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Simultaneous Coordinated Design of PSS and


TCSC Damping Controller for Power Systems
Roman Kuiava, Student Member, IEEE, Ricardo V. de Oliveira, Student Member, IEEE,
Rodrigo A. Ramos, Member, IEEE, and Newton G. Bretas, Senior Member, IEEE

Abstract -- This paper presents a simultaneous coordinated
design of PSS-type and TCSC supplementary damping
controllers for electric power systems. Such controllers are
designed by means of a systematic methodology based on robust
control. The adopted technique is an extension of a previously
presented methodology. The design procedure is structured in
the form of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs). The controllers are
obtained by means of a numerical solution of the LMIs
describing the control problem. Possible undesirable interactions
between the PSS-type damping controllers and the TCSC
damping controller are avoided by using the multimachine model
in the design stage. The proposed technique ensures that the
designed controllers fulfill various practical requirements of the
oscillation damping problem in power systems. The minimum
damping ratio is used as performance index for the system in
closed loop. The proposed controllers were simultaneously
designed and they have provided a coordinated control action
and a satisfactory performance for the power system, as shown in
the results.
Index TermsFACTS Devices, TCSC, Power System
Stabilizer, Power Systems, Robust Control, Small-Signal
Stability.
I. INTRODUCTION
ELIABILITY and good performance are mandatory in
power system operation to guarantee a safe and
continuous energy supply with quality. However, the low-
frequency electromechanical oscillations inherent to power
systems, during transient conditions, threaten the reliability
and performance of such systems as well as the quality of the
supplied energy. Such oscillations may cause, in certain cases,
operational limitations (due to the restrictions in the power
transfers across the transmission lines) and/or interruption in
the energy supply (due to loss of synchronism among the
system generators). Besides, the system operation may
become difficult in the presence of these oscillations. The
mentioned adverse effects can be minimized or nearly
eliminated by means of a suitable damping of such
oscillations.
The oscillation damping can be achieved by means of a
proper control strategy. The use of a supplementary control
This work was supported by FAPESP and CNPq.
R. Kuiava, R. V. de Oliveira, R. A. Ramos, and N. G. Bretas are with
Escola de Engenharia de So Carlos/USP, So Carlos CEP 13566-590, Brazil
(e-mails: kuiava@sel.eesc.usp.br; vasques@sel.eesc.usp.br;
ramos@sel.eesc.usp.br, ngbretas@sel.eesc.usp.br).
added to the Automatic Voltage Regulator (AVR) is a
practical and economic way to supply additional damping to
electromechanical oscillations. The first supplementary
control for such task was proposed at the end of 1960s [1],
and is usually known as Power System Stabilizer (PSS). Since
then, new PSS design methodologies based on robust control
were also proposed. In [2] and [3], for instance,
methodologies for the design of damping controllers based on
pole placement in the form of Linear Matrix Inequalities
(LMIs) adopting multimachine models are presented. The
synthesis [4], the H control theory [5], and the genetic
algorithms [6, 7] were also used in PSS design methodologies
based on multimachine models.
The power electronics development has allowed the
application of new devices to improve power system
performance. Some of these devices may be used to damp
electromechanical oscillation. The Flexible AC Transmission
Systems (FACTS), for example, are examples of such devices
that may be used to damp oscillations in power systems [8].
The use of FACTS devices is a cost-effective alternative to
improve the flexibility and performance of power system
operation compared to system expansion [9].
The Thyristor Controlled Series Capacitor (TCSC) is a kind
of FACTS device that has been successfully used to enhance
damping in power systems. Design methodologies of robust
damping controller for TCSC are presented in [10]-[12].
The PSSs are effective in the oscillation damping.
However, there may be cases where the system PSSs are not
able to suitably damp inter-area oscillation modes. In such
cases, the simultaneous use of both controller types (PSS and
FACTS damping controller) are required to guarantee a good
closed loop system performance.
The operational limitations (environment, financial and
market), associated with the deregulation and competitiveness
of nowadays power systems, require the application of
efficient control strategies to provide operational reliability
and financial profitability. Such operation reliability and
financial profitability may be achieved, in some cases, with
the use of both devices together. However, separated design of
PSS and FACTS damping controller may cause dynamic
interactions between them. A coordination procedure may be
required to avoid such possible dynamic interactions between
PSS and FACTS damping controller.
Nowadays large power systems are usually constituted by
many interconnected control areas. Such interconnections give
flexibility to the system operation. On the other hand, the
controller coordination in such kind of power systems may be
rather complex due to system dimensions. However, such
R
1-4244-0493-2/06/$20.00 2006 IEEE.
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complexity may be overcome with the use of a multimachine
model in the simultaneous design of PSS and FACTS
damping controller.
In this context, this paper proposes a simultaneous design
of PSSs and TCSC supplementary damping controllers.
Multiple PSS and/or TCSC damping controllers can be
simultaneously designed by the proposed methodology. The
technique used in this paper is an extension of one proposed in
[3]. The design procedure is based on robust control theory
and structured in the form of linear matrix inequalities.
Possible interactions between PSS and TCSC damping
controllers are avoided by using a multimachine model in the
design stage. The proposed controllers satisfy various
practical requirements of the oscillation problem in power
systems. The minimum damping ratio is used as performance
index for the system in closed loop, allowing designers to
specify a suitable performance for the system of interest.
This paper is structured as follows: section II presents the
system modelling, including the adopted TCSC model; the
fundamentals of the control techniques, as well as the adopted
design procedure are summarized in section III; section IV
shows the tests and the results obtained with the designed
controllers and section V depicts the conclusions and the final
comments.
II. SYSTEMMODELLING
Small signal stability studies, involving analyses and
controller design, in general, are carried out by means of
mathematical models that describe the behavior of the power
system of interest. The kind of model used in controller design
has a significant influence in the performance of the designed
controllers.
In this paper, a multimachine model is used in the design
procedure to avoid difficulties related to the adjustment and
coordination of the designed controllers
1
. A TCSC is included
in the power system, and its model is presented in sub section
A.
A. Adopted FACTS Device
A TCSC-type FACTS device was included in the adopted
multimachine power system. Such device is a series
compensator that may be used to increase or decrease the
impedance of the branch in which it is inserted. The TCSC
reactance may be changed to control the load flow in
transmission lines and, therefore, to damp electromechanical
oscillations [13].
A TCSC basically consists of a series capacitor bank
shunted by a Thyristor-Controlled Reactor (TCR) which
controls the equivalent TCSC series reactance. The TCR is
constituted by a reactor (inductance) connected to two anti-
1
For example, when the machine has a significant influence in more than
one oscillation mode, the adjustment and coordination of its controller to
produce a desirable performance may be quite laborious.
parallel thyristors without the gate turn-off. The described
TCSC configuration is shown in Fig. 1 [13].
TCSC
T1
T2
LTCSC
IC
IL
I
Fig. 1. Basic structure of a TCSC.
The TCSC is usually represented by a first order linear
model in small signal stability studies [14] and such kind of
model is also used in the studies carried out in this paper. The
block diagram regarding to the adopted TCSC is given in
Figure 2 [14].
+ AXsup
+
AXref
AXTCSC
1+STTCSC
1
Fig. 2. Block diagram of the adopted TCSC.
In Figure 2,
TCSC
X A
is the deviation of the equivalent TCSC
reactance with respect to the nominal value,
ref
X A
is the
reference for the desired reactance deviation (from its nominal
value) in steady-state,
sup
X A
is the stabilizing signal from the
proposed damping controller and is the device time
constant. The TCSC linear differential equation, obtained
from the block diagram, is presented in (1).
TCSC
T
( ).
1
sup TCSC ref
TCSC
TCSC
X X X
T
X A A + A = A

(1)
The TCSC must be included in a critical transmission line,
so it can extend the maximum power transfer and the system
stability margin as well as improve the system performance in
transient conditions.
B. Adopted Multimachine Model
The adopted multimachine model is essentially constituted
by synchronous machines (with their respective AVRs), a
transmission system and loads. The transmission system was
modeled as a passive circuit by means of algebraic equations.
The system loads were modeled as constant impedances. The
system machines were modeled by the one axis model [15]. A
first order model of a static type AVR was used, and its block
diagram is shown in Fig. 3.
Ke
1+STe
+
EFD
-
ref
| Vt |
Fig. 3. Block diagram of the AVR.
3
In Fig. 3, |Vt | is the terminal bus voltage magnitude, Vref
is the reference voltage for the AVR and Vs is the stabilizing
signal from the proposed damping controller. Limits of +5.0
p.u. and 5.0 p.u. for the field voltage were used in the
simulations.
The set of equations used in this paper to describe the
behavior of the multimachine power system is given by
(2) ,
s i s i
e e e o =

], ' [
2
1
qi qi mi
i
i
I E P
H
= e (3)
], ) ' ( ' [
'
1
'
di di di qi FDi
do
qi
I x x E E E + =
t

(4)
], ) ( [
1
FDi si ti refi ei
ei
FDi
E V V V K
T
E + =

(5)
where
(6)
)), ( ) cos( ( '
1
i j ij
n
j
i j ij qj qi
sen B G E I o o o o =
_
=
(7)
)), cos( ' ) ( ' (
1
i j qj ij i j
n
j
qj ij di
E B sen E G I o o o o + =
_
=
and
) cos( ( ' ' ' 2 ' [ | |
1
2
i k ik
m
k
qk di qi qi ti
B E x E E V o o + =
_
=
__
= =
+ +
m
k
l k il ik ql
m
l
qk di i k ik
G G E E x G
1 1
2
) cos( ( ' ' ' ) sin( o o o o
(8)
. ))] cos( ) sin( 2
2 / 1
l k il ik l k il ik
B B B G o o o o + +
In (2)-(8),
i
o ,
i
e , and are, respectively, the
generator rotor angle, the rotor angular speed, the quadrature-
axis transient voltage and the voltage applied to the field
circuit. The multimachine system is constituted by n
machines, and (2)-(8) refer to the i-th machine equations.
Detailed information regarding the equations of the presented
model and their respective parameters can be obtained in [15]-
[17].
qi
E'
FDi
E
C. System and Controller linear model
The system analyses and controller design to improve small
signal stability margin may be carried out by means of linear
models, since linear models are usually able to acceptably
represent the dynamic behavior regarding the low-frequency
electromechanical oscillation. Besides, linear models allow
designers to use a great variety of the available linear robust
control techniques. The multimachine system is represented in
the design procedure by a set of linear equations, in the state
space form, given by
Bu(t) Ax(t) (t) x + = (9)
Cx(t) y(t) =
(10)
where is a vector composed by the deviations of the
system state variable (with respect to a nominal operating
point), is a vector with the system control input
(which corresponds to the stabilizing signals to be added to
the AVR and TCSC inputs), and is the vector with
the system outputs (in this case, chosen as the rotor speed
deviations for the PSS-type controllers and the active power
flow across the transmission line for the TCSC supplementary
damping controller).
n
R t x e ) (
p
R t u e ) (
q
R t y e ) (
Controller design for power systems are usually based on
output feedback, since not all the model state variables are
available for direct measurement in the real system. For this
reason, the proposed damping controllers (PSS-type and
TCSC damping controller) are based on the dynamic output
feedback structure. Such control structure can be represented
by a linear equation set, in state space form, given by
y(t) B (t) x A (t) x
C C C C
+ = (11)
(t) x C u(t)
C C
= (12)
where is a vector with the controller states. The
dynamic behavior of the controllers, as a function of the plant
output , is described by (11). The control input for the
system is produced by (12) with the application of the
matrix gain to the states generated by the controllers.
n
C
R t x e ) (
) (t y
) (t u
C
C
III. DESIGN METHODOLOGY
Many of the available robust control techniques have been
applied to the oscillation damping problem in power systems
and provided robust controllers with good performance.
However, some robust control techniques require modeling
assumptions that do not describe the physical problem with
accuracy. In this way, it is important to choose a control
technique that is suitable for the problem of interest and able
to provide an acceptable performance for the system in closed
loop.
The design methodology proposed in [3] is used in this
paper to simultaneously design PSS-type and TCSC damping
controllers. The extended procedure provides a coordinated
design to both types of controllers. The control techniques and
the design procedure used in the adopted design methodology
are summarized in this section to provide a better
comprehension of the whole control problem formulation.
A. Control Technique
The operating point of the electric power system plays an
4
important role in the electromechanical oscillation dynamics.
However, the system operating point is usually an uncertainty
in design methodologies based on linear classical control
techniques, since the power system is, in general, modelled as
a Linear Time Invariant (LTI) system. An LTI model is
structured based on a single operating point of interest. In this
way, it is important that the uncertainties regarding the system
operating point are included in the system modelling.
The uncertainties of the electric power system models with
respect to the variations of the operating points are treated in
this paper by means of the polytopic modeling technique [18].
The polytopic modelling is rather suitable for the design of
controllers for electric power systems [19]. Such modelling
technique is constituted by a set of L linear models structured
from the connection of the model (9)-(10) (obtained from the
linearization of the multimachine model in different
operating points) with the controller model (represented by
(11)-(12), whose matrices must be determined by the design
procedure). The set of linear models regarding the polytopic
system in closed loop is given by
L
), (
~
~
) (
~
t x A t x
i
=

(13)
,
~
(

=
C i C
C i i
i
A C B
C B A
A
where , for are the state matrices of the
closed loop system,
m x m
i
R A
2 2
~
e , 1 L , , i =
m
R t x
2
) (
~
e is a vector with the states of
both the system and the controllers, and and are
the matrix variables to be determined by the design procedure.
C C
B , A
C
C
The use of the polytopic modelling in the design procedure,
associated with the quadratic stability theory, guarantees the
stabilization of the closed loop system, not only for the
operating points used in the construction of the polytopic
system, but also for all the operating points that can be
generated from the convex combination of the L adopted
operating points [18].
In design of damping controllers, it is not sufficient to
request only the system stability, since the closed loop system
may be stable but with unsatisfactory performance (in this
case, poorly damped oscillation modes). In this way,
specifying a performance index in the design stage is a usually
adopted procedure in controller design.
In this paper, the damping ratio for the oscillation modes of
the closed loop polytopic system is used as performance index
in the design stage, since such performance index is
universally accepted in power systems as an indicative of
small signal stability margin. The adopted performance index
is included in the control problem formulation by means of the
well-known Regional Pole Placement (RPP) technique. A
specific region of the complex plane is imposed in the design
to guarantee a minimum damping ratio for the oscillation
modes of the closed loop polytopic system. Such region is
defined by >
0
, and it can be viewed in Fig. 4.
The control problem is formulated by simultaneously using
the polytopic modelling technique and the RPP technique to
structure a systematic methodology for the design of robust
PSS-type and TCSC damping controllers. The control
problem is formulated as a search, subject to constraints in the
form of LMIs. The design methodology is structured by the
aggregation of the LMIs corresponding to the RPP [20]
associated with the polytopic modelling. The controllers are
obtained by means of a numerical solution of the LMIs
describing the control problem. The solver feasp, available
in the LMI Lab package [22], is used to determine such
numerical solution.
Pole placement
region
Re
(minimum damping ratio)
0
=
u
Im
Fig. 4. Region for the pole placement.
B. Design Procedure
The control problem consists basically in calculating
dynamic controllers, represented by the matrices and
(see controller (11)-(12)), which guarantee the specified
performance index and robustness for the closed loop system.
C C
B , A
C
C
The design procedure is divided in two stages. Initially, the
state feedback gain matrix of the controllers ( ) is
determined and, in sequence, the matrices that describe the
controller dynamics (matrices and ) are calculated (see
[3] for more details).
C
C
C
A
C
B
The choice of the operating conditions of the electric power
system, that will be used in the design (
i
A
~
, for i=1, ..., L), is
the first step of the controller design procedure. The controller
performance criteria (
0
) is defined after the construction of
the polytopic modelling. After that, the first LMI set (which
determines the state feedback gain matrix ) can be
structured. The LMI set of the control problem regarding the
state feedback gain can be solved after the construction of the
problem variables. The referred LMI set is given by
C
C
(14) , Y Y
T
D D
0 > =
, 0
sin cos
cos sin
<
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(

+ +
+
+
+
+

+ +
+
) BL B L
Y A A (Y
) BL B L
Y A A Y (
) BL B L
Y A A (Y
) BL B L
Y A A (Y
D
T T
D
D i
T
i D
D
T T
D
D i
T
i D
D
T T
D
D i
T
i D
D
T T
D
D i
T
i D
(15)
for
L i , , 1 =
, where and the subscript D in the
matrix variables in (14)-(15) indicates that the respective
0
1
cos u

=
5
matrices have block-diagonal structures of appropriate
dimensions. Such matrix structure is necessary to guarantee
the decentralized structure of the controllers. The LMI set
(14)-(15) is obtained from the application of variable changes
and Schur complement in the matrix inequalities of the state
feedback problem regarding the adopted design objective [18,
20].
After determining the variables
D
Y and
D
L , by solving
LMIs (14)-(15), the state feedback gain matrix can be
calculated by
C
C
.
1
= =
D D C C
Y L C C
(16)
In (16), the notation with the bar above the showed variable
indicates that it has been already obtained, as result of the
previous design stage. The same notation is used in the
sequence of the paper.
The second stage, corresponding to the calculation of the
matrices that define the controller dynamic (matrices
and ), is initiated after finding the state feedback matrix
. The LMI set used to generate matrices and of the
controller is given by
C
A
C
B
C
C
C
A
C
B
, 0 >
(

D D
D D
X P
P P
(17)
, 0
44
34 33
24 23 22
14 13 12 11
<
(
(
(
(

- - -
- -
-
N
N N
N N N
N N N N
(18)
where
, sin
11
) P A A (P N
D
T
ki ki D
+ =
(19)
, sin
12
) S F C X A A (P N
D
T
D
T
D
T
ki i D
+ + + =
(20)
, cos
13
) A P P A ( N
ki D D
T
ki
=
(21)
, cos
14
) S F C X A A P ( N
D
T
D
T
D
T
ki i D
+ + + =
(22)
, sin
22
) F C C F X A A (X N
T
D
T
D D
T
i i D
+ + + =
(23)
,
(24)
cos
24
) F C C F X A A X ( N
T
D
T
D D
T
i i D
+ + =
,
14 23
T
N N = ,
11 33
N N = ,
12 34
N N =
22 44
N N = (25)
and
.
C i ki
C B A A + =
(26)
Due to the symmetry of (18), the terms indicated by - are
implicitly defined. After finding
D
P ,
D
X ,
D
F and
D
S , which
make feasible the set of LMIs (17)-(18), matrices and
can be calculated by
C
A
C
B
,
1 T
D C
S U A

= (27)
,
1
D C
F U B

=
(28)
where
D D
X P U = . The LMI set (17)-(18) is obtained from
the application of parametrization and variable changes,
presented in [22], in the matrix inequalities of the control
problem regarding the adopted design objective [18, 20]. The
control techniques and the design procedure regarding the
design methodology may be detailedly obtained in [3].
IV. TESTS AND RESULTS
The tests to verify the performance of the proposed
controllers were carried out in a well-known power system
model, and the results obtained by means of the modal
analyses and non-linear simulations are presented in this
section. The adopted system is rather used in small signal
stability studies, and it is constituted by two areas
interconnected by a tie-line (as shown in the diagram of Fig.
5). The complete data of this system can be obtained in [17].
The TCSC is included in the tie-line (line 7-8), since such
branch is a weak connection which limits the power transfer
between the two areas. Besides, the tie-line has a significant
influence in the inter-area mode that has to be damped.
L1
G2
G1
2
L2
G4
4
G3
Area 1
1 5 6 7
Area 2
9 8 10 3
TCSC
Fig. 5. Diagram of the test system.
The system loads in the operating conditions of the base
case are P
L1
=967 MW, Q
L1
=100 MVAr, P
L2
=1767 MW and
Q
L2
=100 MVAr. The parameters of the voltage regulators
used in the respective system generators are Ke=200 and
Te=0.01 s. Generator 3 was used as an infinite-bus, supplying
an angular reference to the model.
The test system in open loop (without damping controllers)
is unstable in the base case operating condition. Therefore, the
system requires controllers to operate in a stable way and with
good performance. The eigenvalues related to the local and
inter-area modes of the open loop system, in the base case
operating conditions, are shown in Fig. 6. The non-linear
speed response of the system generators in the same condition
is shown in Fig. 7. The perturbation used to stimulate the
oscillation modes in the non-linear simulations is a 32 ms
short-circuit
2
at bus 9 in t=3 s. In t=3.032 s the short-circuit is
eliminated and the system pre-fault operating condition is
restored (the line involved with the fault was not turned off to
avoid system islanding).
2
The short duration of the applied perturbation ensures the system does
not drift so far from the original equilibrium conditions, and therefore the
assumptions of the small-signal analysis are satisfied. The applied fault is
sufficient to stimulate the dynamics of interest, as shown in non-linear
simulations.
6
-0.02 0 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.1 0.12 0.14 0.16
-8
-6
-4
-2
0
2
4
6
8
Real
I
m
a
g
i
n
a
r
y

[
r
a
d
/
s
]
Electromechanical modes - Open loop system - Base case
Fig. 6. Poles of test system in open loop.
The proposed controllers were designed in according to the
design procedure described in the previous section. Two PSS
type damping controller and one TCSC damping controller
were simultaneously designed. The TCSC damping controller
was design to the TCSC inserted in system tie-line and the
PSS type damping controller were design for generator 1 and
generator 4. The derivative of the generator speed deviation
(
i
e A
) is used as input signal for the PSS type damping
controller to avoid the action of such controllers in steady-
state conditions [23]. The active power flow deviation in the
tie-line (Ptie), with a washout type filter, is used as input
signal for TCSC damping controller. The washout time
constant is equal to 10 seconds.
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
376.7
376.8
376.9
377
377.1
377.2
377.3
377.4
Rotor speeds of generators - Open loop system - Base case
Time [s]
R
o
t
o
r

s
p
e
e
d

[
r
a
d
/
s
]
Gen. 1
Gen. 2
Gen. 4
Fig. 7. Test system operating in open loop.
Three different load levels were used in the design of the
robust controllers. Table I present the tie-line active power
flows (Ptie) as well as the inter-area modes corresponding to
the respective load levels.
The controller order depends on the choice of the block-
diagonal structure (order) of the problem matrix variables [3].
In the carried out design, the PSS of generator 1 has order 6,
PSS of generator 4 is of 4
th
order and the TCSC damping
controller is also of 4
th
order. A minimum damping ratio of
5% (
0
=0.05) is imposed in the design stage as performance
index to the closed loop polytopic system. The LMI set of this
control problem was solved by means of a computer with an
AMD 3200 2.2 GHz processor, and the time spent to generate
the controllers was approximately 1 minute and 59 seconds.
Table I
Load levels used in the design.
Load Levels Ptie [MW] Inter-area mode
Base case 391 0.0524 j 2.305
L1:+10%
L2:+10%
420 0.0641 j 2.077
L1:-10%
L2:-10%
360 0.0419 j 2.460
The poles related to the system electromechanical modes
(simultaneously equipped with the PSS-type and TCSC
damping controllers), in the operating condition
corresponding to +10% in the base case loads, are shown in
Fig. 8. The non-linear speed response of the system generators
in the same condition is shown in Fig. 9. The equivalent
TCSC reactance
3
, regarding the operating condition used in
the non-linear simulations, is shown in Fig. 10.
-4 -3.5 -3 -2.5 -2 -1.5 -1 -0.5 0
-8
-6
-4
-2
0
2
4
6
8
Real
I
m
a
g
i
n
a
r
y

[
r
a
d
/
s
]
Electromechanical modes - closed loop system - L1+10% and L2+10%
Inter-area mode
Local modes
Fig. 8. Poles of test system with the proposed controllers.
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
376.7
376.8
376.9
377
377.1
377.2
377.3
377.4
Rotor speeds of generators - Closed loop system - L1+10% and L2+10%
Time [s]
R
o
t
o
r

s
p
e
e
d

[
r
a
d
/
s
]
Gen. 1
Gen. 2
Gen. 4
Fig. 9. Test system operating with proposed robust
controllers.
3
In Fig. 10, the reactance negative sign means that the TCSC is operating
in the capacitive region. The value of the TCSC reactance in steady-state
condition corresponds to a compensation of 10% in the tie-lie reactance.
7
The robust controllers presented a coordinated control
action and a satisfactory performance, as can be seen in Fig. 8
and 9. The controller performance was also verified for the
other operating points used in the design stage (base case and
variation of -10% in the loads of the base case) and for
intermediate operating points, where variations of 2%, 5%
and 7% were used. The controllers presented a good
performance in all these conditions. The transfer functions of
the designed PSS type damping controller and TCSC damping
controller are presented in the appendix.
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
-0.019
-0.018
-0.017
-0.016
-0.015
-0.014
-0.013
-0.012
-0.011
-0.01
-0.009
Equivalent TCSC reactance - Closed loop system - L1+10% and L2+10%
Time [s]
R
e
a
c
t
a
n
c
e

[
p
.
u
.
]
Fig. 10. Equivalent TCSC reactance.
V. CONCLUSIONS
A simultaneous coordinated design of PSS-type and TCSC
damping controllers for electric power systems was presented
in this paper. Such kind of design is important in the cases
where only the PSSs are not able to adequately damp the
system oscillations (mainly in those cases where inter-area
modes are involved). The design is based in a methodology
previously proposed by the authors. Such methodology is
systematic and provides robust controllers satisfying various
practical requirements of the electromechanical oscillation
damping problem. The proposed controllers were designed
simultaneously and they have provided a coordinated control
action and a satisfactory performance for the power system.
The design of controllers to larger power systems and using
other kinds of FACTS devices, as well as the treatment of
aspects related to the construction of the polytopic model, are
among the future directions of this research.
VI. APPENDIX
The transfer functions of the designed controllers for test
system, in the zero/pole/gain form, are given by

) 96 . 111 )( 39 . 5 88 . 7 (s ) 46 . 78 68 . 22 (s
) 71 . 8 )(s 78 . 21 )(s 89 . 78 )(s 50 . 5 86 . 7 (s
6 . 2151 ) (
1 _
+ + +
+ + +
=
s j j
j
s F
G PSS
,
) 63 . 0 (
(s)
+ s

(A.1)

) 43 . 27 )( 96 . 126 )( 11645 )( 12699 (s


) 09 . 0 )(s 51 . 24 )(s 99 . 99 (s
1269228.3 ) (
+ + + +
+ + +
=
s s s
s F
TCSC
,
) 1 . 0 (
(s)
+ s

(A.2)
.
) 00 . 1 )( 85 . 56 )( 68 . 34 21 . 48 (s
)(s) 01 . 20 )(s 01 . 79 )(s 29 . 200 (s
29 . 30 ) (
4 _
+ + +
+ +
=
s s j
s F
G PSS
(A.3)
It is worth pointing out that the transfer function gains of
PSS and TCSC controller are different in the frequency of
interest, since the adopted input signals are different too
(derivative of the speed deviation to PSS and tie-line power
flow deviation to TCSC controller). The washout filter and the
derivative term regarding the derivative of the speed deviation
were included in the presented transfer functions [3, 23].
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