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UNIT 3: classification, Tabulation and Presentation of Data

Q1. What is classification? Answer: Classification is a systematic grouping of the units according to their common characteristics. For example, in a particular industry, workers can be classified as unskilled, semi skilled and skilled, each of which form a class. Q2. What are the functions of classification? Answer: The functions of statistics are as follows: It condenses the bulk data It simplifies the data and makes the data more comprehensible It facilitates comparison of characteristics It renders the data ready for any statistical analysis

Q3. What are the requisites of a good classification? Answer: A good classification should be unambiguous, exhaustive, mutually exclusive, flexible, suitable, stable, homogeneous and revealing. Q4. What are the types of classification? Answer: Classification could be of various types like Geographical classification, chronological classification, Conditional classification, Qualitative classification, Quantitative classification, Statistical series. Q5. What are the methods of classification? Answer: there are three methods of classification: One-way classification Two-way classification Manifold classification Q6. What is Tabulation? Answer: Tabulation is a logical or systematic listing of related data in rows and columns. The row of a table represents the horizontal arrangement of data and column represents the vertical arrangement of data. The presentation of data in tables should be simple, systematic and unambiguous. Q7. What are the objectives of tabulation? Answer: The objectives are as follows: Simplify complex data Highlight important characteristics Present data in minimum size Facilitate comparison

Bring out trends and tendencies Facilitate further analysis

Q8. What are the parts of a table? Answer: A table should contain table number, title, captions, stubs, body of the table, ruling and spacing, head note and source note. Q9. How many types of table we could have? Answer: Tables are mainly classified into three types: Purpose of investigation a) General purpose table b) Specific purpose table The nature of presented figures a) Primary table b) Derived table Construction a) simple table b) Complex table c) Cross- classified table Q10. What is frequency? Answer: The number of repetition of a variable in a particular data set is called its frequency. For example, if a certain value say 50 appears 6 times in a data set then frequency of the variable 50 is 6. Q11. What is frequency distribution? Answer: a systematic presentation of the values taken by a variable together with corresponding frequencies is called a frequency distribution of the variable. The variables with their corresponding frequencies are presented in a table format. Q12. What is class interval? What are the types of it? Answer: A continuous frequency distribution is divided into mutually exclusive subranges called class intervals. Class intervals are of two types: exclusive and inclusive class interval.

Q13. What is derived frequency distribution? Answer : From a given frequency distribution, we can derive some other frequency distributions: o Relative frequency distribution o Percentage frequency distribution o Frequency density distribution o Less than cumulative frequency distribution o More than cumulative frequency distribution Q14. What are bivariate and multivariate frequency distribution?

Answer: Frequency distribution of two variables is called bivariate frequency distribution and of more than two variables is called multivariate frequency distribution. For example, frequency distribution of age and salary is a bivariate distribution but if we include sex of the persons along with these then we will get a multivariate frequency distribution. Q15. What is an open end class interval? Answer: If the class interval does not prescribe lower limit for first class or upper limit for the last class, then it is known as open-end class interval. Q16. What are tally marks? Answer: Tally mark is a small vertical line drawn against a class immediately after getting a value belonging to the class. It is used to count the frequency of the corresponding class. Q17. What is a diagram? Answer: The graphical representation of a data set which facilitate comparison of various aspect of data is known as diagram. It can be one dimensional like bar diagrams and two dimensional like pie charts. Q18. How many types of bar diagrams are there? Answer: The types of bar diagrams are: Simple bar diagram Multiple bar diagram Component bar diagram

Q19. What is component bar diagram? Answer: Circles with area proportional to magnitudes are drawn to represent the total magnitude. It is drawn when data have magnitudes for two or more components. Q20. What is a) Histogram b) Frequency polygon c) Frequency curve d) Ogives Answer: a) Histogram: If the frequency distribution is represented by a set of rectangular bars with area proportional to class frequency. It is basically a variety of bar diagram with no gap in between the consecutive bars. b) Frequency polygon: If the mid values of class interval are plotted against frequency of the class interval and if these points are joined by straight lines then we obtain frequency polygon. c) Frequency curve: If the mid values of the class intervals plotted against their respective frequencies are joined by a smooth curve , it is called frequency curve. d) Ogives: Ogive is obtained by drawing the graph of a cumulative frequency distribution. It is also called cumulative frequency curve. These curves are of two types:

Less than ogive: when less than cumulative frequencies are plotted the upper class limits of the corresponding class interval, we get less than ogive. Upper class ogive: when more than cumulative frequencies are plotted the lower class limits of the corresponding class interval, we get less than ogive