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SCE3101 Practical 2 : Food test

25/1/2014

Objective

: 1. To test the presence of starch, reducing sugars, non-reducing sugars, proteins and lipids in food samples

Materials

: a. Iodine solution b. Benedict solution c. Sodium hydrogen carbonate solution d. 20% sodium hydroxide solution

e. Hydrochloric acid f. 1% copper(II) sulphate solution g.

Apparatus

: a. Test tubes b. Test tube holders c. Beakers d. Bunsen burner e. Dropper

f.

wire gauze

g. tripod stand h. white tile i. filter paper

Procedure Results

: : Test for Starch Reducing sugar Procedure Observation Inference

Food example

Non-reducing sugar Protein Lipid

Objective

2. To determine the vitamin C content in various fruit juices.

Problem

Do imported fruits contain more vitamin C than local food?

Material

a. 1.0% dicholorophenolindophenol solution (DCPIP) b. 0.1%ascorbic acid solution c. Freshly prepared guava juice d. Freshly prepared papaya juice

e. Freshly prepared mango juice f. Freshly prepared orange juice

g. Freshly prepared kiwi juice h. Freshly prepared lime juice

Apparatus

a. Specimen tubes b. Syringes with needles (1ml and 2ml) c. Beakers

d. gauze cloth e. knife

Procedure

1. 1ml of 1.0% DCPIP solution was placed in a specimen tube using a 1 ml syringe 2. 0.1% ascorbic acid solution was filled into 5ml syringe 3. The needle of the syringe was placed into the DCPIP solution 4. The ascorbic acid solution was added drop by drop to the DCPIP solution. The mixture was gently stirred with the needle of the syringe. 5. The ascorbic acid solution was continuously added until the DCPIP solution is decolourised. The volume of ascorbic acid solution used is recorded. 6. Steps 1 to 5 were repeated using freshly pineapple juice, orange juice and lime juice. The volume of fruit juice required to decolourise the DCPIP solution in each case is recorded. 7. The results are tabulated. The percentage and the concentration of Vitamin C in each of the fruit juices are calculated using the formulae given.

Result

: Volume of solution /fruit juice needed to decolourise 1 ml of DCPIP solution 1 2 3 Average Percentage of Vitamin C in fruit juice ( %) Vitamin C concentration in fruit juice (mgcm-3)

Solution/fruit juice

0.1% ascorbic acid Guava juice Papaya juice Mango juice Orange juice Kiwi juice Lime juice

Calculations

Volume of 0.1 % ascorbic acid used to decolourise DCPIP = x cm Volume of fruit juice used to decolourise DCPIP = y cm

x cm 0.1 % ascorbic acid ( concentration of 1 mg/cm3) can decolorise 1 cm of DCPIP and y cm of fruit juice concentration of k mg/cm can decolourise 1 cm of DCPIP

so, the quantity of ascorbic acid in x cm of ascorbic acid 0.1 % = quantity of ascorbic acid in y cm of fruit juice thus, x cm X 1 mg/cm = y cm X k mg/cm k mg/cm = x cm X mg/cm y cm

= x mg/cm y

Therefore the concentration of ascorbic acid in fruit juice = x mg/cm y

Discussion Question

: : 1. Explain the need for our diet to contain: carbohydrates; sodium chloride; fresh fruits and milk Carbohydrates Provide our body with energy Usually provide about have of our body's energy when our resting or performing a low-level activity Important components of building muscle

Important in maintaining fluid balance within the body

Sodium chloride (salt)

It is important that the body is able to regulate the level of sodium in the blood

Sodium is also necessary in generating electrical impulses in nerve and muscle and in generating gradients across cells to enable uptake of nutrients.

Nourishes the body with fructose, which is later converted to glucose for energy,

Fresh fruit

Also provide the body with minerals, vitamins and antioxidants, all of which have very important functions in the body.

Milk

Basically allows our bones to grow on their own and not be harassed by our body's need for calcium.

2. How do vegetarians ensure that they receive a balanced diet? Vegetarians must eat a variety of foods including grains, fruit and vegetables, beans, pulses, nuts or seeds, a small amount of fat, with or without dairy products.

3. The body cannot digest fibre. Why is it still important in our diet? Fibre will reduces the risk of a number of bowel problems - some of them quite serious. These include constipation, haemorrhoids (piles), diverticular disease and cancer of the colon or large bowel. In addition, soluble fibre helps to stabilize blood sugar levels because it slows down the rate at which glucose is absorbed into the blood stream. It also helps to lower blood cholesterol levels, which is important for reducing the risk of heart disease. Furthermore the feeling of fullness which fibre produces can help people who are trying to lose weight to control their appetite.

4. A slightly overweight friend decides to go on a crash diet. She/he tells you that she/he is only going to eat grapefruit and drink black coffee for two weeks. What advice would you give your friend? Grapefruit diet can trigger fat burning and cause weight loss. The diet designed to promote fast weight loss. But, weight lost is primarily from fluids and not fat and generally returns as soon as the dieter goes off the diet.

5. Eskimos who eat mainly fish, seal oil and whale meat rather than beef and butter have a low incidence of heart disease. How do you explain this? That kind of foods that are Eskimos takes are rich with source of Omega 3 essential fatty acids nutrients that the body cannot produce on its own and we must attain from the foods we eat. Omega 3 will reduces blood clots and inflammation thus lowering the risk of heart disease and stroke.

Conclusion References

: :

(2011). Vitamin C (Ascorbic acid). Retrieved on 11 February 2011 from http://www.umm.edu/altmed/articles/vitamin-c-000339.htm

(2000). Vegetarian Diet Nutrition. Retrieved on 11 February 2011 from http://www.annecollins.com/vegetarian-diet-nutrition.htm

(2006). Diet in Detail. Retrieved on 11 February 2011 from http://dietsindetails.com/article_fibre.html