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WLAN :Wireless Local Area Network

IEEE 802.11: WiFi IEEE 802.11: WiFi

WPAN, Wireless Personal Area Network ,

IEEE 802.15: Bluetooth, RF IDIEEE 802.15: Bluetooth, RF ID

WLAN Characteristics 1... 54 Mb/s data rates (currently) 1... 54 Mb/s data rates (currently) Intended for short distances, one base Intended for short distances, one basestation station covering, e.g., covering, e.g., A few rooms/1 corridor in office building A A small house. A few hundred meters distances in open air, somewhat longer with directive antennas. Power consumption not always very criticalPower consumption not always very critical. Except when included in a mobile terminal, which is Except when included in a mobile terminal, which is becoming more and more popular these days.

WLAN Applications Cable-free access to internet in office environments . Homes (e.g., ADSL modem acting as the access point) Homes (e.g., ADSL modem acting as the access point) . Hot-spots, like airports, conference centers, hotels, etc. Also used as high-speed Internet speed Internet-access method access method for homes and small offices in urban areas, instead for homes and small offices in urban areas, instead of ADSL or cable modems

WLAN Elements

Extends Ethernet over wirelessExtends Ethernet over wireless Two modes: Infrastructure WLAN: Terminals communicate with Radio : Terminals communicate with Radio Access Point (Access Point (basebase-stations stations), which acts as a bridge to the ), which acts as a bridge to the fixed Internet fixed Internet Ad-Hoc Network Hoc Network: Terminals communicate with each other, : Terminals communicate with each other, without centralized control without centralized control

Each wireless station and access point has a wireless LAN card; Integrated solutions currently, e.g., in Laptops, ADSL Modems, PDAs/Communicators/mobile phones, game consols, etc.

WLAN Application Aspects

Designed for data communications Problems with latency and Quality of Service in case of real-time audiovisual services time audiovisual services Limitations in data security mechanisms in WEP. Recent enhancements (802.11e, 802.11i/WAP) of the standards are solving the problems the standards are solving the problems encountered in early implementations.

WLAN Standards Regulatory bodies specify the frequency bands and transmission power levels for different signal formats transmission power FCC in USA CEPT/ETSI in Europe ARIB in Japan System standards by IEEE (802.11) => ISO/IE Interfaces between GSM/UMTS and WLAN developing under 3GPP.

WPAN, Wireless Personal Area Network

Cable replacement Short distances, up to 10 m Bluetooth: 0.70.7-2 Mb/s data rates Wireless earphones, hands free sets Mobile phone laptop/PC synchronization Low power, low cost

High-rate WPAN, UWB systems Digital image/video down-load/exchange Low-rate WPAN, RF-ID Sensors, meter-reading, smart tags/badges, home automation Ultra low power and cost need; short range 802.15.1 WPAN based on Bluetooth. 802.15.2 Coexistence of WPAN with other systems at 2.4 GHz . 802.15.3 High-rate WPAN .15.3a High-rate alternative physical layer 802.15.3b MAC improvement 802.15.4 Low-rate WPAN (RFID, etc.)

Q3 Different wireless providers and industry vendors back either WiMax or LTE, or both, depending on how these technologies benefit their businesses. In the U.S., for example, cellular provider Sprint backs WiMax while its competitors Verizon and AT&T supports LTE. Manufacturing companies may prefer one or the other depending on their ability to produce hardware more or less expensively. Neither technology is expected to replace Wi-Fi home networks and hotspots. For consumers, then, the choice between LTE and WiMax comes down to which services are available in their region and offer better speed and reliability.