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The Top 10 Elements of a Great Speech

1. A Proper Introduction and/or Self-Introduction. Have the person introducing you include several of the following items:- Your name- Your credentials- Your experience in this area- Why you were selected to speak vs. someone else- Your personal qualities- Your success and accomplishments 2. Ackno led!e and touch the audience. Convey authentic gratitude and appreciation y reflecting! efore the speech! why you"re glad#grateful to e there! specifically. $or example:% &t is an honor for me to e with you at this meeting ecause.....%a. 'raise the work of the organi(ation. Cite examples of key products or services that work well. )mpathi(e with their %plight% or with the sacrifices they"ve made to produce what they have. *hank them for what they are currently working on that will improve the industry#life#company! etc. ". A #oncise Statement of Purpose of the speech. &dentify why you are there and what they can expect to hear. $or example: %*he purpose of this meeting is to give us a chance to report on.....and you give a chance to ask questions.....%%+y o ,ective today is ask you to ecome leaders instead of ,ust managers and to tell you why this change is so critical....%%&n my opening remarks! & am going to suggest su stantial changes in our division"s mission and profit o ,ectives....%%& want each of you to leave here today with a clearer picture of what -../ will look like and a clear sense of what you"ll e doing....% $. Ackno led!e and honor the audience%s resistance and dou&ts a&out 'our topic/purpose or a&out 'ou. &f your speech is any good! it will pro a ly feel challenging to some in the audience and cause reactions. You can reduce the negative reactions and include the %higher-end% of your audience if you stand in everyone"s shoes and speak to what they may e thinking. %0ome of you might e thinking that we are more committed to innovation than to customer service....1 20ome of you might think that we are not flexi le enough in our pricing....1 20till others are concerned without delivery times.% %You might think that we"ve already put too much time and money into......% %& expect that many of you will disagree with me3 my proposals sound too drastic! go too far and e too disruptive. & will! in fact! tone them down after hearing your concerns and learning from your input....% (. #reate a sense of ur!enc'. You give a speech in order to motivate others to grow! change! think or act differently. 4ut most of us won"t change quickly enough unless we feel something! whether it e reward or consequence 5 oth work3 use oth if you can6. $or example: %*he reason that increasing our sales y 789 next year is imperative is that the window of opportunity in this market segment will only e open for the next : months. &f we don"t get in! we lose out3 you lose out.% %;ny profession that doesn"t keep up with the demands and changing needs of its customers is likely to e replaced y new profession that is. Your livelihood and continue success depends on continual innovation! not ,ust improvement. <ur est customers simply will not wait for us for more than .8 days. *hey"ll find someone else who will deliver.% ). Present the solution. =ow that you"ve got their attention and have them feeling their wallets! given your audience the plan! the solution! the strategy for how to oth solve the pro lem and also to get ahead and stay ahead. $or example: %&t used to e that y making more prospecting calls to more potential customers in the same amount of time! we could increase sales y ->9 per year. 4ut this approach simply will not get us to our ?>9 sales goal. &nstead! & propose that we....%%We have

een listening to our customers very well since -..8! ut now & suggest that we marry them! share resources and work together as partners! not ,ust their vendors. *his would mean that....:% *. +ake 'our specific points, the steps needed and the o&stacles to reachin! the o&-ecti.e. @eep it to a out A ma,or points. /. Share or dra a conclusion. You"ve given them lots of context! content and opinion. =ow! summari(e it all into the form of a conclusion so that they"ll have a handle to readily hold your speech asket. %What are we to conclude at this pointB *hat....%%*here are several conclusions that one might draw right now. *hey are.....*he one that &"ve chosen is.... ecause....and & will.....% 0. Ask for somethin!1 action, illin!ness, a chan!e, support. *his motivates and stretches the audience and onds them to you! long term. 10. 23A or a fresh statement of the speech. Con"t e afraid to e of service#respond to your audience vs. ,ust eing a % roadcaster.%

The Top 10 2uestions To Ask 4ourself 5efore 6ritin! a Speech.

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What do & have in common with the audienceB Why was & selected to give this speech vs. someone elseB What do & want them to do differently after the speechB What do they +<0* need right now! from me#this speechB HopeB CataB $actsB )motional supportB ContextB ClarityB &deasB +oneyB 0olutionsB ; 0trategyB )ntertainmentB What picture! analogy! metaphor! simile can & create that makes my main point immediately get-a leB $lowerB ;nimalB $amilyB < ,ectB +achineB 'rocessB CistinctionB What do & want out of giving the speechB *o e asked ackB *o e asked y someone in the audience to speak to their organi(ationB *o get clients#contractsB What"s the single most important piece of information that & want them to have! regardlessB ; factB *rendB 0killsB CistinctionB ConceptB What"s the iggest fear & have a out giving this speechB What can & say that will powerfully touch the top >9 of the audienceB

-8. What can & learn that"s going to e great! out of giving this speechB

The Top 10 Steps to 7educe Speakin! An8iet'

9o 'our knees feel like Gum&'%s hen 'ou ha.e to !et up and speak in front of a !roup: 9o 'ou feel like the ne8t ords out of 'our mouth are !oin! to &e the dum&est ords e.er uttered &' a human:

&f you said yes to either of the questions a ove! e advised! you have a full- lown case of stage fright! says Eenny Easkowski! a professional speaker and 'resident of EFE 0eminars. ;ccording to the ook of lists! the fear of speaking in pu lic is the G- fear of all fears. *he fear of dying is G/H <ver 7-9 of people have some fear or anxiety dealing with speaking in front of groups. 'eople who have this fear can experience all kinds of symptoms: 0weaty palms! accelerated heart rate! memory loss and even difficulty in reathing. 0ome of the world"s most famous presenters have freely admitted to nervousness and stage fright. +ark *wain said it est! %*here are two types of speakers: those that are nervous and those that are liars%. )veryone! even experienced speakers! has some anxiety when speaking in front of a group of people. *his is perfectly normal. *he est way to deal with this anxiety is to first acknowledge that this fear is perfectly normal and you are not alone. *o reduce your fear! you need to make sure you properly and thoroughly prepare yourself efore you speak. 'roper preparation and rehearsal can help to reduce this fear y a out />9. 'roper reathing techniques can further reduce this fear y another ->9. Your mental state accounts for the remaining -89. 4elow are ,ust a few suggestions you should use to overcome your speaking anxiety. *he first and most important of all is preparation. & like to think of it as the . '"s: Prior Proper Preparation Pre.ents Poor Performance of the Person Puttin! on the Presentation. =othing will relax you more than to know your are properly prepared. 4elow are -8 steps you can take to reduce your speech anxiety. &f the fear of pu lic speaking causes you to prepare more! then the fear of speaking serves as it"s own est antidote. Iemem er! %He who fails to prepare is preparing for failure - so 'repare! 'repare! 'repare% -. ;no the room - ecome familiar with the place in which you will speak. ;rrive early and walk around the room including the speaking area. 0tand at the lectern! speak into the microphone. Walk around where the audience will e seated. Walk from where you will e seated to the lectern! as you will e when introduced. ;no the Audience - &f possi le! greet some of the audience as they arrive and chat with them. &t"s easier to speak to a group of friends than to a group of strangers. ;no 4our +aterial - <f you are not familiar with your material or are uncomforta le with it! your nervousness will increase. 'ractice your speech and revise it until you can present it with ease. <earn =o to 7ela8 - You can ease tension y doing exercises. 0it comforta ly with your ack straight. 4reathe in slowly! hold your reath for 7 to > seconds! then slowly exhale. *o relax facial muscles! open you mouth and eyes wide! then close then tightly. >isuali?e 4ourself Speakin! - &magine yourself walking confidently to the lectern as the audience applauds. &magine yourself speaking! your voice loud! clear and assured. When you visuali(e yourself as successful! you will e successful. 7eali?e People 6ant 4ou To Succeed - ;ll audiences want speakers to e interesting! stimulating! informative and entertaining. *hey want you to succeed - not fail.

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9on%t Apolo!i?e - +ost of the time your nervousness does not show at all. &f you don"t say anything a out it! no ody will notice. &f you mention your nervousness or apologi(e for any pro lems you think you have with your speech! you"ll only e calling attention to it. Had you remained silent! your listeners may not have noticed anything. #oncentrate on 4our +essa!e - not the medium. Your nervous feelings will dissipate if you focus your attention away from your anxieties and concentrate on your message and your audience! not yourself. Turn @er.ousness Into Positi.e Ener!' - the same nervous energy that causes platform panic can e an asset to a speaker. Harness it! and transform it into vitality and enthusiasm.

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-8. Gain E8perience - )xperience uilds confidence! which is the key to effective speaking. +ost eginning speakers find their anxieties decrease after each speech they give.

10 Tips on =andlin! =ostile 2uestions

1. 2. <isten carefull' to the Auestion 3 repeat it aloud - +ake sure you understood the question correctly J that your audience knows the question to which you are responding. Ans er directl'. <ook directl' at the person askin! the Auestion - Kive simple answers to simple questions. &f the question demands a lengthy reply! agree to discuss it later with anyone interested. 7efer to 'our Speech - Whenever possi le! tie your answer to a point in your speech. Eook upon these questions as a way to reinforce J clarify your presentation. Anticipate areas of Auestionin! - 'repare factual support material in three or four areas in which you anticipate questions. 5e friendl', al a's keep 'our temper - ; cool presentation creates an aura of confidence. When the questioner is hostile respond as if he or she were a friend. ;ny attempt to %put down% your questioner with sarcasm will immediately draw the audience"s sympathy to the questioner. Al a's tell the truth - &f you try to end the truth! you almost always will e caught. 'lay it straight! even if your position is momentarily weakened. Treat t o Auestions from the same person as t o separate Auestions 9on%t place 'our hands on 'our hips or point at the audience - *hese are scolding poses and give you the appearance of preaching. ;eep thin!s mo.in! - *here is a rhythm to a good question-and-answer exchange. *hey volley ack J forth in a risk manner. @eep your answers rief and to the point with many mem ers of the audience participating.

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10. #onclude smartl' - 4e prepared with some appropriate closing remarks. End with a summary statement that wraps up the essential message you want them to remember.

A.B.9.I.E.@.#.E. Anal'sis - It%s 4our ;e' To Success

;s speakers we all know the importance of properly preparing our material far enough in advance so we may have sufficient time to rehearse and %fine-tune% our speeches. Lnfortunately! this is not enough to assure that your speech or presentation is well received. Your speech preparation must also include gathering information a out your audience and their needs. ; well prepared speech given to the wrong audience can have the same effect as a poorly prepared speech given to the correct audience. *hey oth can fail terri ly.

&t is critical that your preparation efforts include some amount of audience analysis. *he more you know and understand a out your audience and their needs! the etter you can prepare your speech to assure that you meet their needs. 0peech preparation should use what & like to call the . '"s. Prior Proper Preparation Prevents Poor Performance of the Person Putting on the Presentation. =othing will relax you more than to know you have properly prepared. *he stage fright or speech anxiety felt y many speakers is due directly to not knowing enough a out the speaking environment or the audience. *he more you know a out your speaking environment and your audience! the more relaxed you will e when delivering your speech. +any speakers3 however! often overlook the need to include any kind of audience analysis as part of their speech preparation. 'roper audience analysis will assure that you give the right speech to the right audience. +ost professional speakers send their clients a multi-page questionnaire in order to gather enough information a out them and the speaking event to properly customi(e their speeches. Lsing the word %;-L-C-&-)-=-C-)% as an acronym! & have defined some general audience analysis categories that these surveys should include. A nalysis - Who are theyB How many will e thereB B nderstanding - What is their knowledge of the su ,ectB 9 emographics - What is their age! sex! educational ackgroundB I nterest - Why are they thereB Who asked them to e thereB E nvironment - Where will & standB Can they all see J hear meB @ eeds - What are their needsB What are your needs as the speakerB # ustomi(ed - What specific needs do you need to addressB E xpectations - What do they expect to learn or hear from youB Cevelop specific questions which fit into each of these eight categories and ask the client or audience to tell you what they want. )ssentially! ask them what they need and give it to them.

11 Tips for Bsin! Clip #harts +ore Effecti.el'

While everyone seems to e interested in creating high-tech computer generated presentations! the flip chart still continues to e the most effective presentation media of all. <ne should not assume that investing a lot of money in high tech visual aids J equipment will %make% your presentation. *he est visuals have een and still are the simplest. Iemem er! the purpose of using visual aids is to enhance your presentation! not upstage it. 0ince most presentations are delivered efore small groups or A> people or less! the flip chart is the perfect si(e. & feel the flip chart will continue to e the workhorse of most training seminars. *here are several advantages of using a flip chart. Here are ,ust a few: -. ?. A. 7. Clip charts do not need electricit' - You don"t need to worry if the ul will urn out or worry that you forgot the extension chord. Clip charts are economical - *hey do not require you to use any special films or printers to produce them. #olor can &e added .er' easil' - ;n inexpensive ox of flip chart markers allows you all the creativity you want. Clip charts allo spontaneit' - ;ny last minute changes can e easily made.

&n today"s world of high tech computers! fancy software and sophisticated infomercials! many presenters today feel they have to create a presentation which shows off their a ility to use computers and their latest clip art li rary. ;lthough the software availa le today does allow everyone the a ility to create colorful slides and overheads! we often find that the visuals ecome the presentation and not the speaker. ;s a speaker! your visual aids should not e the presentation. You areH )ven though flip charts are low tech! they are relia le and don"t require any special skill to use them ut here are some tips to help you use them successfully. -. *he est flip chart stands have clamps at the top and will hold most type of flip chart pads. +ost allow you to hang your flip charts while some stands will only allow you to prop them up. Con"t wait until the last minute to find this out. +ake sure the flip charts you use will fit the flip chart stand you will e using. 0ome have different spaced holes at the top. $lip chart pads are usually sold in packages of two and come either plain or come with grid lines on them. Lsing the pad with grid lines makes your ,o easier for drawing straight lines and keeps your text aligned. ;lso! make sure the pad has perforations at the top to allow easier removal of sheets. & have seen many presenters struggle to tear off a sheet evenly. When preparing your charts! it is est to first design your charts on paper first efore drawing them on the actual flip chart pad. Eightly write your text in pencil first efore using the actual flip chart markers. *his will allow you to make any ad,ustments with text spacing and any figures you will e drawing. Co =<* use all lock letters 5L'')I C;0)6. Lsing upper and lower case letters makes it easier to read. & like to use the / x / rule. Have no more than / words on each line and no more than / lines to a sheet. Lsing a : x : rule is even etter. Lse flip chart markers and not regular magic markers. $lip chart markers will not % leed% through the paper. ;lso! they do not have as strong a smell as regular markers. You can also find %scented% markers as well. *hey usually come in various fruit scents. ;void using the colors yellow! pink! or orange. *hese are extremely difficult for the audience to see. Con"t make your audience have to strain their eyes to see your points. ;void using too many colors. Lsing one dark color and one accent color works est. You can write %lightly in pencil% any notes next to key points you need. *he audience won"t e a le to see them. You may also write what is on the next sheet. @nowing this will allow you to properly introduce your next sheet. &f you make any mistakes you can use %white out% to correct any small errors. $or larger areas! cover the mistake with a dou le layer of flip chart paper and correct the error.

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-8. Have a lank sheet of paper etween each of your text sheets. *his will prevent the written material from other sheets to %peek% through. --. 'roperly store and transport you flip charts in a case of the card oard ox that some come in. *his will protect your flip charts and keep them fresh and ready to use each time. *ake great care of your flip charts. & have some flip charts & have used over -88 times and they still look as good as new. +aking %prepared% flip charts can take a considera le amount of time. +ake sure you start preparing your charts early enough so you can review them and make any changes or corrections efore hand. &t takes practice to learn how to print neatly. &f you do not have neat printing! ask someone who does prepare them for you. ; poorly prepared flip chart can e very distracting. *he most important point to remem er in preparing your flip charts is to start preparing them early.

Bsin! D.erhead Transparencies

While the current trend in the training industry is heading toward the use of the ECC 'ro,ector technology! the overhead pro,ector is still the most popular presentation device used today. +ost facilities have an overhead pro,ector in every training room or conference room. ;lthough it is the most widely used! it is also the iggest a used. 0ome presenters continue to misuse the overhead pro,ector even though they have used them for years. & have provided elow some asic guidelines and tips when using an overhead pro,ector. ;lthough some of these tips seem like common sense! many presentations fail ecause these asic tips are not consistently applied. Here are some tips and rules to e aware of: -. Practice !i.in! 'our presentation usin! 'our .isual aids to check out how well they pro,ect. *his is a good time to also check for spelling errors. Have a friend sit and watch your presentation and make notes on any pro lems or needed improvements with your visual aids. 'ractice using your overhead transparencies so you will e comforta le with handling them correctly. Stand off to one side of the o.erhead pro-ector hile 'ou face the audience - *oo many people stand etween the overhead pro,ector and the screen causing a shadow of the presenters ody. 0tanding to one side will allow the audience to see you as the presenter and will prevent you from locking their view of your visual aid. 9o not face the Epro-ectedE ima!e on the screen - $ace your audience and not the screen. +any presenters face the screen and end up talking to the screen. #o.er the transparenc' hen 'ou are done usin! it-with an opaque piece of card oard 5& usually mount a solid sheet of paper on one of my transparency frames6. You may also turn off the pro,ector completely! ut eware! this can cause the pro,ector ul to urn out sooner. 5rin! a spare &ul&F-=othing is more unsettling than to have your overhead pro,ector ul go out during your presentation. 4ring spare ul s and a glove to change the ul . *he old ul will e H<*H +ake sure you know how to change the ul . Place the o.erhead to 'our 7IG=T if 'ou are ri!ht handed and to 'our <ECT of 'ou are left handed -*his will make it easier for you to face your audience and write if you need to. &n either case! you want to stand in the center of the speaking area. Place 'our o.erhead pro-ector on a ta&le low enough so it does not lock you or the screen. Have a small ta le next to the overhead so you can stack your overheads efore and after you use them. Place 'our screen off on a dia!onal instead of directl' &ehind 'ou-this will assure that you do not lock the view for your audience. ;lso! have the top of the screen tilted forward towards the overhead to prevent the %keystone% effect 5*his is where the top of the image is larger than the ottom6. Tape the po er chord to the floor-to protect you or someone else from tripping. ;s the presenter! tripping over the chord and falling! although humorous! is one gesture you would prefer to avoid.


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-8. Store 'our o.erhead transparencies in a sturd' &o8 or container so they will stay clean and protected for the next time you need them. Ea el the ox and include a %clean% copy of your handouts in the ox. *his will make it easier for you the next time you give this award winning presentation again.

Speakin! - Crom C7EE to CEE

+any people often ask me what it takes to get people to %pay% you to speak. 4efore an organi(ation is willing to pay a speaker they need to feel there is value in what the speaker has to say. @eep in mind speaking for free does =<* mean that you do not offer something of value.

*he goal of speaking efore a group should not always e motivated y money. & can remem er situations during my career where & would have een willing to pay for the opportunity to speak to a group. <ne thing that always occurs when you are speaking efore a group! whether eing paid or not! is that you are making impressions to everyone in that group. *he more people that hear you speak! the more people there are who can refer you others who C;= pay you. <rgani(ations such as Iotary! )lks! Eions! +oose! Cham er <f Commerce needs speakers all the time. 0everal non profit organi(ations and associations have meetings every month and often have trou le looking for speakers. Contact all your local associations and introduce yourself. +any of the mem ers of these associations have usinesses of their own and often have the a ility and authority to %hire% speakers to speak within their own organi(ations. *he speaking usiness! and & emphasi(e the word % usiness% is a heavily referral ased usiness. +ost people prefer to have a friend or colleague refer a speaker to them that they have actually heard speak. *he more people that hear you speak and are familiar with your a ilities and message the more people there are who can refer you to paying clients. Whether you get paid to speak or speak for free you should focus on delivering your message to each audience. +ost audiences have people who do have the a ility to hire you or know someone else who can. & can honestly trace paid speaking usiness to many of the free speaking engagements & have performed. <ver the years & have learned various methods and techniques that help me to maximi(e these free speaking engagements. <ften these same organi(ations that do not have udgets for the speaker can offer other %in kind% services that are worth more than your actual speaking fee. $or example! & have spoken for an organi(ation who did not have a udget to pay speakers ut did have the resources 5people J equipment6 to professionally videotape my presentation. &n the end they provided me with an original recording along with several copies of the video of my presentation. Had & hired someone to professionally videotape my presentation! it would have cost me much more than my regular speaking fee. +any speaking ureaus will not hire you until they have seen and heard you speak. *hey may hire you if someone they know refers you ut typically will still ask for a demo tape 5audio or video6. Whenever & am speaking at an association meeting in a new city! & try to contact the local speakers ureaus and let them know & will e speaking in the area. ;fter getting permission from the client who hired me! & offer the speakers ureau the opportunity to come and hear me speak. When you do speak to any organi(ation! ring plenty of usiness cards. Have your name! address and telephone num er on all your handout materials. & also include my we address and e-mail address as well. &t still ama(es me the people who have attended keynotes & have delivered A or 7 years ago contact me ecause they saved my handout. & have had people who have attended one of my sessions give copies of my handouts to other people they know ecause they felt the materials & provided were worth sharing. *hese people! ,ust ased on the handout! called me and hired me to speak to their group. 0peaking to associations is a key part of my marketing efforts. Eet me explain. *he ulk of my speaking services 5a out :896 is providing %in house% workshops and seminars to the corporate market. ;nother ?>9 is %keynote% speaking to associations and organi(ations. 'roviding %one-on-one% coaching to executives and individuals accounts for -89 and the remaining >9 is providing local continuing education seminars. *hese four types of speaking provide a constant source of referral ased leads for my usiness. *he percentages do vary from year to year. 0ome years & may spend 789 of my time delivering keynotes! ?89 coaching individuals and the alance of 789 is providing 2in-house1 corporate programs. ; lot will depend on associations. +ost associations will not hire the same speakers as they hired last year. &f they do hire you again it may not e until A years later ecause they like to have different speakers each year. <n the other hand there are associations that & have spoken to each year for the last 7 years! ut & will usually provide a different program. =ot all speakers can provide %in house% seminars and also provide keynote speeches. *he speaking skills involved for delivering a keynote and not the same as those skills required to provide a %hands-on% workshop. *he keynote speaker is usually hired to entertain a group at some special function. *hat is not to say! that the keynote speaker does not offer su stance and education value! ut the speaking delivery and approach of a keynoter requires some different skill sets. *his is important to understand from a marketing perspective since the people you may e marketing to are different. Corporations typically hire trainers and workshop leaders. *hey generally do not hire keynote speakers for %in house% programs. *hey are looking for people who can provide some type of training for their staff. ;ssociations generally hire keynote speakers! lunch time speakers and after dinner speakers for one of their regular meetings or special annual meetings. 0ome associations will also offer some special training seminars to their mem ership

in con,unction with their event. *he speaker who can provide oth a keynote and training session will often e hired ecause they can meet the needs of the client for oth speaking situations. $or example! in <cto er of this year & will e providing three half day seminars for a client as part of their annual conference. <n the last day of their conference! & will also e providing the lunch time keynote. 4ecause & was already eing paid my full fee for these three seminars and needed to e there during lunch! & offered to provide the lunch time keynote at no additional fee. *his is a 2win-win1 situation for oth of us @eep in mind! many of these association mem ers also work for corporations who need %in house% programs. 0peaking at association meetings continues to generate leads and actual work for me as an %in-house% trainer. & have even provided many $I)) lunch-time 7> minute programs that have lead to multiple %in house% seminars. *he condition of providing the program $I)) was to require that key decision makers attend these lunch time programs and hear me speak! especially those people who have the authority to hire me. & also make sure & am introduced to these people during the lunch time event and follow up with them afterwards. *his was the way & 2 roke into1 the corporate market and esta lished some credi ility as a corporate trainer. *hese corporate executives then referred my name to other corporate executives! which in some case were either their next door neigh or of a mem er of the same church they attended. ;s & mentioned earlier in this article! this is a referral ased usiness. &n can trace many of my est paying clients ack to some %pro ono% speaking & provided either that year or a few years earlier. +any of these associations will often provide you with the names J addresses of their entire mem ership list. & also ask the person who hires me to provide me the names and contacts of other people they know who they think may e interested in hiring me. & also ask that they make the initial contact with these people. When & do call them! it is not a %cold call% ut a follow up call to the one initially made y the people who hired me. & add the names of these people to my mailing list! especially the mem ers who attended my session and heard me speak. &f you do offer to speak for free! ask that the person who hired you provide some kind of press coverage and place an article in the local newspaper announcing your speaking engagement. ;lways try to have them include a photograph of you as part of the article. ;n article with a photograph always draws more attention. &t also helps you esta lish a 2cele rity1 status! at least in the local newspaper. <ther executives! oth corporate and associations will read this article and may contact you ,ust ased on the article. *his article will more effective in attracting other usiness! than a classified ad you would have paid a lot of money for. You can even call the local newspapers and mention that you will e speaking in the area and offer to write a short article a out your topic that they could pu lish in the local newspaper. *he article should not e too promotional ut offer some sound advice to the typical client you would like to attract. Have them include your name! address and telephone at the end of the article so people will e a le to contact you. *his also lets the newspaper that you would e availa le as a good contact for future articles and elieve me they will contact you. ;nother effective method is to ecome an active mem er of key associations who have the types of usiness contacts that may e good for your usiness. 4ecoming an officer in the association affords you the opportunity to ecome first known as a mem er of this association and get to know the mem ers personally. *hrough this professional association! the other mem ers ecome more familiar with your speaking services and what you have to offer. *hey are then in a etter position to either refer you to someone they know or even hire you for their own company. *he moral of the story is to speak every where! even if for free. &t works. *he more people know a out you the more people there are who can tell others. Continually uild your network of usiness contacts and soon you will e asked to speak for your full fee. *he key is to learn how to %leverage% these $I)) speaking engagements into generating ';&C speaking engagements.

* Aspects Df a 9'namic Presentation

*here are / aspects people must deal with when preparing and delivering presentations. ;n effective speaker learns to deal with all / aspects at the same time. $ailure to pay attention to all of these aspects can result in an ineffective presentation. $ailure to pay attention to too many of these can result in disaster. -. 0peaker ?. +essage A. ;udience 7. Channel >. $eed ack :. =oise /. 0etting ASPE#T G1 - The Speaker <ne of the ma,or components of any speech or presentation is the speaker themselves 5the source of the message6. +any people forget they *H)Y are the presentation and =<* the visual aids. +any presenters today put so much effort into the visual aids and they forget that those are ,ust aids to the speaker. *here are three factors we need to consider a out any speaker: a. His # Her motivation in giving the presentation . His # Her credi ility as a speaker c. His # Her deliver or speaking style a. ; 0peaker"s motivation can e approached in terms of two considerations: Whether direct personal reward 5e.g. MMM6 or indirect rewards 5feeling good a out helping others6 are involved. Whether immediate rewards 5MM today6 r delayed rewards 5getting a college degree after 7 years of college play a part.

&n essence! a speaker may e motivated y one or 4<*H of these factors. 4efore speaking you should consider what Y<LI motivations are. . 0peaker"s credi ility ; speaker"s ideas are accepted as elieva le only to the degree that the speaker is perceived to e credi le. *he speaker"s credi ility depends on their trustworthiness! competence! and good will. *he speaker who is well organi(ed will usually e considered competent. *he speaker who is attractive and dynamic will e seen as more credi le than one who is not. *he most fundamental factor a speaker pro,ects is the attitude they have toward themselves. c. 0peaker"s delivery *he delivery! the way the message is presented! should compliment the speech"s o ,ective. ; well written speech delivered poorly can quickly lose effectiveness. ASPE#T G2 - The +essa!e *he message refers to )N)IY*H&=K a speaker does or says! oth ver ally and non-ver ally. *he ver al component may e analy(ed in terms of A asic elements: Content 0tyle 0tructure

Eet"s look at each of these elements.

a. Content - is what we say a out your topic. *he content is the +);* of your speech or presentation. Iesearch your topic thoroughly. Cecide on how much to say a out each su ,ect. *hen decide on the actual sequence you will use. &t is important that you consider the audience"s needs! time factors! and other items as the content of your speech or presentation is prepared and presented. . 0tyle - *he manner in which your present the content of your speech is your style. 0tyles can vary from very formal to the very informal. +ost presentations fall etween these two extremes and in )N)IY case! the style should e determined y what is appropriate to the speaker! the audience! as well as the occasion and setting. c. 0tructure - *he structure of a message is its organi(ation. *here are many organi(ational variations! ut in each case! the structure should include: ;n &ntroduction ; 4ody ; Conclusion

*he introduction should include: opening gra er such as a quote or shocking statistic. ;genda the purpose or main message of your presentation. *he ody should include: your main points or ideas. points which support your main message. *he conclusion should include: a summary of your main points. a closing gra er. time for questions J answers! if appropriate. When speeches and presentations are poorly organi(ed! the impact of the message is reduced and the audience is less likely to accept the speaker or the speaker"s ideas. ASPE#T G" - The Audience ;s a speaker you should analy(e your listeners and then decide how to present your ideas. *his analysis might include considerations related to: ;ge - 0ex - +arital 0tatus - Iace - Keographic location - Kroup mem ership - )ducation O Career

$or example! if you are making a presentation on %$uture Careers%! knowing your audience"s average age is vital. ; well prepared speech that is ill-suited to the audience can have the same effect as a poorly prepared speech delivered to the correct audience. 4oth speeches will fail terri ly. 'roper audience analysis will assure that you give the right speech to the right audience. *o properly customi(e the speech! most professional speakers send their clients a multi-page questionnaire in order to gather information a out them and their speaking event. & will usually call some of the mem ers can find out what the current trends are in their industry and ask what people are looking for.

Lsing the word %;-L-C-&-)-=-C-)% as an acronym! & have defined some general audience analysis categories that your surveys should include: ;Pudience - Who are the mem ersB How many will e at the eventB LPnderstanding - What is their knowledge a out the topic you will e addressingB CPemographics - What is their age! sex! educational ackground! etc.B &Pnterest - Why will they e at this eventB Who asked them to e thereB )Pnvironment - Where will & stand when & speakB Will everyone e a le to see meB =Peeds - What are the listener"s needsB What are your needs as a speakerB What are the needs of the person who hired youB CPustomi(ed - How can & custom fit my message to this audienceB )Pxpectations - What do the listeners expect to learn from meB =<*): 0ee my article on ;udience ;nalysis for a more detailed discussion on this topic. ;lso! my new ook! % No Sweat Presentations - The Painless Way to Successful Speaking% provides some specific questions you could ask along with a sample questionnaire you can use. ASPE#T G$ - The #hannel When we communicate with our audiences! we use many channels of communication. *his includes non-ver al! pictorial and aural channels. &t is very important that you use as many channels as you can to communicate with your audience. *he more channels of communication you can use at the same time! the etter. & have provided a rief list of examples for each of these types: ;. =onver al -. gestures ?. facial expressions A. ody movement 7. posture 4. 'ictorial -. diagrams ?. charts A. graphs 7. pictures >. o ,ects C. ;ural -. tone of your voice ?. variations in pitch and volume A. other vocal variety ASPE#T G( - The Ceed&ack 4y %feed ack% & mean the process through which the speaker receives information a out how his or her message has een received y the listeners and! in turn! responds to those cues. *he feed ack process is not complete until the speaker has responded to the listener. *his process includes the listener"s reactions to the speaker"s response and so forth. You can ask your audience questions and even ask them what their understanding is of the point you have ,ust made. Watch for non-ver al clues from your audience and e prepared to respond to the reactions of your audience throughout your presentation.

&t is your responsi ility to provide the information your audience needs to hear. +any times! you many e asked my management to provide a specific message to their employees that they may not want to hear. Iemem er! it is the management that is paying your fee and you are responsi le to deliver the message they hired you to deliver. ;t the same time! it is important that you are sensitive to the audience and try to esta lish a relationship with them through the use of your surveys! conversations during the social hour! and even discussions following your presentation. ASPE#T G) - The @oise *here are two types of noise a speaker must contend with: a. )xternal =oise . &nternal =oise Eet"s look at each of these. External Noise - consists of sounds! people talking! coughing! shifting patterns! poor acoustics! temperature 5too warm! too cold6! poor ventilation! and visual interference such as poor lighting! or an o structed view. Internal Noise - if a speaker is confused or unclear a out what he or she want to express! this is do to internal noise. &nternal noise can also arise if the speaker does not know or misanalysis the audience. *he role of the audience and the speaker is to simultaneously communicate with each other. &t is this transactional nature of speech that makes feed ack! and attempts to eliminate noise! so important. *he most specific way a speaker can use to com at noise are: a. Lse more than one channel of communication at the same time 5ver al J non-ver al6 . Lse repetition and restatement. *he speaker can help com at this noise y making an extra effort to use as many channels of communications at the same time. &t is important to include oth ver al and non-ver al means of communication. ASPE#T G* - The Settin! *he place in which you deliver your presentation may e one that enhances or interferes with the effectiveness of your presentation. Cetermine ahead of time what the facilities are like efore you speak. *his way you can properly plan your delivery or make ad,ustments! if necessary. & recommend! when practical! that you make a trip to the location where your speech will take place. & even go so far as to ask the exact room & will e presenting in and ask the hotel conference coordinator to let me visit the room and check things out. <n one particular occasion! several years ago! & had visited a room a out - month efore & was to speak at a large association meeting and noticed the room W;0 =<* equipped for a microphone. *his was a pro lem since the attendance was expected to e a out D88 to -888 people. & checked with the hotel if there were any other rooms availa le that same day of the event and & contacted the client and informed them a out the situation. *he client contacted the hotel and was a le to change the room for their event. &t was my planning that saved oth myself and my client some em arrassment had we not changed the room. & have since spoken for this same client every year for the past 7 years ecause of the attention to detail & provided as part of my planning when & first spoke for them. *his little %extra% effort on my part made me memora le to the client. Eook at speaking engagement as opportunities to practice your speaking skills. *o e truly prepared and effective as a presenter! you must pay attention to all / of these aspects discussed a ove. *his will take practice. *he time you spend remem ering these aspects will e worth the effort.

=o to =andle That 9readed 2uestion 3 Ans er Period

+any presentations today are followed up with a question and answer period. *o some people this can e the most exciting part of the presentation. *o others it can e there worst nightmare. &n fact! there are some presenters who purposely avoid the question and answer period all together. 4elow & have provided a > step approach to handling questions along with some additional tips to make your next question and answer session go smoother. -. <isten to the entire Auestion Eisten to the entire question 4)$<I) you egin to answer any questions. *oo many people start responding to a question efore the entire question is even asked. =ot waiting to hear the entire questions can result in you providing a response which had nothing to do with the question. $orce yourself to E&0*)= to the entire question and make sure you understand the question. Pause and allow yourself time the value the question and listener. I)');* the question outload so the entire audience can hear it. &t is important that everyone %hear% the question or the answer you provide may not make sense to some of the people. 4y repeating the question! this will allow you some additional time to evaluate the question and formulate a response. #redit The Person for asking the question. You may say something like! %*hat was a great question% or! %Klad you asked that question% or even! %& get asked that question y many people%. <ne word of caution. &f you credit one person with asking a question! e sure to credit )N)IY<=) for asking a question. You don"t want people to feel their question was not as important. 7espond to the 2uestion honestly and the est you can. &f you do =<* know an answer to a question! do not try to fake it. 4e honest! and tell them you do not know ut C< promise to research the answer for them and C< get ack to them. 5rid!e to the next question y asking them a question. %Coes that answer you questionB%! %&s that the kind of information you were looking forB%. *his is critical.. <nce they respond to you! %Y)0% you now have permission to go onto the next person. *his also gives them one more opportunity to say! %=o% and allow them to clarify their question more y asking it again.





Additional Tips on =andlin! 2uestions ;. ;sk people to stand up when they ask a question. *his does two things: 5-6 &t shows you more readily who is asking the question! and 5?6 &t make it easier for the audience to also hear the question. 4. Have small sheets of paper availa le for people to write down their questions during your presentation. *hey may forget what they were going to ask earlier. C. ;llow people to pass the questions to you if they feel uncomforta le standing up and asking the question out loud. *his gives the person who truly wants to ask a question an option. C. ;lways repeat the question - this does three things: 5-6 it makes sure you understood the question! 5?6 it gives you a chance to value the question and think of an answer! and 5A6 it assures the other people in the audience can hear the question since you are facing them. ). ;lways take time to think % efore% you answer all questions. *his allows you time to think! especially for those difficult questions. Co the same for those questions you readily know the answer for. Iesponding too quickly to those questions you are most comforta le with will only ring attention to those question you do not.


Have a pencil and paper availa le for you to write down questions you can"t answer. You may even elect someone to record the questions on paper. *his way! you can properly follow up with the person who asked the question you couldn"t answer. 4e sure to get their name J phone num er or address. 'romise to get ack to them and C< get ack to them.

$ #ommon 6a's to 7emem&er +aterial

Iemem ering speeches can e a very intimidating experience. *here are many ways one can remem er material and & would like to focus on what & elieve are the 7 common ways to remem er material. +emori?in! 7eadin! from complete te8t Bsin! @otes Bsin! >isual Aids as @otes Eet"s take a look at each of these in detail. -. +emori?in! -&n my opinion! this is a solutely the worst way to keep track of material. 'eople are preoccupied with trying to remem er the words to say and not the ideas ehind the words 5or with the audience6. ;s a result! normal voice inflection disappears. With memori(ing! mental locks ecome inevita le. With memori(ing it is not a matter of %will% you forget3 it"s a matter of WH)=H ?. 7eadin! from complete te8t - Eistening to someone read a speech or presentation is hated y most people. 'eople say! %&f that"s all they were going to do is read there speech! & could have read it myself.% &"m sure many of us have experienced this at least once while attending a conference or two. 4elow are some reasons why & elieve people read poorly: *he speaker loses normal voice inflection ecause they lose touch with the ideas ehind the words. Eisten for pauses! =atural speech is filled with pauses3 unnatural speech is not. *he text isn"t spoken language - too often speakers write their speeches in % usiness language%. *hat is often hard to read! much less listen to. *he speech isn"t static - the potted plant will pro a ly move more. *here is little movement! little energy! little interest ehind the lectern. *here"s no or little eye contact - any eye contact is with the text! not the audience. *o read text while trying to maintain eye contact with the audience takes a lot of practice. *he speaker is scared - many speakers read ecause they are afraid to try anything else. *hey know reading will fail ut at least it will fail with a small %f% rather than a capital one. =<*): Con"t get me wrong! there are times when speeches +L0* e read. +any times it is necessary to read policy statements or company announcements. ;lso! some speeches must e timed right down to the second. WH)= Y<L H;N) *< I);CH &f reading is a solutely necessary! here are some suggestions: 'ay attention to the inflection in your voice - to sound natural! rehearse often! checking yourself for pauses. ;sk yourself if your words sound the way you would say them if you weren"t reading. *ape yourself and listen to your own voice. *ake notes where changes should e made with the inflection in your voice. When preparing your written speech! say the words %out loud% first in order that your written text will read closer to your speaking style. *his will make it easier to read and much easier to listen to. 'eople often C< =<* write the same way as they speak and this makes reading more difficult. &f we use wording and phrasing we normally use in our everyday language it will e easier to add the correct voice inflection and tone. ;nnotate your text to indicate which words to emphasi(e. =um ers are the easiest target words to say slowly with emphasis on each sylla le. <ne of the iggest pro lems speakers face when reading text is that we often forget to use gestures. We are so usy making sure we read the text we fail to communicate effectively with our entire ody. <ne thing we can do to help this is to %dou le space% your typed text to leave room to add notes or cues a out gestures and other reminder type clues. We need to practice using this annotated text of our speech so we can easily and smoothly react to these cues for our gestures while at the same time correctly read the text. *his does take some practice. 0ome people do this very effectively.

& work with ministers who do this extremely well! ut they also practice a lotH Nideotape yourself reading the speech and then sit and watch the speech! making notes as to the gestures which could have een used. ;dd notes to your written text ased on this review! using notes or even pictures of the gestures to use and deliver the speech again! trying this time to add gestures. ;fter a little practice! this will ecome second nature. When we read speeches! the amount of eye contact with our audience is usually less. &n some cases! people who read speeches have =< eye contact. *o avoid this! first write like you speak 5see suggestion G?6. When typing the text! use upper and lower case letters. *his will make it easier to read. *Y'&=K )N)IY*H&=K &= L''')IC;0)! ;0 & H;N) C<=) H)I)! +;@)0 &* +<I) C&$$&CLE* *< I);CQ Con"t have long paragraphs or you will lose your place every time you look up. 0tart a new paragraph every sentence or two. ;lso! have your text dou le spaced. 0ome people even so far as alternating the color of the text for each paragraph. Lse unstapled pages for your text. 'aper clip your pages and ,ust efore you egin! remove the paper clip. ;s you prepare your text! keep in mind that you will have to handle these pages and you want to do this smoothly and as quietly as you can. Co not have part of a sentence egin on one page and continue onto the next page. )nd the page with a complete sentence and paragraph. Curing your pauses! smoothly %slide% the page you ,ust finished using to one side and continue with the text on the next page. Co not pick up the page and place it ehind or turn the page over when done. *his will e distracting and will ring attention to the fact that you are reading. ;void handling the pages as much as possi le while you are reading. With a lot of practice and careful preparation! you can deliver a powerful speech! even when reading. 0ome of the world"s greatest speeches were read! ut you can e assured! they weren"t reading them for the first time when delivering their speech to their audience. 'ractice! practice! practice. A. Bsin! @otes - *his is the most common way for remem ering material. Lsing notes is etter than reading since the speaker can have normal voice inflection and make more effective eye contact. &f your notes are on the lectern! you pro a ly won"t move very far from them. &f notes are in your hand! you pro a ly won"t gesture very much. 4elow are some suggestions to consider if you decide to use notes: L0&=K =<*)0 Lse note cards. &nclude quotes! statistics and lists you may need! =<* paragraphs of text. N)IY &+'<I*;=*: =um er you note cardsH 5Fust in case you drop them6. Con"t put too much information on each note card or you will find yourself reading too much. 'ut only a few words or key phrases. Eeave your notes on the lectern or ta le and move away occasionally. Con"t e afraid to move away from your notes and get out of your comfort (one. *oo many speakers use the lectern to hide ehind and this restricts the effective use of your entire ody. 'ractice using your note cards. &f you find yourself reading your note cards too much! this is a sure clue you need to reduce the amount of written text on each card. Iemem er! all you need are short phrases or key words! enough to %,og% your memory. Lse pictures or picture maps to guide yourself. 'ictures help you to %visuali(e% the key points of your speech. Lse mental pictures as well to tell the story in your head. *his will take some creativity! ut will e worth the effort. 7. Bsin! >isual Aids As @otes - 0imple visual aids can effectively serve as headings and su headings. 0peak to the heading. 0ay what you want to say and move on. &f you forget something! that"s okay3 the audience will never know unless you tell them. 'ractice creating ,ust a few meaningful headings to use and practice using only these headings as your %cues%. *his will take practice! ut practicing using only these few words will force you to etter internali(e your speech. *his has four important advantages: You don"t have to worry a out what your are going to say next. Your visual aids provide you with your %cues% of your next ma,or idea or thought. ;ll you need to do etween ideas is to use an effective transitional statement. 50ee my tips on using transitions6. Having only a few key words on your visual aid allows you to move around the room without the need or feeling you need to go ack to your notes. &n fact! most inexperienced speakers don"t move around at all. +ovement also helps you to relax and adds energy to your presentations.

+ovement also allows the listeners to follow you and pay closer attention to you and your message. 'lan you movements during your rehearsals. Cecide where in your presentation it makes sense to move. &f you find yourself starting to sway from side to side! take one or two steps and stop again! standing evenly on oth feet. @eep your weight evenly distri uted on oth feet. *his will help you from swaying. You can have good eye contact with your audience. You can look at your audience all the time while speaking - except for that rief moment you look at your visual aid. 4ut that"s okay since the audience will pro a ly follow you and also look at your visual aid. *his will help the audience to %see% your message as well as %hear% your message. *he more you rehearse and the more you ecome familiar with your visual aids! the easier it ecomes. Your audience will feel comforta le that you are on your planned track. Well designed visual aids shows that audience you C< have a plan and have properly prepared and are following your plan. @eep in mind! your visual aids do not have to e only word charts. *hey can contain diagrams! pictures or even graphs. When you use visual aids! always introduce the visual aid 4)$<I) you show it using one of your transition statements. You can even use the %looking ack # looking forward% transition: %=ow that we have seen the ...let"s now look at ....% Iegardless of which method you chose to use to remem er your material! nothing will help you more that proper planning and preparation. Iemem er to prepare, prepare, prepare!

=o to Bse Transitions Effecti.el'

*ransitions are an integral part of a smooth flowing presentation! yet many speakers forget to plan their transitions. *he primary purpose of a transition is to lead your listener from one idea to another. *he following are some examples of transitions that work well: -. ?. A. 7. >. :. 5rid!e ords or phrases 5furthermore! meanwhile! however! in addition! consequently! finally. Tri!!er transition 5same word or idea used twice: %a similar example is ...%6. Ask a 2uestion 5%How many of you ....B%6 Clash&ack 5%Co you remem er when & said ...B%6 Point-5'-Point 5%*here are three points ...*he first one is.. *he second one is..etc.6 Add a >isual Aid as a Transition - +any times it may e appropriate to add a visual etween your regular visual aids for the sole purpose of a %visual% transition. +any times a clever cartoon used here can add some humor to your presentations. Pausin! 5)ven a simple pause! when effectively used! can act as a transition. *his allows the audience to %think% a out what was ,ust said and give it more time to register. Bse Ph'sical +o.ement 5*he speaker should move or change the location of their ody. *his is est done when you are changing to a new idea or thought. Bse a Personal Stor' *he use of a story! especially a personal one is a very effective technique used y many professional speakers. Lsed effectively can help reinforce any points you made during your presentation.

/. D. ..

-8. Bse the PEP formula HPoint, E8ample, PointI 5*his is a very common format used and can also e com ined with the use of a personal story. +ake sure stories or examples you use help reinforce your message. Three common mistakes made hen usin! transitions1 -. *he most common mistake people make is that they C<="* use transitions at all. *ransitions help your information flow from one idea to the next. ?. *he second most common mistake is using transitions that are too short. =ot enough time is spent ridging to the next idea. *his is extremely important when changing to a new section of ideas within your presentation.

A. *he third most common mistake is that people use the same transition throughout the presentation. *his ecomes very oring after a short while. *ry to e creative with your transitions.

Transitions and the Team Presentation *ransitions ecome extremely important when a team presentation is involved. *he transition from one speaker to the next must e planned and skillfully executed. )ach speaker should use a rief introduction of the next topic and speaker as part of this transition.

Bsin! >isual Aids as @otes

0imple visual aids can serve as your notes when speaking. Carefully select your titles. *hese titles alone can serve as %triggers% to what you want to say next. &f you know your su ,ect well and have rehearsed your presentation! your visual aids should e all you need to %,og% your memory. &f you forget something that"s okay3 the audience would never know. Bsin! .isual aids has $ important ad.anta!es -. ?. 4ou don%t ha.e to orr' a&out hat 'ou%re !oin! to sa' ne8t - Your next visual aid has your next ma,or idea on it. Lse effective titles which properly capture the main message of the visual aid. >isual aids allo to mo.e around the room - inexperienced speakers don"t want to move around. +ovement helps you to relax and adds energy to your presentations. +ovement also allows the listeners to follow you and pay closer attention to you. 4ou can ha.e !ood e'e contact ith 'our audience - You can look at your audience all the time! except when you look riefly at your visual aid. *hat"s okay since the audience will also look at your visuals aid. *his will help them see your message as well as hear your message. 4our Audience feel comforta&le kno in! 'ou%re on 'our planned track - Well designed visual aids show that you have a plan and have properly prepared and you are following your plan.



Your visual aids don"t have to e only word charts3 they can include diagrams! pictures and graphs. =<*): When you use visual aids! always introduce your visual aid efore you actual show the visual aid. Iehearse your presentation with your actual visual aids. &t is very important that you are very familiar with your visual aids. +ake sure your message and visual aids match. *here is nothing worse than showing a visual aid which does not go along with what your are saying. 'ractice using different transition phrases. $or example: %=ow that we have seen the ... let"s look at ...% +y next point deals with ....

Gatherin! Information 3 +aterials

*he most difficult and also the most important part of making a presentation is actually getting started. Your first step is to collect and read as much information as possi le a out your su ,ect. *ake notes. *he next step involves selecting the information and deciding how much of it you will present. *o accomplish this! you need to know how long your talk will e. =aturally! the amount of material you will discuss in an hour differs from the amount you will handle in a full-day presentation3 however! the format or structure should e the same in oth cases. Deciding on the format is your next step. &t is at this point that you need to decide how and in what sequence you will present the material you have chosen.

<ther matters to consider are: -. What visuals will & useB ?. Where will & stand when & speakB A. How can & present the material clearly and in an interesting fashionB When asked to speak in pu lic! the first things some people think a out are: %What am & going to whereB%! %Will there e a lot of people thereB% %What if & mess upB% *hese are all important questions! ut they represent ,ust a small part of what needs to e taken into consideration when preparing a presentation. 2ualit' Speech +aterial We often ask ourselves! %What if my speech is not good enoughB% &f we construct our speeches with care and properly prepare and practice! our speech material will always e good. Con"t e afraid to take risks and present new material. Iemem er! practice makes perfect. Speech Preparation as a Process Kenuine speech preparation means digging something out of yourself. You need to oth gather facts and arrange your thoughts. &t is not enough to simply collect ideas. You must also nurture them and reflect on how to present them and reflect on how to present them in a unique! organi(ed manner. ; speech needs time to grow. 'repare for weeks. 0leep on your topic! dream a out it and let your ideas sink into your su conscious. ;sk yourself questions. Write down your thoughts. @eep adding new ideas. <nce you"ve determined your purpose for delivering this speech! state the purpose in a sentence and focus your speech around that purpose. ;sk yourself! %How does this purpose relate to the audienceB% Eet your purpose drive your speech *ry to come up with a good title! too. ;im not only to inform your listeners! ut also persuade them. ;s you prepare each presentation! you should develop a simple and orderly outline. You will need to decide the sequence you will follow from these organi(ational patterns: 0equential Categorical 'ro lem and solution Contrast and comparison

&n developing the sequence of your presentation! mind-mapping or we ing techniques can e very useful. Iemem er to decide! too! on the transitions etween sections and examples you will use. Ieal-life anecdotes can e particularly effective. *he use of personal stories always works est for my audiences. +ost professional speakers always use personal stories and quite often it is a personal story that ecomes their %signature% story. *o e successful it is extremely important to start gathering information as soon as possi le. +any people ask me! %Eenny! how far in advance should & egin preparing for my speechB% & always tell them! %Your should egin preparing your speech the moment they ask you to speakH% *he sooner you egin the more time you will have to practice your speech. &"d like to leave you with one of my favorite +ark *wain stories. ;s many of your may or may not know! +ark *wain was a great speaker. &n fact! +ark *wain is one of the earliest known professional speakers and when asked one day if he could prepare a speech for an upcoming engagement! he responded !%&f you want me to speak for an hour! & am ready today.% %&f you want me to speak for ,ust a few minutes! it will take me a few weeks to prepare.% ;s with most speakers! it usually takes more time to prepare a short version of a speech than a longer one. When you prepare your next speech! try preparing two. - one that will run approximately one hour and one that will only run -8

minutes. You will find that +ark *wain was right. % &n either case! you must gather your facts and decide on what is most important.

=o to Gesture Effecti.el'
Kestures are reflections of every speaker"s individual personality. What"s right for one speaker may not e right for another3 however! the following six rules apply to anyone who seeks to ecome a dynamic effective speaker. 1. 7espond naturall' to hat 'ou think, feel, and see. - &t"s natural for you to gesture! and it"s unnatural for you not to. &f you inhi it your impulse to gesture! you will pro a ly ecome tense. 2. #reate the condition for !esturin!, not the !esture - When you speak! you should e totally involved in communicating-not thinking a out your hands. Your gestures should e motivated y the content of your presentation. ". Suit the action to the ord and the occasion - Your visual and ver al messages must function as partners in communicating the same thought or feeling. )very gesture you make should e purposeful and reflective of your words so the audience will note only the effect! not the gesture itself. Con"t overdo the gesturing. You"ll draw the listener away from your message. Young audiences are usually attracted to a speaker who uses vigorous gestures! ut older! more conservative groups may feel irritated or threatened y a speaker whose physical actions are overwhelming. $. +ake 'our !estures con.incin! - Your gestures should e lively and distinct if they are to convey the intended impressions. )ffective gestures are vigorous enough to e convincing yet slow enough and road enough to e clearly visi le without eing overpowering. (. +ake 'our !estures smooth and ell timed - )very gesture has three parts: The Approach - Your ody egins to move in anticipation. The Stroke - *he gesture itself. The 7eturn - *his rings your ody ack to a alanced posture. *he flow of a gesture - the approach! the stroke! the return-must e smoothly executed so that only the stroke is evident to the audience. While it is advisa le to practice gesturing! don"t try to memori(e your every move. *his makes your gesturing stilted and ineffective. *he last rule is perhaps the most important ut also the hardest. ). +ake natural, spontaneous !esturin! a ha&it- *he first step in ecoming adept at gesturing is to determine what! if anything! you are doing now. *he est way to discover this is to videotape yourself. *he camcorder is completely truthful and unforgiving. &f you want to ecome a etter speaker! you need to make the camcorder your est friend. Nideotape yourself and identify your ad ha its! then work at eliminating them! one at a time. You will need to continue to record yourself and evaluate your progress if you expect to eliminate all your distracting mannerisms. *o improve gestures! practice - ut never during a speech. 'ractice gesturing while speaking informally to friends! family mem er! and coworkers.

Impromptu or E8temporaneous Speakin!

While many of us do not like to speak in front of people! there are times when we are asked to get up and say a few words a out someone or a topic when we have not planned on saying anything at all. We are more shocked than anyone else. Has this ever happened to youB &f and when this does happen to you! e prepared to rise to the challenge. 4elow are some tips you can use the next time you are called on to speak.

9ecide Auickl' hat 'our one messa!e ill &e - @eep in mind you have not een asked to give a speech ut to make some impromptu remarks. Hopefully they have asked you early enough so you can at least ,ot down a few notes efore you speak. &f not! pick <=) message or comment and focus on that one main idea. +any times! other ideas may come to you after you start speaking. &f this happens! go with the flow and trust your instincts. 9o not tr' and memori?e hat 'ou ill sa' - *rying to memori(e will only make you more nervous and you will find yourself thinking more a out the words and not a out the message. Start off stron! and ith confidence - &f you at least plan your opening statement! this will get you started on the right foot. ;fter all! ,ust like with any formal speech! getting stared is the most difficult. 'lan what your first sentence will e. You may even write this opening line down on your note card and glance at it one more time ,ust efore you egin speaking. &f you know you have three points or ideas to say! ,ust start off simple y saying! %& would ,ust like to talk a out A points%. *he first point is... the second point is... and so on. 9ecide on 'our transitions from one point to the other - ;fter you have decided on your opening remark or line! come up with a simple transition statement that takes you to your main point. &f you have more than one point to make! you can use a natural transition such as! %+y second point is... or my next point is...% etc. Fust list on your note card or napkin! if you have to! the main points or ideas. Co not write out the exact words! ut ,ust the points you want to mention. +aintain e'e contact ith the audience - *his is easier to do if you do not write down all kinds of stuff to read. Eook down at your next idea or thought and maintain eye contact with your audience and speak from your heart. $ocus on communicating *< your audience and not speaking ;* the crowd. Dccasionall' Thro in an off-the-cuff remark - 4ecause you want your style to e flexi le and seem impromptu! trust your instinct and add a few words which ,ust pop into your head. @eep it conversational and think of the audience as a group of your friends. Cinall', ha.e a !ood conclusion - Kracefully ,ust state! %;nd the last point & would like to make is ....%. <nce you have made your last point! you can then turn control ack to the person who asked you to speak in the first place.

With a little practice! this process will feel more natural to you. ;nticipating that you +;Y e asked to say a few words should force you to at least think a out what you might say if you are asked. *hen if you ;I) asked! you are etter prepared ecause you anticipated eing asked. *his is much etter than thinking they won"t ask you and they actually doH

Speech Preparation As A Process

Ieal speech preparation means digging something out of yourself. You have to gather facts and arrange your thoughts. ;s you collect the ideas you have to nurture your ideas and think a out a unique way to express them in an organi(ed manner. ; speech needs time to grow. 'repare for weeks! sleep on it! dream a out it and let your ideas sink into your su conscious. ;sk yourself questions! write down your thoughts! and keep adding new ideas. ;s you prepare every speech ask yourself the following questions. -. ?. A. 7. >. &n one concise sentence! what is the purpose of this speechB Who is the audienceB What is their main interest in this topicB What do & really know and elieve a out this topic as it relates to this audienceB What additional research can & doB What are the main points of this presentationsB

:. /. D. ..

What supporting information and stories can & use to support each of my main pointsB What visual aids! if any! do & needB Co & have an effective opening gra erB

&n my final summary! how will & plan to tell them %What"s &n &t $or +eB%

-8. Have & polished and prepared the language and words & will useB --. Have & prepared a written and concise introduction for myselfB -?. Have & taken care of the little details that will help me speak more confidentlyB

Elements Df An Effecti.e Speech

E=alf the orld is composed of people ho ha.e An'one can !i.e a speech. @ot e.er'one can !i.e an effecti.e speech. To !i.e an effecti.e speech there are ) elements 'ou should consider. -. 5e Prepared - 4eing prepared is y far the most important element. How many times do you practice your speechB ;s a general rule! you should spend a out A8 hours of preparation and rehearsal time for every hour your will e speaking. Lse a tape recorder or videotape yourself. *his will help you to get an accurate picture of how you speak. Gi.e of 4ourself - Lse personal examples and stories in your speech whenever possi le. +ake sure your stories help to emphasi(e or support your point. *he stories must match your message. Lse examples from your personal and professional life to make your point. &n either case e willing to give of yourself y sharing some of yourself with the audience. Sta' 7ela8ed - *o stay relaxed you should e prepared. ;lso! focus on your message and not the audience. Lse gestures! including walking patterns. 'ractice the opening of your speech and plan exactly how you will say it. *he audience will ,udge you in the first A8 seconds they see you. Bse @atural =umor - Con"t try to e a stand up comedian. Lse natural humor y poking fun at yourself and something you said or did. 4e sure =<* to make fun of anyone in the audience. 'eople will laugh with you when you poke fun at yourself ut don"t over do it. Plan 4our 5od' 3 =and Positions - Curing the practice of your speech look for occasions where you can use a gesture. )sta lish three positions where you will stand and practice not only how to move to them ut where in your speech do you move. 'ick one position on center stage! one to your right! and one to your left. Co not hide eyond the lectern. When you do move maintain eye contact with the audience. Pa' attention to all details - +ake sure you have the right location 5school! hotel! room J time6. +ake sure you know how to get to where you are speaking. ;sk how large an audience you will e speaking to. +ake sure you ring all your visual aids and plenty of handouts. ;rrive early so you can check out where you will e speaking and make any last minute ad,ustments.

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&t is very important that you pay attention to even the smallest details. You can never over-plan. Iemem er! %He who fails to plan is planning for failure%