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Prestressed Concrete Hashemite University

Dr. Hazim Dwairi 1


The Hashemite University
Department of Civil Engineering
Lecture 6 Lecture 6 Flexural Design Flexural Design
Dr Hazim Dwairi Dr Hazim Dwairi
Prestressed Prestressed Concrete Concrete Dr. Hazim Dwairi Dr. Hazim Dwairi The Hashemite University The Hashemite University
Dr. Hazim Dwairi Dr. Hazim Dwairi
Every Design is Essentially an Every Design is Essentially an
Analysis. Analysis. -- Nawy Nawy
Stages at which stresses are estimated Stages at which stresses are estimated
I i i l P I i i l P Initial Prestress Initial Prestress
Self Self--weight application weight application
Superimposed dead load Superimposed dead load
Decompression in steel Decompression in steel
Service load limit Service load limit
Ultimate load state Ultimate load state
Prestressed Prestressed Concrete Concrete Dr. Hazim Dwairi Dr. Hazim Dwairi The Hashemite University The Hashemite University
Ultimate load state Ultimate load state
According to current practice PS members According to current practice PS members
are proportioned using allowable stress are proportioned using allowable stress
design (ASD) design (ASD)
Prestressed Concrete Hashemite University
Dr. Hazim Dwairi 2
Cross Cross- -section dimensions, Prestress force, and section dimensions, Prestress force, and
eccentricity are selected to keep stress within eccentricity are selected to keep stress within
specified limits. specified limits.
Beams designed this way must satisfy deflection Beams designed this way must satisfy deflection
requirement and other load combinations must requirement and other load combinations must requirement and other load combinations must requirement and other load combinations must
be checked be checked
Basic flexure theory assumptions Basic flexure theory assumptions
Plane section before bending remain plane after Plane section before bending remain plane after
bending (i.e. small deflections) bending (i.e. small deflections)
Material is elastic Material is elastic
Prestressed Prestressed Concrete Concrete Dr. Hazim Dwairi Dr. Hazim Dwairi The Hashemite University The Hashemite University
Material is elastic Material is elastic
Effect of transformed section is neglected Effect of transformed section is neglected
Section is Section is uncracked uncracked
No variation of PS force along the beam No variation of PS force along the beam
Effect of small curvature is neglected Effect of small curvature is neglected
Equal
Flexural Stress Distribution Flexural Stress Distribution
Throughout Load History Throughout Load History
T C C C
3
f
c
(a) Beam section (a) Beam section
T
w
C C C or zero T
(a)
(b) (c)
(d)
(e)
(f)
Prestressed Prestressed Concrete Concrete Dr. Hazim Dwairi Dr. Hazim Dwairi The Hashemite University The Hashemite University
(a) Beam section (a) Beam section
(b) Initial stressing stage (b) Initial stressing stage
(c) self (c) self- -weight and effective weight and effective prestress prestress
(d) Full D.L. + (d) Full D.L. + P P
eff eff
(e) Full service load + (e) Full service load + P P
eff eff
(f) Ultimate limit state for under (f) Ultimate limit state for under- -reinforced beam reinforced beam
Prestressed Concrete Hashemite University
Dr. Hazim Dwairi 3
Maximum Fiber Stresses Maximum Fiber Stresses
t
L SD
S
M M +
t
f
t
D
S
M c
f
ti
f
1 P
i
Stresses
4
c
t
c
b
cgc
i
2 P
i
+ M
D
Stresses
3 P
e
+ M
D
Stresses
4 P
e
+ M
D
+ M
SD
+ M
L
Stresses
Prestressed Prestressed Concrete Concrete Dr. Hazim Dwairi Dr. Hazim Dwairi The Hashemite University The Hashemite University
1 2
3
b
L SD
S
M M +
b
f
b
D
S
M
ci
f
t
f
Load Deflection Curve Load Deflection Curve
Load
Service load limit
Ultimate
Steel yielding
Full dead load
Balanced
Decompression
First cracking
cgs (f=0)
f
cr
overload
Service load limit
Prestressed Prestressed Concrete Concrete Dr. Hazim Dwairi Dr. Hazim Dwairi The Hashemite University The Hashemite University

o

D

L

Pe
Prestressed Concrete Hashemite University
Dr. Hazim Dwairi 4
Selection of Geometric Properties Selection of Geometric Properties
Select the min. section Select the min. section moduli moduli S S
tt
& & SS
bb
that that
ti f t li it t t f l di ti f t li it t t f l di satisfy stress limits at stage of loadings: satisfy stress limits at stage of loadings:
support at SS for 5 . 0
25 . 0
'
'
ci ti
ci ti
f f
OR f f
=
=
'
'
6 . 0
45 . 0
c c
c c
f f
OR f f
=
=
Prestressed Prestressed Concrete Concrete Dr. Hazim Dwairi Dr. Hazim Dwairi The Hashemite University The Hashemite University
'
6 . 0
ci ci
f f =
met is deflection term - Long
if
5 . 0
'
'
c t
c t
f f
OR f f
=
=
(a) At Transfer (B) At Service
Selection of Geometric Properties Selection of Geometric Properties
Stresses at transfer: Stresses at transfer:
(1) .......... 1
2

=
ti t
D
t
i t
f
M ec P
f
force ng prestressi initial P
(2) .......... 1
( )
i
2
2

ci b
D
b
c
i b
ti t
c
f
S
M
r
ec
A
P
f
f
S r A
f

t
M ec P
Effective stresses after losses: Effective stresses after losses:
Prestressed Prestressed Concrete Concrete Dr. Hazim Dwairi Dr. Hazim Dwairi The Hashemite University The Hashemite University
losses after force ng prestressi effective P
1
1
i
2
2

=
c b
D
b
c
e b
t t
D
c
e t
f
S
M
r
ec
A
P
f
f
S
M
r
ec
A
P
f
Prestressed Concrete Hashemite University
Dr. Hazim Dwairi 5
Selection of Geometric Properties Selection of Geometric Properties
Service load final stresses: Service load final stresses:
(3) 1
T
t
e t
f
M ec P
f


(4) .......... 1
(3) .......... 1
2
2
t
b
T
b
c
e b
c t
T
c
e
f
S
M
r
ec
A
P
f
f
S r A
f

=
Where: Where:
MM = M = M + M + M + M + M
Prestressed Prestressed Concrete Concrete Dr. Hazim Dwairi Dr. Hazim Dwairi The Hashemite University The Hashemite University
MM
T T
= M = M
DD
+ M + M
SD SD
+ M + M
LL
PP
i i
= initial = initial prestress prestress
PP
ee
= effective = effective prestress prestress after losses after losses
Selection of Geometric Properties Selection of Geometric Properties
Decompression stage is when the stress Decompression stage is when the stress
at the at the cgs cgs is equal to zero. The change in is equal to zero. The change in at the at the cgs cgs is equal to zero. The change in is equal to zero. The change in
the concrete stress due to decompression the concrete stress due to decompression
is: is:

+ =
2
2
1
r
e
A
P
f
c
e
decomp
For variable tendon eccentricity: For variable tendon eccentricity:
Prestressed Prestressed Concrete Concrete Dr. Hazim Dwairi Dr. Hazim Dwairi The Hashemite University The Hashemite University
For variable tendon eccentricity: For variable tendon eccentricity:
assume the effective assume the effective prestress prestress P P
ee
==PP
i i
i.e. loss of i.e. loss of prestress prestress = P = P
i i
PP
ee
= (1 = (1- -) P ) P
i i
Prestressed Concrete Hashemite University
Dr. Hazim Dwairi 6
Selection of Geometric Properties Selection of Geometric Properties
t
D
ti
t
c
i
S
M
f
r
ec
A
P
+ =

(5) .......... 1 Eq(1) from


2
c t
L SD D
t
c
i
c t
T
t
c
e
f
S
M M M
r
ec
A
P
f
S
M
r
ec
A
P

+ +
=

: Eq(5) using
- 1
- 1 Eq(3) from
2
2

Prestressed Prestressed Concrete Concrete Dr. Hazim Dwairi Dr. Hazim Dwairi The Hashemite University The Hashemite University
t
L SD D
c ti
c t
L SD D
t
D
ti
S
M M M
f f
f
S
M M M
S
M
f
+ +
=
+ +
=

+
) 1 (
-

Selection of Geometric Properties Selection of Geometric Properties


c ti
L SD D t
f f
M M M
S

+ +

) 1 (

ti
b t
ci t
L SD D b
f f S c
f f
M M M
S

+ +

: e Furthermor
) 1 (

: similarly

Prestressed Prestressed Concrete Concrete Dr. Hazim Dwairi Dr. Hazim Dwairi The Hashemite University The Hashemite University
b t
b t
b t
t b b t
ci t
c ti
t b
S S
S
h
c
S S
S
h
c
h
c c
f f
f f
S
S
c
c
+
=
+
= =
+

= =
; ; 1

Prestressed Concrete Hashemite University


Dr. Hazim Dwairi 7
Required Eccentricity Required Eccentricity
At critical section, usually At critical section, usually midspan midspan, ,
eccentricity can be determined using eccentricity can be determined using eccentricity can be determined using eccentricity can be determined using
concrete concrete centroidal centroidal stress under initial stress under initial
conditions: conditions:
( )
D
t
cgc ti c
P
M
P
S
f f e + =
ti
f
cgc
f
t
c
h
Prestressed Prestressed Concrete Concrete Dr. Hazim Dwairi Dr. Hazim Dwairi The Hashemite University The Hashemite University
( )
c cgc i
i i
cgc ti c
A f P
P P
f f
=
ci
f
b
c
Beam with Constant Eccentricity Beam with Constant Eccentricity
If the PS force and the eccentricity are If the PS force and the eccentricity are
kept constant along the span, as is often kept constant along the span, as is often kept constant along the span, as is often kept constant along the span, as is often
convenient in PS construction, the stress convenient in PS construction, the stress
limits will most likely be exceeded at limits will most likely be exceeded at
several point in the span, especially at several point in the span, especially at
supports. supports.
C t i lt ti il bl f C t i lt ti il bl f
Prestressed Prestressed Concrete Concrete Dr. Hazim Dwairi Dr. Hazim Dwairi The Hashemite University The Hashemite University
Certain alternatives are available for Certain alternatives are available for
reducing excessive stresses at supports, reducing excessive stresses at supports,
as follows: as follows:
Prestressed Concrete Hashemite University
Dr. Hazim Dwairi 8
1. 1. Debonding Debonding
12 cables
2. Raised Tendons 2. Raised Tendons
4 cables sheathed
without grouting
Prestressed Prestressed Concrete Concrete Dr. Hazim Dwairi Dr. Hazim Dwairi The Hashemite University The Hashemite University
L/4
3. Supplementary 3. Supplementary nonprestressed nonprestressed
steel steel
Minimum section Minimum section moduli moduli values are: values are:
c ti
L SD D t
f f
M M M
S

+ +

: and
ci t
L SD D b
f f
M M M
S

+ +

: and
Required eccentricity at critical section: Required eccentricity at critical section:
Prestressed Prestressed Concrete Concrete Dr. Hazim Dwairi Dr. Hazim Dwairi The Hashemite University The Hashemite University
( )
i
t
cgc ti c
P
S
f f e =
Prestressed Concrete Hashemite University
Dr. Hazim Dwairi 9
Shape Selection Shape Selection
A unique feature PS concrete design is the A unique feature PS concrete design is the
freedom to select cross freedom to select cross--sectional properties to sectional properties to
it i l i t t h d it i l i t t h d suit special requirement at hand suit special requirement at hand
In steel structures, choices are limited to In steel structures, choices are limited to
standarized standarized shapes in shapes in tember tember, rectangular , rectangular
sections are almost always used. Since mid sections are almost always used. Since mid--
span moment normally controls PS design, the span moment normally controls PS design, the
larger the mid larger the mid span eccentricity the smaller is span eccentricity the smaller is
Prestressed Prestressed Concrete Concrete Dr. Hazim Dwairi Dr. Hazim Dwairi The Hashemite University The Hashemite University
larger the mid larger the mid--span eccentricity, the smaller is span eccentricity, the smaller is
the needed PS force, and the design is more the needed PS force, and the design is more
economic. in this case a large top flange is economic. in this case a large top flange is
needed, resulting in T or I sections. needed, resulting in T or I sections.
For short span beams, rectangular sections may For short span beams, rectangular sections may
provide the most economical section because provide the most economical section because
forming costs are minimized for longer spans, forming costs are minimized for longer spans,
the more efficient flanged sections are preferred. the more efficient flanged sections are preferred.
I I sections are used as floor beams with sections are used as floor beams with
composite slab topping in long composite slab topping in long--span parking span parking
structures. structures.
I and T I and T-- sections are commonly used for bridge sections are commonly used for bridge
structures. structures.
Prestressed Prestressed Concrete Concrete Dr. Hazim Dwairi Dr. Hazim Dwairi The Hashemite University The Hashemite University
Double T Double T-- sections are widely used in floor sections are widely used in floor
systems in building and parking structures, systems in building and parking structures,
because of the large compressive area available because of the large compressive area available
in slab. in slab.
Prestressed Concrete Hashemite University
Dr. Hazim Dwairi 10
Large hollow box girders are used in very large Large hollow box girders are used in very large
span segmental bridge construction. These span segmental bridge construction. These
girder have high girder have high torsional torsional strength and strength and
strength/weight ratio. strength/weight ratio.
Prestressed Prestressed Concrete Concrete Dr. Hazim Dwairi Dr. Hazim Dwairi The Hashemite University The Hashemite University
Typical Span Typical Span- -Depth Ratio Depth Ratio
Type Span/Depth Ratio
I-Beam and single T-beam 24 - 36 g
Double T-beams 30 - 40
Bridge Girders 25 - 30
One way Solid Slabs 35 - 50
One way Hollowcore Slabs 40 - 50
Prestressed Prestressed Concrete Concrete
Two-way Solid Flat Plates 40 - 50
Dr. Hazim Dwairi Dr. Hazim Dwairi The Hashemite University The Hashemite University
For long spans with high self weight to superimposed load ratio, the bottom
flange may be eliminated all together .
Prestressed Concrete Hashemite University
Dr. Hazim Dwairi 11
Concrete Protection and Tendon Concrete Protection and Tendon
Spacing Spacing
ACI 7.7 imposes the minimum cover distance for ACI 7.7 imposes the minimum cover distance for
PS concrete member PS concrete member PS concrete member. PS concrete member.
For post For post- -tensioned members, the cover tensioned members, the cover
requirements apply to the ducts and metal and requirements apply to the ducts and metal and
fitting. fitting.
If the member is designed for a service load If the member is designed for a service load
tension in excess of cracks in concrete tension in excess of cracks in concrete
'
5 0 f
Prestressed Prestressed Concrete Concrete Dr. Hazim Dwairi Dr. Hazim Dwairi The Hashemite University The Hashemite University
tension in excess of , cracks in concrete tension in excess of , cracks in concrete
are likely, and the cover requirements must be are likely, and the cover requirements must be
increased by 50%. increased by 50%.
5 . 0
c
f
Concrete Protection and Tendon Concrete Protection and Tendon
Spacing Spacing
At the mid At the mid- -span and any elsewhere than at the span and any elsewhere than at the
ends spacing between bars and strands is the ends spacing between bars and strands is the ends, spacing between bars and strands is the ends, spacing between bars and strands is the
larger of d larger of d
bb
and 25 mm. and 25 mm.
At the ends of the At the ends of the pretensioned pretensioned members, members,
spacing is increased for proper bond, S : spacing is increased for proper bond, S :
4d 4d
bb
for wires for wires
3d 3d
bb
for strands for strands
Prestressed Prestressed Concrete Concrete Dr. Hazim Dwairi Dr. Hazim Dwairi The Hashemite University The Hashemite University
3d 3d
bb
for strands for strands
Elsewhere, bundling of no more than four Elsewhere, bundling of no more than four
tendons or bars is permitted. tendons or bars is permitted.
Prestressed Concrete Hashemite University
Dr. Hazim Dwairi 12
Flexural Crack Control Flexural Crack Control
Flexural tensile cracks may be limited or Flexural tensile cracks may be limited or
eliminated completely by eliminated completely by prestressing prestressing However However eliminated completely by eliminated completely by prestressing prestressing. However, . However,
partial partial prestressing prestressing has gained increasing has gained increasing
popularity due to technical and economical popularity due to technical and economical
reasons resulting in need for crack width control. reasons resulting in need for crack width control.
No special provisions are included in the ACI No special provisions are included in the ACI
code for PS concrete. The provisions for regular code for PS concrete. The provisions for regular
Prestressed Prestressed Concrete Concrete Dr. Hazim Dwairi Dr. Hazim Dwairi The Hashemite University The Hashemite University
p g p g
RC members are applicable. RC members are applicable.
Envelopes for Tendon Placement Envelopes for Tendon Placement
There is an envelope within which the There is an envelope within which the
prestressing prestressing force can be applied with causing force can be applied with causing
t il t ll bl t t il t ll bl t no tensile stresses or allowable stress no tensile stresses or allowable stress
c
t
t
b
t
c
i
A
S
c
r
k e
r
c e
A
P
= = =

=
2
2
.
1 0
Prestressed Prestressed Concrete Concrete Dr. Hazim Dwairi Dr. Hazim Dwairi The Hashemite University The Hashemite University
c
b
b
t
c
A
S
c
r
k e
Similarly
= = =
2
,
Prestressed Concrete Hashemite University
Dr. Hazim Dwairi 13
In a similar manner, kern points can be In a similar manner, kern points can be
established to the right and the left. established to the right and the left.
Envelopes for Tendon Placement Envelopes for Tendon Placement
To design the tendon along the span to develop To design the tendon along the span to develop
no tension or limited tension, a draped or harped no tension or limited tension, a draped or harped
tendon should follow the shape of the bending tendon should follow the shape of the bending
moment diagram. moment diagram.
Draped tendons are used for uniformly distributed Draped tendons are used for uniformly distributed
Prestressed Prestressed Concrete Concrete Dr. Hazim Dwairi Dr. Hazim Dwairi The Hashemite University The Hashemite University
loading loading
Harped tendons are used for concentrated Harped tendons are used for concentrated
loading. loading.
Lower Lower cgs cgs envelope: envelope:
Envelopes for No Tension Envelopes for No Tension
M
D
cgc
cgs
e
k
t
k
b
a
min
C
T
min
min
a k e
P
M
a
b b
i
D
+ =
=
Upper Upper cgs cgs envelope: envelope:
Prestressed Prestressed Concrete Concrete Dr. Hazim Dwairi Dr. Hazim Dwairi The Hashemite University The Hashemite University
cgc
cgs
e
k
t
k
b
a
max
C
T
b t
e
T
k a e
P
M
a
=
=
max
max
Prestressed Concrete Hashemite University
Dr. Hazim Dwairi 14
Additional eccentricity at the bottom: Additional eccentricity at the bottom:
Envelopes for Limiting Tension Envelopes for Limiting Tension
b i
ti
e P
f =
'
ti
f
cgc
cgs
e
k
t
k
b
e
b
+a
min
C
T
i
t
ti
b
t
ti
P
S f
e
S
f
=
'
Upper Upper cgs cgs envelope: envelope:
e
t
t e
e P
f =
'
Prestressed Prestressed Concrete Concrete Dr. Hazim Dwairi Dr. Hazim Dwairi The Hashemite University The Hashemite University
cgc
cgs
e
k
t
k
b
a
max
C
T
t
t
f
e
b
t
t
b
t
P
S f
e
S
f
=
=
'
Permitted Tension
No Tension
Tendon Profiles Tendon Profiles
a
max
e
t
No Tension
k
t
k
b
Prestressed Prestressed Concrete Concrete Dr. Hazim Dwairi Dr. Hazim Dwairi The Hashemite University The Hashemite University
a
min e
b
Prestressed Concrete Hashemite University
Dr. Hazim Dwairi 15
Flexural Design of Composite Flexural Design of Composite
Beams Beams
Prestressed Prestressed Concrete Concrete Dr. Hazim Dwairi Dr. Hazim Dwairi The Hashemite University The Hashemite University
(a) (a) Unshored Unshored Slab Case Slab Case
* Before casting the top slab no composite action
SD D
t
e t
M M c e P
f
+


=
.
1
b
SD D
b
c
e b
t
c
S
M M
r
c e
A
P
f
S r A
f
+
+

=
2
2
.
1
1
* After top slab hardens composite action . New
section moduli should be used.
Additional composite
superimposed DL
Prestressed Prestressed Concrete Concrete Dr. Hazim Dwairi Dr. Hazim Dwairi The Hashemite University The Hashemite University
section moduli should be used.
b
c
L CSD
b
SD D
b
c
e b
t
c
L CSD
t
SD D
t
c
e t
S
M M
S
M M
r
c e
A
P
f
S
M M
S
M M
r
c e
A
P
f
+
+
+
+

=
+

=
2
2
.
1
.
1
Prestressed Concrete Hashemite University
Dr. Hazim Dwairi 16
(b) Fully Shored Slab Case (b) Fully Shored Slab Case
* Before casting the top slab & shoring
D
t
e t
M c e P
f


=
.
1
b
D
b
c
e b
t
c
S
M
r
c e
A
P
f
S r A
f

=
2
2
.
1
1
* After top slab hardens composite action . New
section moduli should be used.
Additional composite
superimposed DL
Prestressed Prestressed Concrete Concrete Dr. Hazim Dwairi Dr. Hazim Dwairi The Hashemite University The Hashemite University
section moduli should be used.
b
c
L CSD SD
b
D
b
c
e b
t
c
L CSD SD
t
D
t
c
e t
S
M M M
S
M
r
c e
A
P
f
S
M M M
S
M
r
c e
A
P
f
+ +

=
+ +

=
2
2
.
1
.
1
Effective Flange Width Effective Flange Width
Only part of the slab contributes to the Only part of the slab contributes to the
stiffness increase in the composite stiffness increase in the composite stiffness increase in the composite stiffness increase in the composite
section. section.
Prestressed Prestressed Concrete Concrete Dr. Hazim Dwairi Dr. Hazim Dwairi The Hashemite University The Hashemite University
Prestressed Concrete Hashemite University
Dr. Hazim Dwairi 17
Effective Flange Width Effective Flange Width
Edge Beam Intermediate Beam
* b
eff
is the smallest of:
ACI
b
w
+ 6h
f
b
w
+ 16h
f
b
w
+ 1/2L
c
b
w
+ L
c
b
w
+ L/12 L/4
AASHTO
b
w
+ 6h
f
b
w
+ 12h
f
b
w
+ 1/2L
c
b
w
+ L
c
b
w
+ L/12 L/4
Prestressed Prestressed Concrete Concrete Dr. Hazim Dwairi Dr. Hazim Dwairi The Hashemite University The Hashemite University
* If the modulus of elasticity of the top slab E
ct
and of
the precast beam E
c
, then the effective flange width
b
eff
must be modified by the modular ration n
eff
c
ct
m
b
E
E
b =
End Zones and Development End Zones and Development
Length Length
The interlock or adhesion between the PS The interlock or adhesion between the PS
tendon circumference and the concrete over a tendon circumference and the concrete over a tendon circumference and the concrete over a tendon circumference and the concrete over a
finite length of the tendon gradually transfers the finite length of the tendon gradually transfers the
concentrated concentrated prestressing prestressing force to the entire force to the entire
concrete section at planes away from the end concrete section at planes away from the end
bock & towards the bock & towards the midspan midspan..
Minimum development length (ACI318 Minimum development length (ACI318--05 05
Prestressed Prestressed Concrete Concrete
Minimum development length (ACI318 Minimum development length (ACI318 05, 05,
section 12.9.1) section 12.9.1)
Dr. Hazim Dwairi Dr. Hazim Dwairi The Hashemite University The Hashemite University
MPa ;
7 21
.
b
pe ps
b
pe
d
d
f f
d
f
l Min

=
Prestressed Concrete Hashemite University
Dr. Hazim Dwairi 18
End Zones and Development End Zones and Development
Length Length
the over which distance the length transfer
21
t b
pe
l d
f
= = =
be should strand the over which length 150
additional the length bond flexural
7
losses. after prestress effective the develop
to concrete the to bonded be should strand 50
21
f b
pe ps
b
) d (
l d
f f
) d (

= = =

Prestressed Prestressed Concrete Concrete Dr. Hazim Dwairi Dr. Hazim Dwairi The Hashemite University The Hashemite University
develop. may , strength, nominal
at steel PS in the stress a that so bonded
be should strand the over which length 150
ps
b
f
) d (
Transfer Zone in Transfer Zone in Pretensioned Pretensioned
Beams Beams
h P
l k f 138MP i i
length beam ed pretension
length fer pver trans stirrups of area total
BS & SI ; 021 . 0

=
t t
t s
i
t
f
h
l A
l f
h P
A
Prestressed Prestressed Concrete Concrete Dr. Hazim Dwairi Dr. Hazim Dwairi The Hashemite University The Hashemite University
control crack for 138MPa stirrups in stress average =
s
f
Prestressed Concrete Hashemite University
Dr. Hazim Dwairi 19
Post Post--tensioned Anchorage Zone tensioned Anchorage Zone
Length of anchorage zone is at which the Length of anchorage zone is at which the
PS f t f i t li di t ib ti PS f t f i t li di t ib ti PS force transfer into a linear distribution PS force transfer into a linear distribution
across the section depth and according to across the section depth and according to
St. St. Venants Venants principle is equal to h. principle is equal to h.
This zone consists of: This zone consists of:
General zone: its length along span is h General zone: its length along span is h
Prestressed Prestressed Concrete Concrete
General zone: its length along span is h General zone: its length along span is h
Local zone: its the insert prism of concrete Local zone: its the insert prism of concrete
surrounding & immediately ahead of the surrounding & immediately ahead of the
anchorage device. anchorage device.
Dr. Hazim Dwairi Dr. Hazim Dwairi The Hashemite University The Hashemite University
General Zone Design General Zone Design
Confinement of the anchorage zone is Confinement of the anchorage zone is
i d t t b ti d litti i d t t b ti d litti required to prevent bursting and splitting required to prevent bursting and splitting
due to high concentrated forces acting on due to high concentrated forces acting on
the concrete section. the concrete section.
Analysis methods: Analysis methods:
Linear elastic analysis including FEM Linear elastic analysis including FEM
Prestressed Prestressed Concrete Concrete
y g y g
Strut and Tie models Strut and Tie models
Approximate methods: applicable to rectangular cross Approximate methods: applicable to rectangular cross
sections without discontinuities> sections without discontinuities>
Dr. Hazim Dwairi Dr. Hazim Dwairi The Hashemite University The Hashemite University
Prestressed Concrete Hashemite University
Dr. Hazim Dwairi 20
e
P
i
A B
C D
cgc
cgs y
i
L
t
C D
x
h C
T
cgc
Prestressed Prestressed Concrete Concrete Dr. Hazim Dwairi Dr. Hazim Dwairi The Hashemite University The Hashemite University
L
t
P
i
M
max
shear
Bursting
crack