relay

genesis

quiet

medi-

sleep.

from

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arousal

system

rhythmic

hypnagogia

more

myself

concern

shall

yield

relating

in

with

mediates

and

can

1963a).

Magoun

also

as

to

raphe

hibit

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acts

the

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stem

activation

stimulation

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brain

upper

cortex

electrical

the

a great

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induces

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reticular

nuclei)

that

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cease.

thalamic

(intrinsic

and

are

excitability

cortical

nucleus

of

part

and

system

diffuse

the

motor,

mechanism
(see

activating

whereas

depression

ates

ascending

brain

the

of

reduced

excitation"

internal

sensory,

this

of

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of

its

become

action

internal

alertness

the

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of

consequences

activity

that

so

functions

nervous

opposite

modifying

globally,

or

higher

of

for

mechanism

9;

here

awareness

I
and

self-awareness).
it

Thus,
1976;
on

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that

and

"visceral"

brain
"the

sations

that

to

(Koestler
absent"
(1958)
McLean
put it,
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believe

with,

these

'thing'
i. e.,

arousal,
(like

one

loses

loses

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would

senprobably

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spirits".
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be wrong
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view

a pencil)

old

bodily

we should
to

and

cortical

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of

reality

based.

gains

on

the

of

begin

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consciousness

dependent

entirely
finds

to

Oswald

dependent

awareness

internal

premises

appear

a subject
and

own

arguments

their

arguments

behaviourist

our

p. 289),
"disembodied

on which

criteria

with

1978,

these

is

1890;

James

contribution

us

of

by

consciousness

the

provide

experience

only

that

without

be

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not

but

activation

activity,

(e. g.,

argued

1978)

Koestler

cortical

often

as

criteria

of

consciousness

depending

on

his

EEG

449

of

research

able
the

reticular

that

carry

formation

specific
(Oswald

ether

shock

to

leg

to

that

identical

"the

whereas
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p. 38).

this

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) to

(awake?

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if

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to

'resides'

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sought
to

continued

show

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cortex

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of

acquisition
therefore,
its

own
that

seem

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as

a criterion

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would

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is

reality
for

hallucinations.

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yield
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drugged

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on
of

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argument

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notion
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contrary,

consciousness
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spirits":

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other

animals

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formation.

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do

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electric

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1967)

relationships

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small"

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the

animals
how

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normal

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cortex"

evoked

'residence'

Kleitman

decorticate

same

habits

were

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(e. g.,

experiments

in

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reticular

conscious
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it

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signals

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animal

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thus

of

animals'

time

the

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part

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cortex

during

is

animal

was

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thiopentone,

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in

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example

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in

of

animals

a cortical

animals

reticular

diminished,

in

cortex.

to

in
drug

potential

stimuli

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instance,

pathways

human

impulses

registered

anaesthetized

"when

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evoked

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into

off

criteria

on

barbiturate

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the

for

to

that

the

branch

sensory

above

nerve

p. 37);
or

the

up

send

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1976,

given

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to

demonstrate

main

failure

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shows other
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it

cular

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through

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afferents"

formation

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ness

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existence

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or sleep,
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wakefulness

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invoked

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450
is

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tive

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and

assertive

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cerebral

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notion

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areas

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with
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for

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hemisphere,

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of

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in

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specific

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and

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subthalamus

cortex

logic:

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is

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cortex

argued,

to

not

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structures,

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sequential

premises,

1948)

such

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(1938,1957)

oldbrain:

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provides

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conclusion

consciousness

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that

Nielsen

and

indeed

a distinction

is

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cons-

a distinction

such

distinction

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and

'cortical
as

advocate

logical

the

oldbrain.

(1951;

when

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premise

major

by

clearly

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to

there

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myself

importance.

utmost

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do.

Koestler

and

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and

ciousness'

between

distinguish

to

tempting

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and

hemithe
self-

451

'reality

mental
of

based

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consciousness

are:

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a subsequent

being

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is

intend

between

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p. 37).

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former
been

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are

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synonymous".
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against

concepts,

aware,

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possible
here

argue

attributes

passed.

wakefulness

to

the

having

of

contrast,

distinction

statement

and

environ-

of

"by

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do not

utilization

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in

(1976,

describe

cortex.

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seen

to

able

continues,

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by Oswald

response,

experience,

criteria

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offered

skilled

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behaviourist

on

especially

since

a person may be asleep


and yet
I would like
to draw attention
to the fact
conscious,
intensify
that meditators
internal
their
by
experiences
(a) ceasing
(cortically)
to think.
analytically
and
(b)

increasing

breathing
in

or

1972,1975,

is

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on

Swedenborg),

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attention,

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and

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to

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of

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through

absorption
hypnagogia,

in

state

carried

out
is

which

giving

also

physiological

criteria

consciousness
(e. g.,

away'
known to

thus

1978,

to

a dissociated

subject's

'miles

known

and
(whether
to

withdrawn,

1969),

is

lead

of

away

creation'.

orientation

wakefulness

most

completely

case:

and

or

blood.

the

image

a mental

on

of

formation)

reticular
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intensification

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psi,

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to

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carbon

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stimulus

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of

lexical.

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ness

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individuals,

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note

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van

especially,
we have

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to

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diately

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creative

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oxygen

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in

speech
as

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create

a shortage

(e. g.,

activity
p. 80)

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reticular

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Huxley's

as we might
decrease
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may

say.

respiration

reticular

452
formation

intensify

and

(a)

hypnagogia

in

(c)

decreases,

by

evidenced

we have

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real

cortical

than
and

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reports):

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reality"

meditation

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reports

meditational
nature;

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cases

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awareness;

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things).
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suggest

seizures

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epileptics'

increased

that

neurons

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at

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as

excitation
the

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if

consciousness,
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epileptics

self-awareness,
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render

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as

excitation

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experienced

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explained

instance,
on

to

said

self-awareness

awareness,

frequent

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for

on

1978,

further

may

awareness

self-preservation)
in the oldbrain,
arguing,
of

also

attacks.

tive

fication

is

psi

awareness

state)

is

which

epileptic

'fascinated'

light

some

focussed

(Koestler

oldbrain

p. 191),
a
"protoplasmic"
Piaget
called
or
Schachtel's
"Metamorphosis"
1959).

and

selfless

with

argue,

is

universe

universe"

hypnagogia,

limbic

self-awareness

throw

that

awareness

also

of

and

correlations
respect,

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intensity

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awareness

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"the

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in

consciousness

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stages

strong

child

self
of

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ontogenetic
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ERG
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453
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information

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indicating
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454
feeling

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(both

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familiarity

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p. 1)
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p. 2)

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error

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vu

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past".

the

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visited

reminiscence,
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vagueness

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to

as we saw, of the oldbrain


feelings
of strangeness-yet-

are

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fact,

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with

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writes:

present

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activated

character

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(1895,

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which,

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Thus,
not

same

derived

links

imaginal

and

between
in

the

the

is,

activation

data

viz.,

which

that

oldbrain

parison

certain

which

with

hypnagogia,

which

and

as

perceptual

areas.

experience

seen
is

of

experiences

the

of

is

vu

similarity

activity

have

activities

familiarity

of

of

experiences

hypnagogic

and

dej

the

feeling

the

which

with

if

loci

certainty:

phenomenon

correlated

oldbrain

of

experience

is

well

of

further

present
surroundings,
in another
direction",

features

of

hypnagogia.

In

455
"absolute

the

identification

we may also

have

encountered

in

latter

the
diacy.

present

the

with

past"

to that
attentional
a very similar
state
hypnagogia
invests
as noted,
and which,
a feeling

with

in

states

temporal

of

Crichton-Browne

mental

the

of

further

and

in

that

remarks

imme-

spatial

dreamy

general

[there
is]
in the loss
a negative
of
element
control
of the higher
centres
and a positive
in the raised
element
activity
of other
nervous
arrangements,
permitting
of new cerebral
combinto those
take
ations
somewhat
akin
which
place
during
the activity
of the imagination
and flight
be conit
A dreamy
of genius.
state
may
....
in some aspects
it
veniently
called,
and dreamy
is
is,
it
undoubtedly
and yet,
strictly
speaking,
for
it
involves
to a dream,
not comparable
a
larger
than
residuum
of object
consciousness
a
dream contains
and a volume
of subject
conscioushas
It
ness to which
a dream rarely
reaches.
features
in the
peculiar
of its
own and stands
the darkness
to a dream that
same relation
of an
does to the more frequently
eclipse
occurring
darkness
of night.

(Crichton-Browne
between

The relationship
in

have

creativity
diate

"raised

and

(c)

resultant

remark

of

oldbrain

the

cortex

into

p. 345)

(1938,
"it

is

its

the

significance
it

would

who,
the

from

repressed

be

that

in

the

higher

in

form

general

respect
The first

decide

is

it

is

It

functional

of

lowering

the

whether

a "loss"

considered

or

whether

the

cortex

'allows'

own

the

latter

'forces'

or

to

subject

of

the

hypnagogia

is

discussed

relevant

a psychoanalytic
instinctual

an

perhaps

due

whole
of

arrange-

nervous

argument

inactivity

Although

19,

chapter

into

relative

evolutionary

be

and

come

need.

circadian

that

to

its

to

to

reorientation

the

in

is

activity

other

formulation.

importance

of

and
imne-

Of

combinations".

in

negative

evolutionary

organismic

and

its

13.

control

his

cerebral

imagination,

of

remarks

of

(and,

states

chapter

of

of

acceptable

in

cortical

"loss

activity

"new

although

debatable

in

implications

the

ments",
the

(a)

is

there
(b)

activities

discussed

p. 2)

mental

Crichton-Browne's

are

state

centres",

and

been

relevance

dreamy

dreamy

hypnagogia),

particular,

1895,

to

quote
angle,
wishes,

here

a
function

Isakower
argued

charged

as

to

456
they

id-libido,

with

are

out

a possible

the

remark

result

loss

of

instincts,

and

'force'

(1952)

the

EEG activity

cortical
in

be

the

in

vity

the

of

The

placing

stress

being
The

in

to

switch

major

The
deja
(1897)

linked

also

of the epileptic
(pp. 285-6).
Ellis
taking
state
if
ved

of
by

the

takes

considered

as

the

and

wherein
The

latter

overwhelming
the

present

are

of

enfeebled

an

"it

they

that

are

liable

to

which

the

"subject

that

experience

have

even
been

(p. 286).

consciousness

of

the

a form

inter-dormitum

experiences

conviction

recei-

mistaken

memories"
the

and

are

as

seems

so blurred

in

state
in

stage

are

cases

such

enfeebled

experiences

Ellis

as
phenomena
and impaired

of

that

for

hypnagogia

same

paramnesic

kinds

sensations,

by

prodromal

these

and

the

consciousness

centres

place

excited

He further

"the

in

cerebral

between

He suggested

exhausted

is

these periods
'logic'.

argued

sleep-dream

sensations

activity.

new combinations

oldbrain

with

of

as

there

relationship

presence

acti-

throughout)

argued

was

may

remark

creative

states

in

considered

excited

internally

one

for
(and

two

and

the

illusion

an

fit"

consciousness".

externally

that
for

"in

place

the

earlier

combinations"

hypnagogia

and

sub-

parasympathetic
in the fact

only

and whatever
during
elsewhere

a strong

in

raised

the

in

changes

the

debatable

and adjacent

of

experience
who

to

paper

activity,

existence

vu

switch

cerebral

this

the

second
into

acti-

a decrease.
Hodes et

nucleus,

terms

cerebrum
or
by the oldbrain

interpreted

are

in

hypnagogia

the

caudate

responsible

way

oldbrain

in

arise

"new

the

held

in

is

point

on

any

the

and

third

position

that

present

oldbrain

system.

the

into

that

Crichton-Browne's
our

oldbrain

appeared

monkeys

e. g.,

cortex.

translated

found

was

the

not

oldbrain

it

drowsing

of

of

also

which

structures,

than

is

in

studies

but

"repression",

of
is

activity
comes from

cortical

argument

Leaving

increased

is,

that

quality".
notion

activity

cortical

[hypnagogic]

hypnagogia

that

argues

to
vity
appears
for this
Support
al

cathexis]
the
against

argument

clearly

of

desires

[i. e.,

Cs

with

phenomenon,

the

occasion

which

minute

experienced

take

place.
has

details
before"

an
of

457
(pp. 284-5),
they

or

is,

that

may consist

been

experienced

fact

they

have

are

dream

to

the

hypnagogic
internal

liability

to

the
[i.

paramnesia
lowered

to

Now,

it

in

has

this

cerebral

ditions

similar
is

inhibition.

more

The

not

necessarily

(b)

whatever

cient

for

the

carrying
in

not

vu

experience

a feeling

of

that

and,

subjective

sensation

also

Sedman

in
to

opposed

ally,
and

ability
it

is

conviction,

and

Ellis
of
terms

of

analyse

by

this
but

their

in

of

most

certainty

of

and

ability

only

of

they

are
of

addition,

"there

neuronal
in

(ib.,

p. 287;

see

oldbrain

activity
cortical
'houses'

cortex

of
and

the
a

a positive

the

is

may be

suggest

incapable

deliberation

pro-

to

respect

temporally

objectify

very

logical

valid

stressing
if

insuffi-

is

them

in

interpretation
earlier,

are

there

power"

increased

to

hypnagogia

notes,

which

cortical

inhibited,

pattern
In

increased
all

argued

and
state

himself

p. 3),

to

to

wakefulness.
and

a negative
As

enfeeblement.
the

as

1966,

interpretation
as

of

conviction

experience

through

i. e.,

organismic

refers

(a)

con-

above,

argued

and

merely
sound

of

such

in

Ellis

the

result

under

shift

inhibited

their

is

the

of

in

Ellis;

activation

of

is

internalized,

and

As

centres

out

waking

that

with

reported.

slips

in

so

blurred

although

but

memories

arguments

agreement

a case

'rearranged',

also

my main

oldbrain

information

of

or

p. 287).

necessarily

of

the

dream

impression

external

becomes

cerebral

(c)

defa

of

in

as

experience,

(ib.,

exhausted

activities,

activity

the

are

involving

orientation

vu]

centres",

events

probably

a real

with

really

"just

class

they

real

state
is

life-like

the

i. e.,

of

hypnagogic

and

in

whilst

as memories

to

they

a dream,

vivid

not

past

autosuggestion

am in

is

in

"the

of

one

the

that

input

respect
however,

"exhausted

bably

been

in

and

class"

external

blurring,

this

dej

same

life

raised

shadow

character,
that

state"
the

is

e.,

the

hypnagogia
and

paramnesic

impression

becomes

and

the

that

vu

realization

appear

concluded

paramnesia

deja

experienced

that

experiences

heightened

allied

false

real

been

only

Ellis

events.

in

the

of

are

the

of

have

its

they

and

spati-

certainty
the

thinking

458
of

alternatives.

no

alternatives:

all

(1978,

As Sartre
wakeful

in
have

the

with

feeling
It

of

conviction.

might

also

howcertainty
of

they

how

the
cortical
of

and

instinct,

i. e.,

is

a feeling

or

lesser

of

oldbrain

degree

jacent

brain

in

its

that

(i. e.,

by alternatives
especially
from

able
viction

claims
and

beliefs

are

Believing

the

anchored

has

been

More

viscera'.

knowing

of

in

the

sense

A paranoid

schizophrenic

validation

of

knowledge.

to

In

their

that

system

a similar

be

is

a greater

ad-

schizo(i.

old-

e.,

be wavered

characterized

con-

firmly

in

the

rooted

put

to

be

it

that

is

influence

the

true.

one's

with

beliefs

beyond

the

felt

are

strong

belief:

"irrational

it,

say

a mystic

indistinguishby

by

are

manner

states

and

are

'knowing

All

of

in

only

cannot

they

dominated

or

to

which

as

they

though

And,

hypnagogia

p. 289)

oldbrain".

charac-

argumentation).

we should
is

which

the

on

it

are

described

related

that

emotion;

correctly

inarticulate

tional

in

are

such

beliefs

said

they

of

(1978,

As Koestler

oldbrain.

type

may

be

thus

stron-

a degree

knowledge,

to

the

mysticism,

by cortical

strong

that

vu,

is

strong)

so

in

as

these

necessary

it

deja

strength

is

activity

Beliefs,

such

or

are,

take

lives,

in

modification

experience

daily

(sleep-dreams,

they

activity.

we all

our

concepts

they

more

oldbrain

predominance

states

phrenia)

the

and

brief

relative

less

the

the

in

or

conviction

logical
with

indicating

thus

more

consider

to

amenable

is

which

invest

when

logical,

are,

activity

conviction

not

common-sense,

certainty

how,

and

are

clearly

only

are

conviction

is

instincts

to

of

it

that

conclusion)

here

act
latter

the

mentation

which

of

relevant

thinking

strong,

modification

ter

be

and

no matter

kind

the
in

oldbrain

emotions

any

cortical

become,

ger

and

(indeed,

conclusions

of

of

are

actualities.

certitude

type

expression

as

contrasting

the

and

This

alternatives,

no

terms

face

there

vu)

hypnagogia,

of

together".

occur

line

that

the

of

in

observed

to

appearance

a face

to

p. 44)

dej

appear

possibilities

perception

"the

(and

hypnagogia

In

of
irra-

are

argumentation.

cannot

allow

their

belief

hypnagogic

an

in-

is

experience

459
deja

and the

their

vu carry

not always be anchored


is a feeling
and as such
feeling

The
by

it

of

itself".

ecstasy
(1911)

made

as

conviction
Van

Dusen
to

reference

an

preceding

arguments

hypnagogic,

respects

and

in

which

associations

logical

jumps

in

a climate

not

survive

that
of
the

occur.

certainty
tests

We have

it

on

of

significance.

as

conviction
logic.

obvious
In

in

a whole,
and

the

various
in

manner

often

the

of

between

paralogical
the

instance,

a more

thinking

in

noted

spread

taking

the

These,

waking

seen

relationships

and

and
of

for

Hollingworth

creative

made

p. 543),

and

in

are

been

(1972),

suggested

particular

has

a portion

it.

and

oldbrain.

seems

awareness

psychotic,

conviction

which

sometimes

accompanying

the

hypnagogia
(1949,

Poe

but

in

rooted

in

certainty

hypnagogia,

throughout
form

"a

as

is

it

investigators.

various

spoke

of

They may

own convictions.
instrong
emotions,

unjustified
take
may or

place
may

CHAPTER 18

OF EGO BOUNDARIES :

THE LOOSENING

In

the

hypnagogic

experiences
It

of,

a corollary

infants

that

ment

These

creatures.
theories

of

infantile
that

maturation

and

hypnagogic
them

this

experiences
others

and

these

of

nature
character

of

been

variously

called

(Oswald

1962),

drawn

been

related

remotely
the

core

include

body

blurring

of

the

mena
the

argued,

phenomenon

of

the

LEB,

other

features

presentation

of

hypnagogia

very

inception

Its
the

have

and
point
the

of

relationship

presence

meditation

It
and

of

and

childlike

out

as

key

can
psi
or

been

has

attention
mode

of

fusion

cogof

unrelated

con-

is

aspect

one

aspects

which

of

dissolution,

schema
environment

especially

analysis

ego.

and
out

pointed

to

further

the

presence

state

and
been

seen
in

both

mentation

features.

-460-

of

the

to

be

latter's

in

explidiscusto

creativity
present

which
have been
of

pheno-

LEB at

more

invoked
and

and

the

states

schizophrenia
be

events

render

other

already

activities
infantile

the

of

with

has

relationship

hypnagogia.

between

dereistic

'Hypnosis'.

on

and

body

distinctions

The

cable.
sing

been

the

regreshas
mentation

and

entirely

alterations,

the

paralogical

has

schema

illuminating

of

1946);

multisociation

apparently

round

1957),

it

chapter

character

the

of

built

stressed

which,

latter

These

or

FsOR,

and

cepts

in

in

hypnagogia.

purpose

(Froeschels
or

for

argue

descriptions

(McKellar

autistic

nonrational

exemplified

nition

of

its

in

Hypnagogic

egocentric

to

which

have

hypnagogia.

sive

with

theories

the

phenomena,

argu-

characteristics

as

for

this

ontogenetic

actual

as well

presented

for,

as

well

displayed
both

paper

both

oldbrain

development

those

sub-

primarily

psychological

to

Throughout

accord

and

childhood

identical

are

are

arguments

of

proposed,
evidence

children

that

argued

activities

further

supporting

and

was

to

related

was

as

and

it

chapters

are

structures.

cortical

the

three

preceding

in
regression
pointed

461
Depth

psychologists
the

to

point
baby's

being

mentin

general

infant's

lack

one

his

other

Moreover,

objects

cannot

tell

that

rather

that

there

to

to

reactions

ego

and

is

even

to

words,
have

sense
to

the

sense

there

is

no

that

there

is

a profound

(1972,

p. 50)
the

about

the

about
how

child

(1922,

p. 384)

the

sensory
is

infant

infant

the

of

a fused

and

to

an,

infant's

the
to

outward

expenditure

ergotropic,
to
theory

first

is

sense-feeling...

of
these

three-level
level

as

"the
seen

visual,
develop-

of

conventions
seen

already

organisms
"our

that

proposed

distinctive

features

Wheeler

Cutsforth

and
is

an

essenAt

meaning".

may naturally

mode

activity

the

as

undifferentiated

universe.

in

general

is

concerned

more

with

trophotropic
intake

as
than

energy.
observations

of

as

"kinaesthesis

yet,

which

conventions

precerebrate

kinaesthetic

attitude

opposed

Relevant

in

expressed

up

these

synaesthetic

or

As McKellar

stage

of

infant's

the

in

We have

consciousness

It

modes,

recognizes

p. 63)

of

entity.
in

built

earlier

with
that

sys-

perceptual

items".

concluded

relates

Also,

operates

stage

be present

in

own per-

point

stage

established

(1977,

Bower

the

a separate

channels".

sense-specific

component

to

has

an

operant

personal

his

synaesthesia

he

have

with

kinaesthesia.

adult

may not

system
than

tial

"the

At

various

rather

is

he has

perceptual

early

of

but

that

and

with

between

etc.

1935).

perceptual

a very

information

synaesthesia

(Schiller

being

speak,

remarks

tactile,

the

ment

grown

form

to

so

sensory

auditory,

yet

distinction

sense,

core

infant's

probably

perceives

dealing

the

of

at

life

the

not

that

possible

another.

impressions
is

him-

infant

the

entity,
'perception'

he

his

with

from

a separate

that

environ-

differentiate

to

object

associate

the

his

and

tandem

argued,

simply

other

birth

giving

as

realize

In

ceptions.

one

(1957)

is

in

alike

to

breast

he begin

and

he,

learn

gradually

tem

does

theorists

boundaries,

ego

gradually,

Campbell

as

of

mother's

only

growth,

from

self

with

and

physiological

developmental

and

is

consciousness

simple,
as

the

generalised
phylogenetic

(1964)

Collier's

according

to

which

contact-chemicalbasis

for

all

the

462
developments

later
"appears

"the

is

third

the
to

become

conscious",

that

investigators

in

capacity

evolved

one

when

phylogenetically

differentiated",

or

aware

the

consciousness",

of

sense

modalities

level

is

aware

become
by

characterized
fact

the

of

is,

level

second

that

"reflective

by

con-

sciousness".
Similarly,
time

out

and
linked

strongly
(cortical)

thinking

of

spoke

example,

ego

ego".

The

hypnagogist's

(perhaps,

one

should

of

imagery
his

his

and

trophotropic
in

latter

to

be

seen
the

attitude;

general

hypnagogia

has

my relating

of

of

abandonment,

(1972,

p. 99),

"the

as

as

parallels

been

his

subjectify
infant's

the

of

physiological

'chemical'

with

and

in

out

the

of

presence

pointed

for

antithesis

of

connection

internalize

with

connected

feeling

'field')

tendency

is

Dusen

general

say

can

environment

in

hypnagogia

of

intensification

a feeling

Van

controls.

analytical

emergence,

and

attitude

is

state

directed,

imagery

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an earlier

chapter.
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Warcollier's
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sociationism,

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sence

hypnagogia

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463
breadth

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ining
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of

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ego

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with

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data

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1979b

McKellar

physiological

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with

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shown

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reports

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phenomena).

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see

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discriminate.

must

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1976).

expected,

cortical
to

ability

is

there

of

research

co-conscious

comes

along

maturation,

the

on

activity

mental

sciousness'

1969;

experiences

Moody

thought

1898,1906,1907,1917,1922,

Eeden

behavioural

of

moments

the

and

experiences
(e. g.,
people

ment

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of

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discussion

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as

psychological

unconscious

Prince
van

long

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-

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and

(e. g.,

Sidis

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shown

asleep

awake

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1929;

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unconsciousness',

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of

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in

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implying

womb",

mother's

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'gaining'

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any

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notion

p. 266)

conscious

always

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an object

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(1976,

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soul

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latter

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is

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of

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To begin,

consciousness

awareness.

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notion

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sensations
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sharper

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tighter

processing

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changes

and better
global,

464
multi-directional
from focal
screen
defining

'filters'

linear:

to

'unwanted'

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ego boundaries

of

formed

are

to

information.

may be thought

of

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as such

filter.
filter

theories,

both

normal

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Broadbent

1958)

(e. g.,

Payne,

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and

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1979)

Frith

it
is

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Eysenck

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data

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in

earlier
at

some

character

of

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those

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kind

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respect

1960;

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cular

Atkinson
to

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of
those

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ascribed
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been
I

work.

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illustrates

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Posner
that
action
of

and
in

inputs

perceptual
1979)
type
have
(e. g.,

ones

of

word

a much

1975).

Shallice

activity

there

a time

while

(Marcel

(Shaffer
can

is

1974),

stimuli

which
1958;
Broadbent

goal

1956;

Erdelyi

processes

whose

need not
has been
it

Miller

1971;

processes

conscious

at

outputs.

first

the

Shiffrin

Snyder

system"
action

my discussion

to

processes

(e. g.,

a time

at

to

meanings

to

course

Castaneda

(Frith

outputs

and

multi-channel

out

1969b;

with

conscious

are

1973;

pointed

than

they

one

is

relevant

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preconscious

Sperling

opposed

which

show

cognitive-experiential

here.

capacity

Klein

with
motor

respond

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concerned

in

greater

with

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involved

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1976),

processes

concerned

us

concern

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Deikman's

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assumption

preconsciousness.

kinds:

two

are

they

research

preconscious

of

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is

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observed

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relation

latter

which

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pre-

1974;

Erdelyi

in

to

latter

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this

is

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opposed

that

1974;

that

processes.

preconscious

1979).

as

sources

phenomena

intolerance

capacity,

and

However,

and
the

automatization

look

con-

conscious

other

1970,1974,1975,1976)

cussed

ordinary

if
waking
consciousness,
(e. g.,
1966,1969a,
Deikman

ordinary

automatic

to

that

(Frith

flexible

1977).

Frith

1968;

small

Turvey

psychology
Cromwell

processing
the

with

1959;

assumed
by

dealing

are

abnormal

and
George

characterized

ambiguity,

also

is

is

these

when

to

1975)

deal

only
Posner

and

(1972)
is

operant

direct

keeping

as

a partiout

of

465
conscious

of

courses

possible
All

the

above

outputs

amount

enormous
remains

of

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of

ing

or

of

into

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and

one

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entirely

ently

them

hallucinatory

LEB synaesthetic

and

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(1962,

experience

cinatory
ased

reduction

that

is,

in

by

the

localization

it

body

workers

(e. g.,

Hollender
Phillips

to

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1958;

between
to

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distinguish

in

a lifting

and
among

be seen
often
(e. g.,
Lecours

the
the

and
of

for

ideas

his

Vanier-Clement

semantic

1950;
viewed

inhibitions

as

In

his

fast

in-

schizophrenia,
filter

the

schizocon-

patient's

as well

tremendously

Cleveland

and

Bleuler

of

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hallucinations

senses.

lifting

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boundaries.
forward

put

Fisher

the

to

schema

instance,

reflecting

perceptions

place,

implying

1958;

and

there",

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1950;

(1950),

Bleuler

"out

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schizophrenic

Rabinovitch

a LEB takes

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Schilder

hallucinations

fusion

of

incre-

boundaries",

identification

is

what

by

part

between

person's

above

account

in

the

to

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that

(1962)

stimulus

the

of

come

intersensory

loosening

to

and

1942).

phrenic

puns

from

views

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also

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conditions

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of

bounds

results

Similar

Klver

process

concepts

with

distinctions

of

objects
concepts

other

argued

accounted

another.

results
his

marcate

1958;

and

has

conceptual

loosening

the

of

confusion

i. e.,

the

modality

sensory

be

can

Thus,

phenomena

p. 268)

a loosen-

in

change,

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LEB

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to

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and

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true

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preconscious

checked

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that

of

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filter,

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borderline,

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on

inant

the

type

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observations

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addition,

and

action.

cognitive-experiential
In

information

irrelevant

awareness

can

production

1976),
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of

a phenomenon
the

466
flooding

of

associations

products

of

the

'Creativity'.

on
when

to

was

into

not

that

through

a series

effects

of

alterations

1969b)

meditation

is

very

or

like

of

leading

Similar
by

his

to

hypnagogia

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boundaries

ego

reported

occurred

subjects.

those

latter.

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inces-

is

mantram

these

of

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purportedly

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Deikman

experi-

these

phenomena

spontaneously.

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Rorschach

of

release

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imagery,

hypnagogic

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already

when

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ability

to

from

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ship

presented
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from

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(1933)
gogia

dreams

real

hallucinations.

he

distinguish

need
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for

allows
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a distinction

Notably,

not

thus

wakefulness.

the

is,

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of

and

that

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1948)

arguing

to

subject,

and

although

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nations

the

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sleep

and

dreams

for

arguing
(e. g.,

where

in

hypna-

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testing,

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of

eliminate

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reality

to

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situation.

events

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to

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out,

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to

observation

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to

because

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reality

'real',

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advanced,

supplanted
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cination.

ego

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not

has

reality

of

to

vivid

experiencing
latter

most

the

test

1954).

linked

my discussion

noted,

appear

is

association

lack

LEB is

gogia

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in

keen

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(Klopfer

interest

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reality.

of

control

particular

of

investigators

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that

out

point

has

of

found

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loosening

a total

de-automatization

(1966,1969a,
mental

to

point

chapter

transformed

results
but

the

it

a koan

Gregory

and

useful

again

sounds.

yielding

in

(1958)

and

where

only

by Warren

beyond

the

methods

repeated

reported

or

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out

Gregory

again

words

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pointed

and

repeated

other

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santly

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a word

itself

is

LEB have

FsOR.

many

across

or

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involve
of

is

the
the

467
(p. 126).

subject"
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processes

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him

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from
he

subject,

never

are

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to

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test

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Leroy,

to
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extent

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reality.

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real
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in the presence
life,
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words
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he behaves
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it
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the hypnagogic
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is not the presence
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vision
of certain
details,
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it
is the change
representations,
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the linking
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is different
here
from what
it
representations

is

in

the

state.

normal

(Leroy
It

be

will
of

Vogel

(1965)

images

in

the

takes

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of

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LEB.

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of
reality

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experience
'real':

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empathy

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and

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the

it

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nonrational.

of

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latter

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in

spec-

the

investment.

impossible
of

absence

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way

of

reality

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that
-

relates

to

Weisman

(1958)

anything

thus:
testing
sense
and reality
deals
Reality
with
rather
sense
whole
situations,
is synthetic
than
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of experiences.
with
parts
than
Reality
tests
analytic.
rather
are intellectual,
rational,
and conceptual,
reality
while
is emotional,
intuitive
sense
and perceptual.
in
For reality
sense,
objects
events
are complete
themselves,
For reality
absolute
and unequivocal.
testing,
are parts
objects
context,
of a wider
Its
must be determined.
results
whose relations
Reality
approximate
and conditional.
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reality

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although

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in

the

of

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of

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whether

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in

as

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Foulkes

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of

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of

by

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uses

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absorbed
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was

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theatre:

on

subject's

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unfurls

action

play

the

themselves.

tator
the

in

p. 127)

a similar

hypnagogia

that

viz.,

more

resides

in

images

linking

that

recalled

1933,

jux-

468
finds
its
in the conditions
testing
material
functions
of experience,
while
reality
sense
itself.
to the experience
Reality
respect
with
deals
testing
through
with
shared
experience
the common meaning
of various
propositions
about
it.
Reality
is essentially
sense
unshared,
private,
in itself;
it
has no need for
and complete
confirmits
is the intensity,
since
ation,
criterion
rather
the invariants
than
of experience.

(Weisman
In
the

agreement

that

do not,

in

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basis
that

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the

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enter

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iences

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are

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in

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to

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field

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of

its

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in

self

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terms
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reacting

passive-receptive

mode

self-consciousness.
there

the

Cassirer

mind

determined.

is

no

world
(1953),

of

systems

something

being

'abstract'

single

Pepper

distinctions

things,

of

p. 233)

modalities".

to

(1890)

pheno-

in

sees

condensed

opposed

absolute

of

which

and

of

internal

these

which

(1953,

self,

many

loss

proposed

and

theories

hypotheses.

correlation

we speak

to

experience

"live"

and

according

conceptual

is

there
to

the

the

and
the

external

field

ego

(1950)

and become
'subjectification'

for

how

contrast,

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that

boundaries

represents

"I",

hypnagogia

ego

the

defines

active

sciousness.

reality

both

of
which

of

in

Weisman

of

found-

without

Weiss

degree

in

rooted

most

the

the

1935,1936)

the

absence
of a reality
(1951,1955)
the
argued,

Psychological

Lewin

image,

own

to

evidence

passivity-receptivity

action.

my argument

is

in

invested

subject's

With

object).

is

reality

(cf.,

"egotized"

that

testing

observed

often

the

part

Weisman

and

are

Nunberg

as

on

to

respect

conviction,

based

life

its

if,

reality

of

Further,

may play

in

conviction,

of

(p. 228).

of

phenomena

the

views

attitude

sense

carry

p. 246)

arguments

concepts

themselves,

hypnagogia

of

the

"logical

fact"

in

ation

the

of

defended

ardently

of

my earlier

non-rationality

remarks

of

with

1958,

(1948)

between
and
is
of
real

the

argued

real

and

self.

dependent

upon

experience
we are

so
not

so

469
to

the

much referring
in
logic
and criteria
Weisman (1958, p. 255)
is

an object
to

(Johnson
the

as

test
the

stressed

On the
intuition

regarded
knowledge,

of

is

it

that

criteria".

1952)

real

with

own

both

direct

James

a perception

respect

hand,

other

or

and

of

vivacity

our

Similarly,
an experience.
"the statement
that
that

proposes
means

as stating

to

regards

real,...
fixed

certain

itself

object

experience
Whitehead

and

as

Whitehead

of

a criterion

reality.
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"if

out,

the

conceptual

reference

the

of

hypnagogia,

mode

logical

fication

of

be

ting

the

requirement

reality:

city

of

a perception)

in

with

not

James

and

considerable

of

respect

impart

a sense

of

which

of

may,

reality

coupled

nonetheless,

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and

with

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viva-

characterized

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LEB ushers
on

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in

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experience
one

also

physiological

of
level

by

p. 241),

experience
of
flatness

consciousness
by

which

1958,

vividness

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a state

is

experience

affect.
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by

even

does,

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(and
on

is

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reality"

subject

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reality

and

of

state

release

is

wakeful

totally

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of

of

to

veri(-ies)

thus

Whitehead

1954)

the

focal,

set

same

reality

controls)

we are

sense

a strong

sense

for

wakeful

my argument

the

in

the
whether
(Schachtel

vs

such
a different
for

wakeful

an entirely

emotion,
disinterested

hypnagogia

imagery

cf.,

of

those

experiences

of

although

of

the

diffuse

active,

support

test

does

introduces

of

Strong

which

the

tightening

vs

in

to

vs

control

that

applied
LEB

from

employed
to

to

respect
reference

attention

1946)

pertaining

ego

correlated

focal

phenomena

where

criteria.
the fact

by

In

conceptual

debatable

(Hart

(receptive

logic

is

reasoning

legimately

hypnagogia

it

the

to

reality.

both

thinking,

of

contribute

different

are

another

modes

(p. 231),

that

argue

characterized

criteria

can

will

previously
of

different

of

points

altered,

invariants

kinds

Furthermore,

reality.

and

different

correctly

is

the

remarks

thinking

of

p. 256)

Moreover,

same writer

development

and

become

reality".

of

as

(1958,

features

irrelevant
type

as Weisman

of

470
trophotropic

parasympathetic,
and

the

on

conscious,
In
and

prelogical)

to

were
for

stand

at

which

shall

the

also

they

like

Prince

to

the

term

of

discuss

to

explain

into

an

the

use

p. 167)

defines

images

of

Although

or

term

introduced

imagery

visual

by
namely,

the

term

sub-

(1922,

Prince

same meaning).

another

phenomena,
uses

to

as

term

one

1912,

individual

the

which

of

conscious

discussion

personality

co-conscious

outside

may become

another

the

equivalent

preconscious.

(Sidi,

carry

subconscious

less

or

involved

briefly

multiple

to

pre-

transpiring

called

co-consciousness

consciousness

as more

activities

are

the

of

nonetheless,

entering

appropriateness

concepts

used

which,

point

avoid

would

the

mental

but

consciousness

egocentric,

mentation.

chapters,

unconscious

features

regressive-paralogical

dereistic,

autistic,

earlier

terms

by

level

psychological

(passive-receptive,

hypometabolic

and

"psychical

as

is

not
aware
and therefore
By means of hypnosis
are subconscious".
and automatic
Prince
data
to present
writing
was able
that
and argue
human being
there
within
each individual
are psychological
layers,
act

subsystems,

independently,

concurrently,

In

writing

other.

automatic

into

writing

her

awareness

was

claimed

was

which

to

hypnosis

through

be

to

unknown

she

writing,

form

of

first

a second

by

third

of
pick

each
up

compose

were

time

either

or

rose

imagery.

visual

(the

or

which
the

at

produced

the

was
of

often

ignorance
would

contents

the

could

subject

consciousness
in

in

and

what

the
her

outside

entirely

that

the

at

intelligible

something

up

looking

without

and,

pen

'personalities'

or

a second

The

personality
Similarly,

subject).
personality

would

emerge.
interestingly,
"in

its

most

haps

most

dition"

highly

does

continuing

to

to

sleep").

not

write

was

the

The

to

to

into

sleep
writing

declare

emerging

awake,

falls

the

prevent
and

fully

writer
leads

sometimes

apparently

gone

writer

frequently

which

p. 70) noted
form"
automatic

developed

the

while

produced

(1907,

Prince

that

imagery

(but

that

although

writing
"often
a drowsy
which

was
and

per-

conlatter

personality

from

the

"has

is

subject
detailed,

vivid,

471
to

and

likened

and

hypnagogic

it

to

tends

time

it

the

latter

the

is

much
and

form

the

of

the

richer

in

detail

to

moods
life

the
the

present

in

the

subject's

since

"more

actually

function

at

emerging

imagery

and

come

a number

tenuously

and

subject's
long

and

hardly

vividness,

detail,

imagery,

are

unassociated
lel
in hypnagogia
the

imagery

sence
Dusen

(1972)

The

(e. g.,

subject
of

in

character

indirect
automatic

out.

In

attention
writing

addition,
to
by

the
pointing

p. 193),
elements

whose

be mediately

A great

deal

of

incubate

may

into

the

the

the

has

forged

in

was

hypnagogia

hypnagogia

has

'regressive'
out

to

related

(1917,

p. 311)
character

that

what

paral-

the

and

Prince

the

its

1965).
pointed

the

of
of

script

Vogel

of

concreteness,
linking

The

out.

of

subject's

irrelevancy

often

and

a very

phenomenon

The

of

for

circumstances.
to

moods
to

respect

(1922,

thoughts.

and

Foulkes

may

the

continuity

underlying

multi-sociative

pointed

the

system

to

above

means

consciousness.

unrelated

conducive

pointed

imagery

entirely

emerge

autonomy

in

her

might

stressing.

by

in

amalgam

the

the

i. e.,

an

given

images

imagery,

which

waking

as

may be

never

needs

ordinary

time"

however,

clearly

in

same

or

of

Inexplicable

script.

not

P2

personality,

the

conscious

relationship

connections;

subconscious

FsOR and

may even

hypnagogia

of

moods

Such

personality

one
and

one

unless

consciousness
The

than

imagery,

time

the

than

imagery.

p. 306).

another

but

mind

associated

subconscious

from

the

at

into
may erupt
(P1 or subject)

apparent

unfolding

of

current

concrete

conscious

without

a "deeper"

by

subconsciously

more

may experience

subject

of

written

(P2)

and

corres-

being

(1917,

of

relaxed

When

personality

continuity

effects

from

first

the

obtained

only

explained

Moreover,

and

ordinary

changes

and

through

are

script

a hallucination

are

which

p. 204).

visions,

spontaneous,

is

mind

personality

a second
of

shifts

P3,

so than

more

of

latter

the

(1922,

night

When

the

when

content

consciousness

imagery

or

to

known

Imagery

in

at

e. g.,

ponding

times

at

crystal

p. 312).

(1917,

imagery
emerge

"passive",

the

cinema

dreams,

to

movies,

mind

The

pre-

by

van

states.
also

been

drew
of

reaches

the

472

Partially

related

Vinogradova's

(1959)

of

may exist

which

may be
free

independent

as

the

or

"personalities"
is,

That

for

the

It

be

"regression"
blurring

external

and

kinesthetic

of

with

the

itivity
may
lifts
and

ness

novel

of

preconsciousness,
the

the

filters

imposed

logic

of

of

material

the

which

are

the

with

his

consciousness.

raw

explain

The
only

with
might

each
in

the

by

experiences

stimuli

consciousfor

allows
layers
to
of

the

uncon-

material
giving

other

of

of

the

emerging

this

the

strictures

to

otherwise
of

sens-

of

the

addition

not

occurrence

is,

deeper

the

hypnagogia

of

consciousness:

This

loosening

vivid-

internal

relegated

concepts,
that

of
mind

FsOR from

disposition,
and fuse

therefore,

and

the

of

primacy

that

state.

normally

the

state

reach

on

subject's

elements

not

normal

and

the

external

waking

and

entities

him

thus,

endows

outside

and to his empathic


FsOR tend to cross
to

also

the

and

synesthetic,

(and,

It

to

dissolution,

ego

and

testing

is

or

exemplified

between
by

the

to,

and

and

array
of

leads

experiencing

reality

lie

to

of

whole

presence

alterations

experiences

both

Due

scious.

over

the

distinction

openness

layers

to

the

phenomenon

schema

empathic

phenomena.

that

environment

character

emergence
mind,

This

the

imagery).

and

that
it

and

due

is

dominant

character
'filtered-

normally

summary

modes

internal

'loosening'

multi-aspected

in

earlier
of

sense

ness

and

through

a less

to

of

"strata",

disengagement

the

its

to

as well

hypnagogia

by

emergence

body

to

the

reality

The

other.

"layers",

relegation
due

which

systems

facilitated

its

LEB.

by,

characterized
by

LEE may cause

a number

and

each

Prince's

of

and

systems"

semantic

the

said

of

to

contrary

be

experiences

phenomenon

or

can

or

Luria's

are

unconscious

contrary

complexes
thus

may

root

even

simultaneous

hypnagogic

of

or

allowing

systems,

out'

ideas
fields

a person's

on "deeper"

may exist

Prince's

in

"sensational

the

only

that

"semantic

system

while

position

to

emergence

a dominant

of

and ideas

such

concurrent

LEE.

the

of

emergence

are

subject

thought

of

elements"
levels.

the

of

consciousness

and

rise

furnishing
have

phenomenon
hypnagogia

reached
would,
but,

473
through
on the
such

the

latter,

experiences

as schizophrenia,

would

also

encountered
psi,

shed
in

considerable

states

meditation,

light

and processes
and creativity.

CHAPTER 19

THE FUNCTION

Given
bed

ely

satisfactory

not

always

in

or

1970)

occur
1867;

Denis
McKellar
The

analysis

that

hypnagogia

that

its

1954;

carried

out

(1933,

special

from

the

p. 629)

spoke

of

feel

special

the

more

turn

life".
tightly

hypnagogic

1845;
1933;

de

Herve

1952;

Rawcliffe
McKellar

this

paper

has

Saint

1972).

shown

features

only

not

but

also

in

hypnagogia

there

of

my whole

being

notably

different

may

cycle

mingling

to

that
"it

the
in

it

now',
the
to

out

of

a "biological

have

a biological
focus,

of

to

necesblur

suggestion

a regularly
and

pattern
and

-474-

for

to

Libersons'

sleep

it

experiencing
our daily

realistic
allow
a less
between
elements
various

observed

Fisher

to

Libersons

general

midst

(1941),

Sigwald

The

represent

and

Indeed,

the

wakeful-

and

referred

more

might

may

place

1966;

and

consciousness".

take

nocturnal

sleep

(1968)

Becker

thinking

(BRAC)

of

Lhermitte
de

(1909,

Alexander

wakefulness".

it

related

Globus

1957;

1957;

environment
and

to

90 minute
1964;

of

the

'here

activity

Myers

observed,

of

that

relationship
mental

1946;

p. 94)

and

suggest

significance",
time

Rouques

consciousness

relating

types

activities",
to

1909;

McNish

of

curious

state

p. 302)

sity

does

(e. g.,

individual

(1911),

(1946)

"vague

entir-

states

in

"a

of

Trmner

Froeschels

it

Myers

certain

attitude

way

ness".
as "a
(1966,

in

not

that

1954;

Leroy

in

possesses

is

as

sleep

(Mller

1909;

sleep,

implications.

causal

"a

answer,

infrequently,

not

eyes

Simpson

As Leroy
is

that,

open

presence

Simpson

and

Alexander

and

carry

Alexander

and

with

to

ascri-

obvious

evidence

lead

McKellar

al

visions

The

the

of

necessarily

1953;
et

view

1848,1878;

Maury

Green

function?

its

properties

the organism
to enter
prepares
indicates,
(see also:
1977)
Meddis

term

Collard

the

posesses

it

the

1830;

is

what

that

viz.,

hypnagogia

that

it,

to

OF HYPNAGOGIA:

occurring

of

our

may be
basic

rest-

to the
related
already
(see e. g.,
Maron et al

Friedman

1967;

Kleitman

475
1969;

Othmer

et

al

1969;

1972;

Globus

et

al

1972),

between

tionship

follows

what

in

ships
the
tional

and

evolutionary

As Sterman
fundamental
in

(1972,

the

of

trolling

the

recurrences
ing

of

from

in

the

the

in

state

embracing

tant,

from

ian

presence
Fiss,

effect

from

Unlike

previous

of

stages
1955;

and

al

1963;

on

the

Thus,
and
Lavie

the

from

Goodenough

like"

mentation

and

Giora

after

of

visual

confirmed

(1973)
(SAE)

effect

to

stimuli
Fiss

et

al's

and

than

method
cortical
results

the

and

circad(1973),

Giora

a "carry

over"

the

waking

itself

with

state.
eliciDement

1960;

Rechtschaffen

et

concentrated

al

to

subjects
from

impor-

state.

Wolpert

et

their

REM and

Thematic

NREM sleep.

more

yielded

bizarre

NREM counterparts.

(1974)

utilizing

relates

excitability
and

the

1953;

Fiss

which

REM dream

Kleitman

their

Lavie

fluc-

different

1962;

awakenings
REM awakenings

data

the

from

1957b;

upon

"dream

ral

of

flow-

More

of

into

awoken

1965),

two-hour

is

is

concerned

et

man's

a circadian

Lavie

which

Foulkes

that

of

view,

stage

1958;

found

they

of

sleep

al

terms

the

there

1957a,

its

neuronal

periods.

and

con-

stem,

of

and

aspects

Aserinsky

The

A suggestion

of

waking

that

and

approximately

(1966),

responses

Tests

in

rest.

point

"a

expresses

underlying
and

Kleitman

hypnopompic

func-

brain

the

observation

subjects

(e. g.,

it

existence

shown

research

Trosman

Apperception

and

Bokert

have

and

examine

CNS.

the

to

into

experiential

and

sleep

further

functionally
of

saw

day

sleep

reports

Dement

Wolpert

is

a particular

dream

ting

(1967)

(1966)

the

(1974)

Lavie

and

BRAC is

modulation

psychological

Klein

In

relation-

the

a periodic

neurophysiology

of

these

a special

both

feeding,

work,

both

the

rela-

dreams.

have

localized

working

studies
the

al

the

might

integration

Libersons'

above

tuation

his

of

at

forebrain

Kleitman

organization

look

remarked,

been

of
as

excitability".

sleep

evolution

has

overtly

and

to

and

physiology,

structural

absence

influence

p. 195)

of

mechanism

in

back

us

et

significance.

aspect

terms

and

hypnagogia

Dement

BRAC,

the

of

that

possibility

takes

a closer

perspective

1970;

al

sleep,

take

shall

et

which

hypnagogia,

the

Oswald

were

in

the

spi-

the

persistence
(Holland
1964)
agreement

with

476
(1968)

Broughton's

findings

between

responses
(1963)

results

SAE during

REM and
the

on

similarity

phenomenon

of

dreaming

might

of

or

impaired

arousal

reduced
the

within

(1966)

the

"under

which

are

(Snyder

recurrent

conditions
lumped

ordinarily

1963,

importantly

the

of
cases.

that

suggest
continue

category"

Globus

as

over,

waking

decrease

CNS depressant

to

evoked

Costello's

and

the

of

and

tend

observations

visual

NREM awakenings

NREM awakenings

Such

differential

on

p. 383).

More-

proposes

[REM state]
has essentially
the D state
to do
nothing
itself,
but rather
it
is only
during
with
sleep
sleep
that
the D state
by current
techniques.
can be measured
Thus the characteristic
1, the REMs, and the
Stage
decreased
muscle
activity
are not the essential
proitself,
but only
by which
the process
cess
signs
can
be recognized.
Because
of the ongoing
state
of the
it
be extremely
difficult
to
waking
organism
would
up such signs.
pick
(Globus
is

This

in

with

condition

of

"the

that

is

indispensable

not

ther
to

points
be

of

view

1960;
from

seen

external

internal

events

of

1957;

take
1960;
the

Granda
REM state

psychological
1967),

dream

1957;

Rowland

Hammack

and

being
and

sleeping
active

is

this

but
one"

However,

"in

that
(Snyder
it

(see

et

must

1958;

al
In

brain

on

be

borne

in

only
from

state

respects
p. 385).
mind,

by

it

in

the
Chris-

et

al
to

may
the

on

Jouvet

1961,

during

the

1961;

not

certain
1963,

(e. g.,

Huttenlocher

organismic

sufficiently

NREM kind

the

as

respond

can

addition

activity

tends

p. 383)

also:

in

grounds

(see

Oswald

fact,

from

physiological

a different

when

sleep

experience"

1961).

evidence

"we

that

distracted

distinguished

accumulating

1963,

Snyder

of

point

case

we are

Toman

(e. g.,
REM state
Evarts
1962a;
1965,1966)
Snyder
et al 1961;
that

in

thought

the

the

fur-

Snyder

as

from

sugg-

sleep

generally

always

dreaming

ordinarily
the

is

suggesting

during

that

not
H:

evidence

but

motivated,

is

Williams,

stimuli

Indeed,

NREM sleep

this

p. 383)

behavioural

typical

REM sleep
than

state

p. 657).

(1963,

dreaming".

although

arousability,

be

can
to

out,

Snyder

e. g.,

for

'deeper'

Snyder's

agreement

estion

1966,

to

Mikiten
confirm

waking
be

the

and
most

perspective

477
of

my earlier

imaginal

arguments

of

tures

and

ing.

Thus,

REM sleep
Although
Lavie

in

subjects
in

wakefulness,
psychological

were

and,

physiological,
do

parameters
(psychological)
as

ness

not

even

in

pret

higher

out,

cerebral
are

as

for

sible

in

the

other

out

above,

pointed

that

1961),

it

than

recorded
would

that

in

a person

Jouvet

(1961,1962)

tracks

involved
of

the

measurements

in

REM states

during

wakefulness

the
may

subject

in

a REM dream

waking

state

As Snyder
have

of

the

that

REM sleep

formation

reticular

is

- although
(1963)
points

shown

production

inter-

to

a mistake

the

were

latter

these

clearly
the

ascending

they

studies

during

studies
in

similar

be

imaginally.

aware

waking

the

1968;

responses

activity

although

formation

from
dreaming.

still

the

Fiss

the

same internal
in wakefulorganism

the

of

Thus,

in

the

reflect

necessarily

meaning

those

not

whereas

than

he may be more
the

study

reticular

awake

more

al

dreaming.

(Huttenlocher
this

et

organization

mesencephalic
be

Fiss

as

equated

(Broughton

showed

the

mean-

awoken

were

1974)

Lavie

be

not

subjects
they

struc-

a different

situation

a similar

1973;

Giora

and

if

as

almost

responded

the

those

brain

different

demonstrated

clearly

where

experiments

to

similar

must

active

is

This

awake.

(1966)

al

et

imaginally

be

of

alteration

carry

and

of

activities
the

in

that

activity,

appear

may originate
organization

neuronal

being

with

to

they

to

in

although

which,

parameters

wakefulness,

the

may reflect

structures

subcortical

brain

and

with

correlated

activities

certain

on dreams

respon-

arousal:

level
the
formation
Interruption
the
at
of
reticular
the
interfere
with
does
tegmentum
the
not
mid-brain
of
the
long
[REM]
as
so
sleep
recurrence
of rapid
periodic
level
the
intact
is
of
left
at
ventral
mesencephalon
bodies.
the interpenduncular
and mammilary
nucleus
(Snyder
We already
logical

lesions

and

time

Lhermitte

in

the

above

closely
of

and

characterized
to

related

occurrence,
Sigwald

mentioned

viz.,
1941;

hypnagogic
at

sleep

Rozansky

p. 386).
that

discussions

earlier

hallucinosis"

"peduncular
cinations

from

know

1963,

1959).

hallu-

visual
in

visions
onset

in

result

nucleus
by

neuro-

form

(see

e. g.,

Also,

in

478
respect

to

system,

the

tile

latter

1958).

(Nauta

introduction
results

wood

et

in

his

and
in

the

during

(NREM)

slow

Although

out
have

of

both

by

sleep

of

the

to

(1963)

Snyder

do with

to

once

that
sys-

ventricular
1955;

found

been

the

Sher-

by

triggered

also

Jouvet

REM sleep

of

period

by

off
formation

reticular

sleep

dreams,

dreaming

either

physiologically
is also
it

equi-

an

pointed

as

(1966)

from
is

as

Globus

hand,

other

there

more,

REM sleep

of

nocturnal
and

On the

Snyder

have

speak

psychophysiologically

guished

poncir-

observed

the

pontile

to

referring

nothing

been

(McLean

was

the

sleep.

psychologically.
to

of

we continue

way

valent

drugs

limbic

the

mesencephalic

into

lengthen

to

stimulation

electrical

with

behaviour
same

type

connected

has

drugs

The

This

cat.

it

hallucinatory

collaborators

to

a ventral

Moreover,

1952).

al

via

experiences
be

to

cholinergic

of

tem

found

was
formation

reticular

cuit

hypnagogic

my relating

may
or

distinTo refer

wakefulness.

evidence

is not dependent
the function
that
upon
of dreaming
absence
per se, but rather
upon the relative
sleep,
dreaming
that
tends
to supervene
with
of stimulation
but
throughout
the 24-hour
regular
periodicity
cycle,
is inversely
the extent
that
relof its
manifestation
to the level
ated
of reticular
arousal
at any given
'Daydreaming'
time.
of
may be more than
a figure
speech!

An area

that
is

arguments

going

comprises

syndrome

of

four

characteristic

hypnagogic

syndrome,
been

pointed

and

out

McNish

1830).

pompic

nature

narcoleptic

Kanner
of

Liddon

of
(1957),

logically

to

REM dream

(Rechtschaffen

et

by

1967,

Dement:

cited

(1967)

the

Liddon

reticular

exactly

been

1963a;
pp. 91-92).

1816,

Waller
to

hypno-

the

As part

activating
al

fitting

(e. g.,
pointed

this

of

paralysis,

sleep
as

nightmare

nightmares.
hypnagogia
has

and

Two symptoms
and

also,

namely,

paralysis,

sleep

children's

syndrome,
both

by

narcoleptic

symptoms,

1957).

Daly

hallucinations

descriptions

older

The

narcolepsy.

fore-

the

to

relevant

cataplexy,

(Yoss

hypersomnolence

the

that

hallucinations,

hypnagogic

have

information

provides

p. 384).

1963,

(Snyder

of

related
system

Rechtschaffen
As already

the

physioand

the

and
known,

479
the

RAS and

ascending
have

system

It

functions

ergetic

paralysis,
p. 91).

spinal
in

and

sleep

1967,

91-92)

pp.

the

dream

and

Dement

that

forward

put

independent

atonia,

reflex

doxical

system

comes

since
is

'paradoxical

these

that

thought

relatively
Sleep

the

sys-

However,

in

occur

two

other
it.

over

Para-

The

dreams.

when

different

are

three

characteristics

phenomena'

there

Rechtschaffen

latter's

influence

Liddon

constitute
sleep.

and

it

by

cited

Wakefulness,

operation

inhibitory

their

relax

state,

systems:

inhibition,
into

a waking

embracing

The

system.

include

tems

theory

the

display

REM period

the

cata-

to

Dement:

loss

by

While

hallucinations

neurophysiological

a Paradoxical

and

in

obser-

subjects,

normal

thought

and

side

is

tone

1965).

al

struc-

accompanied

in

REM sleep

of

impli-

descending

muscle

neck

thus

hypnagogic

counterpart

1967,

RAS are

of

et

(Rechtschaffen

hypothesized

sleep

(Liddon

REM sleep

of

con-

cataplexy,

On the

and

are

characteristics

motor

the

head

paralysis

syn-

ascending
1 forebrain
EEG stage

(Hishikawa

narcoleptics

in

reduction

during

the

RAS involving

the

REM sleep.

the

(e. g.,

of

in the

of

reflexes

breakdown

results

of

round

in

units

while

activity

hallucinations"

production

especially

motor

"a

that

activity

RAS a generalized

the

plexy

is

the

with

reticular

wakefulness,

and

arousal

interactions

Complex

characteristic

and

these

and

tures

of

of

hypnagogic

in

ved

thought

motor

cated

of

is

the

of

parts

associated

and

sciousness

rostal

with

RAS is

1962).

Oswald

linked

been

descending

the

the

it

isolation
for

thresholds

their

release.
Thus,

on

the

evidence
fluctuation

a circadian

showing

to

tial

not

confined

that

the

Paradoxical

at

those

other

two

experiences
is

on

the

system
the

or

swing.

might

appear

at

a time

increase,

and,

it

wakefulness,
gogia.

It

Liddon,

(1967,

might,

has

thus,
p. 92),

over

the

be
that

reasonable
"hypnagogic

has

not

easily
the

of

neither

hypnagogic

REM potential
yet

threshold
to

possible

more

way,
the

when
it

reached

when
This

although

is

through

night

full

poten-

it

night,

break

in

systems

is

of

studies

of

REM period

the

might
day

a number

the

of

hours

the

during

times

by

afforded

overtaken
of

argue,

hallucinations

hypna-

along

with

480
represent
ing

aspects
And

state".
is

stage,
it

be

also

physiological
REMs,

paralysis

penile

during

describing
undeterminate
back

Impossible!

on

together,

Sartre

(1978)

may be

described

is

says

(I

feel
as

but

awakening,

it

do

they

is

always

want

to

open

this)

is

paralysis

(1933,

p. 115)

"After

an
on my

my eyes...

certain

them".

chapter

lie

that

for

to

infrequently

not

writes:

be

sleep

also

raise

be present

Leroy

observe

neuro-

observed

that

might

cannot
it
that

as

(see

hypnagogia,

awake

the

to

are

state

happens

myself

But

stuck

are

it

period

wak-

earlier

although

experiences.
of

aspect

feeling

and

paralytic

its

all

Further,

narcoleptics

hypnagogic

this

REM period

expect

hallucinations
in

together
occur
mostly
on 'Psi'),
a lighter
present

the

erection).

the

semi-consciousness,

to

of

hypnagogic

and

or

least

at

not

reasonable

correlates

or

full-

by

during

occurring

hypnagogia,

since

characterized

would

(e. g.,

REM periods

of

my eyelids
persons

Commenting

"a

unique

by

auto-suggestion",

condition

this

on
which

that

and

clearly
[not]
like
origin,
a simple
of peripheral
sensation
To the pure
the relaxing
tone....
and simof muscle
(impression,
ple muscular
sensation
or distention,
is added the sui
there
repose,
consabandon)
generis
it
is impossible
that
to will
these
ciousness
movefeel
ments,
our
we no longer
of animating
capable
is a condition
body.
This
slight
auto-suggesof very
distantly
tion,
to hysterical
and
related
pythiatism
forged
frenzies
We ourselves
to certain
of influence.
this
Let a disturbing
resound
unbreakable
noise
chain.
But so long
as we
and we are at once on the alert.
remain
and insundisturbed
relaxed
we are muscularly
tead
the hypnosis,
of simply
and purely
constituting
in
the
itself
be
to
consciousness
charmed,
permits
does
is,
that
strict
of the word,
sense
consciousness
it.
the hypnosis
but sanctions
not constitute

Under
place

when

tally,

that

when

the

kind

(e. g.,

becomes

the

when
is

subject

much

the

day

its

circadian

and

is

subject

is,

Luce
more
night

hypnagogia

circumstances,

normal

and

no

Segal

increase.

of
1966)

readily
when

is

anxiety

deprived

reached
the

both

relaxed

pp. 46-47).

1978,

(Sartre

can

the

and

physically

hypnagogic
those

REM

the

especially

during

men-

Conversely,

present.

sleep,

take

only

threshold
hours

is normally
REM potential
The subject
then
experiences

of
on
peaks

481

of

section

p. 104)

(1977,
the

of

dream

of

observations
that

argument
in

erved
from

also

"spill

the

of

afforded

by

the

with
1965;

Klein

NREM sleep

rease
the

and

1976;

Flemenbaum

as

considered
in

Now,

is

dreaming

and

sleep,
in the

an

of

absence

type

of

drome

during

logists
of

that

and

a fantasy

view
dreams,

(REM)

dreams

Thus,
dream

that

cally

older

to

In
they
than

life's

of

component
this
are

guise,
both

sleep

human

or

the

arguments

without

the

both

REM synduring

Fiss

may
the

et

al's

the

take

depth

of

and

need

hallucination

waking

this,

REM sleep
hypnago-

that

as

as

psycho-

gratification
rest-

necessarily

functions.

such

hypnagogic-hypnopompic

wakefulness.
argue

and

dream

seen

of

itself

facilitate

and

occuring
dream

accommodate

may

that

notion

wakefulness

fantasies

and

hypnagogia

ricting

would
that

fantasies

wakeful

the

demonstrates

This

the

propose
kind
of

that

may be

cases

naturally

to

which

as

Thus

independently

reasonable

deprive

deprivation.

hypnagogic

the

constitute

sleep

aborted

of

(e. g.

it

they

these

of

occurring

p. 550) argument
of

place

kind

is

seen

mentation

wakefulness.
(1966,

supporting

only

may

experiences

in

inc-

to

1975,1977).

Vogel

arguments

sleep

it

with

REM dream

phenomenon

deprivation

associated

independent

the

to

as

known

of

activity

since

a circadian

gic

of

began

who

Conversely,

(e. g.,

overs

view

over"

are

experiences

spill

"spill

imipramine

1976).

Huapaya

hypnagogic-hypnopompic

REM depriv-

patients

phenomena

REM sleep

of

patient

as

such
the

obs-

of
a result
(Lehman
drugs
et al 1958;
1980).
Hemmingsen
Rafaelsen
and

1979;

drugs

Antidepressant

(1966)

al's

interrupted

slight

hallucinations

antidepressant

Schlauch

of

reports

et

phenomenon

of

hypnagogic-hypnopompic

testimony

Fiss

when

Evidence

treatment

is

dream-like

a result

As McKellar

wakefulness".

with

TAT responses

hypnagogic-hypnopompic

have

invade

agreement

constituted

14).

imagery

to

over"

subjects'

REM sleep

ation.

in

are

their

life

(see

features

chapter

"hypnagogic

remarked,

"dreamlets")

and

hypnagogic

in

deprivation'

readiness

These

is

'sleep

on

known

by

accompanied

and

preceded

("microsleeps"

imagery

hypnagogic

vivid

may constitute
experiences
dreaming,
triptych:
sleeping,
i. e.,

as

phylogenetically
and

wakefulness.

dreams,
and
Meddis

will

also

ontogeneti(1977,

482
p. 136)

has

during

which

state

dream

Jouvet,

Valatx,

kittens

there

waking,

ping

later.

"sleep

the

that

other

and

Metcalf

1970)
the

properly

qualify

state

throughout

ing,

crying

cation

fussing"
of

a circadian

when

seen

from

various

having

as

discovery

described

belonging
ative
ical

to

the

sympathetic

system
Cannon's

of

tion

which

is

increased

flow

to

ism.

linked
breath

the

In

this

inference

oxygen

and

increased

blood

not

is
based

in

opposing

or

"defence-alarm"
system

body

marked
blood
metabollowered

by

evidence

lactate

levels

fact

reac-

and

to

the

to

pressure,

and

during

para-

terms

reference

on

the

in

McLure

restor-

a neurophysto

blood

the

overstress

promoting

rate

and
decreased

only

response

characterized
in

physi-

(1931,

heart

(Petts

anxiety

substance
is

with

and

of

consumption,

decrease

comes

Hess'

linked

rate,
is

credence

more

against

sympathetic

heart

rate,

addition,

presence
of
in producing

the

hypnagogia

consumption,

ation.

to

muscles,

By contrast,

oxygen

that

"fight-or-flight"

suck-

exemplifi-

Evidence

existence

closely
functioning

and

whether
as

gains

and

network

to
newborn.

of

the

mechanism

the

the

activities

onset.

system
to

in

trophotropic

protective

not

applied

stimulation

sleep

the

of

as

function.

hypothalamic

points

biochemical

that

system

trophotropic

processes",
and

by

"a

as

such

organismic

during

measurements

does

regardless

constituting

on

that

interruption

as

a survival

studies

1932,1957)
cat

hypnagogia

infant

without

in
engaged
(p. 177).

or

Emde

noting

sleep

life,

of

weeks

He remarked

present

and

that

1963,1969;

the

quiet

clearly

regularly
first

or

of

is

infant".

in

term

develo-

argued

observations

quiescence
the

quiet

view

ological

of

sleep

quiet)

Kleitman

newborn

active

p. 194)

newborn

similar

REMs state

is

The

the

in

that

(slow,

(1972,

"is

sleep".

between

sleep

(e. g.,

for

the

infant

the

in

made

recurs

of

Sterman

state

"the

This

kind

other

sleep

humans

reptilian

found

alternation

an

not exist
investigators

although

adults,

only

in

from

is,

that

sleep,

place

(1961)

Jouvet

Likewise

does

takes

descended

and

and
is

(REM)

active

activity

to

analogous

and

that

argued

is

1967),

and

respir-

that
instrumental
we may

hypnagogia.
that

the

lack

infer
This

of

483
is

anxiety
but

gogia

because

also

metabolism

of
to

sympathetic
relaxation

hypnagogia

both

beta

the

from

EEG activity

been associated
also
1950)
Parr
and various
other

hand,

stomach

ulcers

On the

It

dically

then,
in

drawing
of

however,

that

spasms

from

being

conducive

tion

of

as

gogia

may

be

based

on

in

the

1929),

Autogenic

Training.
and

are

clear

latter

genic

Cycles
A common

is

be

might

visual

images

objected,
displays

that

these

reduc-

phenomena
mental

and

physical

and

subside

eventually
this

far

are
or

relaxation
of

hypna-

respect,

training

or

increased
rate,

Umschaltung,

i. e.,

from

away
the

the

and

Luthe
in

a shift

aims

to

slowed

these

realities
there

stages

early

characterized

temperature,

in

specifically,

technique

Schultz's

factor

concentration"
The

and

psychological

(Schultz

"passive

skin

1970),

(Clynes

More

between

autogenic

shift",
heart

tension-producing

sometimes

In

perio-

the

initial

a turning

environment.

concentration".

axation,
and

Sentic

emphasizing

"active

a hypometareducer

It

subjects,

p. 137).

anxiety

from

both

exacer-

1977,

onset)

deepens.

similarities

and

gogia

to

has

physical

of

normal

state

states

immediate

the

either

1944).

(Finley

(Meddis

an

and

techniques
to various
therapeutic
related
induced
Relaxation
relaxation
such as Progressive

(Jacobson

of

to

a background
and,

methods

(sleep

Nonetheless,

against

disappear

away

terrifying

and

anxiety.

as

state
Hill

found

been

system.

hypnagogia

myoclonic

relaxation

organism

sympathetic

in

hypnagogia

acts

this

(Hill:

for-

the

to

respect

problems

that
it

that

the

the

activity

occur

and

transpires,
function

heart

effects

of

has

cause

hypnagogia

disorders

REM sleep

prop-

(1964),

harmful

anxiety

psychiatric

the

of

Indeed,

In

during

relaxed

Gellhorn

certain

the

from
a shift
involving
the

characteristic
with

by

reduction

to

REM sleep.

and

has

bolic

the

balance.

a protection

wakefulness

is

predominance

hypothalamic

of

be

must

hypna-

of

produced

there

parasympathetic

may constitute

bate

which

muscles
and
striate
input
which,
according

a resetting

mer,

is

of

rioceptive

of

lactate

muscles
in

induction

the

of

blood

skeletal
Thus,

onset.

sleep

feature

a necessary

of

hypna-

1959),

to

contrast
"auto-

at

the

by

muscle

respiration

parasympathetic

the

rel-

484

in

the

(Eigenlicht?

closed

by subjects
field
retinal

Reports

predominance.
light
quality

) coupled

view

24 hour

day,

say

that

but

rather

Oneirosis

and

potential.

physical

syndrome

phenomena
is

there

it

shall

designate

is

(BRAC).

In

the

and

same

necessity

service
to

always

as we do

for

none

the

surrender

would

disadvantages.
do but

"waking

proceeding
As

in

his

(double

imagery

dings

but

this

aware

to
back

involved

still

then
sciousness),
('hypnopompic'),
ness
in

still

to
in

but

waking

an

the

to

to

not

of

reality

of

the

state

be generally

only,

kind

concerned

of

dream

with).

Indeed,

there

surrouncon-

consciousViewed

wakefulness.

psychoanalysis

tes-

(double

perspective,

the

a more
invol-

deeply

become
sleep-dreams
simply
a
of the hypnagogic-hypnopompic
state
of Oneirosis,
dreams
being
only
one among a variety
of types
of
(incidentally,
sleep,
or REM, dreams
are probably

if

surroundings

double

retaining
back

then

his

awareness
'dream'

from

reality
is

(p. 44).

mind"

stretches

loss

a complete

(1840)

sleeping"
(1935),
Archer

waking

subject
of

completely

"dream-activity

surrounding
the

but

then

the

wherein

consciousness),
(dreaming),

ting

from

the

of

the

As Marc

or

hypnagogia

state

dissociation

complete

(p. 41)

observation

a progressive
dissociation

slight

ved

the

under

dreams"

may ren-

without
as

it
dream without
put it,
enables
us "to
(quoted
by Baillarger
1846).
According
to
constitutes

advantages
It

once
it

constitute
the

all

REM dreams.

of

spon-

when

rest-activity

consciousness

emergence

psycho-

and,

has

It

REM dreams

as

this

of

quasi-hallucinations,

a basic

its

of

of

dreamlike

and

LEB,

Oneirosis.

the

periods

that

as

hypnagogia

scheme,

of

expression

organism's
following

this

one

and

the

circadian

potential

dreams

inap-

during

are

Oneirosis

includes

by

REM dreaming

form

hallucinations

as

exemplification

us

there

REM dreams

characterized

cycle

der

are

be

would

REM potentials

are

that

which

it

arguments

that

such

taneous,

of

eyes

Luthe's

with

foregoing

the

of

to

propriate

the

their

while

and a

stage.
In

it

warmth

the
remark that
by drowsiness,
characterized
show
if not identical,
hypnato an early

is not
autogenic
shift
it to be very similar,
gogic

flowing

of

sequence
sleepdream
the

appears
are

no

main,

to

485
theoretical

compelling
could

son

not,

with

biofeedback),

of

a deep
of

consciousness.

in

his

are

control

of
Such

in

theory

capable

own

a position

to

the

his

of

systems
gogia

of

mechanisms

many

with

in

am thus

in

hypnagogic

out

dreams,

some
gaining

individual

an

layers

or
hypna-

relating

indeed

is

this

agreement

loss

pointed

or

consciousness,

full

means

by

aspects

As we saw,
of

by

complete

.
place

likely

most

would

states

that

out

pointed

dissociative

personality.

case.

and

hallucinations

contact

various

pp. 285-6)

achieving

achievement

a per-

experiencing
or

hallucinations

of
of

their

sleep

partial

(1962,

why

(e. g.,

during

having

of

As West

general

people

'awake'

instead

reasons

training

appropriate

remain

Oneirosis

experiential

or

Sherwood

with

who

experiences

dream
the ordinary
to us even more clearly
than
reveal
its
in
the construction
usual
of our mental
activity
forms
them attentively
and if
we may gather
we observe
conclusive
of awareness
of the many levels
evidence
to form
which
combine
our ordinary
consciousness.
half-way
This
for
opestate
us the difficult
performs
and
the modes of consciousness
ration
of separating
independent
giving
us glimpses
activity
of their
-a
full
in
feat
impossible
to achieve
while
voluntarily
possession
of the blended
mode.
1965,

(Sherwood
is

It
back

interesting

the

as

aspiring

tenth

state,
by

ted

the

all

between

de

Becker

1968,

the

Fourth

and

waking.

ved,

"one
exists
Thus,

holding

p. 163;

see

consciousness,
idered

of
link

designated

which

by

the

is

as

by

the

State,

this

during

"dialogue

the
a mere

waking

state,

as

"regression"

the

(J. S. P. R.
there

of

con-

is

at

quo-

this

state

tradition

as

dreaming

sleeping,

a hypnagogic

hypnagogia

induction

above

being

awake,

the

(Esnoul:

sleeping"

the

of

advised

half-sleep

the

Significantly,

three

Dusen

in

subject

obser-

concentration
1898,

July
the

p. 269).
of

possibility

1968,

(de Becker
unconscious"
1972)
without
and dreaming

the

of
to

this
the

far

as

himself

hold

must

and

other

while

text
continuity

i. e.,

states,

with

van

also

"he

sleep

that

respect

acquire

dreaming"

in

since

to

p. 154).

attained,

this

a Tantric

exponents

the

In
has

A. D.

order

unaffected

junction

the

in

in

note

century

that

yogi

sciousness

to

p. 94)

state

may not

evolutionally

losing
be
old

cons-

486
dreaming

of

advantages
the

but

state

an enriched

oneirosis

erous

states

of

thought

of
488)

of

of

in

pursuit

of

than

reality

are
aims

those

to

in

as

In

this

as

it

be

spoken

"in

by

located

along

which

terms

added

way,
does

numof

as

changes

(1971,

Deikman's

arranged

the

with

accompanied

which,

mode,

indeed

may

consciousness

organization

receptive

logic

encompassing

consciousness,

state

a 'return'

of

consciousness.

hypnagogia,

of

an altered

more

perhaps

a different

of

different

we ordinarily

p.

dimensions
our-

address

selves".
logic

The

hypnagogia

of

seniority

of

oneiric

nagogia

itself.

In

if

that,
and

then,

sleep,

organism

of

dreaming.

This

of

wakefulness

of

empathy,

part

of

was

of

lities

of

that

early

we now

call

between

quality

of

that

there

was

first

the

appearance

in

would

imply

that,

inter

feeling

of
life.

case

with

dreaming

the

early

no

feeling

must have arrived

on the

been

have

arguments

human

infants

their

But,

need

to

reality.

survive

sleep
the

as

as

a separate

emergence

need

to

dream

of
This

to

sleep
line

but

of

begun

the

safe

argument

has

state

subdued
to

it

become

emergence
suggests

its

makes

as an individual

survive
for

merely
has

also

waking

is

This

entity.

state
the

of

life

organismic
need

a separate

entity
of
that

not

for

of the waking

where,

an
to the

and the need


I

believe,
obvious:

presence

the

obliterated

however,

individualized
now utilizes

one

The lat-

survival.

periodically;

full

what

implies

emerge a dim self-consciousness

Thus also

qua-

lives

(which gradually
acquires
of attention
state and the direction
'active'
cxxmponent) to sensations,
and, generally,
perceptions
external

the

that

also

the appearance

scene with

out-

significantly,

experiences
to fight

and

appears

earlier

oneiric
or

inside

gradually,

waking.

that

inseparably

in

and

logic

logic,

being

must

We saw

state

the

alia,

between

Later,

two

a continuous

of

distinction

clear

latter

these

a different

that

and

is

of wakefulness

of

existed

hyp-

of

it

point,

appearance

self-consciousness

the

the

the

evolutional

value

survival

have

wakefulness.

indeed

the

the

the

to

must

lack

lack

ter

to

a strong

and

alternate

preceded

fusion,

a whole,

is

to

absent

side,

this

to

and

respect

prior

the

states

life

life

oneiric

both

points

oneiric
function

and

the

the mechanism
activity.
of

sleep

487
have

must

been,

and

for

necessary

the

time

secure

the

able

period

when

diate

physical

its

for

a safe

to

dream

activity

The

second

point

were

a primary

not

by

now have

ing

the

functions

ensuring

the

ric

activities,

e. g.,

functions

having

to

does

always

during
Now,

a careful

most

and

dreaming.

cially

that

from

and
also

we

should

of
if

adjuststate

waking

during

the

physical

beings

form

tissue

the

regularly

from

apart

proonei-

of

emergence

to

these

could

repair,

without

hypnagogia

of

fulfilling

the

organism

the

degree

Although

it

subject

in

fascinatedly
been

has

It

it

have

(see

espe-

and

often
hypnagogia

been

stressed

many

paper

physiologically

has

that

sleep

hypnagogia

shown

is

in

to

subjects

behaviour-

be

a dream

in

this

paper
withdrawn
it

activities,
can

be,

to

psychologically

imaginal

the

of

shown

been

be

to

functions

this

also

involved

noted

the

throughout

'Dreams')

on

it

shows

both

Discussions

sleep.

the

if

that,

consciousness

indistinguishable

state.

up

otherphysiologicalfunctions,

fulfilled

study

perfectly

chapter

times,

ally

look-

it

itself

give

evolution,

for

and

abandon

is

sends

which

Also,

sleep?

has

vulnerits
imme-

safety

and

some

conditions

be

organism's

same

sleep?

state

at

in

from

withdrawn

vulnerability

our

the

most

non-sleeping

to

sleep

not

that

of

into

recuperation

latter

during

question

concern

sleep

physical

the

developed

necessary

at

1977).

raises

against

and

retire

Meddis

abandonment

viding

to

where

of

dreaming

drowsiness

of

(cf.

conditions

The

induction
place

the

is

attention

ing

provide

safety

surroundings.
the

occurring

of

organism's

by

thus

to

occurrence

secured

survival

is,

still

has

awareness

retain

of their
external
or
environment
conversations
and hold
have other th ghtsunrelated
imahypnagogic
to their
concurrent
(see e. g.,
1878,
1933,
Maury
gery
pp. 59-60;
p. 60; Leroy
1976;

Oliver
ted

that

the

appropriate

one's

attentional
instance,

For
tion

is

this

still

1979b,

McKellar
is

an

ability

p. 101).
that

involving

training
state(s)
at

the

to

a great

early

It

can

be

the

(e. g.,

Green

stages

of

extent

has

been

cultivated

with

manipulation

of

and

1978).

Green

hypnagogia

concerned

sugges-

with

when
the

atten-

external

488
reality,

hypnagogic

be

and

brief

and

attention

more

vivid

faint.

fleeting.

(e. g.,

Maury

double-consciousness
(Leroy

tional
tive

1933,

this

latter

has

state

over
interpretation'

'dream

Slight

e. g.,
1979b).
to

Such

the

refer

to

1933,

p. 120),

health

Thus
on

the

of

one's

to

learn

to

in

state
ment

the

of

state

and

that

in

the

subject

and

intellectually

must

for

the

mode,

words,

along

evolutionally

hypnagis,

that

they

e. g.,

Leroy

references

to

psychological

and

learn

to

retain

consciousness

is
it

a definite
enables

of

conditions

or

move

to

into

involved

in
is

here

to

relax

e. g.,

precisely
hypnagogia,
to

normal

balance
and

and
the

in

the

oneself
natural

waking

an

the

employ-

oneiric

internal

imaginal

observation
in

physically,
Green

desired

the

requiring

further

then,

any

full

the

to

inves-

while
may,

hypnagogia

return

evolua person

environment

to

are
of

double-consciousness

of

double-consciousness

acquire

learning

other

themselves

An individual

importance

great

these
induction

physical

external

deeply

more

(see

Interestingly

symbolic

dreaming:

his

attend

become

to

(see

McKellar

(see,

dreaming,

and out
instance,

for
to

order

facilitates

restrict

problems

terrain.
in

Of

it

meanings,

ability

sleep

over

waking

activities.

of

while

internal

order

of

during

infrequently,

'anagogic'

the

e.,

over

He may,

recep-

advantage

1965;

not

Not

state

oscillate

degree.

need

conferring

i.

his

his

1972).

control

tigating

unemo-

introspection

Silberer

may contain

hypnagogia's

retain

and

dreaming

that

immediate

1943;

Kubie

Dusen

advance

be

to

is

surroundings

tionary

cool

dreaming

they

subject,

achieve

sleep

current

(van

and

One obvious

resolutions

subject's

1933)

biasing

appears

variety.

or

may become

p. 399).

convey

future

one

1973,

psychoanalytic
experiences

the

one

interpretations

ogic

point

slightly

through

1924;

Leroy

becomes

imagery.

the

state

(Stoyva

wakefulness
this

pp. 59-60),

towards

this

to

increases

imagery

he remains

providing

attention
In

At
1878;

tend

relaxation

internalized

more

less

and

imagery,

e. g.,

As psychophysical

becomes

'awake'

more

experiences,

hypnagogia

emotionally
Green

1978).

conditions

required

first

place.

in

hypnagogia

directions.

In
lies
This

489
is

borne

also

the

out
in

subject
First,

as

is

gogia

the

production

noted

earlier,

bound

up with

of

energy.

shown to raise

one's

servation
the

is,

that

of

ening

of

by

ienced

the

tion

of

bats

the

Two,

it

that

of

hypnagogia

external

implies

"removal

the

(Hollingworth

trols"
tolerant

and

and

Confirming

in

elsewhere

are

gogists

al

paper
to

Stoyva

Green

and
for

hypnagogia

his

the

view

Green

attainment
associated

other

Green

and

found
of

have
to
that

and

been

that

of

referred

therapeutic

al

hypnaand

1966;

1972,1977;
1978).

the

of

people.
the findings

the

et

more

subject

proficient
health

Foulkes

Budzynski

van
For

expan-

Green
Dusen

instance,

biofeedback

train-

consciousness

and

facility

with

and

psychological

physical

his

con-

and

sets
the

psychological

(e. g.,

traits

collaborators

was

the
by

characterized

1973;

respect

on

relaxation

are

works

hyp-

his

dependent

of

con-

induction

very

own nature

in

those

in

renders

his

of

whose

and

the

observations

1970,1971,1971a;

1972;

ing

this

creative

and

sive

above

hypnagogia

of

value

the

This

both

with
and

mental

personalities

investigators

of

a number

constraining
both

accepting

detachedly

intellectual

1911).

attitudes

views,

et

of

'coolness',

participation

Third,

com-

also

ulcerations.

necessary

be primarily

to

seem

it

respect,

Indeed,

subject's

involvement'.

'detached

to

the

and

often
apprecia-

phenomena

world.

it

One,
is

of

rep-

exper-

exaggerated

deal

to

hypnagogic

levels

this

internal

to

experiences

nagogic

him

enables

the

with

cerned

high

the

with

physical
The less-

advantages.

exacerbation

subject

pertaining

experiences

in

and/or

the

equips

two

and

of

detachment

the

in

presence

(Miller

observation,

Many

has

circumstances

appearance

second

and

disproportioned

one's

attitude

affect

diminish

and

stimuli.

the

been

has

alone

against

This

whose

with

associated

of

subject.

anxiety

combats

of

lack

the

stress

orts

con-

tolerant

relaxation.

emotional

and

stimuli

more

to

hypna-

excitability

becomes

points

in

hypometabolism

painful

violently

excitability

that

namely

of
of

on

relaxation

relaxation

threshold

conferred

hypnagogia.

to

Physical

less

advantages

physical

a shift

a person

reacts

and

pain

the
of

unpleasantness

apparent

1926),

by

strongly

in

490
e. g.,

well-being,
iences"

such

as

interpersonal
others,
reased

facilitation

in

the

found

thus

in

consciousness
Germane
data

are

and

LEB,

hypnagogia

and

it

was

its

of

effortlessness,

dream

component

and

wakefulness,

it
even

wherein
served

without
as
may

dream

sonal
ditions
ther

one

remain

and
and
of

and

hypnagogia

In

which

which

may

furnish

problems

physical
has

and

as

bipolarity

with

well

as

to

straddle
Morestate
may be

dreaming

state,
while

as
indi-

the

attending
intro-

immediate

by

to

solutions
indicate

psychological
function
a hypometabolic

and
and

sleep

consciousness

surroundings
him

the

advantageous

this

may,

sleeping

than

abandon

interprets

the

constitutes

and

sleeping

he

and

hypnagogia

of

more

his

abstract
his

with

of

for

it
allow
the former.

that

aware

etc.,

spontaneity

dreaming,

sleep.

all-

believed

of fear

older

to

of

fuse,

to tolerate

value

features

necessity

terms

viz.,

Hypnagogia

both

of

opposites.

triptych:

in

in

lack

'Creativ-

character

same features

ability

altogether

hypnagogia

on

its

personality,

follows:

of

does

activity

spection

the very

an evolutionally

the

to

cross,

evolutionally

functions

the

to

to

due

and integrate

possesses
dispense

points

chapter

surface,

unknown,

life's

of

Although

vidual

to

come

(Green

of

both

evolutionary

as

wakefulness.

extremely

to

things'

the

and innocence,

or

summarized

it

to

together

function

be

that,

of the creative

to bring

thus,

in

possessing

ambiguous

over,

state

thoughts,

function

creativity

expressiveness

uncertain,

and

sub-

EEG which

the

imagery"

the

of

out

material

to be characteristic

both,

training

and

hypnagogic

facilitates

terms

The

ESP.

as

internalized

unseen

or

of

pointed

unconscious

and ability

emotions,

presented

arguments

where

in

body,

abstract

such

in

inc-

an

and

at

aims

a deeply

discussion

the

to

ity'

owing

form

noted

phenomena

with

'unheard

the

personal

rhythms

of

p. 143).

1978,

Green

the

usually

allowing

theta

of

of

a quieting

of

programme

"associated

be

also

psi

of

of

understanding

and

They

solving

emergence

production

to

with

the

biofeedback

their

Notably,

and

in
the

and

problems,

are

tolerance

regeneration.

and

exper-

improvement

self-confidence,

of

gaining

"integrative

and

energy

relationships,

healing

jects

increased

health.

the

perconFur-

491
is

which
drawing
ing

individual

the

state

and

threshold

latter's
thus

terious

effects
him

owing
in

both

the

the

with

external

intellectual

a removal

of

to

tive

personality.

the

to

ability

him

the

diminishes
by

experiences

of

and

individual

and

it

nullifies
the

dele-

and

end-

involved'

'detachedly

On

activities.

undergoes

subject

characteristic

raises

relaxation.

from

controls

to

apparent

secretions

become

wak-

a shift
the

means

reduces

hypnagogic

sets

by

full

level,

physical

imaginal

internal,

constraining

of

internal

excessive

level,

integrative

open

component

and

stresses

stimuli

protecting
of

the

and

painful

both

periodically

On the

emotional

anxiety

thus

energizing

excitability

of

unpleasantness
The

and

activity.
of

BRAC,

from

away

restoring

parasympathetic
his

diurnal

the

to

related

and

becomes
of

the

crea-

CHAPTER '20

THE SIGNIFICANCE

In
in

this

brief

from

consider

point

began
in

their

this

to

in

imagery

This

might

gate

to

the

look

for

by

some

1969;

less

immediately

being

placed

in

a general

are

also

present.

imagery

for

instance,

imagery:

imagery,

after

imagery,

imagination

includes:

perceptual

imagery,

hallucinogenic

imagery,

pulse

imagery.

isolation

hypnagogic

current
imagery.

difference

between

imagery,

the

latter

deprivation

photic

forms

stimulation
imagery,

that

the

main

imagination

of

imagery

"is

in

the

antecedent

conditions

that

arouse

them

not

in

the

phenomenal

attributes

that

appear

in

ject's
disagree
to
the

(p. 93).

reports"
with

another

will,

made

he

as

groups

hypnagogia,

climate

of

in

Moreover,

that

is

of

as

hypnagogic

this

would

is,
or

paper,

already
imagery,

-492-

the

point

share
in

themselves

argued,
sleep

that

namely,

emerge

sub-

entirely

imagery"

they
may

not

and

nonetheless,

"imagination

dreaminess

hypnagogic.
a species

observation

of

a measure

observation

phenomena

general

his

Although

which

type

sleep

argues

various

in

classification
memory imagery,

meditation

Richardson

is

Richardson

The

imagery,

it

away

context

imagery,

drug

role

where

taken

imagery,

eidetic

rele-

who
important

following

the

offers

round.

way

Even

is

of

mentation

other

1973).

Horowitz

disstates,

psychologists

a much

and

later

mental

other

this

its

methods

emergence
In

the

not

imagery

encoun-

hypnagogic

of

con-

them.

the

at

their

to

and

to

general
from

population.

states

arising

phenomena

a brief

presence

objected

draw

flowing

listing

discuss

and
points

prominence,

types

dream

out

paper,

hypnagogia

hypnagogic

by

(1969),

this

general

the

Richardson

other

in

the

these

be

the

it

important

conditions

for

in

some

from

be

the

comparing

argued

and

given

to

took

and

study

in

cussions,

(e. g.,

pick

by

paper

presence

often

shall

implications

out

hypnagogia

employed

discussions
and

tered

of

chapter

earlier

clusions

last

what

OF HYPNAGOGIA:

a
become

dream

imagery

dreams

often

493
occurring
gogia

contains

eidetic
that

after-imagery

not

infrequent

at

that

memory

sequences

to

indeed,

Maury

detail,
range

of

(1857,

may

it

"imagination

contain

it:

of

a mixture

e. g.,

strongest

his
not

all

the
shall
is

that

as

a feature

natural
as

to

when

take

has

think

not

had

for

devoid

are

imagery

its

at

hypna-

from

come

night

'pure'

the

methods

Other
nothing
the

past
images

is

and

have

workers
to

the

do with

noted

lead

its

arrival
hypna-

that

in

other

p. 372),

for

instance,
make
and

noted

that
of

which

the

it
actithat
calcu-

complicated

"premonitory

drowsiness,

to

that

engaged

unfolded,

first

and

is

and

But,

sleep

subject

events

its

take

necessarily

may delay

it

imagery

wanes.

was

we

emerges

to

gradually

at

paper

it

which

may not

back

hypnagogic

allowed

himself

them

with

in

therefore,

this

of

part

studying

of

we look

If

of

state.

are,

and

cases

contrary,

considering

any correlation

from

kind

imagery

(1946,
of

waking

first

consciousness

the

full

the

the

onset

while

he

he

sleep

on

Rouques

while

untouched

imagery

exception

rise

(1848,1878)

vities.
lations

in

spontaneous

as

place

could

the

dreaminess

indistinguishable

possible

only

to.

imagery

in

Richardson's

entirely

memory

and

in

hypnagogic

attended

gogic
can

in
of

but,

is

only

eidetic

of hypnagogia,
definition.

its

the

Maury

sleep

of
is

state

sections

that

observe

argued

outside

not

are

groups

still

with

course

noted,

p. 44) -

richer

entirely

hypnagogic

strongly

the

found

of

of

while

that

see

line

clearer,

with

The

arguments

relevant

and

that pronamely,
after-imagery,
in wakefulness
and experienced
perceptions

linked

closely

much

tinged

vivid

type

subject

inducing

state,
1976,

argued

cases

most

a specific
duced by strong

and

simplest

not

imagination,

of

from

Such

the

that

other

remembering.

by the

is

pp. 85,90-92)

sequences

be

could

and

are

the

of

(Singer

1378,

images

mental

remembering.

that

by

gogic

p. 164;

imagery"

also

far

"exact

of

end

hypnagogia

memories

wakeful

Thus,

but

in

maintain"

and

"by

are

form

of

hypna-

that

seen

the

hypnopompic

the

hypnagogia

in

that

also

in

imagery

reproductions",

thought

We have

hypnagogia.

in

only

sleep"

was not

reason
was

present

494
he

when

regularly

occurring

have

noted

also

conjure

during

times

the

or

its

and

the

but

hypnagogia

also

capable

psychological
data

has

for

conditions
and

these

which
in
ence

of
I

and

varied

give

we found
the

the

psychological,

ment

might

ranking

with

favour

creativity

in

full

the

waking

analysis

and

sufficient

are

inward

that

pointed

studying

of

degree

a stage
the

that
in

system
the

More-

state.

of

those

mental

on

them

physical

stress
(when the

and
on

would

states
in

instance,

components

was

a rough

as

other
hypnagogia.
the

exist-

literature,

the

components

of

to

constitute

above
For

of

withdrawal

the

reported
layer

physical

turning

out

or

meditation

a slight

states,

the

and

favour

and

of

ranking

placed

nature

state

would

the

or
to

related

where
importance

tion,

the

own right

psychological

stage

for

one

an

been

combinations
to

rise

and

indeed

a three

framework

the

involved

process.

its

other

of

has

turn,

Careful

of

proposed

are

has

the

necessary

or

factors

suggested

over,

nation

attention

stages

working

only

relaxation

hypnagogic

the

the

environment.

on

widening
in it,

states

in
in

experiences.

occurrence

passive-receptive
the

light

the

other

a state

mechanisms

and

that

psychological

from

This,

only

other

inclusion

the

entity.

physical

the

and to

to

human

shedding

shown

led

of

of

phenomena

have

could

awake.

a number

be not

to

fully

with,
to

and

processes,
of

the

of

they

opposed

were

lines

these

investigators

which

with
as

they

hypnagogia

concept
of
identification

shown

ease

their

of

Various

sleep.

when

fact

mere

hypnagogia

day

along

conditions

the

relative
in

the

Arguments
of

before

imagery

up

but

them,

experienced

in

a combi-

terms

of

passive-receptive

atten-

relaxation,
psi

The

states.

active

latter

such

attention

is

sought

arrangesame

may
consciously

state).

The presence
I pointed
of the above components,
out,
in the core phenomenon of LEB.
I further
ushers
argued
for the correlation
and its
of this
attendant
phenomenon,
phenomenology,
tures,
i. e.,
characterized

with
for

of
activities
to oldbrain
a switch

by a constellation

of

subcortical

struc-

predominance

psychological

features

495
and

that

argued

is

LEB,

ant
it

takes

by

not

temporally

confined

p. 74)

we are

we momentarily
it

using

it

noticeable

at

that

fact

the

onset

of

the

to

the

not

the

REM type

and

become

of

only

contains

all

also

allows
in

registered

is,

the
by

unless

defined
being

day

is

mostly
due

only

the

preceding

those

sleep

To begin

required

for

is

highly

onset

the

of

appearance

ure

occurrence

it

manner

best

hypnagogia
schizophrenia

us

insight

an

implic-

into

1968,

the

LSD.

type

is

signific-

hallucinations
of

by

cited

imagery

More

nat-

of

p. 109;

hypnagogic

emerge

consci-

As a colleague

the

on
the

and

to

semi-wakeful
of important
a number

gives

light

sheds

besides

dreams

of

or

pointed
out to him (Caldwell
1976,
p. 464),
experiencing
way of hallucinating
without

Schacter

nature,

material

hallucinations.

of

oneiric

and

preconscious

has

with,

LEB

a wakeful

observation

ations.
Caldwell

character

but

This

ousness.

in

as

pronounced

its

of

hypnagogia

their

same

that
the

Thus,

its

the

of

which

state.

Because

and

LEB and

in

conditions

the

Oneirosis,

we believe

when

But

cycle.

is

sleep:

temporally

one

psychophysical

day.

nocturnal

times

that

state

a misnomer,

part
be

hour

state".

to

24 hour

to

but

'concentrating'

merely

particular

of

of

many

be

to

onset

hypnagogic

a hypnagogic
out

happen

sleep

'dreaming'

ring

or

the

the

occurrence

antly,

deeply'

into

in

that

conducive

the

are

attend-

24

the

beginnings

there

we mean to refer
of

sleep

"The

noted:
the

turns

occurrence
to

to

slip

'hypnagogic'

term

also

confined

to

also

its

and

throughout

periodically

that
speculate
just
'thinking

would

hypnagogia,

of

have

prominence.

occurrence

(1969,

no means

parasympathetic

the

place

As Tart

by

accompanied

occurinvolved

mentation

production.
Further,

emerges
deal
about
argued
apart
creative

as

not

the

only

the

about

workings

that
from

as its

well

the

form
the

surfacing

and

preconscious

content

mind

fusing

on both

suggests

may

material
tell

individual

human
and

light
it

which

particular

the

of

shedding
mentation,

in

manner

us
but

in

general.

of

a number

of

also
I

schizophrenic

a presence

a great

of
and

have
FsOR,

in

496
'paralogic'

more

general

active

in

during

hypnagogia

is

a subdued

At

616)

noted,

may

'in'

consciousness"

surrounds

These

may be

"struck

the

pp. 69 and

mind

of

Maury's

to

the

appear

although

thoughts

conscious
grain

of

given

rise
in

to

ings

and

one

single

a train

of

to

arguments

p. 100)

proposes

two

systems.

He, further,
of

the

chapter

and

fusing

original

(lb.,
"the

radio

(1939)

Hart's

the

gearing,

view

in

appropriate

p. 101).

The

latter

that

LEB

in

the

at

elements

had
resul-

which

to

is

well

correlated

screen".

as we saw

in

in

the

crossing
remote

"an

of

machinery
by

with

being
throwing
1979b,

McKellar
with

and

reference

affair

systems
by

other

makes

mental

the

to

yielding

as

accords

functions

what

this,

result

(quoted

gear"

(1979b,

cinema
listening

the

not

sub-

McKellar

also

of

is

numerous

imager...

once:

find-

1922)
there

rather

personal

functional

hypnagogia

tissues

that

observes

dissociation

remark

own

tobacco,

(e. g.,

FsOR thus

of

different

into

the

of

his

nasal

view

him

McKellar

various

organized
of

of

may

associations.

explains,

thinking

but

'Creativity',
a number

do with

hypnagogic

programmes

on
of

the

on his
hypnagogia

compares

coirment

nor

Prince's

him

show

here

he responded

which

pp. 189-190).

One part
to

chooses

are

unconscious
that

subject's

As Maury

his

mediate

response.

above

"systems"

conscious

of

the

question

supporting

unitary

1878,

ourselves

in

unconscious

verbal

the

to

place".

irritating

snuff

that

form

some

to

being

of

(Maury

irrelevant

anything

never

Leaning

material

remind

lecturer's

puzzling

Germane

by

example

this

had

tobacco

his

nunber

in

the

neither

or

the

are

consciousness".

unrelated

by

pp. 615-

penumbra

of

We may

question

to

knowledge"

pp. 165-6)

tobacco

no

the

surface

thought.

of
(1957,

is

part

thus

speaker's

"there

as

may

itself

that

mentation

in

its

surfaces

(1909,

according

be

may

wakefulness

impressions"

They

but

time

field

without

and
line

current

which,

"unnoticed

association

of

limited

which

Alexander

"originate

the

mind

of

as

"forms

but

96).

the

logic

the

appear

of

all

times,

such

pp. 390-391),

which

ted

manner
when

subdued.

(1925,

attitude

my argument
a

to

497
predominance
a change
to

of

the

i. e.,

require

the

The

p. 96;

1878,

p. 133),

they

are

peculiarity,

been

has

occasions

in

this

Moreover,

as

a primarily

draw

also
in

remarks
to

respect

pp. 146-7)

bodily

sensations,

pheral,

cannot

in

the

In

reference

of

"a

the

of

It

hypnagogia

ficance

are

images

and

related.

to

facilitatory

stages

is,

the

than

the

waking

latter

of

pointed
(Ornitz
is

more
In

state.

the

in

noted
images
the

et

al

their

trans-

signi-

is

"a

1967)

in

hypnagogia,

incoming

(1906)

Prince's

become

there

to

sensitive

chapters

Moreover,

state.

out,

signals

to
and

image".

spoke

earlier

tend

only

an

or

p. 166)

of

both

that

influence"

that

a symbol

'signals'

sensory

investigators

various

was

peri-

but

of

significance"

wherein

or

directly,

(1953,

Eeden

Van
state

mind

Walter

dreams

logic.

internal

form

hypnagogia,

to

into

the

nonspatial

consciousness.

formed

as

to

will

sleep

"that

visceral,

13).

12 and

to

as

the

hypnagogia

dream

dreaming

penetrate

emerge.
of

chapters
state

of

they

to

numerous

directed

peculiarity
be

weakening
in

that

dreaming

defined

physical,

reaching

e. g.,

specifically

the

(1969,

(see,

paper

on

they

and

order

out

1979b,

McKellar

singularity,

pointed

both

state-bound

p. 545;

in

perhaps,

1941)

hypnagogia,

to
latter

the

"special

this

are

1898,

peculiar

and

logic

employed

Prince

of

presence

hypnagogic

logic

the

logic

Sigwald

and

is

there

cortical
In

(Lhermitte

and

Maury

wakeful

of

mentation.

consciousness"

experiences

(e. g.,

that

paralogical

subcortical

state

from

"gear"

of

is,

That

activity.

subcortical

of

study

special

stimuli
of

'Sally'
multiple
that
personality,
stated
a dreaming
person "hears
Green et al (1971a,
every sound".
p. 6)
that
their
reported
yogi subject
was accurately
aware of
the workers'
in the EEG laboratory,
in which
activities
he was being tested,
(his EEG was that
in deep sleep
while
of

4 cps

rhythm).
Such data point,
between

tinguish
look

at

whatever

them,

and to

the

tional

state

of

once

sleeping
'causal'

more,

both

and dreaming,
relationship

need to view
the individual

to

need to distaking
a fresh
the

might

more carefully
in dreaming

exist
the

between

attenIt
states.

498
has

been

already

function
tect

dreams,

of

but

sleep,

states

ideal

of

dream

then

cerned
this

to

relationship

p. 106)

dreams

can

be

erent

from

the

(! ).

slain

That

application

of

what

ressive

oneiric

logic.

But,

older

to

if

oneiric

diminution
during

of
states

may,

of
of

sence
be

or

of
course,

a censor

another
common

way

is,

make
in
of

sense.

is

some

sense

wakefulness,
saying

that

The

point

one
is

other-

has

regunder-

not

terms
been

always

of

waking

argued,
then,

present

of

absence

fulfilled,

speak

of

the

then

it

will

using

that

in

or
viz.,

sleep

is

unin

registering

hypnagogia,

but

the

mentation,

are
to

implies

does

conditions

pro-

complex,

in

as

to
also

logical
to

and

e. g.,

is

censor

only

consciousness

Oneirosis,

diff-

a means

"censor"

cortical
former
is

original

of

works,

mind

censor

preconscious

cortical

organization

resorting
the

Clark's

and

as

the

functions

the

the

when

my arguments

than

waking

argued,

becoming

consciousness

of

mentation

than

been

also

perspective.

...

censor

him:

evade
he

evolutionally

has

point

'logic',

consciously,

son,

the

the

conditions

of

the

func-

that

Bliss

the

argues

"the

shows

mental

way

the presence

be

is

Freudian

logic,

expressed

strengthening

rather

the

state.

clearly

neurophysiological

wise,

waking

mentation

the

dreams

dreaming

and

"the

con-

a function

that

'logic',

state,

is,

would

stand

ply

waking

individual

a reversed

and

as

and

This

in

that

seen

con-

arguments,

viewed

my view,

best

environmental

It

be

into

attentional

sleep",

pro-

emergence

conscious

and

to

sleepy

contention

protect

a different

under

as

to

own

is

and

extent,

sleep

p. 118)

conclusion

sleep".

his

previous

(1943,

to

(1962,

wise

by

is

or

the

sleep

the

a considerable

manipulate

supporting

a switch

Whether
dreams

be,

to
of

the

that

case

out

for

sleep
to

the

not

presence

material.

should

Further

tect

the

supported

dreams

of

for

that

between

Freud's

against
tion

turns

relationship
and

above,

it

conditions

be,

to

ability

The

whatever

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logic,
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presimreaof

499
type of mentation
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emerges which,
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pre-existed
of
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censor whose presence
can only properly
relate

Oneirosis

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sleep

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wider

psychophysical

of

a person

(autosymbolic),

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point

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day

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genus

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shows,

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preoccupations
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experiences

psychoanalysis

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of

present
to

that

dreams

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Freudian

as

wish-fulfilling

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deny,

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stitute
of

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problems,

conflicts

(anagogic).
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the fact

ness of
de St. Denis,
In

1867,

dream"

ject-patients
argues

dreams"

"waking
dreams

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also
that

resembles

of

very

similar

the

physiology

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bodily

sleep

deliberately
conscious

Warcollier

the

in

to

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he
his

slowing

phenomenology
present

the
found,

subjects
down

of

on

'Psi',

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Desoille

reverie.

that
of

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guides

psychological

latter:

the

respiratory

dream

he

which

deepening

ever
is

temperature,

rectal

a full-blown

in

only

of

turning

conscious

of consciousness
appear to be aimed
by de Becker
1968, pp. 160-1)
in

an

nocturnal

as with
ing

not

attentional

while
dreaming

practices

into

that

one's

retaining
conscious(see,
e. g., Herve
p. 257; Green and Green 1978, pp. 132-3).
body is asleep
his mind is kept
while

one's
state
Similar
states
awake.
(cited
at by Desoille
"waking

the

into

participates
he is
that

this

his

of

may constitute

experience

the

which

manipulation

hypnagogia

in

state

controlled

in

nocturnal

former

strongly

for

instance,

that,

lowering

showed

and

respiration,

of

of
lower-

metabolism.
in

the

chapter

accompanied
induced

OOBEs

(1938,

by

(e. g.,

p. 50)

by

dream

awareness

occultists
Fox

1962,

referred

conditions

who

wish

are
to

of
often
achieve

pp. 126,138).

to

telepathic

images

as

500
"dream

images"

sleep"

(ib.

we have

hypnopompic

is

seen,

have

made

urred

one

rupted

by

wakings,

namely,

the

unity

night

dream

or

was

23 years

"wondering

however,

itated,

he woke

open"
In
Bagchi

"to

phenomenon"

(1959,

is

vein,

manipulation

tive,

distinction

first,

the

dream

it

is

characterized

relevant

to

is

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draws

attention

is

to

better

as

regressive.

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mentation

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in

Mentation

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erred

to

not

forms

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and
by

is

the

latter

However,
merely

as

In

its

particular

consciousness

Maury's

(1857,

out

a great

last

of

because
of

potentialities
been

has

repeatedly

pointed

regressive

but

as

out,
as

one

like

that,

measure

discussion

pp.

instincThe

points

the

hypnagogia

that

intelligence:

of

trying

were

dreaming.

that

the

people

retaining

evolutionary

subcortical

integration

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present

"attention-

deep

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to

omy.

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to

three

of

reflective,

he relates

lead

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wakeful
this

1901).

meditation,

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consciousness

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sleep.

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in

indeed,

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state

of

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words,

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eyes

Baillet

using

neural

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the

remarked

of

left
or

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to

stabilize

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earlier

argued

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174-5)

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level

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achieve

with

be

that

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from

was

sleep

lines

awareness

In

centrencephalon".

same

into

seen

continued

have
to

seemed

merge

he

p. 99:

p. 136)

had

before

hypnagogia

my relating

highest

the

mechanism,
to

1968,

Becker

still

and

same

biogra-

sleeping

whether

the

on

'indeterminate'

the

while

emotion

investigated

they

level

de

Wenger

and

yogis

dream

to

decided

"doubting

inter-

but

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dream,

interpreted

also

occ-

discovery,

sciences.

third

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dreams

greatest

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by

regards

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of

end

he not

(quoted

his

of
appears

it.

three

of

human

the

all

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pretation

Becker

as

class

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in a series
when,

the

his

this

of

him".

of

of

use

but

was

purpose

profound

a dream,

it

1968),

use

practice,

to

confined

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of

vision,

this

make

instance,

Descartes,

asleep,

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at

records,

pher

for

1619,

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to

appear

sleep.

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as

for

(de

in

also

strictly

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him

to

state

awakenings
in

not

Descartes

people.

telepathic

Occultists

consciousness

acquiring

to

the

p. 101).

incomplete

of

to

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autonit
hyprefthis
return

501
of

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to

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logics:

erent
the

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preconscious"

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nonrational

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Vogel

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the

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attentional

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of

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into

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purpose
It

implies

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at
state

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at

(1909,

being
p. 636)
the

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(see

both
Such

e. g.,

Facility
things,

in

he

is

other

time

is

that

time

and

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his

of
and
he

status

dependent
on

Foulkes

capable
world

reality

gener-

(REM)
(see

imaginal

during

are

sleep

repressions
that

that

a considerable
which

only

ful-

a state

other
to

and

sleep

dreaming.

internal,

perceptual
world
- the
imaginal
however,
world,
or

(1953,

LEB.

and

action

also

were

the

processes

releasing

between

body

dissolution

handling,

of

of

self-consciousness

among

own mental

guard,

As Walter

straddle

implies,

state

ori-

in

whole

the

sleep

truly

a state
depersonalization

dreaming.

wakeful

1965).

his

point

one

to

external,

the

hypnagogia

is

distinguishing

not

of

this

the

but

Heard

critical

awareness

result

functions

thought

body
-

its

Alexander

the

as

through

those

dream

the

to

individual

ally

less

the

1972)

achieving

the

Notably,

relation-

have

schema.

the

preconscious

p. 313).
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of

body

though

as

consciousness

wakefulness

form

of

view".

diminishes

the

loss

to

itself

put

An early

Dusen

fills

must

process

intuitive

1975,

mind

mental

of

(Gowan

the

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of

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censor.

creative

openness

noted

noted,

remarked

"involves

also

hypnagogia

shut

his

and

diff-

has

p. 9)

filtering

p. 166)

of

by

'Creativity',

1971,

depersonalization".

bes

governed

awake

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of

and

ginal

his

enjoying

simultaneously

on

facilitation

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et

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(Weil

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ontogenetically

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general

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502
beliefs

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Furthermore,

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tation

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cterized

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by

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does

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fascination

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may
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arousal
circuit".

and

the

against

theory

of
is

It

argue

not

a kind

is

intense

fascination)
low

logical

intuition.

(1962)
is

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and

contradiction

of

very

'analy-

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to

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of

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of

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during

and

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of

ination

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ucinations

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in

a study

conflict

analysis
kind,

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receptivity

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of

states

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in

out

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rather

of

fascination:

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encountered

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of

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(meditative

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psi

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subject-object

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tedness

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or

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as

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under

any

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because

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belongs

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function,

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of

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case,

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deliberately

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blankness

occurs

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and

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the

exclusion

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series)

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to

hypna-

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idea

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innumerable

tal,

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explain

due

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of

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dreams.

fascination

of

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mind

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conflict

emotional

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invoked

activities

in

reducer

anxiety

and

wakefulness

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imagination.

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argued

as

as

acts

gogia

realms

chara-

resolve

of halla hallucoccurs
psychoThe

the presence of 7cps rhythm in the EEG of


may also explain
both hypnagogists and people in rage (Walter 1953; Watson 1978, pp. 150-5).

503
Before

image

gogic

not

type

abstract-general

in

the

process

of

concept

in

the

chapter

on

'Creativity',

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to

p. 124)

represented

of

logical

in

concept

The

second
1941;

hypnagogia

is

(1943)

we are

ences

themselves

fleeting

and
later

remember

are

gogia

(1897),

Ellis

de3a

this

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to

(1976,

scintillations",
Although

stages
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vu.

various
On other

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suggest

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it

1909).
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experiMoreover,

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in

as

in

"dream

blocked.

analysis

severally
being

characterized

hypnae. g.,

paramnesia,

severely

stage
is

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"I

that

a detailed
are

other

experi-

verbally".
others

they

patients

(Alexander

and

that

memories.

hallucinated

may be

attempted

his

remember,

occasions,

memory

1978)

On the

remarks

them

(1924)

and

of

hypnagogic

dream-like

noted

and

Green

help

to

been

Muldoon

emergence

d'appui

pp. 2-3)
the

pro-

Lhermitte

and

that

difficult

reported

one's
I

phenomena,

have

encountered
jamais

vu,

of

normal

has

memories.

reminded

no points

most

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ences

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Oliver

Typically,

Green
the

often

can

subtlety

the

It

1948;

1977;

childhood

are

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perseverative

1857,1878;

to

repeatedly

any

that

memory.

Warcollier

of

(1969,

object

of

conducive
use

made

hand,

to

Budzynski

highly

be

we

general?

Maury

1943;

long-forgotten

recover

as

(e. g.,

Kubie

1965;

in

precision

almost

it

these

of

Richardson

exemplification

relates

point

Carrington

Kubie

an

formation

workers

various

but

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is

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of

speaking

notion

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imagery

visual

imagery

of

Sigwald

merely

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light
As noted

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relationships".

hypnagogic

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cess

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1957).

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image

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ected

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ted

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work".

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demonstrated.

abundantly
body

case
is,

that

circumstances

such

state

chances

the

mind,
or

world.

in

the

go,

particularly

worrying,

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spiritual

in

out

comfortably

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his

'blank'

this

pointed

and

spirits.

sits

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in

experienced

phenomena

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to

were

my
not

meditation
at

own

and

London's

institutes

and

techniques

of

consciousness

Although

these

classes

ran

were

514
for

four

every

academic

year
30

week

these

carried

group

sitting

all

in

basically

diffusedly

to

one's

Concentrative
kind

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Traditionally,
as

either

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of

means

fore,

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in

to

the

concerns,

and

that

these

lead

into

to

'development

circles',

distinguishing

the

setting.

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physical

relaxation

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and

image.

sake,

ie.

to

exercise

as

a
to

come

of

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two

opening-up

forms

of

It

if

followed
to
only

states
can

also

(muscular,

that

meditation

go

of

one's
turning

analyse,

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of

subjective
images

sensations,

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the

it

on a

nature

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employed

own

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intuitions.

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separately.

instructions,
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mental
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my classes

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to

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paper)

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quality

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space.
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sensation

meditation.

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as

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music.

meditation

internal

discussed

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delivered

a step
is concentrated

attention

floor

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on

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goes

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composed

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members

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manner

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on

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out

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of

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years

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emotional,

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psychoand

515
intellectual),

letting

logically

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on

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circles'!
type

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of

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of

concentrating

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mental

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area

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sense

of

hearing

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gave

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rose,

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open

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spection
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mental

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of
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to

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a person's
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manipulate

state
weeks

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itself.

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body.

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a windowsill.

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on

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This

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extremely

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reported

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ological

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516
the

state

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distinguishing
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gogia

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to

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ability

to

after

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had

the

exercise.

conclusion
forgetting

the

to

be

mainly

of

subject

of

falling
introspection

in reported

imagery

(always

consciousness
the

imaginal

relaxation

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the
more
and

as

observations
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invigorated

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was

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to

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and

deeper

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were

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amount

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vividness,
to

ability

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the

of

as

and

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a diminution

receptive

had,

against

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retaining

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by

and

in

greater
one

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vividness,

enhanced.

the

routine,

prevented

frequency

and

observed

thus

physical),

amount,

deepened,

that

the

was

secured

led

proficient

to
in

phenomena

it

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remaining

opposed

increased

activities
their

became

against

experienced

and

and

the

at

secured

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initially

have

to

is,

that

registering

surroundings

were

reporting

earlier

from

frequency

gradually

of

absorption

them

asleep.

hypnagogic

subjects

and

the

latter

the

which

the

himself

proved

it

in

the

acquired

while

place,

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balance

routine

with

from

sustained

reporting

experiences.

awareness
from

time,

themselves

case

in

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prevented
the

remembering

be

to

taken

to

classes,

learned

earlier

fascination

that

subjects

loss

the

the

to

to

and,

experiences

sometimes

out

simultaneous

experience

invoked
hypnagogia

evening

in

argued

meditation.

experiences

the

as

be

the

subject

his

over

of

in

hypna-

prevention

criteria,

including

sleeping

This

advantages

these

turned

report

its

and

induced

out

for
occurring

cannot

states

meditation

progress.

but

paper,

carried

two

spontaneously

the

of

criteria

experimentally

opening-up

in

the

this

of

adjacent

of

only

induction

sleep

the

distinguish
number

from

phenomenology

the

deliberate

body

main

the

and

conditions

more
one's

and

the

refreshed
relaxation.

517

Thus,

psychophysical
for

a pre-condition
be

to

directly

observations
the

hypometabolic

the

employment

and

immediate

Finally,

some

to

certain
is

that

many

hypnagogic

essentially
are

phenomena

so-called
phenomena

coloured

one's

these

terms

of

mind

and

that

hypnagogic

constitute

meaningful

unknowable

by

the

with

in

opening-up

questions

to

imagery

they

this
asked
the
were

:
image
to

were
',

'Who

striking

while

does

it

into

drifting
examples

of

prewhy

explain

and

of

my
I

pose

of

experience
my

asked

mental

certain
hypnagogic

such

as

'What
they

Conversely
one

lives

the

of

or

other
Some

hypnagogia.

clairvoyance

'catching'

its

unknown,

to

on

layers

sometimes

light

'

be

may

of

circles'

for?

they

when

of

not

questions

is

that

aspects
the

many

imaginal

capable

to

are

that

experiencing

diffusedly

concentrate

group

in

ask

states

because

inference,

while
to

mean?

is

meditation

themselves

of

argue

unconscious

of

'development

of

first

they

should

instance,

to

and

hypnagogia,

however,

of

phenomena

subjects

natural

references

means
For

people.

other

are

effects

has

paper

of

argued

setting

experiences

appear

hypnagogic

have

operation

their

me

number

hypnagogia

This,

nature.

person's

the

and

operations

conscious

in

occurring

in

explained

and

set

this

activities
I

the

while

groups

in

that

experiences
by

as

reported

second

Thus,

and

generation

these

led

with

correlated

paranormal

of

and

structures.

subcortical

in

reported

phenomena

to

epistemological

has

which

one

naturalistic

These

surroundings.

approach

my

way,

respect

imagery

of

and

that

true

of

physical

members

ontological

It

questions.

of

reports

dream

his

of

awareness

of

also

hypnagogia

of

a means

but

in

arguments

as

only

relaxation.

function

state

not

a positive

one's

my

anabolic

interpretation

subject

on

this

of

in

deepened

be

to

hypnagogia

of
latter

the

strongly
or

retains

been

by

experiences
bear

raise

occurrence

affected

i. e. hypnagogic

are

the

found

was

relaxation

and

does
were

member

of

results

telepathy.

This

518
at

least

seemingly
meaningful
of

another

the

raises
'irrelevant'

properly

quantified,

possible

future

belonging

I
research

to

however,

Since,

shall

whether
images

hypnagogic

phenomena
mind.

to

as

question

leave

orientations.

some
might

the

unconscious

these

reports

them

as

not

be
layers

were

pointers

not
and

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