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1.

Tooaggregate

a. Useafewindicatorsfordifferentcomponents

a.differentconsumptioncategoriesshouldbemeasuredwithdifferentindicatorsinsteadofbeing

convertingintolandareas.

2. Representshypotheticalratherthanactuallanduse

a. calculateactualfootprints

b. decompositiontypeofapproach

a.yeap.

b.onecannotinfermuchonthebasisoftheEFalone,neitherwhatisthemainproblemnorwhat

mightbeadequatepolicysolutionstotheproblem.Therefore,adecompositiontypeofapproach

isneeded,whichdistinguishesbetweenpopulationdensity,consumptionandproductionofgoods

andservices(percapita),andunsustainablelanduseassociatedwitheachtypeofgoodor

service.).Thisimpliesalogicalandcompletesystemofmultiple,complementaryindicators,based

onasystemsperspectiveofinterconnectedenvironmentalproblems

3. Usesafixedsustainableenergyscenario

a. Followascenarioapproach

b. lessland­intensivesustainablesolutions

c. amodellingapproach(insteadofaccountingapproach)

a.Oneshouldbecarefulintryingtofindasingle,absolutevaluefortheEF,andinsteadfollowa

scenarioapproach,whichallowstodealwithcomplexprocessesinthecaseoflarge,nonmarginal

changes.

b.Carbon­sinklandsaretoolandintensivesolutions.Othersustainablesolutions,less land­intensiveandthuslesssensitivetoincreasinglandprices,maybecomeattractivethen.These includeshiftstootherfuels,lessfueluse,increasingenergyefficiencyofprocesses,restructuring oftheeconomyatvariouslevels(inputmix,sectorstructure,demand),orotherwaystoprevent

CO2build­upintheatmosphere,suchasCO2removalandundergroundstorage.

c.amodellingratherthananaccountingapproachshouldbefollowedtorealizeeconomically

feasibleoutcomes.

4. Makesnodistinctionbetweensustainableandunsustainablelanduse,

a. indicatorsfocusonprocessesthatcontributetounsustainability

a.Inordertomeasurethedegreeofunsustainabilityofaneconomyoractivityindicatorsare

neededthatfocusonprocessesthatcontributetounsustainability,suchasunsustainable

resourceuseandsoildegradation,ratherthanjustanoverall(andhypothetical)landareameasure.

5. Doesnotrecognizeadvantagesofspatialconcentrationandspecialization

a. considernonphysicalfactors(i.econsidernumberofpeoplelivingina

household,caroccupancy,income)

a.yeap

6. Biasedagainsttrade(incertainapplications)

a. considerenvironmentalimpactsoftransport(fortrade)

a.yeap

7. Spaceandregions

a. defineregionsfromanenvironmentalperspective(i.e.usingenvironmental

boundaries)

b. makeinter­temporalcomparisons(foraparticularcountry,regionorcity)

a.regionalEFestimatesareratherarbitrary.Nationalboundariesareofageo­politicalandcultural

natureandhavenoenvironmentalmeaning.Ifonewishestofocusonregionalfootprints,thenit

wouldmakemoresensetodefinetheregionsfromanenvironmentalperspective,i.e.using

environmental(hydrological,ecological)boundaries.OnemaythusendupwithEFsof,forinstance,

continents,climatezones,largerconnectedecosystemsandrivercatchments.Thisisconsistent

with‘Bioregionalism’and‘DeepEcology’perspectiveson‘sustainabletrade

b.Consequently,incomparingthepercapitaEFamongregionsorcountries,itsvalueappearsin

essencetobeareflectionoftheglobaldistributionofwealth.ThepercapitaEFisneithervery

informativeaboutthespatialdistributionoftheimpactsnorthecausesofenvironmentalpressure.

Therearebetterindicatorsforallthreetypesofdistributions.Onlyaninter­temporalcomparison

foraparticularcountry,regionorcitycanbeinformative.

Inter­temporal:Occurringacrosstime,oracrossdifferentperiodsoftime