(1)
The TCSC must be included in a critical transmission line,
so it can extend the maximum power transfer and the system
stability margin as well as improve the system performance in
transient conditions.
B. Adopted Multimachine Model
The adopted multimachine model is essentially constituted
by synchronous machines (with their respective AVRs), a
transmission system and loads. The transmission system was
modeled as a passive circuit by means of algebraic equations.
The system loads were modeled as constant impedances. The
system machines were modeled by the one axis model [15]. A
first order model of a static type AVR was used, and its block
diagram is shown in Fig. 3.
Ke
1+STe
+
EFD

ref
 Vt 
Fig. 3. Block diagram of the AVR.
3
In Fig. 3, Vt  is the terminal bus voltage magnitude, Vref
is the reference voltage for the AVR and Vs is the stabilizing
signal from the proposed damping controller. Limits of +5.0
p.u. and 5.0 p.u. for the field voltage were used in the
simulations.
The set of equations used in this paper to describe the
behavior of the multimachine power system is given by
(2) ,
s i s i
e e e o =
], ' [
2
1
qi qi mi
i
i
I E P
H
= e (3)
], ) ' ( ' [
'
1
'
di di di qi FDi
do
qi
I x x E E E + =
t
(4)
], ) ( [
1
FDi si ti refi ei
ei
FDi
E V V V K
T
E + =
(5)
where
(6)
)), ( ) cos( ( '
1
i j ij
n
j
i j ij qj qi
sen B G E I o o o o =
_
=
(7)
)), cos( ' ) ( ' (
1
i j qj ij i j
n
j
qj ij di
E B sen E G I o o o o + =
_
=
and
) cos( ( ' ' ' 2 ' [  
1
2
i k ik
m
k
qk di qi qi ti
B E x E E V o o + =
_
=
__
= =
+ +
m
k
l k il ik ql
m
l
qk di i k ik
G G E E x G
1 1
2
) cos( ( ' ' ' ) sin( o o o o
(8)
. ))] cos( ) sin( 2
2 / 1
l k il ik l k il ik
B B B G o o o o + +
In (2)(8),
i
o ,
i
e , and are, respectively, the
generator rotor angle, the rotor angular speed, the quadrature
axis transient voltage and the voltage applied to the field
circuit. The multimachine system is constituted by n
machines, and (2)(8) refer to the ith machine equations.
Detailed information regarding the equations of the presented
model and their respective parameters can be obtained in [15]
[17].
qi
E'
FDi
E
C. System and Controller linear model
The system analyses and controller design to improve small
signal stability margin may be carried out by means of linear
models, since linear models are usually able to acceptably
represent the dynamic behavior regarding the lowfrequency
electromechanical oscillation. Besides, linear models allow
designers to use a great variety of the available linear robust
control techniques. The multimachine system is represented in
the design procedure by a set of linear equations, in the state
space form, given by
Bu(t) Ax(t) (t) x + = (9)
Cx(t) y(t) =
(10)
where is a vector composed by the deviations of the
system state variable (with respect to a nominal operating
point), is a vector with the system control input
(which corresponds to the stabilizing signals to be added to
the AVR and TCSC inputs), and is the vector with
the system outputs (in this case, chosen as the rotor speed
deviations for the PSStype controllers and the active power
flow across the transmission line for the TCSC supplementary
damping controller).
n
R t x e ) (
p
R t u e ) (
q
R t y e ) (
Controller design for power systems are usually based on
output feedback, since not all the model state variables are
available for direct measurement in the real system. For this
reason, the proposed damping controllers (PSStype and
TCSC damping controller) are based on the dynamic output
feedback structure. Such control structure can be represented
by a linear equation set, in state space form, given by
y(t) B (t) x A (t) x
C C C C
+ = (11)
(t) x C u(t)
C C
= (12)
where is a vector with the controller states. The
dynamic behavior of the controllers, as a function of the plant
output , is described by (11). The control input for the
system is produced by (12) with the application of the
matrix gain to the states generated by the controllers.
n
C
R t x e ) (
) (t y
) (t u
C
C
III. DESIGN METHODOLOGY
Many of the available robust control techniques have been
applied to the oscillation damping problem in power systems
and provided robust controllers with good performance.
However, some robust control techniques require modeling
assumptions that do not describe the physical problem with
accuracy. In this way, it is important to choose a control
technique that is suitable for the problem of interest and able
to provide an acceptable performance for the system in closed
loop.
The design methodology proposed in [3] is used in this
paper to simultaneously design PSStype and TCSC damping
controllers. The extended procedure provides a coordinated
design to both types of controllers. The control techniques and
the design procedure used in the adopted design methodology
are summarized in this section to provide a better
comprehension of the whole control problem formulation.
A. Control Technique
The operating point of the electric power system plays an
4
important role in the electromechanical oscillation dynamics.
However, the system operating point is usually an uncertainty
in design methodologies based on linear classical control
techniques, since the power system is, in general, modelled as
a Linear Time Invariant (LTI) system. An LTI model is
structured based on a single operating point of interest. In this
way, it is important that the uncertainties regarding the system
operating point are included in the system modelling.
The uncertainties of the electric power system models with
respect to the variations of the operating points are treated in
this paper by means of the polytopic modeling technique [18].
The polytopic modelling is rather suitable for the design of
controllers for electric power systems [19]. Such modelling
technique is constituted by a set of L linear models structured
from the connection of the model (9)(10) (obtained from the
linearization of the multimachine model in different
operating points) with the controller model (represented by
(11)(12), whose matrices must be determined by the design
procedure). The set of linear models regarding the polytopic
system in closed loop is given by
L
), (
~
~
) (
~
t x A t x
i
=
(13)
,
~
(
=
C i C
C i i
i
A C B
C B A
A
where , for are the state matrices of the
closed loop system,
m x m
i
R A
2 2
~
e , 1 L , , i =
m
R t x
2
) (
~
e is a vector with the states of
both the system and the controllers, and and are
the matrix variables to be determined by the design procedure.
C C
B , A
C
C
The use of the polytopic modelling in the design procedure,
associated with the quadratic stability theory, guarantees the
stabilization of the closed loop system, not only for the
operating points used in the construction of the polytopic
system, but also for all the operating points that can be
generated from the convex combination of the L adopted
operating points [18].
In design of damping controllers, it is not sufficient to
request only the system stability, since the closed loop system
may be stable but with unsatisfactory performance (in this
case, poorly damped oscillation modes). In this way,
specifying a performance index in the design stage is a usually
adopted procedure in controller design.
In this paper, the damping ratio for the oscillation modes of
the closed loop polytopic system is used as performance index
in the design stage, since such performance index is
universally accepted in power systems as an indicative of
small signal stability margin. The adopted performance index
is included in the control problem formulation by means of the
wellknown Regional Pole Placement (RPP) technique. A
specific region of the complex plane is imposed in the design
to guarantee a minimum damping ratio for the oscillation
modes of the closed loop polytopic system. Such region is
defined by >
0
, and it can be viewed in Fig. 4.
The control problem is formulated by simultaneously using
the polytopic modelling technique and the RPP technique to
structure a systematic methodology for the design of robust
PSStype and TCSC damping controllers. The control
problem is formulated as a search, subject to constraints in the
form of LMIs. The design methodology is structured by the
aggregation of the LMIs corresponding to the RPP [20]
associated with the polytopic modelling. The controllers are
obtained by means of a numerical solution of the LMIs
describing the control problem. The solver feasp, available
in the LMI Lab package [22], is used to determine such
numerical solution.
Pole placement
region
Re
(minimum damping ratio)
0
=
u
Im
Fig. 4. Region for the pole placement.
B. Design Procedure
The control problem consists basically in calculating
dynamic controllers, represented by the matrices and
(see controller (11)(12)), which guarantee the specified
performance index and robustness for the closed loop system.
C C
B , A
C
C
The design procedure is divided in two stages. Initially, the
state feedback gain matrix of the controllers ( ) is
determined and, in sequence, the matrices that describe the
controller dynamics (matrices and ) are calculated (see
[3] for more details).
C
C
C
A
C
B
The choice of the operating conditions of the electric power
system, that will be used in the design (
i
A
~
, for i=1, ..., L), is
the first step of the controller design procedure. The controller
performance criteria (
0
) is defined after the construction of
the polytopic modelling. After that, the first LMI set (which
determines the state feedback gain matrix ) can be
structured. The LMI set of the control problem regarding the
state feedback gain can be solved after the construction of the
problem variables. The referred LMI set is given by
C
C
(14) , Y Y
T
D D
0 > =
, 0
sin cos
cos sin
<
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
+ +
+
+
+
+
+ +
+
) BL B L
Y A A (Y
) BL B L
Y A A Y (
) BL B L
Y A A (Y
) BL B L
Y A A (Y
D
T T
D
D i
T
i D
D
T T
D
D i
T
i D
D
T T
D
D i
T
i D
D
T T
D
D i
T
i D
(15)
for
L i , , 1 =
, where and the subscript D in the
matrix variables in (14)(15) indicates that the respective
0
1
cos u
=
5
matrices have blockdiagonal structures of appropriate
dimensions. Such matrix structure is necessary to guarantee
the decentralized structure of the controllers. The LMI set
(14)(15) is obtained from the application of variable changes
and Schur complement in the matrix inequalities of the state
feedback problem regarding the adopted design objective [18,
20].
After determining the variables
D
Y and
D
L , by solving
LMIs (14)(15), the state feedback gain matrix can be
calculated by
C
C
.
1
= =
D D C C
Y L C C
(16)
In (16), the notation with the bar above the showed variable
indicates that it has been already obtained, as result of the
previous design stage. The same notation is used in the
sequence of the paper.
The second stage, corresponding to the calculation of the
matrices that define the controller dynamic (matrices
and ), is initiated after finding the state feedback matrix
. The LMI set used to generate matrices and of the
controller is given by
C
A
C
B
C
C
C
A
C
B
, 0 >
(
D D
D D
X P
P P
(17)
, 0
44
34 33
24 23 22
14 13 12 11
<
(
(
(
(
  
 

N
N N
N N N
N N N N
(18)
where
, sin
11
) P A A (P N
D
T
ki ki D
+ =
(19)
, sin
12
) S F C X A A (P N
D
T
D
T
D
T
ki i D
+ + + =
(20)
, cos
13
) A P P A ( N
ki D D
T
ki
=
(21)
, cos
14
) S F C X A A P ( N
D
T
D
T
D
T
ki i D
+ + + =
(22)
, sin
22
) F C C F X A A (X N
T
D
T
D D
T
i i D
+ + + =
(23)
,
(24)
cos
24
) F C C F X A A X ( N
T
D
T
D D
T
i i D
+ + =
,
14 23
T
N N = ,
11 33
N N = ,
12 34
N N =
22 44
N N = (25)
and
.
C i ki
C B A A + =
(26)
Due to the symmetry of (18), the terms indicated by  are
implicitly defined. After finding
D
P ,
D
X ,
D
F and
D
S , which
make feasible the set of LMIs (17)(18), matrices and
can be calculated by
C
A
C
B
,
1 T
D C
S U A
= (27)
,
1
D C
F U B
=
(28)
where
D D
X P U = . The LMI set (17)(18) is obtained from
the application of parametrization and variable changes,
presented in [22], in the matrix inequalities of the control
problem regarding the adopted design objective [18, 20]. The
control techniques and the design procedure regarding the
design methodology may be detailedly obtained in [3].
IV. TESTS AND RESULTS
The tests to verify the performance of the proposed
controllers were carried out in a wellknown power system
model, and the results obtained by means of the modal
analyses and nonlinear simulations are presented in this
section. The adopted system is rather used in small signal
stability studies, and it is constituted by two areas
interconnected by a tieline (as shown in the diagram of Fig.
5). The complete data of this system can be obtained in [17].
The TCSC is included in the tieline (line 78), since such
branch is a weak connection which limits the power transfer
between the two areas. Besides, the tieline has a significant
influence in the interarea mode that has to be damped.
L1
G2
G1
2
L2
G4
4
G3
Area 1
1 5 6 7
Area 2
9 8 10 3
TCSC
Fig. 5. Diagram of the test system.
The system loads in the operating conditions of the base
case are P
L1
=967 MW, Q
L1
=100 MVAr, P
L2
=1767 MW and
Q
L2
=100 MVAr. The parameters of the voltage regulators
used in the respective system generators are Ke=200 and
Te=0.01 s. Generator 3 was used as an infinitebus, supplying
an angular reference to the model.
The test system in open loop (without damping controllers)
is unstable in the base case operating condition. Therefore, the
system requires controllers to operate in a stable way and with
good performance. The eigenvalues related to the local and
interarea modes of the open loop system, in the base case
operating conditions, are shown in Fig. 6. The nonlinear
speed response of the system generators in the same condition
is shown in Fig. 7. The perturbation used to stimulate the
oscillation modes in the nonlinear simulations is a 32 ms
shortcircuit
2
at bus 9 in t=3 s. In t=3.032 s the shortcircuit is
eliminated and the system prefault operating condition is
restored (the line involved with the fault was not turned off to
avoid system islanding).
2
The short duration of the applied perturbation ensures the system does
not drift so far from the original equilibrium conditions, and therefore the
assumptions of the smallsignal analysis are satisfied. The applied fault is
sufficient to stimulate the dynamics of interest, as shown in nonlinear
simulations.
6
0.02 0 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.1 0.12 0.14 0.16
8
6
4
2
0
2
4
6
8
Real
I
m
a
g
i
n
a
r
y
[
r
a
d
/
s
]
Electromechanical modes  Open loop system  Base case
Fig. 6. Poles of test system in open loop.
The proposed controllers were designed in according to the
design procedure described in the previous section. Two PSS
type damping controller and one TCSC damping controller
were simultaneously designed. The TCSC damping controller
was design to the TCSC inserted in system tieline and the
PSS type damping controller were design for generator 1 and
generator 4. The derivative of the generator speed deviation
(
i
e A
) is used as input signal for the PSS type damping
controller to avoid the action of such controllers in steady
state conditions [23]. The active power flow deviation in the
tieline (Ptie), with a washout type filter, is used as input
signal for TCSC damping controller. The washout time
constant is equal to 10 seconds.
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
376.7
376.8
376.9
377
377.1
377.2
377.3
377.4
Rotor speeds of generators  Open loop system  Base case
Time [s]
R
o
t
o
r
s
p
e
e
d
[
r
a
d
/
s
]
Gen. 1
Gen. 2
Gen. 4
Fig. 7. Test system operating in open loop.
Three different load levels were used in the design of the
robust controllers. Table I present the tieline active power
flows (Ptie) as well as the interarea modes corresponding to
the respective load levels.
The controller order depends on the choice of the block
diagonal structure (order) of the problem matrix variables [3].
In the carried out design, the PSS of generator 1 has order 6,
PSS of generator 4 is of 4
th
order and the TCSC damping
controller is also of 4
th
order. A minimum damping ratio of
5% (
0
=0.05) is imposed in the design stage as performance
index to the closed loop polytopic system. The LMI set of this
control problem was solved by means of a computer with an
AMD 3200 2.2 GHz processor, and the time spent to generate
the controllers was approximately 1 minute and 59 seconds.
Table I
Load levels used in the design.
Load Levels Ptie [MW] Interarea mode
Base case 391 0.0524 j 2.305
L1:+10%
L2:+10%
420 0.0641 j 2.077
L1:10%
L2:10%
360 0.0419 j 2.460
The poles related to the system electromechanical modes
(simultaneously equipped with the PSStype and TCSC
damping controllers), in the operating condition
corresponding to +10% in the base case loads, are shown in
Fig. 8. The nonlinear speed response of the system generators
in the same condition is shown in Fig. 9. The equivalent
TCSC reactance
3
, regarding the operating condition used in
the nonlinear simulations, is shown in Fig. 10.
4 3.5 3 2.5 2 1.5 1 0.5 0
8
6
4
2
0
2
4
6
8
Real
I
m
a
g
i
n
a
r
y
[
r
a
d
/
s
]
Electromechanical modes  closed loop system  L1+10% and L2+10%
Interarea mode
Local modes
Fig. 8. Poles of test system with the proposed controllers.
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
376.7
376.8
376.9
377
377.1
377.2
377.3
377.4
Rotor speeds of generators  Closed loop system  L1+10% and L2+10%
Time [s]
R
o
t
o
r
s
p
e
e
d
[
r
a
d
/
s
]
Gen. 1
Gen. 2
Gen. 4
Fig. 9. Test system operating with proposed robust
controllers.
3
In Fig. 10, the reactance negative sign means that the TCSC is operating
in the capacitive region. The value of the TCSC reactance in steadystate
condition corresponds to a compensation of 10% in the tielie reactance.
7
The robust controllers presented a coordinated control
action and a satisfactory performance, as can be seen in Fig. 8
and 9. The controller performance was also verified for the
other operating points used in the design stage (base case and
variation of 10% in the loads of the base case) and for
intermediate operating points, where variations of 2%, 5%
and 7% were used. The controllers presented a good
performance in all these conditions. The transfer functions of
the designed PSS type damping controller and TCSC damping
controller are presented in the appendix.
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
0.019
0.018
0.017
0.016
0.015
0.014
0.013
0.012
0.011
0.01
0.009
Equivalent TCSC reactance  Closed loop system  L1+10% and L2+10%
Time [s]
R
e
a
c
t
a
n
c
e
[
p
.
u
.
]
Fig. 10. Equivalent TCSC reactance.
V. CONCLUSIONS
A simultaneous coordinated design of PSStype and TCSC
damping controllers for electric power systems was presented
in this paper. Such kind of design is important in the cases
where only the PSSs are not able to adequately damp the
system oscillations (mainly in those cases where interarea
modes are involved). The design is based in a methodology
previously proposed by the authors. Such methodology is
systematic and provides robust controllers satisfying various
practical requirements of the electromechanical oscillation
damping problem. The proposed controllers were designed
simultaneously and they have provided a coordinated control
action and a satisfactory performance for the power system.
The design of controllers to larger power systems and using
other kinds of FACTS devices, as well as the treatment of
aspects related to the construction of the polytopic model, are
among the future directions of this research.
VI. APPENDIX
The transfer functions of the designed controllers for test
system, in the zero/pole/gain form, are given by
) 96 . 111 )( 39 . 5 88 . 7 (s ) 46 . 78 68 . 22 (s
) 71 . 8 )(s 78 . 21 )(s 89 . 78 )(s 50 . 5 86 . 7 (s
6 . 2151 ) (
1 _
+ + +
+ + +
=
s j j
j
s F
G PSS
,
) 63 . 0 (
(s)
+ s
(A.1)
(A.2)
.
) 00 . 1 )( 85 . 56 )( 68 . 34 21 . 48 (s
)(s) 01 . 20 )(s 01 . 79 )(s 29 . 200 (s
29 . 30 ) (
4 _
+ + +
+ +
=
s s j
s F
G PSS
(A.3)
It is worth pointing out that the transfer function gains of
PSS and TCSC controller are different in the frequency of
interest, since the adopted input signals are different too
(derivative of the speed deviation to PSS and tieline power
flow deviation to TCSC controller). The washout filter and the
derivative term regarding the derivative of the speed deviation
were included in the presented transfer functions [3, 23].
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