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Hoysala architecture

Hoysala architecture
Hoysala architecture (Kannada: ) is the building style developed under the rule of the Hoysala Empire between the 11th and 14th centuries, in the region known today as Karnataka, a state of India. Hoysala influence was at its peak in the 13th century, when it dominated the Southern Deccan Plateau region. Large and small temples built during this era remain as examples of the Hoysala architectural style, including the Chennakesava Temple at Belur, the Hoysaleswara Temple at Halebidu, and the Kesava Temple at Somanathapura.[1][2] Other examples of fine Hoysala craftsmanship are the temples at Belavadi, Amruthapura, Hosaholalu, Mosale, Arasikere, Basaralu, Kikkeri and Nuggehalli.[3][4] Study of the Hoysala architectural style has revealed a negligible Indo-Aryan influence while the impact of Southern Indian style is more distinct.[5] The vigorous temple building activity of the Hoysala Empire was due to the social, cultural and political events of the period. The stylistic transformation of the Profile of a Hoysala temple at Somanathapura Karnata temple building tradition reflected religious trends popularized by the Vaishnava and Virashaiva philosophers as well as the growing military prowess of the Hoysala kings who desired to surpass their Western Chalukya overlords in artistic achievement. Temples built prior to Hoysala independence in the mid-12th century reflect significant Western Chalukya influences, while later temples retain some features salient to Chalukyan art but have additional inventive decoration and ornamentation, features unique to Hoysala artisans. About one hundred temples have survived in present-day Karnataka state, mostly in the Malnad (hill) districts, the native home of the Hoysala kings. As popular tourist destinations in Karnataka, Hoysala temples offer an opportunity for pilgrims and students of architecture to examine medieval Hindu architecture in the Karnata Dravida tradition. This tradition began in the 7th century under the patronage of the Chalukya dynasty of Badami, developed further under the Western Chalukyas of Basavakalyan in the 11th century and finally transformed into an independent style by the 12th century during the reign of the Hoysalas. Medieval Kannada language inscriptions displayed prominently at temple locations give details of the temples and offer information about the history of the Hoysala dynasty.

Hoysala architecture

Temple deities
Hinduism is a combination of secular and sacred beliefs, rituals, daily practices and traditions that has evolved over the course of over two thousand years and embodies complex symbolism combining the natural world with philosophy. Hindu temples began as simple shrines housing a deity and by the time of the Hoysalas had evolved into well articulated edifices in which worshippers sought transcendence of the daily world. Hoysala temples were not limited to any specific organised tradition of Hinduism and encouraged pilgrims of different Hindu devotional movements. The Hoysalas usually dedicated their temples to Lord Shiva or to Lord Vishnu (two of the major Hindu gods), but they occasionally chose a different deity. Worshippers of Shiva are called Shaivas or Lingayats and worshippers of Vishnu are called Vaishnavas. While King Vishnuvardhana and his descendants were Vaishnava by faith,[6] records show that the Hoysalas maintained religious harmony by building as many temples Vishnu with Lakshmi dedicated to Shiva as they did to Vishnu.[7] Most of these temples have secular (Lakshminarayana) at Halebidu features with broad themes depicted in their sculptures. This can be seen in the famous Chennakesava Temple at Belur dedicated to Vishnu and in the Hoysaleswara temple at Halebidu dedicated to Shiva. The Kesava temple at Somanathapura is different in that its ornamentation is strictly Vaishnavan. Generally Vaishnava temples are dedicated to Keshava (or to Chennakeshava, meaning "Beautiful Vishnu") while a small number are dedicated to Lakshminarayana and Lakshminarasimha (Narayana and Narasimha both being Avatars, or physical manifestations, of Vishnu) with Lakshmi, consort of Vishnu, seated at his feet. Temples dedicated to Vishnu are always named after the deity. The Shaiva temples have a Shiva linga, symbol of fertility and the universal symbol of Shiva, in the shrine. The names of Shiva temples can end with the suffix eshwara meaning "Lord of". The name "Hoysaleswara", for instance, means "Lord of Hoysala". The temple can also be named after the devotee who commissioned the construction of the temple, an example being the Bucesvara temple at Koravangala, named after the devotee Buci.[8] The most striking Shiva, Parvati, Nandi at Halebidu sculptural decorations are the horizontal rows of exquisitely detailed, intricately carved images of gods, goddesses and their attendants on the outer temple wall panels. The Doddagaddavalli Lakshmi Devi ("Goddess of Wealth") Temple is an exception as it is dedicated to neither Vishnu nor Shiva. The defeat of the Jain Western Ganga Dynasty (of present-day south Karnataka) by the Cholas in the early 11th century and the rising numbers of followers of Vaishnava Hinduism and Virashaivism in the 12th century was mirrored by a decreased interest in Jainism.[9] However, two notable locations of Jain worship in the Hoysala territory were Shravanabelagola and Kambadahalli. The Hoysalas built Jain temples to satisfy the needs of its Jain population, a few of which have survived in Halebidu containing icons of Jain tirthankaras. They constructed stepped wells called Pushkarni or Kalyani, the ornate tank at Hulikere being an example. The tank has twelve minor shrines containing Hindu deities.[10] The two main deities found in Hoysala temple sculpture are Lord Shiva and Lord Vishnu in their various forms and avatars (incarnations). Shiva is usually shown with four arms holding a trident and a small drum among other emblems that symbolise objects worshiped independently of the divine image with which they are associated.[11] Any male icon portrayed in this way is Shiva although a female icon may sometimes be portrayed with these attributes as Shiva's consort, Parvati. Various depictions of Lord Shiva show him in action, such as slaying a demon

Hoysala architecture or dancing on the head of an elephant. He is often accompanied by his consort Parvati or shown with Nandi the bull. He may be represented as Bhairava, another of Shiva's many manifestations. A male figure depicted holding certain objects such as a conch (symbol of eternal, heavenly space) and a wheel (eternal time and destructive power) is Vishnu. If a female figure is depicted holding these objects, she is seen as his consort, Lakshmi. In all the depictions Vishnu is holding four objects: a conch, a wheel, a lotus and a mace. These can be held in any of the icon's hands, making possible twenty-four different forms of Vishnu, each with a unique name.[12] Apart from these, Vishnu is depicted in any of his ten avataras, which include Vishnu sitting on Anantha (the celestial snake and keeper of life energy), Vishnu with Lakshmi seated on his lap (Lakshminarayana), with the head of a lion disemboweling a demon on his lap (Lakshminarasimha), with head of a boar walking over a demon (Varaha), in the Krishna avatar (as Venugopala or the cow herder playing the Venu (flute), dancing on the head of the snake Kaliya, lifting a hill such as Govardhana), with his feet over head of a small figure (Vamana), with Lakshmi seated on Garuda, and the eagle (stealing the parijata tree).

Temple complex
A Hindu temple is a place of contact between the gods or deities and man. The focus of a temple is the centre or sanctum sanctorum (garbhagriha) where the image of the deity resides, so temple architecture is designed to move the devotee from outside to the garbhagriha through ambulatory passageways for circumambulation and halls or chambers (mantapas) that become increasingly sacred as the deity is approached. Hoysala temples have distinct parts that are merged to form a unified organic whole, in contrast to the temples of Tamil country where different parts of a temple stand independently.[13] Although superficially unique, Hoysala temples resemble each other structurally. They are characterised by a complex profusion of sculpture decorating all the temple parts chiseled of soft soapstone (chloritic schist), a good material for intricate carving, executed mostly by local craftsmen, and exhibit architectural features that distinguish them from other temple architectures of South India.[14]

Hoysala stepped temple tank (Kalyani) at Hulikere, Karnataka

Most Hoysala temples have a plain covered entrance porch supported by lathe turned (circular or bell-shaped) pillars which were sometimes further carved with deep fluting and moulded with decorative motifs. The temples may be built upon a platform raised by about a metre Temple profile staggered square plan mantapa called a "jagati". The jagati, apart from giving a raised look to the at Balligavi temple, serves as a pradakshinapatha or "circumambulation path" for circumambulation around the temple, as the garbagriha (inner sanctum) provides no such feature.[15] Such temples will have an additional set of steps leading to an open mantapa (open hall) with parapet walls. A good example of this style is the Kesava Temple at Somanathapura. The jagati which is in unity with the rest of the temple[16] follows a star-shaped design and the walls of the temple follow a zig-zag pattern, a Hoysala innovation. A pair of small shrines, each with a deity and a miniature tower directly facing the entrance,

Hoysala architecture

could adorn either side of steps of the jagati. This would be repeated for all entrances leading to the jagati. Devotees can first complete a ritual circumambulation on the jagati starting from the main entrance by walking in a clockwise direction (towards the left) before entering the mantapa, following the sculptural clockwise-sequenced reliefs on the outer temple walls depicting a sequence of epic scenes from the Hindu epics. Temples that are not built on a jagati can have steps flanked by elephant balustrades (parapets) that lead to the mantapa from ground level. An example of a temple that does not exhibit the Symmetrical architecture on jagati at raised platform is the Bucesvara temple in Korvangla, Hassan District. Somanathapura In temples with two shrines (dvikuta), the vimanas (the shrines or cellae) may be placed either next to each other or on opposite sides.[17] The Lakshmidevi temple at Doddagaddavalli has a minor shrine at each of the four corners of the walled temple complex in addition to five major shrines.

Architectural elements
The mantapa is the hall where groups of people gather during prayers. The entrance to the mantapa normally has a highly ornate overhead lintel called a makaratorana (makara is an imaginary beast and torana is an overhead decoration). The open mantapa which serves the purpose of an outer hall (outer mantapa) is a regular feature in larger Hoysala temples leading to an inner small closed mantapa and the shrine(s). The open mantapas have seating areas made of stone with the mantapa's parapet wall acting as a back rest. The seats may follow the same staggered square shape of the parapet wall. The open mantapa is the largest part of the temple and is the place supporting larger congregations of people. The ceiling here is supported by numerous pillars that create many bays.[18] The shape of the open mantapa is best described as staggered-square and is the style used in most Hoysala temples.[19] Even the smallest open mantapa has 13 bays. The walls have parapets that have half pillars supporting the outer ends of the roof which allow plenty of light making all the sculptural details visible. The mantapa ceiling is generally ornate with sculptures, both mythological and floral. The ceiling consists of deep and domical surfaces and contains sculptural depictions of banana bud motifs and other such decorations. The Amruteswara temple in Chikmagalur district has forty-eight domes in the mahamantapa ("great open hall").

Ornate lintel over mantapa entrance in Chennakeshava temple, Belur

Ornate bay ceiling in mantapa in Saumyakeshava temple at Nagamangala, a common feature in Hoysala temples

Hoysala architecture

5 If the temple is small it will consist of only a closed mantapa (enclosed with walls extending all the way to the ceiling) and the shrine. The closed mantapa, well decorated inside and out, is larger than the vestibule connecting the shrine and the mantapa and has four lathe-turned pillars to support the ceiling, which may be deeply domed. The four pillars divide the hall into nine bays. The nine bays result in nine finely decorated ceilings.[20] Pierced stone latticework screens placed between pillars to filter the light is a characteristic Hoysala stylistic element.

Open Mantapa with shining, lathe-turned pillars at Amruthapura

A porch adorns the entrance to a closed mantapa, consisting of an awning supported by two half-pillars (engaged columns) and two parapets, all richly decorated. The closed mantapa is connected to the shrine(s) by a vestibule, a square area that also connects the shrines. Its outer walls are finely decorated, but as the size the vestibule is not large, this may not be a conspicuous part of the temple. The vestibule also has a short tower called the sukanasi or "nose"[21] upon which is mounted the Hoysala emblem. In Belur and Halebidu, these sculptures are quite large and are placed at all doorways. The outer and inner mantapa (open and closed) have circular lathe-turned pillars[22] having four brackets at the top. Over each bracket stands sculptured figure(s) called salabhanjika or madanika. The pillars may also exhibit fine ornamental carvings on the surface and no two pillars are alike.[23] This is how Hoysala art differs from the work of their early overlords, the Western Chalukyas, who added sculptural details to the circular pillar base and left the top plain. The lathe-turned pillars are 16, 32, or 64-pointed; some are bell-shaped and have properties that reflect light. The Parsvanatha Basadi at Halebidu is a good example. The shaft of the pillar is a monolith with the base left as a square and with well-sculpted figures adorning the top.

The vimana, also called the cella, contains the most sacred shrine wherein resides the image of the presiding deity. The vimana is often topped by a tower which is quite different on the outside than on the inside. Inside, the vimana is plain and square, whereas outside it is profusely decorated and can be either stellate ("star-shaped") or shaped as a staggered square, or feature a combination of these designs, giving it many projections and recesses that seem to multiply as the light falls on it. Each projection and recess has a complete decorative articulation that is rhythmic and repetitive and composed of blocks and mouldings, obscuring the tower profile. Depending on the number of shrines (and hence on the number of towers), the temples are classified as ekakuta (one), dvikuta (two), trikuta (three), chatushkuta (four) and panchakuta (five). Most Hoysala temples are ekakuta, dvikuta or trikuta.[24] In temples with multiple shrines, all essential parts are Star shaped Vimana (shrine) at duplicated for symmetry and balance. A temple's minor shrine usually has its Hosaholalu own tower. There are cases where a temple is trikuta but has only one tower over the main shrine (in the middle). So the terminology trikuta may not be literally accurate. Smaller shrines attached to the outer walls and facing outward from a larger vimana are a common feature. The highest point of the temple (kalasa) has the shape of a beautiful water pot and stands on top of the tower. This portion of the vimana is often lost due to age and has been replaced with a metallic pinnacle. Below the kalasa is a large, highly- sculptured structure resembling a dome which is made from large stones and looks like a helmet.[25] It may be 2m by 2m in size and follows the shape of the shrine. Below this structure are domed roofs in a square plan, all of them much smaller and crowned with small kalasas. They are mixed with other small roofs of different shapes and are ornately decorated. The tower of the shrine usually has three or four tiers of rows of decorative roofs while

Hoysala architecture the tower on top of the sukanasi has one less tier, making the tower look like an extension of the main tower (the "nose"). One decorated roof tier runs on top of the wall of a closed mantapa above the heavy eaves of an open mantapa and above the porches. Below the superstructure of the vimana are temple "eaves"[26] projecting half a meter from the wall. Below the eaves two different decorative schemes may be found, depending on whether a temple was built in the early or the later period of the empire. In the early temples built prior to the 13th century, there is one eave and below this are decorative miniature towers. A panel of Hindu deities and their attendants are below these towers, followed by a set of five different mouldings forming the base of the wall. In the later temples there is a Outer wall panel with six horizontal mouldings at second eave running about a metre below the upper eaves with Somanathapura decorative miniature towers placed between them. The wall images of gods are below the lower eaves, followed by six different mouldings of equal size. This is broadly termed "horizontal treatment".[27] The six mouldings at the base are divided in two sections. Going from the very base of the wall, the first horizontal layer contains a procession of elephants, above which are horsemen and then a band of foliage. The second horizontal section has depictions of the Hindu epics and Puranic scenes executed with detail. Above this are two friezes of yallis or makaras (imaginary beasts) and hamsas (swans). The vimana (tower) is divided into three horizontal sections and is even more ornate than the walls.[28]

Hoysala artists are famous for their sculptural detail, be it in the depiction of the Hindu epics, yallis, deities, kirthimukha(gargoyles), eroticism or aspects of daily life. Their medium, the soft chlorite schist, enabled a virtuoso carving style. Their workmanship shows an attention paid to precise detail. Every aspect down to a fingernail or toenail is perfected. Salabhanjika, a common form of Hoysala sculpture, is an old Indian tradition going back to Buddhist sculpture. Sala is the sala tree and bhanjika is the chaste maiden. In the Hoysala idiom, madanika figures are decorative objects put at an angle on the outer walls of the temple near the roof so that worshipers circumambulating the temple can view them. They served the function of bracket figures to pillars inside the mantapa. These madanika were sculpted as seemingly engaged in artistic activities such as music (holding musical instruments) and dance. Kirthimukhas (demon faces) adorn the towers of vimanas in some temples. Sometimes the artists left behind their signatures on the sculptures they created.

Sthamba buttalika, Hoysala art at Belur

The sthamba buttalikas are pillar images that show traces of Chola art in the Chalukyan touches. Some of the artists working for the Hoysalas may have been from Chola country, a result of the expansion of the empire into Tamil-speaking regions of Southern India. The image of mohini on one of the pillars in the mantapa (closed hall) of the Chennakeshava temple is a fine example of Chola art.

Hoysala architecture

General life themes are portrayed on wall panels such as the way horses were reined, the type of stirrup used, the depiction of dancers, musicians, instrumentalists, and rows of animals such as lions and elephants (where no two animals are identical). Perhaps no other temple in the country depicts the Ramayana and Mahabharata epics more effectively than the Hoysaleshwara temple at Halebidu.[29] Erotica was a subject the Hoysala artist handled with discretion. There is no exhibitionism in this, and erotic themes were carved into recesses and niches, generally miniature in form, making them inconspicuous. These erotic representations are associated with the Shakta practice. The temple doorway is heavily engraved with ornamentation called Makaratorana (makara being an imaginary beast) and each side of the doorway exhibits sculptured Salabhanjika (maidens).

Madanika bracket at Belur

Apart from these sculptures, entire sequences from the Hindu epics (commonly the Ramayana and the Mahabharata) have been sculpted in a clockwise direction starting at the main entrance.[30] The right to left sequence is the same direction taken by the devotees in their ritual circumambulation as they wind inward toward the inner sanctum. Depictions from mythology such as the epic hero Arjuna shooting fish, the elephant-headed god Ganesha, the Sun god Surya, the weather and war god Indra, and Brahma with Sarasvati are common. Also frequently seen in these temples is Durga, with several arms holding weapons given to her by other gods, in the act of killing a buffalo (a demon in a buffalo's form) and Harihara (a fusion of Shiva and Vishnu) holding a conch, wheel and trident. Many of these friezes were signed by the artisans, the first known instance of signed artwork in India.

Surveys in modern times have indicated that 10001500 structures were built by the Hoysalas, of which about a hundred temples have survived to date.[31] The Hoysala style is an offshoot of the Western Chalukya style, which was popular in the 10th and 11th centuries.[32] It is distinctively Dravidian, and owing to its unique features, Hoysala architecture qualifies as an independent style.[33] While the Hoysalas introduced innovative features into their architecture, they also borrowed features from the earlier great builders of Karnata like the Kadambas, Western Chalukyas. These features were the use of chloritic schist or soapstone as a basic building material,[34][35] pierced stone window screens which were very popular in Hoysala temples,[36] and the vimana which follows a stellate pattern.[37] All these features were popular with their early overlords, the Western Chalukyas. Other features were the stepped style of vimana tower called Kirthimukha decoration (demon the Kadamba shikhara, which was inherited from the Kadambas.[38] Engrained faces) on tower at Amruthapura in the craftsmanship of Hoysala sculptors was their knowledge of the effect of light and shade on carved walls, which they used to maximum effect in their sculptures in the numerous projections and recesses. The Hoysala sculpture in all its richness is said to be a challenge to photography. The artistry of the Hoysalas in stone has been compared to the finesse of an ivory worker or a goldsmith. The abundance of jewelry worn by the sculpted figures and the variety of hairstyles and headdresses depicted give a fair idea of the lifestyles of the Hoysala times.[39]

Hoysala architecture

Notable craftsmen
While the Hoysalas had the services of great architects and sculptors, some names stand out in their history. While medieval Indian artisans preferred to remain anonymous, Hoysala artisans signed their works, which has given researchers fascinating details about their lives, families, guilds, etc. Apart from the architects and sculptors, people of other guilds such as goldsmiths, ivory carvers, carpenters, and silversmiths also contributed to the completion of temples. The artisans were from diverse geographical backgrounds and included famous locals. Prolific architects included Amarashilpi Jakanachari, a native of Kaidala in Tumkur district, who also built temples for the Western Chalukyas. Ruvari Malithamma built the Kesava Temple at Somanathapura and worked on forty other monuments, including the Amruteshwara temple at Amruthapura. Malithamma specialised in ornamentation, and his works span six decades. His sculptures were typically signed in shorthand as Malli or simply Ma. Dasoja and Elephant balustrades in the his son Chavana from Balligavi were the architects of Chennakesava Temple at Bucesvara temple. A temple plan Belur; Kedaroja was the chief architect of the Hoysaleswara Temple at Halebidu. without jagati at Korvangla Their influence is seen in other temples built by the Hoysalas as well. Names of other locals found in inscriptions are Maridamma, Baicoja, Caudaya, Nanjaya and Bama,[40] Malloja, Nadoja, Siddoja, Masanithamma, Chameya and Rameya. Artists from Tamil country included Pallavachari and Cholavachari.

Notable temples
Selected famous temples built by the Hoysalas are shown in the table.[41][42][43][44]
Deity Lakshmidevi Chennakesava Chennigaraya Hoysaleswara Parsvanatha Rameshvara Brahmeshwara Bucheshvara Akkana Basadi Amruteshwara Adinatha Shantinatha Nageshvara Chennakesava Veeranarayana Kedareshwara Ishvara (Shiva) Harihareshwara Location Year King Vishnuvardhana Vishnuvardhana Vishnuvardhana Vishnuvardhana Vishnuvardhana Vishnuvardhana Narasimha I Veera Ballala II Veera Ballala II Veera Ballala II

Doddagaddavalli 1113 Belur Belur Halebidu Halebidu Koodli Kikkeri Koravangala 1117 1117 1120 1133 12th c. 1171 1173

Shravanabelagola 1181 Amruthapura Halebidu Jinanathapura Mosale Mosale Belavadi Halebidu Arsikere Harihar 1196

late 12th c. Veera Ballala II 1200 1200 1200 1200 1200 1220 1224 Veera Ballala II Veera Ballala II Veera Ballala II Veera Ballala II Veera Ballala II Veera Ballala II Vira Narasimha II

Hoysala architecture

Panchalingeshwara Govindanhalli Mallikarjuna Someshvara Basaralu Haranhalli 1238 1234 1235 1235 1246 1249 1250 1250 1250 1268 Vira Someshwara Vira Narasimha II Vira Someshwara Vira Someshwara Vira Someshwara Vira Someshwara Vira Someshwara Vira Someshwara Vira Someshwara Narasimha III

Lakshminarasimha Haranhalli Lakshminarasimha Nuggehalli Sadashiva Lakshminarayana Nuggehalli Hosaholalu

Lakshminarasimha Javagallu Chennakesava Kesava Aralaguppe Somanathapura

|+ bgcolor="#99CCCC"|Famous (11131268)

Hoysala temples in Karnataka

[1] [2] [3] [4] [5] Hardy (1995), pp243-245 Foekema (1996), p47, p59, p87 Hardy (1995), p320, p321, p324, p325, p329, p332, p334, p339, p340, p346 Foekema (1996), p53, p37, p71, p81, p41, p43, p83 Percy Brown in Kamath (2001), p134

[6] Kamath (2001), p132 [7] Foekema (1996), p19 [8] Foekema (1996), p1920 [9] Kamath (2001), pp 112, 132 [10] Foekema (1996), plate 27 [11] Foekema (1996), p31 [12] Foekema (1996), p32 [13] Foekema (1996), p21 [14] Kamath (2001), p136 [15] Kamath (2001), p135 [16] Foekema (1996), p25 [17] The Hoysaleswara shrine and the Shantaleswara shrine in the Hoysaleswara Temple in Halebidu are examples. (Foekema 1996, p59) [18] A bay is a square or rectangular compartment in the hall (Foekema 1996, p93) [19] This is also called "cross-in-square" style and is not a square (Foekema, 1996, p22) [20] The four pillars and nine bays of a closed mantapa is a norm in Hoysala temples (Foekema 1996, p22) Kadamba shikara (tower)with Kalasa (pinnacle) on top at Doddagaddavalli

[21] It is called a "nose" because it looks like an extension of the main tower (Foekema 1996, p22) Pierced stone window screens at Somanathapura [22] . This is a common feature of Western Chalukya-Hoysala temples: (Kamath 2001, p117) [23] It is possible that the Hoysalas encouraged different groups of artists to execute pillars and these groups may have been in competition to produce unique pillars, (Sastri 1955, p429) [24] Sometimes a trikuta may not literally mean "three towers", as only the central shrine has a tower (Foekema 1996, p25) [25] [26] [27] [28] Foekema (1996), p27 under the projecting roof overhanging the wall (Foekema 1996, p93) Kamath (2001), p134 Art critic Percy Brown calls this one of the distinguishing features of Hoysala art. (Kamath 2001, p134)

[29] The epic frieze is the most exciting feature of their sculptures (Foekema 1996, p29)

Hoysala architecture
[30] Foekema (1996), p29 [31] 1,500 temples in 958 centres were built, according to historical records, between 10001346 CE. [32] James Fergusson and Henry Cousens opine that the Hoysala style has features in common with the Western Chalukya style [33] Hoysala architecture and sculpture have been called a phenomenal effort of human concentration, skill and religious consciousness (Percy Brown in Kamath 2001, p134) [34] Kamath (2001) p136 [35] The Western Chalukya carvings were done in green schist (soapstone), a technique adopted by the Hoysalas [36] This is very commonly found in earlier Western Chalukya temples (Kamath 2001, p116)


Stellate plan of shrine in Chennakeshava Temple, Aralaguppe, Karnataka

[37] The Western Chalukya architecture has a stellate plan for the vimana [38] The most prominent feature of Kadamba architecture is their shikhara, called "Kadamba shikhara". The shikhara is pyramid-shaped and rises in steps without any decoration and has a stupika or kalasha on the top (Kamath 2001, p38) [39] Sastri (1955), p429 [40] Sastri (1955), p299 [41] Foekema (1996), pp5-6 [42] Foekema (2003), pp66-79, pp87-91 [43] Cousens (1926), p93 [44] Hardy (1995), pp317-348

Hoysala architecture


Cousens, Henry (1996) [1926]. The Chalukyan Architecture of Kanarese Districts. New Delhi: Archaeological Survey of India. OCLC 37526233 (http:/ / www. worldcat. org/ oclc/ 37526233). Foekema, Gerard (1996). Complete Guide to Hoysala Temples. New Delhi: Abhinav. ISBN81-7017-345-0. Foekema, Gerard (2003) [2003]. Architecture decorated with architecture: Later medieval temples of Karnataka, 10001300 AD. New Delhi: Munshiram Manoharlal Publishers Pvt. Ltd. ISBN81-215-1089-9. Hardy, Adam (1995) [1995]. Indian Temple Architecture: Form and Transformation : the Kara Drvia Tradition, 7th to 13th Centuries. New Delhi: Abhinav. ISBN81-7017-312-4. Kamath, Suryanath U. (2001) [1980]. A concise history of Karnataka: from pre-historic times to the present. Bangalore: Jupiter books. LCCN 8095179 (http:/ / lccn. loc. gov/ 8095179). OCLC 7796041 (http:/ / www. worldcat. org/ oclc/ 7796041). Nilakanta Sastry, K.A. (2002) [1955]. A history of South India from prehistoric times to the fall of Vijayanagar. New Delhi: Indian Branch, Oxford University Press. ISBN0-19-560686-8. Settar S. "Hoysala heritage" (http:/ / www. flonnet. com/ fl2008/ stories/ 20030425000206700. htm). history and craftsmanship of Belur and Halebid temples. Frontline. Retrieved 2006-11-13. Kamat, Jyotsna. "The Hoysala Dynasty" (http:/ / www. kamat. com/ kalranga/ deccan/ hoysala. htm). The Hoysala dynasty: 1000 A.D. to 1346 A.D. Kamat's Potpourri. Retrieved 2006-11-13. Arthikaje. "Architecture in Hoysala Empire" (http:/ / www. ourkarnataka. com/ states/ history/ historyofkarnataka47. htm). History of karnataka. OurKarnataka.Com. Retrieved 2006-11-13. Kamiya Takeo. "Architecture of Indian Subcontinent" (http:/ / www. indoarch. org/ place. php?placelink=R=5+ S=18+ P=0+ M=0). Indian Architecture. Architecture Autonomous. Retrieved 2006-11-13. Ragavendra, Srinidhi. "In need of support" (http:/ / archive. deccanherald. com/ Deccanherald/ aug92005/ spectrum92548200588. asp). Spectrum. Retrieved 2006-11-13. Githa U.B. "Hoyasala architecture in Somanathapura" (http:/ / web. archive. org/ web/ 20070403233313/ http:/ / chitralakshana. com/ articles/ UB+ githa/ hoysala. htm). History of Indian art. chitralakshana. Archived from the original (http:/ / www. chitralakshana. com/ articles/ UB githa/ hoysala. htm) on 2007-04-03. Retrieved 2006-11-13. Hardy, Adam. "Indian Temple Architecture: Form and TransformationThe Karnata Dravida Tradition 7th to 13th Centuries". Art History. JSTOR 3250027 (http:/ / www. jstor. org/ stable/ 3250027). Premakumar, B.P. "Architectural marvel" (http:/ / web. archive. org/ web/ 20080122161428/ http:/ / www. deccanherald. com/ Archives/ jan202004/ spt6. asp). Deccan Herald. Spectrum. Archived from the original (http:/ / www. deccanherald. com/ Archives/ jan202004/ spt6. asp) on January 22, 2008. Retrieved 2006-11-12.

Architecture of Karnataka

Architecture of Karnataka (345 to present) Kadamba architecture synthesis of several schools (345 to 525) Dravidian architecture (Western Ganga Dynasty) (350 to 550) Badami Chalukya architecture or the Vesara style (543 to 753) Dravidian & Rekhanagara architecture of Rashtrakutas (753 to 973)

Hoysala architecture

Western Chalukya architecture (Gadag style of architecture) (1000 and 1200) Hoysala architecture of the Hoysala Empire (1100 and 1400) Vijayanagara architecture of the Vijayanagar Empire (1336 to 1648) Islamic architecture of Bijapur Sultanate (1490 to 1686) Keladi Nayaka architecture of the Nayaka kingdoms (1499 1763) Architecture of Kingdom of Mysore Blends of Hindu, Muslim, Rajput, and Gothic styles of architecture (1399 to 1947) Indo-Sarcenic and Muslim architecture of Tippu Sultan (1780) Buddhist Viharas, Tibetan Culture & Tibetan architecture at Bylakuppe (1953 to present) Sikh architecture of Bidar & Bangalore (1512 to present) Neo-Gothic church architecture (1933 to 1956) Neo-Dravidian architecture (1947 to present)

Article Sources and Contributors


Article Sources and Contributors

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Image:Somanathapura Keshava templeprofile.JPG Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Somanathapura_Keshava_templeprofile.JPG License: GNU Free Documentation License Contributors: Jungpionier, Roland zh, 3 anonymous edits Image:Halebidu Lakshminarayana.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Halebidu_Lakshminarayana.jpg License: GNU Free Documentation License Contributors: en:User:Dineshkannambadi Image:Halebidu shiva.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Halebidu_shiva.jpg License: GNU Free Documentation License Contributors: en:User:Dineshkannambadi Image:Hulikere Hoysala Kalyani(tank) altered.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Hulikere_Hoysala_Kalyani(tank)_altered.jpg License: GNU Free Documentation License Contributors: User:Sagredo Image:Balligavi Kedareshwara profile retouched.JPG Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Balligavi_Kedareshwara_profile_retouched.JPG License: GNU Free Documentation License Contributors: User:Sagredo, user:Dineshkannambadi Image:Somanathapura Keshava temple altered.JPG Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Somanathapura_Keshava_temple_altered.JPG License: GNU Free Documentation License Contributors: Roland zh Image:Belur2 retouched.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Belur2_retouched.jpg License: GNU Free Documentation License Contributors: User:Sagredo, user:Calvinkrishy File:A Ceiling inside the shrine in Saumyakeshava Temple at Nagamangala.JPG Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:A_Ceiling_inside_the_shrine_in_Saumyakeshava_Temple_at_Nagamangala.JPG License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3.0 Contributors: User:Dineshkannambadi Image:Chikkamagalur Amritheswara navaranga retouched.JPG Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Chikkamagalur_Amritheswara_navaranga_retouched.JPG License: GNU Free Documentation License Contributors: User:Sagredo, user:Dineshkannambadi File:Stellate shrine outer wall with relief in Lakshminarayana temple at Hosaholalu.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Stellate_shrine_outer_wall_with_relief_in_Lakshminarayana_temple_at_Hosaholalu.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3.0 Contributors: User:Dineshkannambadi Image:Somanathapura wall-panel.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Somanathapura_wall-panel.jpg License: GNU Free Documentation License Contributors: en:User:Dineshkannambadi Image:Belur sthambha-buttalika.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Belur_sthambha-buttalika.jpg License: GNU Free Documentation License Contributors: en:User:Dineshkannambadi Image:Belur madanika.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Belur_madanika.jpg License: GNU Free Documentation License Contributors: en:User:Dineshkannambadi Image:Chikkamagalur Amruthapura kirthimukha retouched.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Chikkamagalur_Amruthapura_kirthimukha_retouched.jpg License: GNU Free Documentation License Contributors: User:Sagredo, user:Dineshkannambadi Image:Buchesvara Korvangla.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Buchesvara_Korvangla.jpg License: GNU Free Documentation License Contributors: en:User:Dineshkannambadi Image:Doddagaddavalli Lakshmidevi temple1 retouched.JPG Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Doddagaddavalli_Lakshmidevi_temple1_retouched.JPG License: GNU Free Documentation License Contributors: User:Sagredo, user:Dineshkannambadi Image:Wall Decoration at Kesava Temple in Somanathapura retouched.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Wall_Decoration_at_Kesava_Temple_in_Somanathapura_retouched.jpg License: GNU Free Documentation License Contributors: User:Sagredo File:Chennakeshava Temple at Aralaguppe(stellate shrine wall).JPG Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Chennakeshava_Temple_at_Aralaguppe(stellate_shrine_wall).JPG License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3.0 Contributors: User:Dineshkannambadi File:GBerunda.JPG Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:GBerunda.JPG License: Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported Contributors: Sarvagnya

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