Fluid Mechanics

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Fluid Mechanics

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

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Lecture notes

Csaba Hos csaba.hos@hds.bme.hu

Csaba Bazso csaba.bazso@hds.bme.hu

March 9, 2012

Contents

1 Some basic relationships of uid mechanics and thermodynamics 3

1.1 Continuity equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3

1.2 Bernoullis equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4

1.3 Thermodynamics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4

1.3.1 Specic heat capacities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4

1.3.2 Some basic thermodynamic relationships . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5

1.3.3 Input shaft work and useful work . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6

1.3.4 Specic work for hydraulic machines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6

1.3.5 Eciency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7

1.4 Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7

2 Incompressible turbomachinery 9

2.1 Eulers turbine equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9

2.2 Velocity triangles and performance curves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10

2.2.1 Radial (centrifugal) machines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10

2.2.2 Axial machines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12

2.2.3 Real performance curves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13

2.2.4 Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14

2.3 Losses and eciencies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14

2.3.1 Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15

2.4 Dimensionless numbers and anity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15

2.4.1 Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16

2.5 Forces on the impeller . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18

2.5.1 Radial force . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18

2.5.2 Axial force . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18

3 Hydraulic Systems 20

3.1 Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20

3.1.1 Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20

1

Hydraulic Machines 2

3.2 Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21

3.2.1 Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21

4 Positive displacement pumps 24

4.1 Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24

5 Laboratory measurements 25

5.1 Getting prepared to the measurements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25

5.2 Report preparation and submission . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25

5.3 Error estimation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27

5.3.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27

5.3.2 Example for error propagation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27

Chapter 1

Some basic relationships of uid

mechanics and thermodynamics

1.1 Continuity equation

In the absence of nuclear reactions, matter can neither be created or destroyed. This is the principle of mass

conservation and gives the continuity equation. Its general form is

t

+ div(v) = 0 (1.1)

where div(v) = v = F

x

/x+F

y

/y +F

z

/z. If the ow is steady ( . . . /t = 0) and one-dimensional,

we have

div(v) = 0. (1.2)

Moreover, in many engineering applications the density can be considered to be constant, leading to

div(v) = 0. (1.3)

The above forms are so-called dierential forms of the continuity equation. However, one can derive the

so-called integral forms. For example, for the steady-state case, if we integrate (1.3) on a closed surface A,

we obtain

_

A

vdA =

_

A

v

dA. (1.4)

Note that the surface is dened by its normal unit vector dA and one has to compute the scalar product

vdA. One can resolve the velocity to a component parallel to and another perpendicular to the surface as

v = v

+v

dA.

In many engineering applications, there is an inow A

1

and an outow A

2

, between which we have rigid walls,

e.g. pumps, compressors, pipes, etc. Let us denote the average perpendicular velocities and the densities at

the inlet A

1

and outlet A

2

by v

1

,

1

and v

2

,

2

respectively. Than, we have

m =

1

v

1

A

1

=

2

v

2

A

2

= const. (1.5)

3

Hydraulic Machines 4

The quantity m is called mass ow rate (kg/s) and it simply reects to the fact that under steady-state

conditions the amount of mass entering the machine per unti time has to leave it, also. If the density is

constant, we have

Q = m/ = v

1

A

1

= v

2

A

2

= const., (1.6)

where Q (m

3

/s) is the volumetric ow rate.

1.2 Bernoullis equation

In the case os steady frictionless ow, the energy of the uid along a streamline remains constant. Mostly

we deal with incompressible uids, for which the energy content per unit volume is

Energy per unit volume =

mgh +

1

2

mv

2

+pV

V

= p +

2

v

2

+gh = constant. (1.7)

Considering two points of the streamline (the ow is from 1 to 2), we have

p

1

+

2

v

2

1

+gh

1

= p

2

+

2

v

2

2

+gh

2

. (1.8)

Note that the above form can only applied if

the ow is incompressible, i.e. = const,

the ow is ideal, i.e. there are no losses (friction, separation, etc.),

points 1 and 2 refer to two points on the same streamline and

the uid is Newtonian, i.e. the stress versus strain rate curve is linear and passes through the origin.

The constant of proportionality is known as the viscosity: = . (In common terms, this means the

uid continues to ow, regardless of the forces acting on it. For example, water is Newtonian, because

it continues to exemplify uid properties no matter how fast it is stirred or mixed.)

The Bernoulli equation can be extended to include friction and unsteady eects:

p

1

+

2

v

2

1

+gh

1

= p

2

+

2

v

2

2

+gh

2

+

2

v

2

i

. .

friction

+ L

dv

dt

. .

unsteady term

. (1.9)

1.3 Thermodynamics

1.3.1 Specic heat capacities

Assume that a denite mass of gas m is heated from T

1

to T

2

at constant volume and thus its internal energy

is raised from U

1

to U

2

. We have

mc

V

T = U or c

V

T = u, (1.10)

where u is the internal energy per unit mass and c

V

(J/(kgK)) is the specic heat capacity measured at

constant volume.

Now we do the same experiment but now at constant pressure, thus its volume changes and work was done

on the uid:

mc

p

T = U +mpV, (1.11)

Hydraulic Machines 5

which, after rewriting for unit mass and combining with the previous equation for constant volume process,

gives

c

p

T = u +pV = c

p

T +RT c

p

= R +c

V

. (1.12)

Thus we see that it is useful to dene a new quantity which includes both the change of the internal energy

u and the pressure work p dv = p d (1/). Some useful equations:

R = c

p

c

V

, =

c

p

c

V

, c

p

= R

1

and c

V

= R

1

1

. (1.13)

1.3.2 Some basic thermodynamic relationships

One possible form of the energy equation for a steady, open system in dierential form is

Y +q = d

_

h +

c

2

2

+gz

_

. .

e

, (1.14)

Y is the elementary shaft work, q is the elementary heat transferred towards the uid, both of them

being processes, which is emphasised by the symbol. Note that the above equation describes an elemntary

process, however, to compute the overall process (to integrate the above equation), one has to know what

kind of process takes place in the machine (adiabatic, isentropic, isotherm, etc.) ad the results depends on

it (thus, the integral is inexact).

The term enthalpy is often used in thermodynamics. It expresses the sum of the internal energy u and the

ability to do hydrodynamic work p

h = u +

p

. (1.15)

Note that h = c

p

T and u = c

V

T. There are some forms of expressing the change in enthalpy (v = 1/):

dh = d(u +pv) = q +vdp = Tds +vdp. (1.16)

The entropy

1

is for an elementary change in the equilibrium is

ds =

q

T

+ds

irrev

, (1.17)

with which, using (1.16) we obtain

dh = q +Tds

irrev

+vdp, (1.18)

with which (1.14) turns into

Y = vdp +d

_

c

2

2

+gz

_

. .

Y

u(seful)

+Tds

irrev.

. .

losses

(1.19)

1

Entropy is the only quantity in the physical sciences that seems to imply a particular direction of progress, sometimes called

an arrow of time. As time progresses, the second law of thermodynamics states that the entropy of an isolated system never

decreases. Hence, from this perspective, entropy measurement is thought of as a kind of clock.

Hydraulic Machines 6

1.3.3 Input shaft work and useful work

The input shaft power is simply the work needed to change the enthalpy of the uid:

P

in

= me = m

_

h

2

h

1

+

c

2

2

c

2

1

2

+g(z

2

z

1

)

_

z

1

z

2

,v

1

v

2

= mc

p

(T

2

T

1

) (1.20)

When computing the useful work, we integrate the Y

u

part of (1.19) between points 1 and 2 (e.g. between

the suction and pressure side of a compressor). We still assume that z

1

z

2

and c

1

c

2

.

In the case of an isentropic process, we have p/ = RT (ideal gas law) and p/

=const., thus

Y

isentr.

=

p

1/

1

1

_

2

1

p

1/

dp =

p

1/

1

_

2

1

p

1/

dp =

1

p

1

1

_

_

p

2

p

1

_

1

1

_

. (1.21)

Note that the above equation gives

Y

isentr.

=

1

p

1

1

..

RT

1

_

_

_

p

2

p

1

_

1

. .

T

2

/T

1

1

_

_

=

1

R

. .

c

p

(T

2

T

1

) , (1.22)

which is exactly the input specic work dened by (1.20).

A typical compression system consists of a compressor and a pressure vessel, which stores the compressed

gas. Although the gas heats up during the compression but in the vessel it will cool back to the pressure of

the surroundings. In other words, we loose the heat energy and the useful process is isotherm. We have

p/ = RT (ideal gas law) and T =const., thus

Y

isotherm

=

p

1

1

_

2

1

1

p

dp = RT

1

ln

_

p

2

p

1

_

(1.23)

The real processes are usually described by polytropic processes but formally we use the same equations

as in the isentropic case, with the slight change of using the polytropic exponent n instead of . We have

p/ = RT (ideal gas law) and p/

n

=const., thus

_

2

1

1

dp

polytropic

=

n

n 1

p

1

1

_

_

p

2

p

1

_

n1

n

1

_

=

n

n 1

R(T

2

T

1

) . (1.24)

Polytropic processes are real, non-adiabatic processes. Note that the polytropic exponent n is typically a

result of curve t that allows the accurate computation of the outlet temperature.

Finally, if the uid is incompressible, we have

Y

incomp.

=

1

_

2

1

1 dp =

1

_

2

1

dp =

p

2

p

1

. (1.25)

1.3.4 Specic work for hydraulic machines

In the case of pumps, the uid can be considered as incompressible. However, instead of Y usually the head

is used:

H =

Y

u

g

=

p

2

p

1

g

+

c

2

2

c

2

1

2g

+z

2

z

1

. [m] =

_

J

N

_

(1.26)

Hydraulic Machines 7

In the case of ventillators, the energy change due to the geodetic heigth dierence between the suction and

pressure side is neglegible (z

2

z

1

) and usually the change of total pressure is used:

p

t

= Y

u

= p

2

p

1

+

c

2

2

c

2

1

2

= p

t,2

p

t,1

. [Pa] =

_

J

m

3

_

(1.27)

In the case of compressors, the uid cannot be considered as incompressible. When neglecting the losses,

the specic work is:

Y

u,isentropic

= c

p

(T

2s

T

1

) +

c

2

2

c

2

1

2

= h

2s,t

h

1,t

. (1.28)

1.3.5 Eciency

The ratio of the useful power and the input power is eciency. For a given T

2

compression nal temperature,

we have

isentropic

=

T

2s

T

1

T

2

T

1

, (1.29)

for a polytropic process, we have

polytropic

=

n

n1

R(T

2

T

1

)

c

p

(T

2

T

1

)

=

n

n 1

1

. (1.30)

1.4 Problems

Problem 1.4.1

The turbomachines conveying air are classied usually as fans (p

2

/p

1

< 1.3), blowers (1.3 < p

2

/p

1

< 3)

and compressors (3 < p

2

/p

1

). Assuming p

1

= 1 bar inlet pressure, t

1

= 20

o

C inlet temperature and

isentropic process, nd the the relative density change (

2

1

)/

1

at the fan-blower border and the t

2

outlet temperature at the blower-compressor border. (Solution: (

2

1

)/

1

= 20.6%, t

2

= 128.1

o

C)

Problem 1.4.2

Assuming isentropic process of an ideal gas, nd the inlet cross section area of a compressor conveying

m = 3 kg/s mass ow rate. The velocity in the inlet section is c = 180 m/s. The surrounding air is at rest

with p

0

= 0 bar and T

0

= 290 K.

Problem 1.4.3

Gas is compressed from 1 bar absolute pressure to 4 bar relative pressure. The gas constant is 288J/kgK, the

specic heat at constant pressure is c

p

= 1000J/kgK. The exponent describing the politropic compression is

n = 1.5. Find the isentropic exponent. Find the isentropic specic useful work, the specic input work and

the isentropic eciency. The density of atmospheric air is 1.16 kg/m

3

. h

t

h is a reasonable approximation.

(Solution: = 1.4, Y

isentropic

= 176.3 kJ/kg, Y

input

= 212.5 kJ/kg,

isentropic

= 83%.)

Hydraulic Machines 8

Problem 1.4.4

Ideal gas (gas constant R = 288 J/kgK) with 27

o

C and 1 bar pressure is compressed to 3 bar with compressor.

The exponent describing the real state of change is n = 1.5. Find the absolute temperature and density of the

air at the outlet. Find the isentropic outlet temperature, the isentropic eciency and the isentropic useful

specic work. Find the power needed to cover the losses, if the mass ow is 3 kg/s. (Solution: T

real

= 432.7K,

= 2.407 kg/m

3

, T

isentropic

= 410.6K,

isentropic

= 83.3%, Y

isentropic

= 111.48 kJ/kg, P

loss

= 66.8kW)

Problem 1.4.5

Gas is compressed from 1 bar to 5 bar. The ambient air temperature at the inlet T

1

= 22

C while at the

outlet T

2

= 231

C. Gas constant R = 288 J/kgK. Find the exponent describing the politropic compression

and the density of air at the inlet and the outlet. (Solution: n = 1.45,

1

= 1.177kg/m

3

,

2

= 3.57kg/m

3

.)

Chapter 2

Incompressible turbomachinery

We classify as turbomachines all those devices in which energy is transferred either to, or from, a continuously

owing uid by the dynamic action of one ore moving blase rows. Essentially, a rotating blade row, a rotor

or an impeller changes the stagnation enthalpy of the uid moving through it. These enthalpy changes are

initimately linked with the pressure changes in the uid.

Up to 20% relative density change, the also gases are considered to be incompressible. Assuming isentropic

process and ideal gas, this corresponds to p

2

/p

1

1.3. Thus, pumps, fans, water and wind turbines are

essentially the same amchines.

2.1 Eulers turbine equation

Eulers turbine equation (sometimes called Eulers pump equation) plays a central role in turbomachinry as

it connects the specic work Y and the geometry and velocities in the impeller. In what follows, we give two

derivations of the equation.

Figure 2.1: Generalized turbomachine

Derivation 1: Moment of momentum

Let us compute the moment of the force that is applied at the inlet and outlet:

9

Hydraulic Machines 10

F =

d

dt

(mc) M =

d

dt

(r mc) = m(r c) (2.1)

The power need of driving the machine is

P = mY = (M

out

M

in

) = m[ (r c)] = m[c ( r)] = m(c u)

= m(|c||u| cos ) = m(c

2u

u

2

c

1u

u

1

) (2.2)

Comparing the beginning and the end of the equation, we see that the specic work is

Y = c

2u

u

2

c

1u

u

1

. (2.3)

Derivation 2: Rotating frame and refernce and rothalpy

The Bernoulli equation in a rotating frame of refernce reads

p

+

w

2

2

+U = const., (2.4)

where U is the potential associated with the conservative force eld, which is the potential of a rotating

frame fo refernce: U = r

2

2

/2. Let w stand for the relative velocity, c for the absolute velocity and u = r

for the transport velocity. We have c = u +w, thus w

2

= u

2

+c

2

2uc = u

2

+c

2

2uc

u

, which gives

p

+

w

2

2

r

2

2

2

=

p

+

c

2

+u

2

2cu

2

u

2

2

=

p

+

c

2

2

c u

..

c

u

u

= const. (2.5)

Thus we see that the above quantity is conserved in a rotating frame of reference, which we refer to as

rothalpy (abbriviation of rotational enthalpy). Let us nd now the change of energy inside the machine:

Y =

_

p

+

c

2

2

_

= (c

u

u) , (2.6)

which is exactly Eulers turbine equation. (For compressible uids, rothalpy is I = c

p

T +

c

2

2

uc

u

.)

2.2 Velocity triangles and performance curves

2.2.1 Radial (centrifugal) machines

Let us consider a centrifugal pump and the velocity triangles at the impeller inlet and outlet, see Fig. 2.2.

The theoretical ow rate is

Q

th

= c

2m

A

2

= c

2m

D

2

b

2

, (2.7)

where D

2

is the impeller outer diameter, b

2

is its ow-through width at the outlet and c

2m

is the radial

component of the outlet absolute velocity. < 1 is a constant that takes into account that the real ow

through area is smaller due to the blockage of the blade width at the outlet.

Hydraulic Machines 11

Figure 2.2: Centrifugal pumps

The velocity triangle describes the relationship be-

Figure 2.3: Centrifugal impeller with outlet velocity

components.

tween the absolute velocity c, the circumferential

velocity u and the relative velocity w. Obviously,

we have c = u+ w. Moreover, we know that (a) the

circumferential velocity is u = Dn and that (b)

the relative velocity is tangent to the blade, i.e. the

angle between u and w is approximately the blade

angle .

Basic trigonometrical identities show that c

2u

=

u

2

c

2m

/ tan

2

. It is usual to assume that the

ow has no swirling (circumferential) component at

the inlet (due to Helmholtzs third theorem). In

the reality, the outlet ow angle is not exactly

2

,

thus the head is decreased, which is taken into ac-

count with the help of the slip factor (sometimes

denoted by in the literature).

If there is no prerotation (i.e. c

1u

= 0), we have

H

th

=

c

2u

u

2

g

=

_

u

2

2

g

u

2

g

w

2u

g

_

=

_

u

2

2

g

u

2

g

c

2m

tan

2

_

=

_

u

2

2

g

u

2

g tan

2

D

2

b

2

Q

th

_

. (2.8)

Thus, the theoretical performance curve H

th

(Q

th

) of a centrifugal machine is a straight line, which is (see

Figure 2.4)

decreasing as Q is increased, for backward curved blades, i.e.

2

< 90

o

,

horizontal, for radial blades (

2

= 90

o

) and

increasing (as Q is increased) for forward curved blades, i.e.

2

> 90

o

.

Hydraulic Machines 12

Figure 2.4: Eect of blade shapes

2

angle on the performance curve.

2.2.2 Axial machines

In the case of axial machines the ow leaves the impeller axially, see Fig. 2.5. The ow-through area is

_

D

2

o

D

2

i

_

/4, where D

o

and D

i

stand for the outer and inner diameter of the lade, respectively. Notice

that in this case, u

1

= u

2

because it is assumed that the ow moves along a constant radius. Assuming

(again) prerotation-free inlet (c

1u

= 0), we have c

2m

= c

1

(due to continuity).

Figure 2.5: Axial pump (left) and fan (right)

However, an important dierence between axial and centrifugal pumps (fans) is that in the case of axial

machines, the the pressure rise changes along the radial coordinate of the blade:

p

t

(r) = u(r) (c

2u

(r) c

1u

(r))|

c

1u

=0

= (2rn)

_

2rn

c

2m

tan

2

_

. (2.9)

Thus, if we wanted to obtain constant p

t

along the radial coordinate, the change of the circumferential

velocity has to be compensated by varying

2

.

Hydraulic Machines 13

Figure 2.6: Axial impeller with outlet velocity components.

The twisted airfoil (aerofoil) shape of modern air-

Figure 2.7: World War I wooden propeller

craft propellers was pioneered by the Wright broth-

ers. While both the blade element theory and

the momentum theory had their supporters, the

Wright brothers were able to combine both theo-

ries. They found that a propeller is essentially the

same as a wing and so were able to use data col-

lected from their earlier wind tunnel experiments

on wings. They also found that the relative angle

of attack from the forward movement of the aircraft

was dierent for all points along the length of the

blade, thus it was necessary to introduce a twist

along its length. Their original propeller blades are

only about 5% less ecient than the modern equiv-

alent, some 100 years later. (Source: Wikipedia)

2.2.3 Real performance curves

Our analysis so far assumed that the ow inside the impeller is ideal (no losses) and that the streamlines

are following the blade shape (thus, blade angles are alos the streamline angles). However neither of these

assumptions are true.

There are signicant friction losses inside the impeller, the narrower the ow passage is, the higher the

friction losses will be. Moreover, the volute also introduces friction losses. These losses are proportional to

the velocity squared, thus H

friction

Q

2

.

On the other hand, if the angle of attack deviates from the ideal one, one experiences separation on the two

sides of the blade. This is illustrated in TODO Figure BCS : for a constant circumferential velocity u as the

ow rate and thus the inlet velocity c is varied, the relative velocity w also varies. At the design ow rate Q

d

the angle of attack ideal. For small ow rates, we have separation on the suction side of the blade, while for

larger ow rates the seperation is on the pressure side of the blade. Thus we have H

separation

(QQ

d

)

2

.

To obtain the real performance curve, one has to substract the above two losses from the theoretical head:

H = H

th

(Q) K

1

Q

2

K

2

(QQ

d

)

2

, which is illustrated in 2.8. Note that at the design point and close to

it, the friction losses are moderate and no separation occurs. For lower ow rates, the friction loss decreases

Hydraulic Machines 14

while separation increases. For higher ow rates, both friction and separation losses increase.

Figure 2.8: Friction and separation losses in the impeller.

2.2.4 Problems

Problem 2.2.6

An impeller runs at n=1440/min revolution speed and conveys Q = 40 l/s of water. The diameter of the

impeller is D = 240 mm, the outlet width is b

2

= 20 mm. The blade angle at the outlet is

2

= 25 degrees.

The inlet is prerotation-free. Find the theoretical head and draw a qualitatively proper sketch of the velocity

triangle at the outlet. (Solution: H

th

= 22.9m)

Problem 2.2.7

The inner diameter of an axial impeller is D

i

= 250 mm, while the outer one is D

o

= 400mm. The revolution

number of the impeller is 1470rpm. The inlet is prerotation-free. At Q = 0.36 m

3

/s the hydraulic eciency

is 85%, the head is 6 m. The specic work along the radius is constant. Find the angles

1,2

at the inner

and outer diameter. (Solution:

1,i

= 13.7,

2,i

= 16.7,

1,o

= 8.7 and

2,o

= 9.4 degrees)

Problem 2.2.8

The mean meridian velocity component of a radial impeller with D

2

= 400 mm diameter at n = 1440rpm

revolution speed is c

m

= 2.5 m/s. The angle between the relative and circumferential velocity components

is

2

= 25 degrees. With a geometrical change of the blade shape, this angle is increased to to 28 degrees,

that results in 10% drop of the meridian velocity component. The inlet is prerotation-free. Find the relative

head change. (Solution: (H

25

o H

28

o)/H

25

o = 4.6%)

2.3 Losses and eciencies

Let us analyse the losses that decrease the eciency of a turbomachine. Let the input mechanical power

transmitted by the shaft be denoted by P

input

. We have than

Mechanical losses P

m These represent the friction loss in the bearings and the mechanical sealing losses

(if any). The remaining power is called internal power P

i

= P

input

P

m.

Hydraulic Machines 15

Disc friction losses P

df

A signicant shear force appears in the uid entrapped between the housing and

the impeller, which is taken into account by the disc friction coecient: P

df

=

df

P

i

. The remaining

power is the theoretical power of the impeller: P

th

= P

i

P

df

= (1

df

)P

i

.

Hydraulic and volumetric losses P

h

, P

v

The theoretical head H

th

and ow rate Q

th

and is further

decreased by the leakage ow rates (Q

leakage

) inside the pump (ow across the gaps between the

impeller and the housing) and the internal frictional losses h

have

P

th

= Q

th

gH

th

= (Q+Q

l

) g (H +h

) = QgH

. .

P

u

+Q

l

gH

. .

P

v

+Q

th

gh

. .

P

h

= QgH

Q+Q

l

Q

H +h

H

= QgH

Q

th

Q

..

1

v

H

th

H

..

1

h

P

u

= P

th

v

(2.10)

2.3.1 Problems

Problem 2.3.9

The input mechanical power of a water pump is 25 kW, the revolution number is 1440 rpm, the ow rate is

0.06 m

3

/s. The volumetric eciency is estimated as

v

= 0.92, the hydraulic eciency is

h

= 0.85, the disc

friction power loss is P

df

= 0.9 kW, the mechanical loss is P

m

= 1.3 kW. Find the head and the specidic

speed and make a sketch of the impeller. (Solution: H=30.3m, n

q

=27.3, the impeller is a thin radial one.)

Problem 2.3.10

The revolution number of a water pump is 1470 rpm, the ow rate is Q = 0.055m

3

/s and the head is H = 45m.

The hydraulic power loss is P

h

= 2.5kW, the mechanical power loss is P

m

= 1.3kW, the disc friction coecient

is

t

= 0.065. The input power at this operating point is P

in

= 32kW. Make a complete analysis of the losses,

including leakage ow rate and the theoretical head. (Solution: P

internal

= 30.7kW, P

useful

= 24.3kW,

v

= 93.2%,

m

= 95.9%,

h

= 93.2%,

pump

= 75.9%, Q

l

= 0.004m

3

/s, Q

th

= 0.059m

3

/s, H

th

= 49.63m,

h

= 4.63m.)

2.4 Dimensionless numbers and anity

Based on the previously obtained formulae for theoretical head, we dene dimensionless numbers as

H =

h

H

th

= 2

h

c

2u

u

2

u

2

2

2g

:=

u

2

2

2g

(2.11)

or, in the case of fans

p

t

=

2

u

2

2

, (2.12)

where is a dimensionless pressure rise. Similarly, we have

Q =

v

Q

th

=

v

D

2

b

2

c

2m

=

v

4D

2

b

2

4D

2

2

c

2m

u

2

u

2

D

2

2

:=

D

2

2

4

u

2

(2.13)

These dimensionless quantities are called pressure number and ow number . What we found is that

H n

2

and Q n allowing the transformation of the performance curve given at n

1

to be computed to

another revolution number n

2

. This is called anitiy law:

H

1

H

2

=

_

n

1

n

2

_

2

,

Q

1

Q

2

=

n

1

n

2

P

1

P

2

=

_

n

1

n

2

_

3

(2.14)

Hydraulic Machines 16

As we have seen, both and contains two parameters, D

2

and u

2

, out of which one can be eliminated,

resulting in new dimensionless numbers. Let us start with the elimination of D

2

.

=

Q

D

2

2

4

u

2

=

4Q

D

3

2

2

n

(2.15)

=

H

u

2

2

2g

=

2gH

D

2

2

2

n

2

(2.16)

from which we have

=

1/2

3/4

=

2

Q

D

3/2

2

n

D

3/2

2

3/2

n

3/2

(2gH)

3/4

=

2g

3/4

n

Q

1/2

H

3/4

. .

n

q

(2.17)

Note that depends only on the revolution number but takes dierent values along the performance curve.

Thus when actually computing it, one takes the data of the best-eciency point. Moreover, we do not

include the constant term

2g

3/4

. Finally, by denition, the specic speed of a turbomachine is

n

q

= n[rpm]

_

Q

opt.

[m

3

/s]

_

1/2

(H

opt.

[m])

3/4

(2.18)

Specic speed denes the shape of the impeller, low specic speed means low ow rate and high pressure

rise (radial impeller) while high specic speed occurs when the ow rate is high and the pressure rise is low,

see Fig. 2.9.

Figure 2.9: Specic speed and shape of the impeller.

2.4.1 Problems

Problem 2.4.11

The revolution number of a pump is 1450 rpm, the head and ow rate at the best-eciency point are 17m

and 0.03 m

3

/s. Find the specic speed. Find the diameter of the impeller if, based on industrial experience,

the pressure number at the best-eciency point should be = 1. Find the ow number . Find the head and

ow rate at 970rpm. (Solution: n

q

= 30, D

2

= 240mm, = 0.036, Q

970rpm

= 0.02m

3

/s, H

970rpm

= 7.61m)

Problem 2.4.12

Hydraulic Machines 17

Find the specic speed of the pump given by 2.10, if the revolution number is 3000 rpm. Make a sketch of

the impeller. (Solution: n

q

= 94, mixed impeller.)

Figure 2.10: Performance chart for Problem 2.4.12.

Hydraulic Machines 18

Problem 2.4.13

The performance curve of a pump at 1450 rpm is given by H = 100 30000 Q

2

and the eciency is given

by = 78000 Q

2

+4500 Q. Find the head and ow rate of the best-eciency point. Find the performance

curve at 1740 rpm. (H

opt

= 76m, Q

opt

= 0.02855m

3

/s, eta

m

ax = 64.9%, H

1740rpm

= 144 30000 Q

2

.)

2.5 Forces on the impeller

2.5.1 Radial force

TODO

2.5.2 Axial force

The axial force results from two components:

Momentum force

Pressure distribution on the hub and shroud.

The momentum force is

F

m

= mv = r

2

1

c

2

1

, (2.19)

Figure 2.11: Pressure distribution on the hub.

The pressure distribution is

p(r) =

2

r

2

2

f

+K p(R

2

) = p

2

p

2

p(r) = p

2

p

2

f

_

r

2

2

r

2

_

. (2.20)

The axial force becomes, e.g. on the hub (back of the impeller)

F

hub

=

_

r

2

r

s

2rp(r)dr = =

_

r

2

2

r

2

s

_

_

p

2

p

2

f

r

2

2

r

2

s

2

_

. (2.21)

A similar result is obtained for the shroud (front of the impeller) with replacing r

s

by r

1

. The overall axial

force is

F

ax

= F

hub

F

shroud

F

m

, (2.22)

Hydraulic Machines 19

and its direction is towards the suction side (the axial force tries to pull down the impeller from the shaft).

TODO: Extend explanations.

Problem 2.5.14

Find the axial force on the back of the impeller, whose outer diameter is D

2

= 300mm, the shaft diameter

is D

s

= 50mm, the outlet pressure is 2.3bar and the revolution number is 1470rpm. The average angular

velocity of the uid is 85% of that of the impeller. (Solution: F = 9.36kN)

Chapter 3

Hydraulic Systems

3.1 Analysis

3.1.1 Exercises

Problem 16

Calculate the head loss of the pipe depicted in the gure below as a function of the volume ow rate!

Parameters:

A

= 1.5,

B,D

= 0.26,

C

= 0.35,

F

= 0.36, = 0.0155, D

s

= D

p

= D = 0.6[m] and

Q = 0.4[m

3

/s].

z

C

z

F

z

B

z

A

z

D

Solution:

Static (geodetic) head + dynamic (friction) losses of the pipe: H

pipe

= H

stat

+H

friction

Volume ow rate: Q = c

s(uction)

A

pipe,suction

= c

p(ressure)

A

pipe,pressure

= cA

pipe

The extra 1 in the pressure side (...

D

+ 1) represents the outow losses.

H

stat

= 8 + 4 = 12[m], L

s

= 7 + 6 = 14[m], L

p

= 12 + 20 + 8 = 40[m]

20

Hydraulic Machines 21

H

pipe

= H

stat

+KQ

2

= H

stat

+

_

_

L

s

D

s

+

A

+

B

_

c

2

s

2g

+

_

L

p

D

p

+

F

+

C

+

D

+ 1

_

c

2

p

2g

_

=

= 12[m] + 3.25[s

2

/m

5

] Q

2

[m

3

/s]

2

Problem 17

The artical fountain Beneath the St. Gellert is fed by two pipelines of 30m length. The height distance

between the pump and the fountain is 22m. The diameter of the pipes is D

1

= 100mm and D

2

= 70mm,

the friction coecient of the straight segments is = 0.02 and the friction coecient of the other segments

(bends, etc.) is = 0.5. Assuming that the ow velocity in the rst pipe is 1.5m/s, calculate the the required

head. Calculate the ow velocity in the second pipe and the overall ow rate of the common pump feeding

the two pipes.Assuming 65% overall (pump+motor) eciency, calculate the energy demand for 100 days and

the cost of the operation if the energy tari is 32HUF/kWh.

Solution:

Without the bypass line: H = 22.826m[], Q = 0.01678[m

3

/s], P = 5.78[kW] and Cost = 443691HUF.

Problem 18

A pump delivers Q = 1200[dm

3

/min] water from an open-surface well, whose water level is 25[m] below the

default level. The pressure side ends 5[m] above the default level and the water ows into an open-surface

swimming pool. The diameter of the pipe on the suction side is D

s

= 120[mm] and D

p

= 100[mm] on the

pressure side. The loss coecients are

s

= 3.6 and

p

= 14 (without the outow losses). Calculate the

required pump head!

Solution: H

p,req.

= 35.7[m]

3.2 Control

3.2.1 Exercises

Problem 19

A pump running at 1470[rpm] with H

pump

= 45 2781Q

2

head delivers water into a pipeline with H

pipe

=

20 + 1125Q

2

. Calculate the required revolution number for the reduced ow rate Q

= 0.05[m

3

/s].

Hydraulic Machines 22

H

Q

Q Q* Q

pump head at 1470 rpm

pipeline

central parabola

pump head at ? rpm

Solution:

The actual working point is given

by the solution of H

pump

= H

pipe

,

which gives Q = 0.08[m

3

/s] and

H = 27.2[m].

Anity states that while vary-

ing the revolutionary speed, H/n

2

and Q/n remain constant. Thus,

also H/Q

2

remains constant, lets

denote this constant by a. So,

while varying the revolutionary

speed, the working point moves

along the central parabola (see g-

ure), given by H

ap

= a Q

2

.

However, as Q

is given and we also know that this point has to be located on the pipeline characteristic, we

know that H

= 20 + 1125 0.05

2

= 22.81[m]. Thus, the parameter of the ane parabola is a = H

/Q

2

=

9125.

Q

is given by the intersection of the ane parabola and the original pump characteristic: H

ap

(Q

) =

H

pump

(Q

), which gives Q

= 0.06148[m

3

/s] with H

= 34.5[m].

Now we can employ anity between Q

and Q

:

n

= n

= 1470

0.05

0.06148

= 1195.5[rpm]

and just for checking the calculation

H

= H

_

n

_

2

= 34.5

1195.5

2

1470

2

= 22.81[m].

Problem 20

Solve the previous control problem (pump: H

pump

= 45 2781Q

2

, pipeline: H

pipe

= 20 + 1125Q

2

, desired

ow rate: Q

= 0.05[m

3

/s]) using a throttle at the pressure side of the pump and also with a bypass line.

Compare the resulting operations in terms of power loss!

Problem 21

A pump, whose characteristic curve is given by H

pump

= 70 90000[s

2

/m

5

]Q

2

, works together with two

parallel pipes. The main pipe is given by H

1

= 30 + 100000[s

2

/m

5

]. Calculate the head-ow relationship

H

2

(Q) of the side pipe, whose opening results in a ow rate of 480[l/min] in the main pipe. The static head

of the second side pipe is 25[m].

Solution:

Head of the main pipe at the prescribed ow rate: Q

1

= 480[l/min] = 0.008[m

3

/s] H

1

(Q

1

) = 36.4[m]

The head is the same, so the ow rate of the pump is

H

p

(Q

p

) = H

1

(Q

1

) Q

p

=

_

7036.4

90000

= 0.0193[m

3

/s]

Thus, the ow rate on the side pipe is Q

2

= Q

p

Q

1

= 0.0193 0.008 = 0.0113[m

3

/s]

Hydraulic Machines 23

The actual characteristic of the side pipe: H

2

(Q

2

) = 25 +aQ

2

2

= 36.4[m] a =

36.425

0.0113

2

= 89279

The solution is H

2

(Q

2

) = 25 + 89279Q

2

.

Chapter 4

Positive displacement pumps

4.1 Exercises

Problem 22

Calculate the hydraulic power of the double-acting piston pump, which delivers water from an open-surface

tank into a closed one with 500[kPa] gauge pressure (i.e. relative pressure) located 50[m] above the suction

tank. Diameter of the piston is D = 120[mm], the stroke is 150[mm] and the driving motor runs at 120[rpm].

Solution:

Q

mean

= 2 A

piston

s n = 2

0.12

2

4

0.15

120

60

= 6.78 10

3

[

m

3

s

]

p = p

tank,abs.

p

0

+ gH = p

tank,rel.

+ gH = 991[kPa]

P = Qp = 6.72[kW]

24

Chapter 5

Laboratory measurements

5.1 Getting prepared to the measurements

The measurement descriptions are to be read and fully understood. Students failing to explain the

experimental set up, the steps of the measurement, etc. will not be allowed to attend.

Table for measured data has to be prepared in advance.

Millimetre paper, pocket calculator, pencil and rubber are needed.

5.2 Report preparation and submission

The report can be prepared by hand or by computer as long as it is readable, clean and the gures and

tables look nice. The sections of the reports are:

the aim of measurement,

description of the system (with gures) and steps of the measurement,

calculations (the equations used for data processing) and results,

derivation of error propagation,

measured data, computed quantities and error estimation,

graphs

and short summary.

Tables have header with denomination and unit of the quantities, the measured and computed columns are

separated consistently as it is illustrated in Table 5.2.

Requirements of diagram are shown in Figure 5.1.

Measured Computed

No. a b c d e f g h

[unit1] [unit2] [unit3] [unit4] [unit5] [unit6] [unit7] [unit8]

1

2

25

Hydraulic Machines 26

Legend has to be inserted

escpecially when more

quantities are represented

Q [m/h]

H [m]

Measured points are

marked by or +

}

}

+Q

+H

}

_

}

_

_

Error estimation has to be

performed and represented

@n=2000 f/min

Title of diagram

Quantities and

units on the axes

Quantity 1

+ Quantity 2

Parameter value at

which measurement

was performed has to

be shown

Figure 5.1: Format of diagram.

Hydraulic Machines 27

5.3 Error estimation

5.3.1 Introduction

In technical practice we usually need to measure certain physical quantities directly (e.g. mass, length) or

indirectly (e.g. eciency). The measuring devices are built with nite range of operation and nite precision

(reading precision). For example in case of a U-tube manometer (see Figure 5.2) we approximate the water

column displacement with a discrete value of the scale (called nominal value). However, as it is illustrated in

Figure 5.2 all the displacements between 4.5mm and 5.5mm are read as 5mm. Thus if we want to dene the

read value precisely we say that h = h

n

, where h

n

is the nominal value, is the deviation. The deviation

can be approximated to be the half of the absolute error (E). In our case the absolute error E

h

= 1mm,

thus the deviation is = E

h

/2 = 0.5mm, the read value of the water column displacement is 50.5mm.

Relative error is also used to classify measuring devices. The relative error is the rate of the absolute error

and the measured value (e

h

= E

h

/h = 1mm/5mm = 0.2 = 20%).

}

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

Eh=1mm

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

+h

}

}

-h

Figure 5.2: U-tube manometer.

5.3.2 Example for error propagation

We have a pump-system represented in Figure 5.3. The pressure rise of the pump is measured with a U-tube

manometer to determine the ow rate we employ metering orice. The mechanical power (input power) of

the pump is measured with the driving balancing electric motor. The working medium is water while the

measuring medium in the manometers is mercury.

Usual characteristics of the pump are = f

1

(Q) and P

i

= f

2

(Q). Since these computed quantities are derived

from measured ones, the reading errors summarized are present in their value (called error propagation).

For this reason error estimation has to be given for each quantity. To compute the eciency the following

evaluations have to be done:

Eciency of a machine is the fraction of useful and input power

(P

u

, P

i

) =

P

u(seful)

P

i(nput)

. (5.1)

Hydraulic Machines 28

M

h~p H~pmo

Balancing

motor

Pump

Throttle

valve

Metering

Orifice

Figure 5.3: Sketch of the pump test rig.

Useful power of a pump is the product of the ow rate and performed pressure rise.

P

u

(Q, p) = Q p (5.2)

The ow rate is measured with metering orice and computed as follows

Q(p

mo

) = A

_

2p

mo

/, p

mo

(H

1

, H

2

) = (

Hg

w

)g(H

1

H

2

), (5.3)

while the pressure rise is measured simple with U-tube manometer

p (h

1

, h

2

) = (

Hg

w

)g(h

1

h

2

). (5.4)

The input power of the pump is the mechanical power on the shaft that is the product of the torque needed

to balancing the motor and the angular velocity.

P

i

(M, n) = M = M2n, M (m) = (mm

0

)gl. (5.5)

In general the deviation of a derived quantities (w = f(x, y, z)) is computed as follows

2

w

=

_

f

x

_

2

2

x

+

_

f

y

_

2

2

y

+

_

f

z

_

2

2

z

(5.6)

In our example the eciency is the function of useful and input power ( = f (P

u

, P

i

)). To nd the deviation

of eciency we need not only the partial derivatives evaluated in operating point but the deviation of the

useful and input powers. These quantities depend on additional quantities thus we need derive each deviation

until they can be expressed with the absolute error of a quantity that was measured directly. (For example

the ow rate is computed from the pressure drop on the metering orice that is measured with U-tube

manometer.) These quantities are underlined in the next section.

Hydraulic Machines 29

=

_

P

u

_

2

2

P

u

+

_

P

i

_

2

2

P

i

,

P

u

=

1

P

i

,

P

i

=

P

u

P

2

i

2

P

u

=

_

P

u

Q

_

2

2

Q

+

_

P

u

p

_

2

2

p

,

P

u

Q

= p,

P

u

p

= Q

2

Q

=

_

Q

p

mo

_

2

2

p

mo

,

Q

p

mo

=

A

w

_

2p

mo

/

w

2

p

mo

=

_

p

mo

H

1

_

2

2

H

1

+

_

p

mo

H

2

_

2

2

H

2

,

p

mo

H

1

=(

Hg

w

)g,

p

mo

H

2

= (

Hg

w

)g

2

H

1

=

_

E

H

1

2

_

2

,

2

H

2

=

_

E

H

2

2

_

2

2

p

=

_

p

h

1

_

2

2

h

1

+

_

p

h

2

_

2

2

h

2

,

p

h

1

=(

Hg

w

)g,

p

h

2

= (

Hg

w

)g

2

h

1

=

_

E

h

1

2

_

2

,

2

h

2

=

_

E

h

2

2

_

2

2

P

i

=

_

P

i

M

_

2

2

M

+

_

P

i

n

_

2

2

n

P

i

M

= 2n,

P

i

n

= M2

2

M

=

_

M

m

_

2

2

m

,

M

m

= gl

2

m

=

_

E

m

2

_

2

2

n

=

_

E

n

2

_

2

(5.7)

Known quantities and parameter are listed in Table 5.3.2. The absolute error of each device is the reading

precision. However, it is worth noting that random error can cause also deviation in measured value.

Notation Value

Inner diameter of the orice plate d = 70mm

Inner diameter of the pipeline D = 100mm

Discharge coecient of the orice plate = 0.62

Balancing mass for unloaded operation m = 0.03kg

Armlength of the balancing motor l = 0.96m

Density of water

w

= 1000kg/m

3

Absolute error of h

1

and h

2

E

h

1,2

= 1mm

Absolute error of H

1

and H

2

E

H

1,2

= 1mm

Absolute error of n E

n

= 5rpm

Absolute error of m E

m

= 10g

Table 5.1: Table of known quantities

Table of measured and computed quantities are in Table 5.3.2.

Error propagation evaluated in the second operation point. First we collect the known deviation and compute

Hydraulic Machines 30

Measured Computed

No. h

1

h

2

H

1

H

2

m n p p

mo

M Q P

u

P

i

[mm] [mm] [mm] [mm] [kg] [rpm] [Pa] [Pa] [Nm] [m

3

/s] [W] [W] [-]

1

2 820 180 412 588 1.08 1790 79107 21755 9.89 0.01574 1245.1 1853.6 0.672

3

Table 5.2: Table of measured and computed quantities

relative error.

2

h

1

=

2

h

2

=

2

h

1,2

=

_

E

h

1,2

2

_

2

=(0.5mm)

2

, e

h

1

= 0.12%, e

h

2

= 0.56% (5.8)

2

H

1

=

2

H

2

=

2

H

1,2

=

_

E

H

1,2

2

_

2

=(0.5mm)

2

, e

H

1

= 0.24%, e

H

2

= 0.17% (5.9)

2

m

=

_

E

m

2

_

2

=(5g)

2

, e

m

= 0.93% (5.10)

2

n

=

_

E

n

2

_

2

=(2.5rpm)

2

, e

n

= 0.28%. (5.11)

Then we express all the unknown deviation.

2

p

= ((

Hg

w

)g)

2

2

h

1,2

+ ((

Hg

w

)g)

2

2

h

1,2

= (87.4Pa)

2

, e

p

= 0.22% (5.12)

2

p

mo

= ((

Hg

w

)g)

2

2

H

1,2

+ ((

Hg

w

)g)

2

2

H

1,2

= (87.4Pa)

2

, e

p

mo

= 0.80% (5.13)

2

Q

=

_

A

w

_

2p

mo

/

w

_

2

2

p

mo

= (3.162 10

5

m

3

/s)

2

, e

Q

= 0.40% (5.14)

2

P

u

= p

2

2

Q

+Q

2

2

p

= (2.85W)

2

, e

P

u

= 0.46% (5.15)

2

M

= (gl)

2

2

m

= (0.047Nm)

2

, e

M

= 0.95% (5.16)

2

P

i

= (2n)

2

2

M

+ (M2)

2

2

n

= (13.5W)

2

, e

P

i

= 1.46% (5.17)

=

1

P

i

2

2

P

u

+

P

u

P

2

i

2

2

P

i

= (5.13 10

3

)

2

, e

= 1.53% (5.18)

Then we can say that the eciency is

operating point and in case of drawing diagram the error width (deviation) has to be represented.

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