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FUN GIVEN: In order to produce silicon wafers, single-crystal silicon ingots are formed by the slow solidication of molten silicon at the tip of a cylinder cooled from the base. This was shown in Figure 2.3(c) and is also shown in Figure ls (W) is removed from the solid-liquid interface Ak by Pr.2.14. The heat released by solid to uid phase change S conduction through the ingot Qk . The energy equation for the solid-uid interface Ak (nonuniform temperature in the liquid), as given by (2.9), is ls , Qk = S where the conduction heat ow Qk is given by Qk = Ak k Tls Ts , L

where L and Ts are shown in Figure Pr.2.14 and Tls is the melting temperature. The rate of phase-change energy conversion is ls = l Ak uF hls = M ls hls = M ls hsl , S where hsl > 0. Assume that the liquid and solid have the same density. L = 20 cm, uF = 0.4 mm/min. SKETCH: Figure Pr.2.14 shows the cooling of molten silicon and the formation of a crystalline silicon.
Surface Temperature Ts D Crystalline Silicon Bounding-Surface Control Surface, Als Make-up Liquid uF L qk Liquid Silicon (Melt)

Sls Tls Phase-Change Temperature Make-up Heat

Figure Pr.2.14 Czochralski method for single-crystal growth of silicon.

OBJECTIVE: Using the thermophysical properties given in Tables C.2 (periodic table for hsl ) and C.14 (at T = 1,400 K for k ), in Appendix C, determine the temperature Ts (at the top of the ingot). SOLUTION: Combining the above equations, we have Ak k Tls Ts ls hsl . =M L

ls , we have Solving for Ts and using the equation for M Ts = Tls ls hsl L M l Ak uF hsl L = Tls . Ak k Ak k

Now, we obtain the properties from Tables C.2 (periodic table) and C.14 as Tls = 1,687 K, l = s = 2,330 kg/m3 , hsl = 1.802 106 J/kg, k = 24 W/m-K. 74

Note that from Table C.14, k is obtained for T = 1,400 K, which is the highest temperature available. Then, using the numerical values, we have Ts l uF hls L k 2,330(kg/m3 ) (4 104 /60)(m/s) 1.802 106 (J/kg) 0.2(m) = 1,687(K) 24(W/m-K) = (1,687 233.3)(K) = 1,454 K. = Tls

COMMENT: Note that the thermal conductivity of solid silicon signicantly decreases as the temperature increases. At T = 300 K, k is about 149 W/m-K, while at T = 1,400 K, it is 24 W/m-K. Also, the melt is not at a uniform temperature and is superheated away from Ak . Then, additional heat ows into Ak from the liquid.


PROBLEM 2.21.FUN GIVEN: During braking, nearly all of the kinetic energy of the automobile is converted to frictional heating at the brakes. A small fraction is converted in the tires. The braking time, i.e., the elapsed time for a complete stop, is . The automobile mass is M , the initial velocity is uo , and the stoppage is at a constant deceleration (du/dt)o . OBJECTIVE: (a) Determine the rate of friction energy conversion for each brake in terms of M, uo , and . The front brakes convert 65% of the energy and the rear brakes convert the remaining 35%. (b) Evaluate the peak energy conversion rate for the front brake using M = 1,500 kg (typical for a mid-size car), uo = 80 km/hr, and = 4 s. SOLUTION: m,F is (a) The total instantaneous friction heating rate S m,F = F u, S where the force F is Now, using a constant deceleration, we have m,F = M S where du dt u,

F = M

du . dt

du u 0 uo uo = = = . dt o t In order to nd an expression for u, we integrate the equation above obtaining uo u = t + a1 . For u(t = 0) = uo we have t u = uo 1 . Then, using this we have m,F S = M = uo t uo 1 M u2 t o 1 .

Now, for 65% of the power being dissipated in the front brakes we have for each of the front brakes m,F = 0.65 M uo S and for each of the rear brakes m,F = 0.35 M uo S

1 1

t t .

(b) Using the numerical values given, the peak heating rate (i.e., heating rate at t = 0) is m,F S = = M u2 o 1,500(kg) (22.22)2 (m/s)2 0.65 = 1.203 105 W = 120.3 kW. 4(s) 0.65

COMMENT: This is a very large heating rate and its removal from the disc by the heat losses would require a large elapsed time. Therefore, if the brake is applied frequently such that this heat is never removed, overheating of the brake pads occurs. 89

PROBLEM 2.22.FUN GIVEN: In therapeutic heating, biological tissues are heated using electromagnetic (i.e., microwave, and in some cases, Joule heating) or mechanical (i.e., ultrasound heating) energy conversion. In the heated tissue, which may be a sore muscle (e.g., an athletic discomfort or injury), some of this heat is removed through the local blood ow and this is called perfusion heating. Under steady state, the local tissue temperature reaches a temperature where the surface heat transfer from the tissue balances with the energy conversion rate. Consider the therapeutic ultrasound heating shown in Figure Pr.2.22(a). Iac = 5 104 W/m2 , ac (from Table C.11, for muscle tissue), V (sphere of R = 3 cm), D = 103 m, Aku = 0.02 m2 , Nu D = 3.66, kf = 0.62 W/m-K (same as water), Tf = 37C. SKETCH: Figure Pr.2.22(a) shows the ultrasonic therapeutic heating of a vascular tissue.
Acoustic Intensity, Iac f = 106 Hz Blood Vessel with Temperature, Tf Tissue with Temperature, Ts Aku R Aku Qku V

sm,ac Acoustic Absorption Coefficient, ac Assume Qk = 0 (Also Qr = 0) Ak

Figure Pr.2.22(a) Therapeutic heating of biological tissue.

OBJECTIVE: (a) Using (2.9) write the integral-volume energy equation that applies to this steady-state heat transfer. Assume no conduction and radiation heat transfer and allow for surface convection through the blood vessels distributed through the tissue with a surface-convection area Aku . Draw a schematic showing the various terms in the energy equation. (b) In this energy equation, replace the surface-convection heat transfer with kf (Ts Tf ), D where Nu D is a dimensionless quantity called the dimensionless surface-convection conductance (or Nusselt number), kf is the blood thermal conductivity, D is the average blood vessel diameter, Ts is the tissue temperature, and Tf is the blood temperature. (c) Solve the energy equation for Ts . (d) Using the following numerical values, determine Ts . Aku qku = Aku Nu

SOLUTION: (a) The various heat transfer mechanisms and the energy conversion by ultrasound heating are shown in Figure Pr.2.22(b). From (2.9), for steady-state conditions, we have Q|A = s m,ac V , where we have assumed a uniform s m,ac throughout the volume. From (2.54), we have s m,ac = 2ac Iac . 90

The surface heat transfer is limited to surface-convection only (Q = Qk = Qu = 0), i.e., Q|A = Aku qku . Then the energy equation becomes Aku qku = 2ac Iac V . Figure Pr.2.22(b) shows the various terms in the energy equation applied to the control volume shown.
Acoustic Intensity, Iac f = 106 Hz Blood Vessel with Temperature, Tf Tissue with Temperature, Ts Acoustic Absorption Coefficient, ac Assume qk = 0 (Also qr = 0) Ak R Aku qku sm,ac V

Figure Pr.2.22(b) Various terms in the energy equation for therapeutic ultrasound heating.

(b) The surface-convection heat transfer is given by Aku qku = Aku Then, the energy equation becomes Aku Nu D kf (Ts Tf ) = 2ac Iac V . D Nu D kf (Ts Tf ). D

The group Nu D kf /D is called the (dimensional) surface-convection conductance or the heat transfer coecient. (c) Solving the equation above for Ts , we have Ts = Tf + 2ac Iac V D . Nu D kf Aku

(d) From Table C.11, ac = 14 m1 . Using the numerical values, we have Ts = = 37(C) + 2 14(m1 ) 5 104 (W/m ) (4/3) (3 102 )3 (m3 ) 103 (m) 3.66 0.62(W/m-K) 0.02(m2 ) 37( C) + 3.49( C) = 40.49 C.

COMMENT The conduction heat losses can be signicant and should be included. During heating, the blood vessels dilate causing D to increase. This results in a decrease in Ts . The Nusselt number Nu D , will be discussed in Chapter 7 (Section 7.4).


PROBLEM 2.26.FUN GIVEN: A single-stage Peltier cooler/heater is made of Peltier cells electrically connected in series. Each cell is made of p- and n-type bismuth telluride (Bi2 Te3 ) alloy with Seebeck coecients S,p = 230 106 V/K and S,n = 210 106 V/K. The cells are arranged in an array of 8 by 15 (pairs) cells and they are sandwiched between two square ceramic plates with dimensions w = L = 3 cm [see Figure Pr.2.26(a)]. The current owing through the elements is Je = 3 A. SKETCH: Figure Pr.2.26(a) shows a thermoelectric module and its various components.

Qc Tc Ceramic Plate Semiconductor Electrical Conductor Se,P Qh Th Je

Ceramic Plate



( ) (+) Semiconductor


, Applied Voltage

Figure Pr.2.26(a) A single-stage Peltier cooler/heater.

OBJECTIVE: (a) If the temperature at the cold junctions is Tc = 10C, calculate the Peltier heat absorbed at the cold junctions qc (W/m2 ) (per unit area of the ceramic plate). (b) If the hot junctions reach Th = 50C, calculate the Peltier heat released at the hot junctions qh (W/m2 ) (per unit area of the ceramic plate). SOLUTION: (a) To calculate the heat absorbed at the cold junction we again follow the three steps. (i) The two surfaces are shown in Figure Pr.2.26(b). (ii) Apply the conservation of energy equation. The integral-surface energy equation (2.9) is q sn dA = i. S

For this steady-state problem, the storage term is zero. The energy conversion term is due to Peltier cooling only. Then the energy equation becomes e,P )c , qc Ap = (S where Ap = wL is the surface area of the ceramic plate and Qc is the rate of heat absorbed at the Peltier junctions. (iii) Obtain an expression for the heat absorbed due to Peltier cooling. For 8 15 Peltier junctions we have e,P )c qc Ap = 8 15 (S e,P )c is the heat absorbed at the Peltier cold junction which is given by (2.44) where (S e,P )c = (S,p S,n )Tc Je . (S Then, the energy equation becomes qc Ap = 15 8 [(S,p S,n )Tc Je ]. 100


Ceramic Plate

Metallic Contact

n p n p






Figure Pr.2.26(b) The cold and hot surfaces of the thermoelectric module.

(iv) Solve for qc . From the numerical values given, we have e,P )c (S e,P )c (15 8) = 0.374(W) 120 = 44.8 W (S 44.8(W) Qc 2 qc = = = 49,808 W/m . wL [0.03(m) 0.03(m)] = [230 106 (V/K) + 210 106 (V/K)] 283.15(K) 3(A) = 0.374 W

(b) For the hot junction, a similar approach is used. The heat released is given by (2.41) as e,P )c = (S,p S,n )Th Je = [230 106 (V/K) + 210 106 (V/K)] 323.15(K) 3(A) = 0.426 W. (S The total heat generated at the hot junction is then e,P )h (15 8) = 0.426(W) 120 = 51.2 W. Qh = (S The heat ux at the ceramic plate is qh = Qh 51.2(W) = = 56,848 W/m2 . wL 0.03(m) 0.03(m)

COMMENT: The values calculated above are ideal values for the Peltier heater/cooler. It will be seen in Chapter 3 that both the Joule heating and the heat conduction through the semiconductor legs of the Peltier cell, reduce the amount of heat that can be absorbed by a Peltier cooler. The analysis will lead to the denition of the gure of merit which express the eciency of the Peltier cooler.


PROBLEM 2.27.FAM.S GIVEN: A pocket combustion heater uses heat released (chemical-bond energy conversion) from the reaction of air with a powder. The powder is a mixture of iron, water, cellulose (a carbohydrate), vermiculite (a clay mineral), activated carbon (made capable of absorbing gases), and salt. Air is introduced by breaking the plastic sealant and exposing the permeable membrane containing the powder to ambient air. Since the air has to diuse through the powder, and also since the powder is not mixed, the heat release rate is time dependent, decreasing with r,c = S r,o exp(t/r ), where r is the reaction-rate time constant. The pocket heater time. We express this as S has a mass of M = V = 20 g and a heat capacity of cp = 900 J/kg-K. During the usage, heat leaves the pocket heater surface. This heat is expressed as a resistive-type heat transfer and is given by Q = (T T )/Rt , where T is the ambient temperature and Rt (C/W) is the surface heat transfer resistance. Initially the heater is at the ambient temperature, i.e., T (t = 0) = T . This is shown in Figure Pr.2.27(a). r,o = 5 W, r = 3 hr, Rt = 7.4C/W. T = 10C, S SKETCH: Figure Pr.2.27(a) shows the heat transfer model of a combustion pocket heater.

Combustion Handwarmer
HV = M, cp
Qt = T T Rt Sr,c = Sr,o e-t/Jr -HcpV dT dt T(t = 0) = T

Figure Pr.2.27(a) A pocket combustion heater and its heat transfer model.

OBJECTIVE: (a) Write the energy equation for the pocket heater. (b) Using a software, plot the temperature of the pocket heater T = T (t) versus time, up to t = r . (c) What is the maximum heater temperature? (d) Determine the closed-form solution T = T (t). SOLUTION: (a) Since we use a uniform temperature for the heater, the energy equation is the integral-volume energy equation (2.9), i.e., Q |A = cp V dT r,c . +S dt

Here, the energy conversion term is time dependent, i.e., r,c = S r,o et/r , S r,o is a constant and r is the reaction rate time constant. where S The surface heat transfer rate is given by a surface thermal resistance, i.e., Q |A = Qt = T T , Rt

where Rt is the heat transfer resistance and T is the ambient temperature. Combining the above equations, we have T T dT r,o et/r . = cp V +S Rt dt 102

The initial temperature is T (t = 0) = T . (b) The above energy equation can not be readily integrated to give T = T (t). Here, we use software and provide r,o , r , and T . the constants cp V, S The results are plotted in Figure Pr.2.27(b). We note that initially T increases with time. Then it reaches a maximum. Finally, it begins to decrease. During the increase, the energy conversion rate is larger than the surface heat loss term Q |A = Qt . At the time of maximum temperature, when dT /dt = 0, the energy conversion and r,c , the temperature begins to decrease after surface heat loss exactly balance. Due to the time dependence of S reaching the maximum and, during the decrease, the energy conversion is less than the surface heat loss. These are also shown in Figure Pr.2.27(b).

(b) Evolution of Handwarmer Temperatures

50 Tmax = 45.03 C 40 Sr,c > Q A Sr,c < Q A


T, C

20 T(t = 0) = T t = 594 s 0 0 2,400 4,800 7,200 9,600 r 12,000


t, s
Figure Pr.2.27(b) Variation of the temperature of the pocket heater with respect to time.

(c) The maximum temperature is found to be Tmax = 45.03C and occurs at t = 594 s. Note that direct contact of the heater with skin will cause damage. (d) Letting = T T , the energy equation can be expressed as r,o 1 S t d + = exp dt cp V Rt cp V r ,

which will have a solution = h + p , where h and p are the homogeneous and particular solutions, respectively. To nd the homogenous solution, dh 1 + =0 dt cp V Rt must be solved. By separating variables, we have dh dt = . h cp V Rt Integrating and solving for h gives h = a1 exp( t ), cp V Rt

where a1 is a constant. For the particular solution, we have r,o dp 1 S t + p = exp dt cp V Rt cp V r 103 ,

and a solution of the form p = a2 exp(t/r ) is assumed, where a2 is a constant. Then, dp a2 t = exp dt r r .

Substitution of these expressions into the p equation results in a cancelation of the exponential terms, and the constant a2 is found to be a2 = r,o /(cp V ) S . 1 1 cp V Rt r

Letting cp V Rt = (the time constant associated with resistance-type heat transfer), the particular solution is given by p = r,o /(cp V ) S t exp 1 1 r r .

The complete solution is then = h + p = a1 exp t + r,o /(cp V ) S t exp 1 1 r r .

The intial condition T (t = 0) = T is equivalent to (t = 0) = 0, which leads to a1 = The nal solution, substituting back in for T , is T (t) = T + a 1 1 r exp t r exp t , a= r,o S , = cp V Rt . cp V r,o /(cp V ) S . 1 1 r

The time response of the heater is governed by two time constants: and r . It is the interplay between these two values that determines the maximum temperature and the time at which it occurs. COMMENT: The model for heat release rate is an approximation. By proper design of the powder and its packaging, a uniform heat release rate may be achieved. The value of the maximum temperature and the time at which it occurs can be determined from the result of (d) by taking the derivative of T (t) with respect to time and setting it to zero. It can be shown that ln t(Tmax ) = r 1 1 r a r r


T + 1 1 r r

r r

These equations would be valuable in the design of a new heater.