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# 1. There are 1010 m2 of edge dislocations in a simple cubic crystal.

How much would each of these climb down on an average, when the crystal is heated from 0 to 1000 K. Given, the lattice parameter = 2 , volume of 1 mole of the crystal is 5.5 X 106 m3 (= 5.5 cm3) and the enthalpy of formation of vacancies is 100 kJ/mol.
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The surface of a copper crystal is of the {111} type. Show that the surface energy, i.e. enthalpy of copper is about 2.49 J-m2 Calculate the line energy of dislocations in BCC iron. Given, the Burgers vector in iron is of the <111> type and shear modulus of iron is 80.2 GN/m2

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4. The diffusion coefficient for copper in aluminium at 500 and 600C are 4.8 X 1014 and 5.3 X 10 3 m2/s respectively. Determine the approximate time at 500C that will produce the same diffusion result (in terms of concentration of copper at some specific point in aluminium) as 10h heat treatment at 600C 5. The Youngs modulus of a certain material is 180 X 103 mega Newton/m2 and its true surface energy is 1.8 J/m2. The crack length is 5 m. Show that its fracture strength is 273 X 106 /m2. Interpret your result.
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A cast iron bed plate for a pump has a crack length of 100 m. The Youngs modulus of C.I. is 210 GN/m2 and the specific surface energy is 10 J/m2. Show that the fracture strength required is 1.6 X 108 N/m2

7. Explain the Griffiths theory of metals. Derive the formula for average applied stress at which crack spreads 8. A sheet of steel 1.5 mm thick has nitrogen atmospheres on both sides at 1200 oC and is permitted to achieve a steady-state diffusion condition. The diffusion coefficient for nitrogen in steel at this temperature is 6 X10-11 m2/s, and the diffusion flux is found to be 1.2 X 10-7 kg/m2-s. Also, it is known that the concentration of nitrogen in the steel at the high-pressure surface is 4 kg/m3. How far into the sheet from this high-pressure side will the concentration be 2.0 kg/m3? Assume a linear concentration profile. 9. A relatively large plate of a glass is subjected to a tensile stress of 40 MPa. If the specific surface energy and modulus of elasticity for this glass are 0.3 J/m 2 and 69 GPa, respectively, determine the maximum length of a surface flaw that is possible without fracture. 10. A specimen of a ceramic material having a modulus of elasticity of 300 GPa (43.5 X 106 psi) is pulled in tension with a stress of 900 MPa (130,000 psi). Will the specimen fail if

its most severe flaw is an internal crack that has a length of 0.30 mm (0.012 in.) and a tip radius of curvature of 5 X 10-4 mm (2 X 10 -5 in.)? Why or why not? 11. A plate of iron is exposed to a carburizing atmosphere on one side and decarburizing atmosphere on the other side at 700 oC. If a condition of steady state is achieved, calculate the diffusion flux of carbon through the plate, if the concentration of carbon at the positions of 5 mm and 10 mm beneath the carburizing surface are 1.2 and 0.8 kg/m3 . Assume a diffusion coefficient of 3 X 10 -11 m2/s at this temperature. How you will attempt the problem if non steady state condition exists.