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JohnBoardman ATHENIAN




Thames a Hudson world of art






a handbook

Any copy ofthis book issued by the publisher as

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published md without a similar condition

iocluding rhese words beins inposed on a

subsequent purchiser

Firstpublished in the United Kingdom in I989 byThames & Hudson Ltd, IsIA High Holborn,


O r98gThrmes

& Hudson Lrd,London

Reprinted 2oor

All Rights Reserved.No part ofthis publicrtion

maybe reproduced or tnnsmitted in any form or

by any nleans. electroDic or mechanical, including

photocopy, recording or any other inlormation

storage and retrieval systen! without prior permission in writing from rhe publisher.

rstsN o-Joo-2o244-3

Printed and bound in Sinsapore by C.S.Gnphics















liveryday life; Fighting; Work and play, public and privatc; l{eligion


'flrc Gods; Big figlits; Hcraklcs; Thcscus; Thc Trojan

Oyclc; Othcr herocs and cycles; Othcr figurcs








Note s and bibliographies List of illustrations


Indcx oJ artists and grou1ts


I dex of mythologitul stbjcctt

2J r

Gueral index


Chapter One


llrrs volunrc is thc successor to Athenidn Red Figure Vases: The Arthaic Petiod

q,lT5l hcrcabbrcviatcdlRFHI) anditcarriesthesurveyofAtheniandecorated


r, ,

down to thc time when painters finally abandoned thc rcd figurc

lrrrrqr-re, during the second halfofthc fourth ccntury BC. A comparable study

, , i r lr t carlicr, black figure vases appexrcd in ry1 4 (ABFLI1, and, Dalc Trendall has r, , , ntly publishcd a companion volumc on South Italian red figure (RFSIS). In

rlr, t lrlicr handbooks some attention was givcn to qucstions oftcchnique but it

l,.r\ sccrl)ccl

appropriatc to dcvotc a sepaiate chapter to it here. The word

I I rssical' suffcrs a grcat variety ofmeanings. In this ritle it means simply post-

Arrh;ric, through thc fourth ccntury; in Chaptcr Thrcc it is rest cted tp It( .r/ley's usc of 'Classic' which means roughly thc pcriod of the Parthenon.

I'lrc gcncral schcnrc follows that of the other volumes, dictated by thc

,r , r cssivc groups formcd by thc works ofirrdividual paintcrs and workshops, as rlr, y hrvc bccn dcfincd by SirJohn Bcazlcy in his grcat books, which form the

nerstoncs of all studies of Athenialr red figure. [n the early editions of his

l,,,,rks which listcd rcd figurc paintcrs, in r92J and r94u, Bcazlcy had stopped .l)r)rt ofthe fourth century, 1!n omission he made good in 1963, but without

l)( \t()wing upon thc latcr vascs quitc thc samc lovilg detail that he had on the

, .r r lrcr: undcrstandably, since the quality is generally lowcr, thoughBcazlcy was

r,,, clitist and hc is fullcr in classifying thc worst ofthe fourth century than the

1,, st, for much ofwhich he would (he explailed) haverequircd a closcr study of rlr, lrrtcr vascs in Lcningrad than hc had becn able to give them.

, ,


Wc start with works ofhigh quality, and standards are generally maintained

l,y ()mc paintcrs to thc cnd of thc fifth celtury. Thereafter there is still good rr,,r k to bc found, but in decreasin€i proportion although thcrc is a divcrsity of ,r rl, jccr mattcr which is highly informative about myth and cult, wholly Athens-

,,rrrrcd. An important element is the 'Kerch style', reprcscntcd by rathcr

li.rrrrboyant vascs which sccm to indicate a new phase ofactivity in the Adlens l,( )ttcrs' quarter. It is debatable, however, whether it is a new phasc rathcr than a

rL \urgcncc of intcrcst in stylcs ncvcr rcally abandoncd. The tcrm has perhaps

,,Lrr livcd its uscfulncss, and ncw studics should bc ablc to dcmonstratc continuity

rrr,rrc clcarly.


the er,d, Athenian red figure remained virtually thc only figurc-dccoratcd

l)()ftcry in the Greek homeland. Some other parts of Grcccc paid it the

.omplinlcnr ofinritation, irr .l hurnblc rvay: rordr Clrcccc, llocotia, Corinrh,

Irs appcll ovcrscls was r.urdir)rirrisl)ccl, and inclccd its markcts qrcw,


rlclibcrltcly or cilsullly. Its clcclinc in qualiry and rhis is nor lr alroscthcr sutrjcctivcjudgcnrcrlt. as a qlxrlcc throLlirh drt- pictrrrcs irr rhis book shoulcl show

h:rs ro bc cxplairrcci irr othcr wxys. In rhc ArcLaic pcriod the rlrawing stylcs

prictisccl on potlcry wcrc ls flnc us iD urly other nrcdiunr known ro us, a|d wc

nrry lcgitinr:rtcly essunrt: that thc best xrtists cnjoycLl e conlpctcncc also in othcr

nrcdi:r ofpairrrint which hevc not survivcd, :urcl pcrhlps rr othcr lrts- Btrr in dtc

tirst halfofthc lilih ccrtury ncrv scylcs of 'rndor plintirlil' wcrc irrrroduccd.

'I hosc rtssociltcd u,irh thr'uanrc ofthc nrur:rlisr l)olyeroros ofThasos irtroclLtccd

ncrv schcnrcs ofconrpositiorr rvhich rhc vlsc-paintcr coulcl trkc rrp rnd edJusr ro

his fic1cl. But thc printing stylcr thar lollowcd introdnccd shrdin!1, chiaroscuro .rnd subtlctics ofcolour which rhc vasc-plrintcr c()Lrld ncvcr hopc to rrltch, lnd

incvitrbly rhc:rb1cr h:rnds lvcrc rttractcd au,ty frol)l thc craft b othcr nrcdia. Thc custorrr providccl by thc r,vcll-ro-clo rnay havc dcclincd rr thc sen)L- tr)ra,

csPccillly oncc'\,csscls irl prcci()Lls rDctal bcca rc rorc;rcccssiblc (from l)ersi.rD

Ioor:rrrd thc pcrqrrisitcs of cnpirc), encl :r grorvinr nrurkct iirr fine pJein black vescs nrct hurnblcr ncccls. llul it would trc wrong to thiDk thrt the Arhcnrars thought much thc lcss ofa cr:rlt in rvhich thcy harl long 1cd thcir,,,"orll. In thc

htcr fi1rh ccntLrrv thc Athcniln pocr Clrjriis listcd drc rnost distirgrrishcd proclucts ofvarious s!atcs thclirrDitrrrcof(lhios:rndMilctus,thcgolclcupsand

rlccorrrivc bronzcs of F.rrrrrir, thc chariors of Thcbcs, rlrc ulphabcr of the l'hocnicirns, eud lrorn Arhcrrs, rhc victor ofMarlthon tlrc pottcr's u,hecJ and rhc child of cl:ry lnc{ lhc ovcn, rhc fincst portcry, the houschold's blcssirrg.

Most ofthc nretcriel hrs bccn scr out hcrc lirllowing Ilctzlcy's attribrrtioDs ft) pxilrtcrs :rnd schools, with nlir)or:rdjultnlcnts to suit prcsctrtrtion. I havc not n;rrrccl rn thc tcxt cvcry p:rintcr r,vhosc work is illustrelccl thcrc arc so rnar:y, ;rncl thosc ornittcd iu thc tcxt r:rtc x pictrrrc cithcr bccausc rhcy or lhc v:rscs showrl

dcscrvc llcirhcr nlor-c nor lcss. I)rinciplcs ofattribution wcrc ciiscusscd bricfly in

,'1RFH I p.

rhc Morclliln systcrl of aDalysilrg thc

rcnclcrirrg ofclcc;ril, cspccillly anltonricrl, by rvhich a paintcr's 'hlrrclwricing'

rDirlht bc clctcctcd, wl)cthcr that rcndcriDg bc ullc(nsciously rcpcatccl bccaLrsc trivill, or corrsciously adoptcd and rhcr sust:rincd.'l hc trivial is olicn rhc nrorc

iutirrnrltivc noteblv on thc backs ofthc larecr vascs rvhich rrr'oftcll, it ()ur

pcriod, fillcd lvithtlvoorthrcc'nlilrrrlc 6ljurcs' clrepcrl youths,tr)cn orwoilcn

8, lnd r firrthcr word nrly not bc arlriss silcc thcrc lrc cloubtcrs.

[]crzlcy harl rdoprcd a vcrsi{)l ()f

skctchcd cluickly by thc p;rirtcr and thcrcforc rclcli)y bcrraying his 'lrarrd';

ct. Ir,t-2, ;4-;1. (This critcrion or] SoLlth Itali.ut rcd figurc is clcrronstrltcd by

li cndlll in R|SIS.) In this rnd r)thcr rcspccrs Bcezlcy's n)atcial wils cvcn rnorc

lcrdily susccptiblc to strch enalysis th;ur thc drtwings Jrld paintings studicd by

M,lrclli; it was slrictly llnclr and so nlorc casily dcflrrablc, nruch of ir wrs rot

consciously 'artistic', it did not to rny noreblc dcqrcc rlcpcncl

on clrlwiug'fronr

liti', u.hilc b:rrc bodics:rnd e lirnircd ranqc il drcss olfc'rcd rrlny more rcliablc


, L 1,.rr, Ll rlrrrlcrirrgsforanalysis. (Thc siglcd work ofJapencsc p nt-rnakcrs

t , rr,, rroilc:rr clrtoonists, nci*rcr irrdrrclcccl uruch by'srucly front lifi',

,, lrL r.rlitlity ofrhc tcchniquc ofatrriburiorr.) Thc ncxus ofrcndcrir)gs rn



, r r ' \\ ()rk is such rher rcpctitiot ofthcnl il ochcr works elmosr


rlrr surnc lrlrrd, ancl ticsh cviclcncc (sonrctinrcs of sigrrccl works)



rr Lrth rrdtcr rharr sanctlfics crror. ADd thcrc is so t11uch more ro it than

, ,

, ,

r r\l ,L I r.rr \tLrdy of rcrrclcring offornrs: conlposition, ornarncnt, favourcd

. .LrL)tr.t, go t() coIifirrn a sysrem u.hich is ocarcr ro bcing 'scicntific' thrn

rrr ,ut history. Thc opportunity it otfcrs to disccrn in dcraii thc l,r rr,r rs ot inclividual cralisnlcrl, drcir intcrrclationships, rhcir iconct

' L, rrLl ( \'cll socill prcl'crcnccs, rhcir rolc tn thc rrading oftlrcir produirs, rs

, I , ll, 1,1 in.rntiquiry ur)til thc days of st:rnrpcd llorlan warcs. llcazlcy's

oi Athcnian vescs hls rcrldcrcd possiblc scrious

I , r rlrr' r'Lrnnoisscurship

I rr r u,holc rlngc ofncw stlrdics to cnqitgc thc intcrcst ofarchacologrsts

| ,,,,1)rrrc,rtofstylcinCircckert,rndcspcci:rllyr1lAthcnianlrttodtccnd





I ( rntury, is rc:rdily dcfinablc ir tcrrrrs ofclatlbJc sculprurc (scc CSC-'P

rorr tlrc tcnrplc sculptl.rrc lt OlyDlpia, throush thc fairly cJoscJy



of rvork on thc l)erthcnon ilnd othcr nlonllrlcnls. Ilchocs of

(.u) sorlrctinlcs bc dctcctctl on vescs, r,"hich arc thcrctry givcn a

, l)ti\l qucl]t c.1I., lhc Atltcrla rnd Marsyas of (iS(-'P li.g- (r4, and ntany

' , r , n( , ( ahocs tll' I)arthcnon figurcs. Thc dcvcloptncnt rs irot so rcadily

rr l lre tirrrrth ccntLrry, partly bcc)rlsc it i! lcss nrerkcd in works rhrr rrri!lht

' , , Lrrrl r,r,ith



',t /'/i(r. r77

rhc v:rsc-pilinrins ofthc day. llccord-rclicfs datcd ro thc ycar

clrrv irirly sinrplc fisurcs- Penarhcrraic prizc vascs c:rn bc


, lr,,tlr,,,crrt'romthcrrch()I1'snellrcthatthcycarryinthcforrrthcortury

/ i i / l, r(,9). l)ul thc black figurc drewing or) thl'rlr is lcss rc:rdilv corrrplraLrlc

, ,1 trqrrrc




than it had bccn in rhe Archric pcriod,

tlrough rt lcast onc;rrrrst

both rcchniqucs rnay bc idcntificd, in thc nrid ccntury.

or contcxts which cotrflrru our

' , t rlr qcrcrel scqucncc. C;r:lvc aoDtcrlts'prrrificd' fiolt l)cios in 425 wcrc

, ,l orr tlrc nclrby isl:rnd of l{hcrci:r nncl incluclc mrlch Arric porcry. Thc


, Lrc sc,,,crel lrchlcologic:rl ditting points

r r c lir thc b;rrtlc ofl)c1ion in 4u 4 et Thcspirc cott:rilcd lirtlc dcconrtccl





'r. rnd tlnt Bocotian, bur corrprrablc with Atic. l'hc gravc of thc


to rcd figurc. Th.rr rs

r, t brcrk ir inrports to Clun)ilc rn lclly, clcsrroycd in 4:r/o. Hirrrcra in

.r,.rn,, in Athcrrs (4: t/:)

h:rs black portcry rclltablc

" .rs ,['srr oycrl irnd r.]zcd to thc grould irr 4o9 and scvcral 6fih ccnrury

, rrr,l Louscs u,ith Artic potcry havc bccn cxcavatcd- Therc is elso portcry


,\ t lrcrrs

ccructcry lronr thc Ionrb ofrlrc Lacolilrrs (4o3; rclatcd to Scmclc

,Lr \\uli l'j.tintcrs) ind ftom thc presurned torrrb ofDcxilcos (194; mur.,r,

Lul:tttrrLrutcd vxscs). Kalos i:rscriptions pr;risine handsonrc yotrths who nright bc

i,.lcntiliablc arc lcss comrnon but still uscful for suggcsting synchrouisnrs in thc

rvork of diffcrcut printcrs, cspccielly arotrnd tlrc nrid ccnlury (see ,4RFH I p.

rrl): riotablc erc (ilaukon, son of Lcagros (ibid.) rnd lJuaion, sotr ofthc poct Acsclrylus (born about J2J), bLrt EulioD tnly bc praisccl for his xctins rarher than


forrrrh ccntury drc 11ow of Attic porrcry ro Cypnts drics up el abotrr thc

tirnc ofthc clc;rth ofEurgoras, king ofSalarnis ancl ally ofAthcns, in 374/3, bur it

clocs rrot ccasc cntircly, it sccnrs; thc tuJJ blown 'Kcrch stylc' is ttot rcprcscutcd. C)1ynthus, irr rrorth (ircccc', u,rs clcstroycd by PhiJip of Maccclon irl 3411; thc

conlpletc vascs foLllld on i!s Irousc floors:rrc:t goocl indicatioD ofcurrcnt stylcs, ircluding'crrly Kcrch stylc', brrt prrr ofthc sitc was soorr rcoccupied. Thc

bloonl; hc is known to havc bccn r pleywright.

In thc

'l hcban pipcr Prononros [3,2-3] l:rd thc Sparten Spartc [365] arc unlikcly to havc

rppcarccl orr Artic vescs until e fter thc cnd ofhostilitics widr Thcbcs ancl Sparta at

thc crd of thc lifrh ccntrrry. Lr south llussia, end to a ntinor clcqrcc clscwhcrc,

Actic vascs havc bccn fornrd in tolrbs with cl:rtcd Parrathcnaics (scc abovc) or rvith lcss cusily cllrteblc coins. In soudr l{ussia somc ofthe coins run to thc cnd of

rhc lourth ccntLlry a! lclst bur nccd not ctrry thc prodllcliolr date ofthc vascs

lnyu,hcrc ncar so 1atc. Alcxtndria was fouDdcd iIr 33 t lncl its carly ccmctcrics

h:rvc bccn wcll robbcd but so littlc Atric rcd figurc has bccn found (c.g.

ther it is dillictlt to cscapc thc conclusion tirlt fincr warc was no lotr{cr in


procluction in t)rc j:.os. Ilcportcd 6nds in Athcns ofred 6gurc with Panathcnrics

of thc


a ros rl)ily rcprcscnt its last appcarancc irr siqnificenr conrcxt.

voJunrc, thcrcforc, covcrs e pcriod rnorc dr:rn twicc as long as rhat rn

.'1RFH I, conrprising somc two-thlrclt ofthc vascs in Bcazlcy's rcd figurc lists;

bur clcspitc dcclilc in thc quality of thc cL awing ot thc vascs tlrcrc is rt lcast ls rnuch that is handsorlc, rncmorirblc arrd signiEcant to disctlss rlrd illustr:ttc.

Chapter Two


L, \ rlrcrrs tl)c sccond clurrrcr ofthc fiflh ccnrury is:r pcriod ofwcalth, a pcriod of


.rnd of frcqucnt cxpcrlitio:rs ovcrscas, e pcriocl irr rvhich rhc lcw

is rcsh:rpcd rnd stabilized end its nrcthocls ofchoosirrg its lcadcrs



, Lr, r ilcfnrcrl.'lhc cncl is rnarkcd by pcrcc r,vith Pcrsia, rvhich rnlclc no rnorc

rr,,r'i.rl ,rlenrrnds on (lrcck

llncls, rnd by thc pl:rnning frrr thc rcbuildrrg of

\ r, rr: rrd its tcnrplcs. Wc know littlc ofthc rnajor arts ofAthcns il thcsc yc:rrs,

, ,l, , ,l l l)cy wcrc partirlly srillccl b y thc clccision nor ro rebuild strliuht awly thc

r r rl,lcs ruincd by thc Pcrsians. thc hurubler crrlt of vasc-pain cin q, howcvcr,

,, rr r trs l glinr psc ofthc cflccts ofothcr erts visiblc in thc city, and continucs to


lrrllr 1v inhrrrnative about meny

aspccts ofAthcnian lifc ard sociccy, not lerst

,,i ,l,rtionships rnd bchlviour wirhin irs potrcrs' qrrartcr.

Alicl rhc brillirncc.rncl

varicry ofLatc Archeic vasc-paintine,

rhe ncw phirsc

,L\ l() bc cxpllincd partly ls iingcring or sub-erchaic in moocl (wcll

, iLrl)oslrltcd by thc so-cl1lcd Manncrists, discusscd irr,4RFHI pp. 179 93 1r

r r,\'r'Drcr)t' which corrtinucs: scc Obaptcr Tlrrcc), plrtly itr tcrrrs of thc ,l,.rrcnt influcncc of e diffcrcrrr nrccliunt. Prc'viously, rhcrc is l1o rcAsorl to

,,l,.ct thitt 'nr:rjor peiDtiru' or1 plncl or wall wls r}ruch unlikc vasc-painrIng, , .,.pt thrt it probably dlcl not usc ilcision (Jikc black figurc) arrd prclcrrcd I

lr:rckg1611pfl (un)ikc rcd figurc). \Vhlt wc scc and lcarrr eborrt Late Archric




woodcn pancls suggcsts compositiorrs likc thosc on vlscs ancl not

iculrrly largcr nor of liner quelity than, s:ry, thc drewing of thc Pionccrs

, rr t


I ch. :), sonre of whorrr arc likcly llso ro hxvc bccn pencl-painters;

,,lceLl, thc practiccs ofpalcl-pairrting

nright cvcn lic bchirrd rhc vcry invcnrron

,,i llrc rcd figurL'tcchnlaluc. Nor is finer clEraving apptrcDt on meralwork,

' ,,lccrl thcrc scems to hlvc bccn sonrc clcclinc hcrc after thc scvcnth cerltury lr t ri oLrr of nrodcllcd (cast) clccoration. I rorl thc scconcl cluartcr ofdrc filth ccntrrry, howcvcr, wc havc tlcscriptions

t tlrc ,,vall-pairrrings of l)olygnoros ofTirasos (working principally it Athcns

r ,l l)clphi) rnd ofthc Athcrriiln Mikon. fhcsc paintirgs arc clclriy quite novcl

r L Lrrnposition, bcing lrljor friczcs with figr.rrcs at lc:lsr halflifc size ancl clisposcd

, l,.rr(1 dowrl thc friczc, which wls itsclf onc-arrd-a-half or two fiqurcs high. I lrcrc wes no qucstion of pcrspcctive in drcsc picturcs, ancl thc uppcr figurcs

'r L lc rot snrallcr or dccnlcd to be fi.lrthcr awty, or cven lcss irllportarrt, b!1t dtc


introduction of vrricd grour)d lincs within thc composition ofi:rcd thc

possibility of, c.g., cuttin!! olFsome figurcs, as bcllind rocks or a hill crest, :rnd of


bound to

ncw rclationships bctwccn figurcs and within groups, no longcr a singlc ground linc. This opcncd up the possibilitics of ncw

corrccptions ofspacc iD figurc compositions. !trc know tllc paintings o Jy l'rorrr

clcscriptions by latcr writers, Dotably Pausanias' figure-by-figurc accounl of

rhosc at I)clphi; nonc havc survivcd, nor wcrc thcy to drc tastc oflatcr coPyirt\ end collcctors, howcvcr highly tJrc nemc of l)olygrrotos was rrted

1 hc new conrpositiorrs wcrc observcd and inritated by thc vasc-paintcrs froDl

rbour 46o on, scldo:r end in a linritcd way, though with irllporlrnt implications for thc composition oflatcr vasc sccllcs. Thc carlicst exanlplc, ancl perhaps tirc

oDc !hat corlcs closcst to thc aPpcilrancc ofthc wall liiczcs, is on thc nanlc v:lsc of

rhc Niobid l)aintcr


whcrc wc scc thc fiiczc' of on c-an d-a-half figurc hcight

ud thc cuc-olF figurcs. Somc bclicvc that tlrc ncw paintings also introclucccl lcw poscs for figurcs bur

dris is not bornc out by rhc dcscripciorrs, elrhough thc cnlargccl ficld arrd thc ncw

pcrception ofspacc ifnot dcpfi which it olfered, probably cncourrgcd somc boldcr foreshortcnings; bur drcrc is no dranratic cbangc. Thc ralhcr old-

tashioncd alatonrical dcrail shown fcrr somc figurcs orr this vasc (rhc cnrplutic

bclly-pattcrrrs), and on slightly lltcr vascs which also sccm inspircd by wall-

painrirres, has bccn thought a fcaturc ofthc major painrings, copicd by thc vasc-

printcr. If truc, this would bc irltcrcstiDg and surprising sincc thcrc is cvcry

rcason to bclicvc th:rt thc vesc-p:rirltcr clid not copy w:t1)-paintings, Ji:rc for

linc or figurc by frgurc, Lrut lh:tt thc inllucncc was far nrore gencralizcd and

thc ncw stylc clrlstically adrprcd to thc diffcrcnt nrcdium which could offcr

long lriczc conrposiriolrs only by rvrapping thc sccncs eroulrd thc largcr crerer



carly drawing stylcs of thc [arly Classical soon :rba:rdon thc Archaic

pattcrn in arraronry ancl drcss, arrd with ir sonrc ofrhc delictcy of

obscssion with

clrluglrtsnrrLnship: 'thc nan who draws oudincs on pors bccotttcs a hulnblcr,

rrorc rncchanical person' (Bcazlcy). Thc moocl is nrorc dignificd, almost

irustcrc, and thc perellcl cxprcssion ofit in sculpturc is aptly narrcd thc S.:v.:rc

Stylc (CSCl) ch. 2) typificd by rhc sculpcurcs ofthc Tcmplc ofZctrs at O)ynr pi.r. Athcns h:rs littlc to ollcr in sculpturc u:rtil towards thc middlc of thc ccntury,

rvhich is whcn many think thc finc Riecc bronzes wcrc crcatcd (ibid-.f{r. l8 9),

in an Athcnian studio. lrr dctail, wc scc thc pattcrn ofclrcss shakcn or-rt itrto looscr, rrorc rcalistic folds: wherc rhcrc arc stacks t>flolds chcsc arc no longcr dcfinccl by

zigzag hcrllirrcs bur sirnply grortpcd in plrallcl lines oftcn with a dot Pattcrn bctwccn. Thc hcavicr woollcrr prplo-,,,^76111 by womcn in prcfcrcnce to tltc

looser and nrorc ornatc .l,i/dl abcrs this imprcssion- Ar-ratorny is rcndcred

sonrcwhat nrorc intprcssionistically,

but still with carcful obscrvttion ofpetlerrl,

end a propcr profilc vicw ofthc cyc is gradually achieved, ptrpil to lhc front, Jong uppcr lid. lleal forcshortcrling is attcmptcd lncl the rhrec-quartcr vicw,

, r, rr ,,1 .r Lrlc. is no longcr a novclty. Facial expressions cxplore subtletics ,, r, ' ,l rlri rrrcrc grintace ofpain, and postures abandon the formuiac ofthc




l,(x)k, rlrlrorrgh each paintcr will develop and cxploit his own

L \ , ,r r r ( \. t Irc plintcr contrives 'to includc ilr his art morc ofnaturc's manifold

t,1,, r r, , rrrr rr.r t hln bcforc' (Bcazlcy). Colour and pattcrn bccome subordinatcd to

rl, , .l,rr'r\t()l) of lnood.

',,,,,,t l,.rir tcrs ofthis pcriod havc bccn discussed already in,4RFH I ch.4 - fic

l\l ,,,,,( ll\r\. sor)c por-pxintcrs, and followers of somc ofthc Late Archaic cup-

,rll in varying degrees depcndcnt on the old tradition. Here wc

I ,,,r, r,

! !1,,i, rrr.rtc (nr thc tlcw, but the Archaic constantly intrudcs.


I r, Nr()rn) PATNTER [1 8] is thc prime exponent of the new style. We have

and its demonstration of the influencc of wa1l-

'1,,,r,.,,,1 his rlanle vase


IL,,,rI)1,,, l)rrr rDust notc that it is so far uniquc in his work and appears late in his

, ,, , r A vrricty ofthis composition, with only a slightly rising or fluctuating

1,,r r,,l lirrc. is found in thc work ofhis contcmporarics,


c.g. It-2, r3 ], but not (so

r ,,r lris vrscs. It too probably dcrivcs lrom major painting and in its way is

,,,r, , llictivc

at suggesting depth offield though almost as restrictive as the old

i , , , r r thc lumbcr offigurcs ii can accommodatc. Our paintcr docs, howcvcr,

,,t1, r .,. rr r c finc largc-frgurc friczcs on a singlc groundlinc [2, 3 ], often encircling

rl,, r .rr'.

.rnd pcrhaps also cchoing morc conventional narrativc stylcs on largcr

r,, ,, ' rrr othcr mcdia. Hc likes thc largc vascs for such subjccts volutc, calyx

,r,l lrcll cratcrs, with somc of the medium-sized -

pelikai, neck-amphorae,

l,,,lrrrr lor rnore modcst groups. Anothcr way to answcr thc intcrcst in major tr r, :, s .rrrrl nrany figurcs was to split thc cratcr ficlds into two narrowcr friczcs, a

l, ',,,

r,vc find also in the Niobid Painter's work [5, 6].


)r lris nanle vase the ground lincs lre in white (and so barcly visiblc in





and this is to be the rulc cxcept whcre paintcrs dispcnsc with thcm

Somc modcst floral cmbellishment of the ground may be seen:

'larrdscape' though this too has been attributed to the influence of

, ,,1.,, .rpc clcmcnts in major painting, which thc dcscriptions show to havc bccn ,, rrrrrrr.rl. I Iis figurcs havc a finc, solid prcscncc to them, scrupulously drawn and

,' rrlr ,r lor ofdress and armour patterning in the Archaic manncr, although this


probably docs rcflcct thc grcatcr colour and dctail possiblc in mrjor

1,,r'rrnq. He has a 6ne, almost antiquarian eye for the detail ofdrcss, ar,d for


r)Ll;lnccs oftlarrativc- Tlrcrc is a nronurncntality about his work which cscapcd

his prcdc'cessors, cxccpr, pcrhaps, thc Klcophr;rdcs Painrer (,4RtH I



4:), rrrd this is a quality to which nr,,r. !,.r\u prrntcr.\ will now:rspiic, with

verying clcgrccs ofconviction. Hc likcs thc cpic fighting sccncs, of Alnirz()n5,

giants or ccntaurs, as did thc wlll-paintcrs, whilc his smallcr vascs carry divinc

pursuits or clcprrturcs of warriors, hcroic, or Adrcnian, or hcroiscd Atherrran.

wlrich bcconrc incrcasirrely popular. TIrc hcroic atnrosphcrc ofa dcparturc sccnc

such as l7l is applrcrrt whcn lvc contp:rrc it with by Euthymidcs, fifty ycars crrJicr (,{1?FH I-/ig.

nunrbcr of wonrcrr plcscn! hrs suEgcstcd to or)c scholar thar this should bc,

Hcccor's artnjng for dcparturc



cf.45), and on Lil thc

Achillcs prcprring to lcavc rhc llclics ofSkyros lor Troy, encl nor rn Arhcnran

subjccr. Thc fornrulac lor such sccncs had bccn long cstablishc'd; when a ltcw one

wc m:ry bc surpriscd by rhc

is sought for a myrhological occasiorr, :rs on


;rpprrcDt r)aivcty irr showing how Apollo dcflccccd Paris'arrow to Achillcs'

lrccl. Ofthc Niobicl Painrcr's conrpaniorls rhc ALTAMURA PATNTF.R

lro, r I I is c:r1ntcr,

nrorc old-f:rshioncd, but lot for drat rcason 1irerally his scnior and only

tcrn pcram cntaJly his'clclcr brorhcr', ls Bcazley c:rlls him. Irrdccd hc decoratcs

thc 'ncw' shapc for tllc volutc cratcr, wirh nroulclc'd ncck I ro], which rhc Niobid

l):rintcr docs not- Hc dccorrtcs stamnoi too, :t shapc also nrvourcd by thc plrurrrs oflerqc pots (brrr scldonr a lield lor rhc Niobid Painccr), whilc thc old fashioncd

bc11 cratcr wirh 1ug handlcs is not forgortcn Ir r ]. I Ic sccn)s nor to bc r:rkcrr by thc

ncw compositions. For thcsc wc turn to e crudc but bold followcr ofthc Niobid

I);rintcr, thc PATNTER or rrrE Woolly SATyns.

conlposition with thc fluctrrating groLlnd linc ancl it ncrtly dcmonstrltcs both


is a gooci cxamplc ofa

onc of thc distirrctivc cut-olF figurcs and a darirrg group of Greck clispatching Anr;rzon in a conrbination ofpostLrrcs unthinkrblc carlicr. Anrazorronrachics arc

fivorrrccl for such sccrrcs: a subjcct popular roo on wal]s, scrving ls parablc to

A drcus' succcssful dcfeircc:rgainst

rl,itlt its sinllle nilrrow friczc aud figurcs on a variablc ground linc offcrs a richcr

cxp)oits wc11 thc litrc

thc l)crsian invasions. Hjs volurc craccr


tcxcrlrc offiEurcs than nlost colrvclltional rccl figurc, and

black ofthc vitsc walls, as had mosr black figurc volutc craters. original: this scc'ms ro bc a wcary Hcraklcs with rhc dcad lion (which

Ir4] is no lcss

looks morc

:rslccp than dced). Thc scatcd figurc should bc Eurysrhcus, thc yourh Iolaos, Hcraklcs'conrpani<>n, but hc sccms alrcady to have e lion-skin. A third trcarnrent fcrr rhc ncw corrlposirional styic is to il]crcasc thc height of

thc friczc relativc to thc figurcs, as iD rhe crrly cxlrnlplcs lry thc parNrnn or

BoLocNA 279

r6l. Wltcn rhis is combincd with ntore ovcrlapping groups

rnd rctivity rlngine up and down the ficld, the gcncralc1Icct may bc confusug, errcl ifwall-paiDrings wcrc rcelly likc this wc must ittlaginc rhat thcir grcatcr sizc

inrproved rhc cfFcct. [t sccms barcly approprjatc on a c]ay vasc, and latcr, bctccr peiDtcrs who arc attractcd to such compositions wiJl spacc thc figurcs rnorc

cffcctivcly, whilc poorcr paintcrs will range thc)it in scparatc but trndefincd






L,l bv thc hish fjclds olli'rccl by sorneshapes. ()therwise the clcsirc

r ,, L l,r,,lrlt r.rrr()r) ,rf snrrllcr ligrtrcs on thc largc vlscs, ancl thc narr.rtivc

rr, , tlrcv ollcr. is lrrswcrcd by putting two ticrs of Iillures or1 cratcrs, ,,,,,11, \\Lrlr rrrrr,lltcrlstrlrjccts, l clcvicc wc lravc nrcr alrcady wirh thc Niobid








1 ,. r,l Nrrnc

ofthcsc variablc groturd-linc or up-ancl-down coDlposi-


and rhcy look apprcciebly latcr rharr rhc

,,1 l,, c.rr licr tlrarr about




rl ,

rrr(r':n;lr)rcv;rsc. lt7] and lrg] offcr odrcr painrcrs' rrcatnrcnts ofthc

L r,l v,r

lir Lrlc-groun d-1in c conrpositions, Jnd



a djffcrcnt usc ofthc

',, , ,', rrrrilL lrrczc tn a cr.1tcr. k is clcar that thc friczc, whcthcr or not it rs

I' rnt l, errd ir is Jikcly *rat drc rrcw stylcs of major pairlting arc rllc

lirr this slrilt of cnrphasis.

t 1,,'i ly rclrtcd brrt rnorc acadcrnic group ofpailrtcrs sAw no ncccl for sr;ch

,r rr r t)rrly thcir lcadcr, thc VtL^ Grurl^ PatNrnn lzo 2jl, will rcgul.rrly

,r rl)1 ll)c litrgcr critcrs for his work; for thc'othc'rs pclikai, stamnoi and

I r

r \nllicc, u.irh smallcr vrscs. Thc nrost characrcristic cornpositiorrs arc, in

ll, L , ( \'\ pl)rrsc, 'quict and harnronious', k) thc point ofbcing boring cxcept

,1,, r, thc subjcct rrlttcr clD hold us. The revcrses of thc vascs arc lnorc

r rr ly now 6lled by Jay 6gures (the ViJJa Ciulia Painrer ofrcn has a'king' and






thcsc 6gurcs

(commonly 'mantlc

figurcs') drc artist rclaxcs lnd rcvcrls


rrrtLrrrl' rDd lndiviclual h:rrrdwriting his signaturc- Our paintcr also

,,, ,'r,,n.rJly works on whitc

ljround, as in thc rondo on [zo] with rhc goddcss


1 ,,,)holdingajugtinncdovcrtoinritarcsilvcr.ThcCnrcac()PArNrF.RJ26

r r)r()rc cnEeging pcrsonelity. Thcsc rrtrsts rnrtiitc,ln rnlcrcst in sccr)cs of

r , ,r rlrip lncl darrcc at a pillar inragc ofl)ionysos


oftcn associ:rtcd by schollrs

,i rrlr thc Lcuaia fc'stivitl, or with an cpisodc in thc spring Anthesrcria; thcsc hevc a

tr,irl bLr! visorous voguc. Thc Pcrsian bcing attackcd on

r ,lr (ontcnrporary cncourtcrs with thc barbariarr hacl bccn givcn a dcgrcc of


rcminds us thac

r r()r. status in Athcnian art sincc thc l)crsian wars (ARFH