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4.0 INTRODUCTION 4.1 MAGNET 4.1.1 Principles Of Magnet


This chapter is explaining about the relationship between current flows in conductor, classify factors that affect electromagnetic strength and understand the characteristics of magnetic quantities in electromagnet. The learning outcomes for this chapter are the students should be able to explain clearly the relationship between current flow and magnetism.

Magnet can be defined as material that can attract piece of iron or metal. Magnet has two poles north and south. Material that attracted by the magnet is known as magnetic substances. The ability to attract the magnetic substances is known as magnetism.

Magnet has a magnetic field around the magnet itself. Magnetic field is the force around the magnet which can attract any magnetic material around it. Flux magnet is the line around the magnet bar which form magnetic field.

Figure 4.1: Magnetic Field

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Basic Magnet Law

Magnetic flux lines have a direction and pole. The direction of movement outside of the magnetic field lines is from north to south. The strongest magnetic fields are at the magnetic poles. Different poles attract each other and same magnetic poles will reject each other. Flux form a complete loop and never intersect with each other. Flux will try to form a loop as small as possible.

Figure 4.2: Magnetic Flux

4.1.3 Types Of Magnet There are two types of magnet known as pure magnet and manufacture magnet.


Pure Magnet Pure magnet is a magnet stone. The stone originally have the natural magnetic. Basically the stone is found in the form of iron ore.


Manufacture Magnet There are two types of manufacture which is permanent magnet and temporary magnet.

a) Permanent Magnet The ability of the magnet to kept its magnetism. There are five basic shape of permanent magnet as shown in Figure 4.3. Basically permanent magnet is used in a small device such as speakers, meter and compass. Permanent magnet can be obtained by naturally or magnetic induction and placing a magnet into a coil then supplied with a high electrical current. The basic types of permanent magnet are U Shape, Horseshoe, Rod, Cylinder and Bar.

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b) Temporary magnet An electric current can be used for making temporary magnets known as electromagnet. It has magnetic properties when subjected to magnetic force and it will be lost when power is removed. Typically the temporary magnet is used in electrical component such as relay and small devices such as electrical bell.



Electromagnet is a magnetic iron core produced when the current flowing through the coil. Thus, the magnetic field can be produced when there is a current flow through a conductor. The direction of the magnetic field produced by the current in the solenoid can be determined using two methods: i) ii) Right Hand Grip Rule Maxwell's Screw Law


Right Hand Grip Rule Right Hand Grip Rule is a physics principle applied to electric current passing through a solenoid, resulting in a magnetic field. By wrapping the right hand around the solenoid, thumb is pointing in the direction of the magnetic north pole and fingers in the direction of the conventional current. This rule can also be applied to electricity passing through a straight wire. The thumb points in the direction of the conventional current from positive to negative. Meanwhile the fingers points of the magnetic lines of flux.

Figure 4.3: Right Hand Grip Rule

4.2.2 Maxwell's Screw Law Another way to determine the direction of the flux and current in a conductor is to use Maxwell's screw rule. A right-handed screw is turned so that it moves forward in the same direction as the current, its direction of rotation will give the direction of the magnetic field from south to north.

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Figure 4.4: Maxwells Screw Law



A flow of current through a wire produces a magnetic field in a circular path around the wire. The field patterns of a current flow in a conductor can de determine using both rules of right hand grip or Maxwells Screw. Note that, conventional current flow towards or inside the conductor is marked by cross (X) and current flow away or outside the conductor is marked as dot ( ).


Single Conductor The direction of the field pattern in going and out going produced by a current flowing through a single conductor can be determine by applying both rules as illustrated in Figure 4.5.

Source: Fundamental Electrical & Electronic Principles by Christopher R Robertson

Figure 4.5: Current flow (a) in going (b) out going

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Two Conductors

If the two conductors where the current flow in the same direction, the magnetic flux pattern will produce around both conductors and combine to create attraction between them as shown in Figure 4.6 (a). If the current in conductors flow in opposite direction, the field pattern will repulse each other. The effect is shown in Figure 4.6(b).



Source: Pengajian Kejuruteraan Elektrik dan Elektronik,Cetakan Pertama 2000 by Abd. Samad Hanif

Figure 4.6: Two closed current-carrying conductors flow (a) in same direction (b) in opposite direction



There are 4 factors that affect electromagnetic strength: 1. Number of turns The strength of the electromagnet is directly proportional to the number of turn in the coil. By varying the number of turns in its coil can produce very strong magnetic fields and its strength. 2. Current strength The strength of the electromagnet is directly proportional to the current flowing in the coil. Greater the current flow through the coil, stronger will be the magnetic fields produced.

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3. Length of coil The strength of the electromagnet is directly proportional to the length of the coil. By coil up the wire can increasing the length and increase the force of magnetic field. 4. Types of conductor Depend on the nature of the core material. The use of soft of core can produces the strongest magnetism.



When a conductor is move across a magnetic field, an electromagnetic force (emf) is produced in conductor. This effect is known as electromagnetic induction. The effect of electromagnetic induction will cause induced current. There are two laws of electromagnetic induction: i. ii. Faradays law Lenzz Law


Faradays law Faradays law is a fundamental relationship which comes from Maxwells equations. It is a relative movement of the magnetic flux and the conductor then causes an emf and thus the current to be induced in the conductor. Induced emf on the conductor could be produced by two methods i.e. flux cuts conductor or conductor cuts flux.


Flux cuts conductor

Flux cut conductor is when the magnet is move towards the coil as shown in Figure 4.9, a deflection is noted on the galvanometer showing that a current has been produced in the coil.

Source: Pengajian Kejuruteraan Elektrik dan Elektronik, Cetakan Pertama 2000 by Mohd. Isa bin Idris

Figure 4.7: Flux cuts conductor Basic Principles of Electromagnetism

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Conductor cuts flux

Conductor cut flux is when the conductor is moved through a magnetic field as shown in Figure 4.8. An emf is induced in the conductor and thus a source of emf is created between the ends of the conductor. This is the simple concept of AC generator. This induced electromagnetic field is given by

E = Blv volts where B l v = = = flux density, T length of the conductor in the magnetic field, m conductor velocity, m/s


If the conductor moves at the angle to the magnetic field, then

E = Blv sin volts


Source: Pengajian Kejuruteraan Elektrik dan Elektronik, Cetakan Pertama 2000 oleh Mohd. Isa bin Idris

Figure 4.8: Conductor cuts flux

Example 4.1 A conductor 300mm long moves at a uniform speed of 4m/s at right-angles to a uniform magnetic field of flux density 1.25T. Determine the current flowing in the conductor when (a) (b) its ends are open-circuited its ends are connected to a load of 20 resistance.

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Solution 4.1 When a conductor moves in a magnetic field it will have an emf induced in it but this emf can only produce a current if there is a closed circuit. Induced emf E = Blv = (1.25)(300/1000)(4) (a) If the ends of the conductor are open circuit, no current will flow even though 1.5 V has been induced.


From Ohms law

I= E 1. 5 = 75mA R 20


Lenzz Law
The direction of an induced emf is always such that it tends to set up a current opposing the motion or the change of flux responsible for inducing that emf. This effect is shown in Figure 4.9.

Source: Pengajian Kejuruteraan Elektrik dan Elektronik, Cetakan Pertama 2000 by Mohd. Isa bin Idris

Figure 4.9: Bar magnet move in and move out from a solenoid

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There are many magnetic quantities in the System International (SI) unit. This chapter is only going to discuss on magnetomotive force, magnetic field strength, magnetic flux, flux density, permeability and reluctance.


Magnetiomotive Force, Fm
Magnetomotive force is a cause of the existence of magnetic flux in a magnetic circuit. The total flux produced is depends on the number of turn (N) made in the circuit. It is also proportional to the current (I) passing through the coil. Then, the magnetomotive force is the product of current and the number of turns. Fm = NI ampere turn [4.3]


Magnetic Field Strength, H

Magnetic field strength or magnetizing force is defined as magnetomotive force, Fm per meter length of measurement being ampere-turn per meter.
H= Fm NI = ampere turn / meter l l


where Fm N I l magnetomotive force number of turns current average length of magnetic circuit

Example 4.2
A current of 500mA is passed through a 600 turn coil wound of a toroid of mean diameter 10cm. Calculate the magnetic field strength.

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Solution 4.2
I N d H= = = = 0.5A 600 x 10 x 10-2m

NI 600 0.5 ampereturn / metre = = 954.81 AT/m l 0.3142


Magnetic Flux and Flux Density

Magnetic flux is the amount of magnetic filed produced by a magnetic source. The symbol for magnetic flux is phi (). The unit for magnetic flux is the weber, Wb. Magnetic flux density is the amount of flux passing through a defined area that is perpendicular to the direction of flux:

Magnetic flux density =

magnetic flux area Tesla A [4.5]


The symbol for magnetic flux density is B. The unit of magnetic flux density is the tesla, T, and the unit for area A is m2 where 1 T = 1 Wb/m.

Example 4.3
A magnetic pole face has rectangular section having dimensions 200mm by 100mm. If the total flux emerging from the the pole is 150Wb, calculate the flux density.

Solution 4.3
Magnetic flux, = 150 Wb = 150 x 10-6 Wb Cross sectional area, A = 200mm x 100mm = 20 000 x 10-6 m2 Flux density, B =

150 10 6 = A 20000 10 6
= 7.5 mT

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Permeability is the measure of the ability of the material to allow the magnetic field to exist in it. Absolute permeability, of a material is the ratio of the flux density to magnetic field strength. = 0 r [4.6]

If the magnetic fields exist in the vacuum, the ratio of the flux density to the magnetic field strength is a constant called the permeability of free space. For air or any other non-magnetic medium, the ratio of magnetic flux density to B magnetic field strength is constant , = a constant. The equation for H permeability of free space in non-magnetic medium is as shown in equation 4.7 below.

B = 0 H


The permeability of free space, 0 is equal to 4 x 10-7 H/m. In the air or any non-magnetic material r = 1, this is the same magnetic properties as a vacuum as shown in equation 4.7. r is relative permeability and it is considered when the different type of material is used. r is defined as the ratio of the flux density produced in the material that produced in the air or as define in equation 4.8.

r =

flux density in material flux density in vacuum


r varies with the type of magnetic material. The approximate ranges of relative permeability for some common magnetic materials are as follows:
Cast iron: r = 100 250 Mild steel: r = 200 800 Cast steel: r = 300 900 Therefore the permeability for all media other than free space in a magnetic medium or material is as shown in equation in 4.9 below.

B = 0 r H


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Example 4.4
A flux density of 1.2 T is produced in a piece of cast steel by a magnetizing force of 1250 A/m. Find the relative permeability of the steel under these conditions.

Solution 4.4
B = 0 r H

r =

B 1.2 = 0 H (4 10 2 )(1250)

= 764


Reluctance, S is the magnetic resistance of a magnetic circuit to presence of magnetic flux. The equation for reluctance is as equation 4.10 below


Fm Hl l 1 = = = BA ( B / H ) A 0 r A


The unit for reluctance is 1/H or H-1 or A/Wb. The ferromagnetic materials have low reluctance and can be used as magnetic screens to prevent magnetic fields affecting materials within the screen.

Example 4.5
Determine the reluctance of a piece of metal with length 150mm, when the relative permeability is 4 000. Find the absolute permeability of the metal.

Solution 4.5
S= 1

0 r A
150 10 3 (4 10 7 )(4000)(1800 10 6 )

= 16 580 H-1

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Absolute permeability, = 0 r = (4 10 7 )(4000) = 5.027 x 10-3 H/m

Robertson, C.R (2008) Fundamental Electrical and Electronic Principles 3rd Newnes, New York Edition,



Find the magnetic field strength applied to a magnetic circuit of mean length 50 cm when a coil of 400 turns is applied to it carrying a current of 1.2 A. (960AT/m) A current of 2.5A when flowing through a coil produces an mmf of 675 At. Calculate the number of turns on the coil (270 turns) A magnetizing force 8000 A/m is applied to a circular magnetic circuit of mean diameter 30 cm by passing a current through a coil wound on the circuit. If the coil is uniformly wound around the circuit and has 750 turns, find the current in the coil. (10.05 A) The maximum working flux density of a lifting electromagnet is 1.8 T and the effective area of a pole face is circular in cross-section. If the total magnetic flux produced is 353 mWb, determine the radius of the pole. (0.196m) A coil of 300 turns is wound uniformly on a ring of non-magnetic material. The ring has a mean circumference of 40 cm and a uniform cross-sectional area of 4cm2. If the current in the coil is 5 A, calculate (a) the magnetic field strength, (b) the flux density and (c) the total magnetic flux in the ring. (3750AT/m, 4.712mT, 1.885Wb) At what velocity must a conductor 75mm long cut a magnetic flux of density 0.6T if an e.mf. of 9V is to be included in it? Assume the conductor, the field and the direction of motion are mutually perpendicular. (200m/s) A conductor of length 15cm is moved at 750mm/s at right-angles to a uniform flux density of 1.2 T. Determine the emf induced in the conductor. (0.135V)







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Find the speed that a conductor of length 120mm must be moved at right angles to a magnetic field of flux density 0.6 T to induce in it an emf of 1.8 V. (25m/s) A 25 cm long conductor moves at a uniform speed of 8 m/s through a uniform magnetic field of flux density 1.2T. Determine the current flowing in the conductor when (i) its ends are open-circuited (ii) its ends are connected to a load of 15 ohms resistance. (0, 0.16A) A conductor of length 0.5 m situated in and at right angles to a uniform magnetic field of flux density 1 wb/m2 moves with a velocity of 40 m/s. Calculate the emf induced in the conductor. What will be the emf induced if the conductor moves at an angle 60 to the field. (20V, 17.32V)



Basic Principles of Electromagnetism