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Circuit board

Electronic components are often assembled and interconnected on a flat surface known as a circuit board. The several types of existing circuit boards may be divided into two broad categories: those intended for prototype or experimental circuits; and those intended for production and/or commercial sale. Circuit boards used for experimental work are often referred to as breadboards or protoboards. readboards allow engineers to construct circuits !uickly" so that they can be studied and modified until an optimal design is discovered. #n a typical breadboard use" components and wires are added to a circuit in an ad hoc manner as the design proceeds" with new data and new understanding dictating the course of the design. $ince breadboard circuits exist only in the laboratory" no special consideration need be given to creating reliable or simple%to%manufacture circuits % the designer can focus exclusively on the circuit&s behavior. #n contrast" circuit boards intended for production or commercial sale must have highly reliable wires and interconnects permanent bonds to all components" and topographies amenable to mass production and thorough testing. 'nd further" they must be made of a material that is reliable" low%cost" and easy to manufacture. ' fiberglass substrate with copper wires (etched from laminated copper sheets) has been the *C material of choice for the past several decades. The +igilab board is a simple example of such a board. ,ote that most often" production circuit board designs are finali-ed only after extensive breadboard phases. Components are permanently affixed to production boards using the soldering process.

*roduction circuit boards typically start out as thin sheets of fiberglass (about .mm thick) that are completely covered on both sides with very thin sheets of metal (typically copper). ' /standard/ circuit board might use a . ounce copper process" which means that one ounce of copper is evenly spread across . s!uare foot of circuit board. +uring the manufacturing process" wire patterns are /printed/ onto the copper surfaces using a compound that resists etching (hence the name *rinted Circuit oard or *C ). The boards are sub0ected to a chemical etching process that removes all exposed copper. The remaining" un%etched copper forms wires that will interconnect the circuit board components" and small pads that define the regions where component leads will be attached. #n a *C that uses through%hole technology" holes are drilled through the pads so that that uses

component leads can be inserted and then fastened (soldered) in place. #n a *C

surface%mount technology" component leads are soldered directly to the pads on the surface. Each set of pads (or holes) in the *C is intended to receive a particular component. To identify which component must be loaded where" reference designators are printed on the circuit board immediately ad0acent to the pads using a silk%screen process. ' parts list ('ppendix ') links a designated set of pads to a physical component by describing the component and assigning it a particular reference designator. The reference designators guide assemblers and testers when they are working with the *C . 1any components must be placed into the *C in a particular orientation. y convention" components that re!uire a particular orientation have one lead designated as pin .. 2n the *C " a s!uare pad rather than the typical circular pad denotes pin .. 2n all but the simplest *C s" wires must be printed on more than one surface of fiberglass to allow for all the re!uired component interconnections. Each surface containing printed wires is called a layer. #n a relatively simple *C that re!uires only two layers" only one piece of fiberglass is re!uired since wires can be printed on both sides. #n a more complex *C where several layers are re!uired" individual circuit boards are manufactured separately and then laminated together to form one multi%layer circuit board. To connect wires on two or more layers" small holes called vias are drilled through the wires and fiberglass board at the point where the wires on the different layers cross. The interior surface of these holes is coated with metal so that electric current can flow through the vias. The +igilab board is a simple two%layer board; some more complex computer circuit boards have more than 34 layers.

The unloaded *C appears green because thin sheets of green plastic have been applied to both sides (otherwise the *C would appear pale yellow). Called solder masks" these sheets cover all exposed metal other than the component pads and holes so that errant solder can&t inadvertently short (or electrically connect) the printed wires. 'll metal surfaces other than the exposed pads and holes (i.e." the wires) are underneath the solder mask. ,ot infre!uently" blue or even red solder masks are used. Circuit components are manufactured with exposed metal pins (or leads) that are used to fasten them to the *C both mechanically (so they won&t fall off) and electrically (so current can pass between them). The soldering process" which provides a strong mechanical bond and a very good electrical connection" is used to fasten components to the *C . +uring soldering" component leads are inserted through the holes in the *C " and then the component leads and the through%hole plating metal are heated to above the melting point of the solder (about 544 to 644 degrees 7). $older (a metallic compound) is then melted and allowed to flow in and around the component lead and through%hole. The solder !uickly cools to form a strong bond between the component and the *C . The process of associating components with reference designators" loading them into their respective holes" and then soldering them in place comprises the *C assembly process. Examine the +igilab board" and note the printed wires on either side. 8ires on one side go largely /north and south/ while wires on the other side go largely /east and west/. The perpendicular or 1anhattan arrangement of wires on alternate layers is very common on multi% layer *C s. 9ocate some vias" and note that they connect wires on opposite sides. 9ocate various components" their hole patterns" and associated reference designators. #dentify pad . for the various components. ,ote that the through%holes are somewhat larger than the vias" and that component leads can easily be inserted into their through%holes" but not into vias.

Connectors
The +igilab board uses several connectors for various purposes" but in general" they all communicate electronic information between the board and outside devices. y convention" connectors are given the reference designator /:;;/. $ince connectors come in so many different si-es and shapes" they are usually shown on the *C silk screen and on circuit schematics as 0ust rectangular boxes. #n general" connectors must be placed into the *C in a particular orientation. 1ost often" the uni!ue through%hole patterns associated with a given connector make it obvious how it must be inserted. $everal connectors on the +igilab board allow communication with a computer. Connector :5 is a *$/3 connector that can accept a standard *C mouse or keyboard. :< is standard parallel port connector that can be used to implement any parallel port protocol (Centronics" EC*" E**" etc.). Connector := is a >$%3?3 serial port that can use a two%signal protocol to exchange data with a computer (e.g. @2,/@277 % only >@+ and T@+ are connected). :6 is a standard .5%pin AB' connector that can be used to drive any AB' monitor. The remaining connectors are used for on%board prototyping. :3 is a 63%pin +#* socket that allows easy connections between the +igilab devices and the integral breadboard (see the /Csing the +igilab oard/ section later in this document). :? is a standard ./D/stereo audio 0ack" and ,. and ,3 are standard ,C connectors" all of whose inputs are available as connections on :3. 7inally" the header strips :E" :D" :.4" and :.. allow for easy connection of test and measurement e!uipment.

Output LEDs
Circuits often re!uire output devices to communicate their state to an user. Examples of electronic output devices include computer monitors" 9C+ alphanumeric panels (as on a calculator)" small lamps or light%emitting diodes (9E+&s)" etc. 2utputs from the +igilab board consist of eight individual 9E+&s and a four%digit 9E+ display that can display the digits 4%< in each digit position. 's with diodes" 9E+&s are two%terminal semiconductor devices that conduct current in only one direction (from the anode to the cathode). The small 9E+ chips are secured inside a plastic housing" and they emit light at a given fre!uency (>E+" FE9928" etc.) when a small electric current (typically .4m' to 35m') flows through them. 2n the +igilab board" only red 9E+s are used" but they are available in many colors. $ince 9E+s are polarised devices" they must be placed in the circuit board with the correct orientation. 's with diodes" 9E+ cathode terminals are identified using uni!ue marks (see the figure below). The 9E+&s on the +igilab board are denoted with an /9+;;/ reference designator. 'pplying A++ to the :3 circuit connections labelled 9+.%9+D will illuminate the 9E+s. 'n 9E+ schematic symbol is shown below" together with a sketch of a physical 9E+ and a typical silkscreen pattern. 's can be seen" the schematic symbol resembles a regular diode" but with added arrows indicating light emission.

,ote that 9E+ components typically have the cathode side of their plastic diffusion lens slightly flattened" and a longer cathode pin as well. 8hen placing individual 9E+ components into the *C " be sure the flattened side matches the flattened side of the silk%screen pattern.

Diodes
+iodes are constructed from the same type of silicon as transistors" but they are simpler devices that have only two terminals. Called the anode and cathode" the two ends of the diode are constructed of positively doped silicon (the anode) 0oined directly to negatively doped silicon (the cathode). This pn%0unction exhibits the uni!ue characteristic of allowing current to flow in only one direction (from the anode to the cathode). +iodes have a minimum threshold voltage (or Ath" usually around 4.6A) that must be present between the anode and cathode in order for current to flow. #f the anode voltage is not at least Ath greater than the cathode voltage" no current will flow. 9ikewise" if the cathode voltage is greater than the anode voltage" the diode is said to be reverse%biased and no current will flow. #n an ideal diode" if the diode voltage e!uals the threshold voltage (plus a small amount)" then unlimited current can flow without causing the voltage across the diode to increase. 'nd" if the diode is reversed%biased" no current will flow regardless of reverse%voltage magnitude.

+iodes have many uses in electronic circuits. 's examples" they are fre!uently employed in power supply circuits to turn alternating current ('C) into direct current (+C)" they are used to limit the amount of over%voltage that can be applied to a given circuit node" and they are used to force given circuit nodes to remain at or below a certain voltage. 2n the +igilab board" three individual diodes are used to limit the voltages applied to the >ed" lue" and Breen pins of the AB' connector (:E) to 4.6A+C or less (AB' colour signals must lie in that voltage range to meet relevant specifications % higher voltages would damage computer display electronics).

,ote the identification methods used to mark a diode&s cathode terminal: the schematic symbol has a line at the point of the triangle; the physical diode has a dark line on the plastic component housing; and the silk%screen pattern has both a line at the cathode end and a s!uare pad for the cathode lead. 8hen loading a diode into a circuit board" make sure that the dark line on the diode matches the line in the silk%screen pattern. >emember that since diodes allow current to flow in only one direction" a backwards diode will cause the circuit to malfunction. +iodes locations on the circuit board are typically denoted with a /+;;/ reference designator.

Integrated Circuits
The terms chip and integrated circuit refer circuits using microscopic transistors that are all co%located on the same small piece of silicon. Chips have been designed to do all sorts of functions" from very simple and basic logical switching functions to highly complex processing functions. $ome chips contain 0ust a handful of transistors" while others contain several million transistors. $ome of the longest%surviving chips perform the most basic functions. These chips" denoted with the standard part numbers /6=@@@/" are simple small%scale integration devices that house small collections of logic circuits. 7or example" a chip known as a 6=44 contains four individual ,',+ gates" with each input and output available at an external pin. 's shown in the figures below" the chips themselves are much smaller than their packages. +uring manufacturing" the small" fragile chips are glued (using epoxy) onto the bottom half of the package" bond%wires are attached to the chip and to the externally available pins" and then the top half of the chip package is permanently affixed. $maller chips may only have a few pins" but larger chips can have more than 544 pins. $ince the chips themselves are on the order of a centimeter on each side" very precise and delicate machines are re!uired to mount them in their packages. $maller chips are usually packaged in a /+#*/ package (+#* is an acronym for +ual #n% line *ackage) as shown below. Typically on the order of 3.5 x 4.65cm" +#* packages are most often made from black plastic" and they can have anywhere from D to =D pins protruding in e!ual numbers from either side. +#*s are used exclusively in through%hole processes. 9arger chips use many different packages % one common package" the /*9CC/ (for *lastic 9eaded Chip Carrier) is shown below. $ince these larger packages can have up to several hundred pins" it is often not

practical to use the relatively large leads re!uired by through%hole packages. Thus" large chips usually use surface mount packages" where the external pins can be smaller and more densely packed.

$hown below is a representation of a 6=44 logic #C that contains .E transistors organised as four 3%input ,',+ gates. This small chip is housed in a .=%pin +#* package that provides pins for each of the ,',+ gates inputs and outputs" as well as a power and ground pin (labelled Add and B,+). ,ote the picture shows the four logic gates placed inside a +#* outline" thereby showing both the function and pinout (or pin definition) of the #C.

2n schematics and on the *C silkscreen" chips are often shown as s!uare boxes denoted with a /C;;/ reference designator. ,ote that on the +igilab *C " all the chips are loaded in sockets. $ockets are generally used when chips may need to be replaced or upgraded (such as older *C #2$ >21s)" or when chips are on a circuit board that might be damaged during fre!uent handling (such as the +igilab board). Chips" even in their plastic packages" are !uite

fragile are sub0ect to damage from a variety of sources" including electrostatic discharge or E$+. *lacing chips in sockets allows them to easily be replaced if they do get damaged. The +igilab board contains several different #Cs. C. is used to filter (or /clean up/) the button inputs so that they provide clean edges when pressed (more on this process" called debouncing" later). C. also provides additional current to drive the 9E+ displays. C3 provides current for the eight individual 9E+s (9E+s are described later). C? is a /7ield *rogrammable Bate 'rray/ (or 0ust 7*B') @ilinx chip that can be configured to perform virtually any moderately%si-ed digital function this chip is used extensively in many labs. C= and C5 are small chips that provide clock sources for the @ilinx 7*B'. 'lthough not strictly necessary" these clock chips can produce the higher fre!uencies that are needed in some applications. CE is an optional configuration >21 for the @ilinx chip" and C6 and CD are used by the @ilinx *C% based programming circuit. 7inally" C< converts the >$%3?3 voltages (%?A to %.3A for a /./ and ?A to .3A for a /4/) to voltages compatible with digital circuits (4A to 5A).

Capacitors
' capacitor is a two%terminal device that can store electric energy in the form of charged particles. Fou can think of a capacitor as a reservoir of charge that takes time to fill or empty. The voltage across a capacitor is proportional to the amount of charge it is storing % since it is not possible to instantaneously move charge to or from a capacitor" it is not possible to instantaneously change the voltage across a capacitor. #t is this property that makes capacitors useful on the +igilab board.

Capacitance is measured in 7arads % a one 7arad capacitor can store one Coloumb of charge at one volt. 7or engineering on a small scale (i.e." hand%held or desk%top devices)" a one 7arad capacitor stores far too much charge to be of general use (it would be like a car having a

.444 gallon gas tank). 1ore useful capacitors are measured in micro%farads (u7) or pico%farads (p7). The terms /milli%farad/ and /nano%farad/ are rarely used. 9arge capacitors often have their value printed plainly on them" such as /.4 u7/ (for .4 microfards). $maller capacitors" appearing as small disks or wafers" often have their values printed on them in an encoded manner (similar to the resistor packs discussed above). 7or these capacitors" a three digit number indicates the capacitor value in pico%farads. The first two digits provides the /base/ number" and the third digit provides an exponent of .4 (so" for example" /.4=/ printed on a capacitor indicates a capacitance value of .4 x .4 = or .44444 p7). 2ccasionally" a capacitor will only show a two digit number" in which case that number is simply the capacitor value in p7. (To be complete" if a capacitor shows a three digit number and the third digit is D or <" then the first two digits are multiplied by .4. and .. respectively). 2ften" a single letter is appended to the capacitance value % this letter indicates the !uality of the capacitor. Capacitors are used on the +igilab board to keep the voltage supplies and some signals stable regardless of circuit activity" and to store charge when inputs are activated in order to slow their assertion times. Twenty%seven capacitors of three different types and values are used on the +igilab board. The ma0ority of the capacitors (3= out of 36) are used to decouple +igilab&s integrated circuits from the power supply. These 3= bypass capacitors are placed on the board very close to the Add pins of all chips" where they can supply the short%term electrical current needs of the chips. 8ithout such bypass capacitors" individual chips could cause the Add supply across the entire +igilab board to dip below 5A during times of heavy current demand. ,early every chip in every digital system uses bypass capacitors. ypass capacitor value can be determined if the worst%case current re!uirements are known (by using the formula # G C dv/dt)" but more typically" capacitors in the range 4.4.u7 to 4..u7 are used without regard to the actual current re!uirements. The +igilab board uses 4.4=6u7 bypass capacitors. The board also uses a bulk bypass capacitor (C36) to provide charge storage for the entire circuit board % this large =6u7 capacitor can supply the individual bypass capacitors during times of exceptional need. Two further capacitors (C33 and C3?) are used to filter high%fre!uency noise from two programming signals re!uired by the @ilinx chip. 7ilter capacitors are often used in such a manner to limit the rate at which voltages on a given circuit node can change. The graphs below indicate the time course of these signals before and after the filter capacitors are applied.

+epending on the si-e of the capacitor" the *C silk screen will show either a circle or rectangle to indicate capacitor placement (usually" smallish capacitors are shown as rectangles" and larger capacitors as circles). $ome capacitors are polarised" meaning they must be placed into the *C in a particular orientation (so that one terminal is never at a lower voltage than the other). *olarised capacitors either have a dark stripe near the pin that must be kept at a higher voltage" or a /%/ near the pin that must be kept at a lower voltage. $ilk%screen patterns for polarised capacitors will also often have a /H/ sign nearest the through%hole that must be kept at a relatively higher voltage. Capacitors use a /C;;/ reference designator.

VALUE 1.5pF . pF 10pF 15pF 20pF 0pF pF !"pF 5#pF #$pF "5pF $2pF %1pF

TYPE Ceramic Ceramic Ceramic Ceramic Ceramic Ceramic Ceramic Ceramic Ceramic Ceramic Ceramic Ceramic Ceramic

CODE

VALUE 1,000pF / .001uF 1,500pF / .0015uF 2,000pF / .002uF 2,200pF / .0022uF !,"00pF / .00!"uF 5,000pF / .005uF 5,#00pF / .005#uF #,$00pF / .00#$uF .01 .015 .02 .022 .0

TYPE Ceramic / Mylar Ceramic / Mylar Ceramic / Mylar Ceramic / Mylar Ceramic / Mylar Ceramic / Mylar Ceramic / Mylar Ceramic / Mylar Ceramic / Mylar Mylar Mylar Mylar Mylar

CODE 102 152 202 222 !"2 502 5#2 #$2 10

20 22

100pF 120pF 1 0pF 150pF 1$0pF 220pF 0pF !"0pF 5#0pF #$0pF "50pF $20pF

Ceramic Ceramic Ceramic Ceramic Ceramic Ceramic Ceramic Ceramic Ceramic Ceramic Ceramic Ceramic

101 121 1 1 151 1$1 221 1 !"1 5#1 #$1 "51 $21

.0!" .05 .05# .0#$ .1 .2 .22 . .!" .5# 1 2

Mylar Mylar Mylar Mylar Mylar Mylar Mylar Mylar Mylar Mylar Mylar Mylar

!" 50 5# #$ 10! 20! 22! ! !"! 5#! 105 205

General Capacitance Codebreaker Information *ico7arad (p7) .444 .544 3344 ??44 =644 ED44 .4444 .5444 33444 ??444 =6444 ED444 .44444 .54444 334444 ??4444 =64444 ,ano7arad (n7) . or .n ..5 or .n5 3.3 or 3n3 ?.? or ?n? =.6 or =n6 E.D or EnD .4 or .4n .5 or .5n 33 or 33n ?? or ??n =6 or =6n ED or EDn .44 or .44n .54 or .54n 334 or 334n ??4 or ??4n =64 or =64n 1icro7arad (m7"u7 or mfd) 4.44. 4.44.5 4.4433 4.44?? 4.44=6 4.44ED 4.4. 4.4.5 4.433 4.4?? 4.4=6 4.4ED 4.. 4..5 4.33 4.?? 4.=6 Capacitance Code .43 .53 333 ??3 =63 ED3 .4? .5? 33? ??? =6? ED? .4= .5= 33= ??= =6=

Resistors
>esistors are two%terminal devices that restrict" or resist" the flow of current. The larger the resistor" the less current can flow through it for a given voltage (an e!uation known as 2hm&s law" AG#>" relates current" resistance" and voltage). Electrical resistance within the resistor body is caused by the collisions of electrons in motion through the resistor. $uch collisions cause energy to be dissipated in the form of heat or light (as in a toaster or light bulb). >esistance is measured in 2hms % a . 2hm resistor is relatively small" and a .44I2hm resistor is relatively large. >esistors find many uses in electronic systems. 2n the +igilab board" resistors are used to limit the current that flows into an output 9E+ (so they don&t burn too bright and destroy themselves) and to limit the current that flows in response to a button or switch input being activated. The +igilab board uses several different resistor values. 2f course" the correct resistor must be loaded in the correct place on the *C . >esistors come in many shapes and si-es" and depending on their si-e and construction technology" they can dissipate differing amounts of power (the amount of power dissipated in a resistor can be calculated using the e!uation *G# 3 >" where # is the current flowing through the resistor and > is the resistance). Typically" resistors used in digital systems encounter relatively low voltages and currents" and therefore" they can be relatively small. The +igilab resistors are rated to dissipate 354m8 of power" or ./= 8att. >esistors that can dissipate more than ./= 8att are physically larger. 7or example" power resistors that can dissipate several 8atts or more can be cigar%si-ed or even larger. 7or small resistors" resistor values are /encoded/ as a series of coloured bands on the resistor body. To determine the value of a small resistor (i.e." ./D 8att or ./= 8att)" first locate the tolerance band on one end of the resistor % it will typically be either gold (5J tolerance) or silver (.4J tolerance). The colour band at the other end of the resistor is band.. Cse the table below to find the two%digit number associated with the colors of bands . and 3. The band nearest the tolerance band is the multiplier (or exponent) band % the digits associated with the first two colour bands are multiplied by .4 raised to the power indicated by the colour of the multiplier band. The following table associates band colors to digits and multiplier factors. $imply multiply the two%digit value by the multiplier" and you&ve got the resistor value.

>esistors are manufactured with many body colors" with tan or light brown being the most typical. The only significant resistor body colors are white and blue; these colors signify a non%flammable or fusible resistor. $uch resistors are used in circuits where overheating might pose a safety risk. #n circuit schematics and in parts lists" resistor reference designators always begin with an />/. Fou can see several rectangular white boxes with />;;/ on the +igilab board silk%screen. The schematic symbol for a resistor is shown above. >esistors are non%polarised" so they can be placed in a *C in any orientation.

Resistor Packs
#f a circuit application re!uires many resistors of the same value" and if those resistors can be located close together on a *C " then a resistor pack can be used instead of individual resistors. >esistors in a pack function identically to discrete resistors % they are 0ust more economical to work with. $everal different types of resistor packs are available. Two of the more common types" and the types used on the +igilab board" are called /bussed/ packs and /isolated/

packs. 'll resistors in a bussed resistor pack have one lead connected to a common node" while all resistors in an isolated pack have independent nodes.

>esistor values are also /encoded/ on the pack body" but the code uses a three%digit number instead of colors. The first two digits are simply multiplied by .4 n " where n is the third digit. 7or example" if /36./ was printed on a resistor pack" the resistors inside would be 364 ohms (36 x .4 . G 364). The three%digit number corresponding to resistor value is usually the last number (after the last dash) printed on the resistor pack. #n circuit schematics" resistor packs are shown using the same 0agged%line symbol as discrete resistors. 2n *C silk screens" they are typically shown as a narrow rectangular box. >eference designators are usually />;;/ (like discrete resistors)" or />*;;/. 2n the +igilab board" the >*;; designator is used. >esistor packs are usually polarised" and they must be oriented. ' small black dot is located on the pack near pin .. The +igilab board uses several resistor packs with three different values. Two bussed resistor packs (the 364 ohm >*. and the .4I ohm >*3) are used by the 9E+ circuit % the 364% ohm resistors set the 9E+ current (and therefore the 9E+ brightness)" and the .4I ohm resistors ensure the 9E+s remain off until they are purposely turned on. $imilarly" the 364 ohm isolated resistor packs >*6 and >*D set the 9E+ current for the seven%segment displays" and the 3.3I ohm isolated resistor pack >*< ensures that display digits remain off until expressly turned on. The remaining packs are all 3.3I isolated packs" and are all used to debounce the buttons and switches.

Inputs (buttons and switches


Circuits often re!uire inputs that come directly from users (as opposed to inputs that come from other devices). #nput devices can take many forms" among them keyboards (as on a *C)" buttons (as on a calculator or telephone)" rotary dials" switches and levers" etc. The +igilab board has twelve input devices" including four push buttons ( T,. % switches and ($8. % $8D). T,=) and eight slide%

The slide switches are also known as single throw%double pole ($T+*) switches" because only one switch (or throw) exists" but two positions (or poles) are available (a pole is an electrical contact to which the switch can make contact). These switches can be set to output either Add (when the actuator is closest to the boards edge) or B,+. The push button switches are also known as momentary contact buttons" because they only make contact while they are actively being pressed; they output a B,+ at rest" and a Add only when they are being pressed. Aarious input devices have many associated symbols and reference designators that appear in circuit schematics. Typical symbols for a button and for a switch are shown below. The reference designators used here are T,; for the buttons and $; for the switches.